Gravimeters: A New Window to the Universe?
( 1990 )
Described here is a very simple electronic-type gravity meter (gravimeter) which can measure fluctuations in the earth’s gravity field (g-field). These fluctuations, in turn, may be related to cosmic effects of a gravitational source. The author has developed any such instruments over the past 15 years and has ‘observed’ many interesting cosmic gravitational phenomena which appear to also affect the earth’s gravitational field Some of this data has been released in the past. In recent years (and months) the gravimeters have notes some ‘catastrophic’ cosmic events which appeared to have a direct effect on the earth’s jet stream patterns and thus also on the weather patterns on earth. These same effects may have helped to initiate some of recent earthquake activity also. Some of these catastrophic effects are briefly noted here. The author hopes to increase the interest of the private experimenter-researcher in these studies. The apparatus is very low in cost and simple and does not require and expensive set-up. This area of investigation is yet quite unexplored and thus wide-open to the inquisitive and knowledgeable electronic experimenter and amateur scientist.
Gravity in terms of the author’s rhysmonic cosmology theory (1) is a kinetic force, i.e., a Newtonian force field gradient, which can directly affect material bodies. This force is well known as the force of ‘free fall’ or the g-field of the earth, i.e., it accelerates any mass at about 32 ft/sec^2 and thus makes itself known as ‘weight’ on earth. Less well known is that these same ingredients can also affect certain structures in an electrical manner. In particular, the ‘bound’ dipole structures in the dielectric of an ordinary capacitor are affected by these gradients. These result in ‘polarization’ variations which can be coupled out of the capacitor as electrical current impulses and/or current levels. These impulses can be highly amplified to voltage impulses (or voltage levels in the case of a ‘steady’ gradient force field) using very simple circuitry.
While the earth’s gravity field (g-field) is a relatively constant gradient force field which is directed toward the center of the earth, the author has long surmised and actually verified that there would be fluctuations in these earth gravity gradients. These are due to certain cosmic gravitational effects, such as the rapid and large movement of mass, e.g., a supernova ‘blast’, or a very dense concentration f mass, e.g., a ‘black hole’ type of structure. The rapid movement of mass could be considered as causing a gravity ‘wind’ in the gradient, while a concentrated dense mass could be considered as causing a ‘shadow’ in the gradient. These effects actually ‘modulate’ the earth’s g-field by superposition when the cosmic gradients are directly in parallel with the earth’s g-field gradient. The field gradients in this case may be considered to be scalar fields since they have a common direction and thus the potentials interact in simple algebraic rules. This is particularly true if the cosmic gradient arrives on earth from the direction of the gravimeter’s meridian location, especially along the unit’s nadir Line, i.e., the line running from the zenith through the center of the earth. Thus the cosmic effects are most pronounced when they ‘transmit’ the observer’s meridian position, to use the astronomers’ terminology. While the interaction is maximum only along the nadir line, there is interaction from the cosmic gradients arriving from anywhere along the meridian line. Thus some very strong cosmic gradients off the nadir line may sometimes override weak nadir line gradients. This was found useful in observing strong cosmic signals, e.g., the Milky Way Galaxy Center, which lies well off the nadir line at the author’s latitude. However, it must be remembered that detection response weakens with departure from the nadir line since only the gradient component which is parallel to the earth’s gradient will interact and thus modulate the earth’s gravity field levels. However, the author has also developed a more complex gravity ‘telescope’ unit which improves the responses from various declination positions along the observer’s meridian line.
That such gravity gradient detections are valid and useful, as well as meaningful, will be briefly considered here. The reader is referred to the references for additional data and information.
A Simple Electronic Gravimeter
The author (over the years) has developed many types of gravimeters, some mechanical, but most electrical in nature. The units varied from the extremely simple to the more complex, depending on the particular components used and the end application. The unit shown in Figure 1 is a simple circuit (using generally available parts) and was designed with this particular article in mind. It was designed to not only measure the slow variations in the earth’s g-field, but also to demonstrate supernova ‘blasts’ in terms of an audio signal as well as a display on an oscilloscope.
The unit was constructed in a small plastic box about 1.5" x 2" x 5" which had an aluminum panel. A small 50 uA meter movement was used to display the averaged g-field levels and the sensitivity and off-set controls were brought out on the panel as were also the output jack and on/of switch. The 9-volt battery supply was also self-contained within the plastic box.
The detection unit is a basic GW detection circuit as developed by the author and uses the workhorse 741 operational amplifier device. Some slight variations were included to optimize the circuit for this particular amplification. The circuit is the basic quantum non-demolition (QND) type of circuit and thus will respond to supernova ‘burst’ frequencies and amplitudes as well as the general l/f noise background (which is generated by the multitude of GW signals present in this universe). These impulses are developed in the input capacitor, C1, as current impulses and changed into output voltage signals by the 741 device operated as a current-to-voltage converter. The ‘ring’ frequency and also the output voltage gain is controlled by the feedback potentiometer resistance, R1. The circuit was placed in an AC operating mode by of-setting the non-inverting input (pin 3) of the op-amp device to approximately the midpoint of the 9-volt power supply. The offset positioning is provided by the resistance string of R2, R3, and R4. Capacitor, C2, is used to bypass the low frequency components from the meter circuit, while capacitors, C3 and C4 were intended to bypass possible RF components, since the plastic box enclosure used does not fully protect against possible RF interference signals. The meter, M1, is used directly between the output and the non-inverting input as an approximately 50 mV voltmeter, using only the internal resistance of the meter as a multiplier resistance. The resistance of the meter used should be 1K or better. The typical voltage output at this point is in the order of 30 mV, when the potentiometers are set at their midpoint levels. The meter will respond only to the averaged DC levels present at the output and not to any AC components, Thus, the circuit parameters can be adjusted to have the meter read 32 on the meter scale, his being equivalent to the typical g-field value of 32 ft/sec2. While this response is linear and can be made accurate, unfortunately, in this particular circuit, the g-field response is inverse, i.e., an increase in the g-field will read down-scale, while a reduction in the g-field will read up-scale. While this could be corrected with a following inverter amplifier stage, it was deemed unnecessary. The averaged daily variation in the g-field seen with this unit since about November 25, 1989, was in the order of 6%, ranging between 31 and 33 ft/sec2 !! This larger than usual variation will be discussed later.
The component values for this gravimeter circuit are not overly critical and the reader may use values in the order of those shown, or even use quite different values. For example, the feedback resistance could be a 2M or even a 5M potentiometer, while a 100K or even a 200K potentiometer could be used for the off-set resistance string. Other op-amps could also be used but may require some adjustment in the parameters. Thus, the reader has much leeway in this design.
Cosmic Gravity Signals
Electronic gravity detectors are capable of detecting many types of cosmic gravitational gradient signals, depending on the design and the operating mode used. Only some of the more common responses will be described here in order to help the researcher recognize the nature of these signals. The gravimeter of Figure 1 [below] was designed to detect only the highly averaged, i.e., relatively constant, but slowly varying levels in the earth’s g-field, and these detections will be discussed in the next section. Some single-step op-amp detectors can be made to respond to fast gravity changes, but generally two-stage gravity detectors can be made more sensitive and thus will respond better to the fast-changing earth gravity levels generated by the cosmic events shown in Figure 2. These are novae, supernovae, and the resulting black hole type structures in some cases.
A typical nova response is shown in Figure 2a. The typical nova is a star which becomes unstable for some reason and ‘blasts’ of a good portion of its outer atmosphere, but still leaves a fairly large amount of star behind. In Figure 2a, the blast of star material can be seen at (a) and a ‘tailing’ response is seen at (b). The tailing response is generated by the process of the earth’s movement, as it pulls away from the star, i.e., the observer’s meridian position moves off the meridian position at which the star was located. Novae are quite common and many are ‘observed’ during a ‘scan; of the universe by the gravimeter. They generally do not leave a lasting trace and thus may not show up in a scan 12 or 24 hours later.
Shown in Figure 2b is a typical supernova response. In this case the star is above a certain critical mass when it becomes unstable, and it leads to an implosion causing the creation of a very dense star as is seen at (a) here. This is followed by an ‘explosion’ of much of the star’s mass as is seen at (b). his is again followed by a tailing response as the detector moves of the star’s meridian position with the rotation of the earth. With a supernova, two other general effects are noted: the development of the super dense star at (c) and signs o a shock front at (d). Some supernova show signs of more than one shock front. Another factor is that supernova generally show lasting traces. A scan 12 or 24 hours later will show the dense star of a neutron star or black hole nature at (c) again, but the shock front has now become an accretion ring on both sides of the object at (c) as is seen in the scan of Figure 2c. Further scans in time, generally show the accretion ring to be pulling away from the central dense object and this results in a discernable gravity ‘wind’ from these events. In other scans, black hole structures are seen where there is no sign o an accretion ring. These are believed to be ancient supernovae where the accretion ring has either dissipated or returned to the central dense object.
In many instances the blasts of mass create gravity ‘winds’ which not only can affect the gravity levels on earth, but also can be ‘heard’ aurally on the detectors as an increased rushing sound disturbance in the general l/f background noise o the universe. The creation of the dense object, e.g., a black hole, causes a ‘shadow’ to appear in the earth’s g-field response, and thus appears as a very sharp dip in the g-field levels, either a rise or fall, depending upon the object’s position at the observing location, i.e., above or below the earth.
While these responses are very common occurrences seen with the very fast gravimeters, the slow highly averaged gravity changes in the earth’s g-field also reveal much interesting information about our universe as will be described next.
Gravity Field Revelations
The meter of the gravimeter circuit of Figure 1 displays only the highly averaged (damped) g-field levels of the earth. While the meter will not display the short term fluctuations that were shown in Figure 2, the long term fluctuations apparently show other interesting aspects of our universe. A typical scan of these highly averaged g-field variations (over a period of 24 hours) is shown in Figure 3. In ths scan some of the more rapid fluctuations have been smoothed out and only the broad changes in the earth’s g-field levels are shown.
From the analysis of such scans, the author has surmised the following conclusions:
(1) The universe as a whole may have a basic spiral structure quite similar to that of the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxies.
(2) The Milky Way Galaxy may be located in an outer spiral of this Super Universe Galaxy, very much like the Earth is located in an outer spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.
(3) There may be another very massive black hole type structure located in the Virgo region of our universe, and this may have already been recognized by many as the ‘Great Attractor’.
Since these are very massive and dense structures, they possible could affect our earth g-fields and thus they are believed to be causing the structures seen in the scan of Figure 3. It is further surmised that perhaps effects of these types may have altered the earth’s g-fields to the extent of affecting the jet stream patterns (and thus the earth’s weather) over the eons. It is offered as another datum to be used in analyzing the weather on earth and possibly all the planets. Some recent drastic g-field variations noted with these gravimeters are now presented:
(1) On about December 6, 1986 it was noted that the previously ‘seen’ Milky Way Galaxy structure had changed from a weaker two massive dense structures to a more defined new single ‘black hole’ type structure with a new accretion ring! At the same time, this event appeared to have possibly triggered off a supernova type event relatively close to us (possibly Betelgeuse in Orion?) which lies in about the same meridian as the Galaxy Center. It is surmised that the strong gravity winds from Betelgeuse may have sufficiently disturbed our earth’s g-fields to have caused severe changes in the earth’s weather for the past two years (and it may have also been responsible for helping initiate some of the recent earthquake activity seen in the northern hemisphere and elsewhere).
(2) Another event was noted on about March 14, 1987 which may have been from the Super Galaxy Center. As a result of the December and March events, the gravimeters which had previously only noted a daily variation in the earth’s g-field in the order of +/- 1% were now seeing variations of about +/- 2%. Also, strong gravity winds were being noted in the aural responses of the gravimeters.
(3) On about November 25, 1989, a new gravity wind was noticed and the gravimeters were now showing a daily variation in the g-field of about +/- 3%! The winds appeared to be coming from the direction of the Great Attractor in the Virgo region. This apparently very massive event appears to have affected the jet stream patterns of the northern hemisphere mainly, and thus the weather patterns here. At this time (New Years Day, 1990) the winds appear to be abating somewhat and perhaps the weather may return to more normal later in the year. Based upon the apparent size of the jet stream disturbance, it is surmised that the very very dense structure in the Great Attractor region may be in the order of 500 to 1000 miles in diameter! This area of investigation should be of great interest to meteorologists and thus more research into these aspects should made by them. The effects appear to be real and thus of very great importance to mankind.
The many aspects of a possible new gravitational ‘window’ to our universe requires more investigation that one observer with limited time and facilities (as well as funds) can undertake. A few independent experimenter-researchers have entered these studies at this time. The author hopes he has instilled sufficient interest on the part of the private researcher to look further into these aspects and thus help the author further determine the reality and validity of these observations. Good experimenting to all!
(1) G. Hodowanec: Rhysmonic Cosmology, A Short Monograph; 1985.
(2) Hodowanec Research Papers: Available online at www.rexresearch.com.
(3) G. Hodowanec: All About Gravitational Waves; Radio-Electronics, April 1986.
(4) G. Hodowanec: All About Gravitational Impulses; Radio-Electronics, electrical Experimenters Handbook, January 1989.
Notes added May 1990:
(1) It is to be noted that the gravimeters have noted additional severe disturbances to the earth’s g-field since January 1990. Apparently our Galaxy and the Universe are going through a period of instability (?), The daily g-field variations at this time are in the order of 7%! Perhaps this is why the weather this spring has been so unusual?
Figure 1 --- A Simple Electronic-type Gravimeter
Figure 2 --- Typical ‘Fast’ Gravity Signal Responses
Figure 3 --- The ‘Slow’ Daily Variation of the Earth’s G-Field as measured with an Electronic-type Gravimeter Unit.
(1) The nucleus of the Super Galaxy may be the peak seen at A. the one side of the spiral mass may be at B, but the other side is ‘lost’ because of the apparent dense mass at C, which may be the Great Attractor.
(2) The nucleus of the Milky Way may be the peak seen at D. The spiral masses may be the structures seen at E and F.
(3) It is believed that after about November 3, 1989, the depth of the black hole at the Great Attractor region increased (and this also deepened the response of the Milky Way Center) and this may have resulted in the increase of the g-field variation to the order of +/- 3%.
(4) The gravimeter used in this scan was a two-stage unit in order to better drive the author’s analog-type strip chart recorder unit.