rexresearch.com



ASTRAGALUS & LONGEVITY








http://www.wistv.com/Global/story.asp?S=7023619
$25,000 Rejuvenation Pill (and program)

Scientists claim they've harnessed the fountain of youth in a pill. But hang on to your hat - the price to turn back the clock might turn your hair grey.

Bill Andrews is an avid runner who works hard to stay fit. So when he heard about the new anti-aging pill, he wanted in on the action. "I wasn't going to just sit back and watch it be studied. I want to get in it."

The 55-year-old scientist understands how the pill works and hopes it's worth the cost.

TA Sciences Founder Sciences Founder Noel Patton says, "The price is $25,000 for a one year protocol. That includes this product, other nutritional supplements and five series of medical exams."

The product is TA-65 - a single, purified molecule extracted from a Chinese herb.

"We have a molecule; it's the first in the history of the world that actually rejuvenates cells," says Patton.

The makers of TA-65 claim it works by protecting cell chromosomes.

Patton says, "Cells, every time they divide, the ends of the chromosomes called the telomeres get shorter."

As they get shorter, the cell gets older and eventually dies. The process has been linked to aging. The owner of TA Sciences claims TA-65 activates an enzyme that restores the ends of chromosomes to reverse the cell's age.

Patton says, "So if, for example, we made cells ten years younger, I'm not saying that we do, but if we made cells ten years younger, it would then take them ten years to get that old again."

The manufacturer's trial of TA-65 shows positive anti-aging benefits.

Dr. Jochem Kumm says, "There's a very tantalizing result here that shows that this product actually improves a number of functions and makes you more youthful."

Time will tell if TA-65 truly is time in a bottle. An unpublished study suggests that TA-65 improves the immune system, skin condition, eyesight, and male sexual function. The pills are now available, but you'll have to travel to New York to get them and sign up for a year-long protocol...



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus

Astragalus


A. tragacantha

Astragalus tragacantha ssp. vicentinus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:     Plantae
(unranked):     Angiosperms
(unranked):     Eudicots
(unranked):     Rosids
Order:     Fabales
Family:     Fabaceae
Subfamily:     Faboideae
Tribe:     Galegeae
Subtribe:     Astragalinae
Genus:     Astragalus L.
 
Astragalus is a large genus of about 3,000 species of herbs and small shrubs, belonging to the legume family Fabaceae and the subfamily Faboideae. It is the largest genus of plants in terms of described species.[1] The genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Common names include milkvetch (most species), locoweed (in North America, some species)[2] and goat's-thorn (A. gummifer, A. tragacanthus). Some pale-flowered vetches are similar in appearance, but vetches are more vine-like.

Ecology

Astragalus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including many case-bearing moths of the genus Coleophora: C. cartilaginella, C. colutella, C. euryaula, and C. onobrychiella feed exclusively on Astragalus, C. astragalella and C. gallipennella feed exclusively on the species Astragalus glycyphyllos, and C. hippodromica is limited to Astragalus gombo.

Traditional uses

The natural gum tragacanth is made from several species of Astragalus occurring in the Middle East, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx,[3][4] and A. tragacanthus. Also Astragalus propinquus (syn. A. membranaceus) has a history of use as a herbal medicine used in systems of traditional Chinese medicine[5] and Persian medicine. [6] In traditional Chinese medicine A. membranaceus has been used to reinforce qi and strengthen the superficial resistance, and promote the discharge of pus and the growth of new tissue.[7]

Research

Biotechnology firms are working on deriving a telomerase activator from Astragalus. The chemical constituent cycloastragenol (also called TAT2) is being studied to help combat HIV, as well as infections associated with chronic diseases or aging.[8] However, the National Institutes of Health states: "The evidence for using astragalus for any health condition is limited. High-quality clinical trials (studies in people) are generally lacking. There is some preliminary evidence to suggest that astragalus, either alone or in combination with other herbs, may have potential benefits for the immune system, heart, and liver, and as an adjunctive therapy for cancer".[9]

Research at the UCLA AIDS Institute focused on the function of cycloastragenol in the aging process of immune cells, and its effects on the cells' response to viral infections. It appears to increase the production of telomerase, an enzyme that mediates the replacement of short bits of DNA known as telomeres, which play a key role in cell replication, including in cancer processes.[10]

Supplement use

Extracts of Astragalus propinquus ( syn. A. membranaceus) are marketed as life-prolonging extracts for human use. A proprietary extract of the dried root of A. membranaceus, called TA-65, "was associated with a significant age-reversal effect in the immune system, in that it led to declines in the percentage of senescent cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells after six to twelve months of use".[11] There are mixed data regarding Astragalus, its effects on telomerase, and cancer. For example, although 80% of cancer cells utilize telomerase for their proliferation—a factor that might theoretically be exacerbated by Astragalus — the shortening of telomeres (resulting from such factors as stress and aging and possible contributors to malignancy), might also be mitigated by Astragalus. Thus, short telomeres result in chromosome instability, and the potential for telomere lengthening as a protection against cancer is possible.[12] Additionally, scientists recently reported that cancer cells may proliferate precisely because of the lack of differentiation occurring via damaged or shortened telomere length. They propose that "forced" elongation of telomeres promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell differentiation.

Side effects and toxicology


Astragalus may interact with medications that suppress the immune system, such as cyclophosphamide.[9] It may also affect blood sugar levels and blood pressure.[9] Some Astragalus species can be toxic. For example, several species native to North America contain the alkaloid swainsonine, which may cause "locoism" in livestock.[9] The toxicity of Astragalus taxa varies.[13]

&c...







Cycloastragenol



Cycloastragenol is a molecule isolated from various species in the genus Astragalus that is purported to have telomerase activation activity. A single in vitro study done in 2009 led to claims that cycloastragenol may activate telomerase, leading to controversial claims for its role in reducing the effects of aging.[1]

History

Cycloastragenol was studied by Geron Corporation and sold to T.A. Sciences in early 2013 who are developing it as a product named TA-65. Bill Andrews of Sierra Sciences has done testing on the anti-aging aspect of TA-65,[2][unreliable source?] however quality trials on the benefits of the product are lacking, and there are no high impact journal articles reviewing the efficacy of the TA65-MD, or indeed cyclostragenol.

In late 2013, RevGenetics released their conclusions on TA-65 that showed it is the single molecule cycloastragenol used in TA-65.[3][unreliable source?] More recently, on May 15, 2014 RevGenetics released a press release where they provide new information about a public UK government application where TA Sciences state (among other things) that the active ingredient in TA-65 is cycloastragenol.[4]

Potential pharmacology

Its method of action is to activate the hTERT gene,[citation needed] thereby activating the enzyme telomerase.

Cycloastragenol intake improved health span (not lifespan) in mice,[5] however the researchers did not investigate the extension of lifespan in the studied laboratory mice as this was not the focus of the project (it was associated aging diseases). Although the first TA Sciences study was done in 2005 for supplement based telomerase activators, in the 8 years since the first study, there has been no study done that shows a telomerase activator taken as a supplement has extended lifespan.

As part of a study sponsored by RevGenetics, the cycloastragenol based product TA-65 was tested by UCLA scientist Rita B. Effros and RevGenetics[6] scientist Hector F. Valenzuela. The small study (6 participants) found that TA-65 activated telomerase in all samples of subjects tested, while another telomerase activator did not.[7] The clinical significance of this work is uncertain.

Toxicity testing has shown it to be safe for human consumption. TA-65 was shown to improve biological markers associated with human health span through the lengthening of short telomeres and rescuing of old cells, although the significance of these findings in actual life expectancy is unknown.[8] Publications in high-impact peer-reviewed journals are lacking however, and much of the online documentation supporting its use is sponsored by its manufacturers.

As disordered telomerase function is a feature of almost all cancers,[9] there is an unknown, but theoretical risk of oncogene-mediated cancer promotion through the use of telomerase activators.



http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/182/1_MeetingAbstracts/90.30

The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 182, 90.30

Cycloastragenol extends T cell proliferation by increasing telomerase activity


Hector F. Valenzuela, Thomas Fuller, Jim Edwards, Danielle Finger and Brenda Molgora


Abstract

All normal human somatic cells have a finite number of times that they can divide and when this limit is reached cells are described as cellular senescent. Telomere shortening has been attributed as a main mechanism for cellular aging and for the lack of cellular functions associated with aging. Unlike what is seen in most somatic cells, in activated T cells telomerase activity is upregulated, resulting in increased telomere length. However, this brief period of telomerase induction only delays cellular senescence. Naturally, there is a great deal of interest in finding inducers of telomerase that may help delay the onset of cellular aging. There are various nutraceuticals that claim to both increase the health of individuals and delay the onset of cellular aging. We tested the nutraceuticals resveratrol and cycloastragenol for their ability to enhance T cell functions in vitro. In this study we evaluated the effect of these compounds on cellular proliferative capacity, levels of telomerase activity, surface markers and cytokine secretion of human CD4 and CD8 T cells. Our results show that cycloastragenol moderately increase telomerase activity and proliferative capacity of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. These preliminary results suggest that nutraceuticals inhibit the onset of CD4 and CD8 cellular senescence.



http://ta65review.org/dr-bill-andrews-on-the-aging-process-pt-1

TA-65 --
The Anti-Aging Revolution

TA 65® causes Telomerase to become active in targeted cells in the human body. Active Telomerase not only can increase the longevity of the cells, but it can also improve the quality of your life.

This is part 1 of a video presentation from a Longevity Conference in 2009.  The presenter is Dr. Bill Andrews, the owner of Sierra Sciences. He was a researcher at Geron Corporation and helped in the discovery of Telomerase and of the cloning process of the hTERT gene that activates Telomerase production in human cells.



http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00700.x/full
Volume 10, Issue 4, pages 604–621, August 2011
DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2011.00700.x

The telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence

Bruno Bernardes de Jesus, Kerstin Schneeberger, Elsa Vera, Agueda Tejera, Calvin B. Harley and Maria A. Blasco
 
Summary

Here, we show that a small-molecule activator of telomerase (TA-65) purified from the root of Astragalus membranaceus is capable of increasing average telomere length and decreasing the percentage of critically short telomeres and of DNA damage in haploinsufficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that harbor critically short telomeres and a single copy of the telomerase RNA Terc gene (G3 Terc+/- MEFs). Importantly, TA-65 does not cause telomere elongation or rescue DNA damage in similarly treated telomerase-deficient G3 Terc-/- littermate MEFs. These results indicate that TA-65 treatment results in telomerase-dependent elongation of short telomeres and rescue of associated DNA damage, thus demonstrating that TA-65 mechanism of action is through the telomerase pathway. In addition, we demonstrate that TA-65 is capable of increasing mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase levels in some mouse tissues and elongating critically short telomeres when supplemented as part of a standard diet in mice. Finally, TA-65 dietary supplementation in female mice leads to an improvement of certain health-span indicators including glucose tolerance, osteoporosis and skin fitness, without significantly increasing global cancer incidence.



http://www.revgenetics.com/ta-65/
TA-65: Telomerase Activator – TA-65 Supplement

According to other studies on telomerase activation, telomerase:

    Lengthens Short Telomeres
    Repairs DNA Damage
    Rejuvenates Aging Immune Systems
    Increases Bone Density
    Improves Biomarkers that Decline with Age

TA-65: Telomerase Activator.
Price: $100.00



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045570/

Rejuvenation Research. Feb 2011; 14(1): 45–56.
doi:  10.1089/rej.2010.1085
PMCID: PMC3045570

A Natural Product Telomerase Activator As Part of a Health Maintenance Program

Calvin B. Harley, Weimi n Liu, Maria Blasco, Elsa Vera,William H. Andrews, Laura A. Briggs, and Joseph M. Raffaele

Abstract

Most human cells lack sufficient telomerase to maintain telomeres, hence these genetic elements shorten with time and stress, contributing to aging and disease. In January, 2007, a commercial health maintenance program, PattonProtocol-1, was launched that included a natural product-derived telomerase activator (TA-65®, 10–50 mg daily), a comprehensive dietary supplement pack, and physician counseling/laboratory tests at baseline and every 3–6 months thereafter. We report here analysis of the first year of data focusing on the immune system. Low nanomolar levels of TA-65® moderately activated telomerase in human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and immune cells in culture; similar plasma levels of TA-65® were achieved in pilot human pharmacokinetic studies with single 10- to 50-mg doses. The most striking in vivo effects were declines in the percent senescent cytotoxic (CD8+/CD28-) T cells (1.5, 4.4, 8.6, and 7.5% at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively; p = not significant [N.S.], 0.018, 0.0024, 0.0062) and natural killer cells at 6 and 12 months (p = 0.028 and 0.00013, respectively). Most of these decreases were seen in cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositive subjects. In a subset of subjects, the distribution of telomere lengths in leukocytes at baseline and 12 months was measured. Although mean telomere length did not increase, there was a significant reduction in the percent short (<4 kbp) telomeres (p = 0.037). No adverse events were attributed to PattonProtocol-1. We conclude that the protocol lengthens critically short telomeres and remodels the relative proportions of circulating leukocytes of CMV+ subjects toward the more “youthful” profile of CMV- subjects. Controlled randomized trials are planned to assess TA-65®-specific effects in humans.
 
Introduction

People take dietary supplements with the intent to preserve mental, physical, and emotional health and vigor into old age. Although drugs and surgical procedures that target diseases of the elderly will hopefully arrest or partially reverse tissue damage caused by aging and chronic stress, measures to maintain health are arguably a better approach to lengthening our healthy life span. Most dietary supplement programs include combinations of vitamins, antioxidants, and other constituents, some of which have been shown to have significant health benefits in controlled clinical studies, whereas others may show adverse effects,1–6 underscoring the need to assess functional effects of combination products. This paper presents initial data from an ongoing observational study of a novel dietary supplement program, PattonProtocol-1, which includes a natural product-derived telomerase activator targeting a fundamental aspect of cellular aging.

Telomerase is an enzyme that synthesizes the specific DNA sequence at telomeres, i.e., the terminal DNA at the ends of all chromosomes.7,8 Telomeres are essential genetic elements responsible for protecting chromosome ends from being recognized as “broken DNA.” Because telomeric DNA cannot be fully replicated by conventional DNA polymerases, and because telomeres undergo degradative processing and are a “hotspot” for oxidative damage,9 telomeres will gradually shorten with time and cell division unless there is sufficient telomerase activity to maintain telomere length.

Telomerase is activated in fetal development, thus protecting telomeres from significant loss during this period of dramatic cell expansion.10,11 However, telomerase is repressed before birth in most somatic tissue, and, as a consequence, birth marks the beginning of telomere erosion in most tissues throughout life. Tissues with continual cell turnover or periods of rapid proliferation are “telomerase competent” in that they upregulate telomerase during early phases of progenitor expansion.12,13 All adult somatic stem cells appear to be capable of activating telomerase during tissue regeneration. However, these periods of activation are insufficient to prevent telomere loss, and this is compounded by a decreased ability to activate telomerase during aging and stress.14–16 In addition, stress can accelerate telomere loss by increasing cell turnover and the amount of telomeric DNA lost per cell division.17,18

In cross-sectional studies, humans lose telomeric DNA at a very modest rate of about 15–60 bp per year, likely reflecting the small numbers of stem cells that are actively dividing in proliferative tissues compared to the total stem cell reserve, and the quiescent state of cells in other tissues. Telomere shortening has been investigated in human cells in culture, in human genetic diseases with mutated telomerase, and in animal models of telomerase deficiency.13,19–26 These studies point to a causal relationship between telomere loss, cell aging, reduced tissue regeneration, and loss of tissue structure and function. In support of this causal relationship, epidemiological studies show that short telomeres in humans are a risk factor for atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease, infections, diabetes, fibrosis, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and overall mortality.18,24,25,27–30

Chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accelerate telomere loss and premature aging of the immune system, especially the virus-specific cytotoxic T cells31–36 responsible for killing infected cells. In addition to telomere loss, these cells often lack expression of the co-stimulatory receptor CD28 and have reduced proliferative capacity, reduced ability to secrete antiviral cytokines and chemokines, increased resistance to apoptosis, and compromised ability to lyse infected cells. About 50% of the U.S. population is infected with CMV as judged by circulating CMV-specific antibodies, but after an initial 30% seropositivity rate by age ˜10, there is ˜1% annual seroconversion rate throughout life leading to ˜90% seropositivity by the ninth decade. This linear increase has made it difficult to distinguish the effects of pure immunosenescence from those that can be attributed to this extremely common virus.37,38

Here we report initial findings from a dietary supplement program which includes TA-65, a purified small-molecule telomerase activator derived from an extract of a plant commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Telomerase activation and functional studies on a related molecule (TAT2) from the same plant have been previously reported for human skin keratinocytes and immune cells in culture.36 Effects of TAT2 in tissue culture studies with CD8+ T cells from HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) subjects included increased replicative capacity, improved cytokine and chemokine responses to antigens, and increased killing of autologous HIV-infected CD4+ cells...

TA-65

TA-65, exclusively licensed to TA Sciences from Geron Corporation, is a >95% pure single chemical entity isolated from a proprietary extract of the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus and formulated into 5- to 10-mg capsules with inert excipients. Starting doses of 5–10 mg/day were considered safe on the basis of historical usage of extracts. Some subjects increased their dosage after several months on the product to 25–50 mg/day. Cumulative dose consumed during the year was recorded for each subject and used for preliminary dose–response analysis....

TA-65® activated telomerase in cultured human cells at concentrations seen in the plasma of subjects on the protocol. Paradoxically, although ˜40% of subjects showed an increase in mean telomere length over time, on average across all subjects there was a nonsignificant decline in mean telomere length. However, we speculate this effect is explained by cell dynamics and the fact that telomerase preferentially lengths the shortest telomeres.62–64 Rescue and selective expansion of near-senescent cells with short telomeres could lead to a reduction in the population mean telomere length despite some lengthening of telomeres in all cells. Because detrimental effects of telomere loss are primarily driven by short, dysfunctional telomeres, and loss of tissue function and disease onset in proliferative tissues have been associated with telomere lengths <4 kbp,25,65 we believe that our observed reduction in telomeres <4 kbp in subjects on PattonProtocol-1 is a significant, positive response, and that TA-65® contributes to the apparent benefit of the dietary supplement. In support of this, studies with TA-65® given orally in old mice showed similar reductions in percent cells with short telomeres and positive functional effects on tissues (Blasco et al., submitted) and preliminary dose–response analyses showed an increase in salutary effects with TA-65® doses up to 20–30 mg per day average compared to the initial 5- to 10-mg per day dose (data not shown). Finally, analysis of additional biomarkers of aging in subjects on PattonProtocol-1 suggest improvements in the cardiovascular system, metabolism, and bone mineral density, which will be further studied and reported elsewhere. Independent randomized controlled studies with TA-65® alone are planned.



http://www.revgenetics.com/ta-65/ta-65-reviews

TA-65 Reviews – A Collection From Around The Internet








PATENTS
( Astragalus / Longevity )


US8906361
Anti-Aging Formulations

A dietary supplement based on blue green algae, phycocyanin and phenylethylamine is fortified with one or more of curcumin, silymarin, resveratrol, astragalus root extract, astragoloside IV, vitamin D3, vitamin C, anhydrous trimethylglycine and brewer's yeast to stimulate stem cell production and reduce the rate of telomere reduction or shortening. This can result in the repair of existing body cells and enhance longevity by stimulating the production of new stem cells and maintaining the telomeres on new stem cells as well as existing cells. The dietary supplement supports an increased life span by enhancing metabolic function, activating SIRT-1 anti-aging genes, and encouraging the production of new cells with longer telomeres.

BACKGROUND

Many attempts have been made to develop treatments and formulations to extend the human lifespan. To date, few, if any of these attempts have produced superior results, as few approaches fully recognize the basis or causes of aging. It is important to know the causes of aging, because as with treating a disease, one must first understand the problem, so that a precise remedy can be applied.

Some of the current theories of aging may be a result of other older conventional theories. Many of these theories are interlinked, in the same complex way that biological processes of the body and the many factors affecting these processes are interlinked.

Approaching any one or a combination of the following theories with a specialized treatment protocol may address and treat the aging problem on different levels, and help to slow down and eradicate some of the causes of aging. In order to appreciate the diversity of thought on the causes of aging, some of the current theories of aging are outlined below.

The DNA and Genetic Theories

Some scientists regard the DNA and genetic theories as planned obsolescence theories because they focus on the encoded programming within DNA. DNA is the blueprint of individual life obtained from one's parents. Humans are born with a unique code and a predetermined tendency to certain types of physical and mental functioning that regulate the rate at which one ages.

This type of genetic clock can be greatly influenced with regard to its rate of timing. For example, DNA is easily oxidized and this damage can be accumulated from diet, lifestyle, toxins, pollution, radiation and other outside influences. Thus, each individual has the ability to accelerate DNA damage or slow it down.

One recent theory regarding gene damage is the telomerase theory of aging. A telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence located at the end of a chromosome which shortens progressively with each cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. It is now understood that telomeres, the sequences of nucleic acids extending from the ends of chromosomes, shorten every time a cell divides. This shortening of telomeres is believed to lead to cellular damage due to the inability of the cell to duplicate itself correctly. Each time a cell divides it duplicates itself a little less accurately or worse than the time before. This eventually leads to cellular dysfunction, aging and death.

Further research indicates that telomeres can be repaired by the introduction of a relevant hormone. Telomeres and their subsequent processes affect each other. Once we know what each telomere is responsible for, we may precisely introduce the necessary hormone and aid genetic repair, as well as hormonal balance.

Another key element in rebuilding the disappearing telomeres is the enzyme telomerase, an enzyme so far only found in germ and cancer cells. Telomerase appears to repair and replace telomeres helping to re-regulate the clock that controls the lifespan of dividing cells.

The Neuroendocrine Theory

This theory of aging elaborates on wear and tear by focusing on the neuroendocrine system. This system is a complicated network of biochemicals that govern the release of hormones which are altered by the walnut sized gland, the hypothalamus, located in the brain.

The Free Radical Theory

The term free radical describes any molecule that has a free electron. This property makes the free radical molecule react with healthy molecules in a destructive way. Because the free radical molecule has an extra electron, it creates an extra negative charge. This unbalanced energy makes the free radical bind itself to another balanced molecule. In so doing, the balanced molecule becomes unbalanced and thus a free radical itself. It is known that diet, lifestyle, drugs (e.g. tobacco and alcohol) and radiation are all accelerators of free radical production within the body and can influence the rate of aging.

The Membrane Theory of Aging

According to this theory, it is the age-related changes of the cells' ability to transfer chemicals, heat and electrical processes that impair the integrity of the cells.

As one grows older the cell membrane becomes less lipid, less watery and more solid. This impedes its efficiency to conduct normal cell functions. In particular, this can lead to a toxic accumulation within the cell. This cellular toxin is referred to as lipofuscin and as one grows older lipofuscin deposits become more present in the brain, heart and lungs and also in the skin. Some of the skin age-pigments referred to as liver spots or age spots are composed of lipofuscin. It is known that Alzheimer disease patients have much higher levels of lipofuscin deposits than compared to their healthy control groups. The cells' declining efficiency also means that the essential and regular transfer of sodium and potassium is impaired, thus reducing cellular communication. It is also believed that electrical conduction and heat transfer is also impaired by this cellular degradation.

The Hayflick Limit Theory

The Hayflick Limit Theory of aging suggests that the human cell is limited in the number of times it can divide. Part of this theory may be affected by cell waste accumulation (which is described in the Membrane Theory of aging). It is theorized that the human cell's ability to divide is limited to approximately 50 times, after which it simply stops dividing (and hence dies). It has been shown that nutrition has an effect on cells, with overfed cells dividing much faster than underfed cells. As cells divide to help repair and regenerate themselves the DNA & Genetic Theory of Aging may play a role. Each time a cell divides it may lose some blue-print information. Eventually (after 50-odd times of division) there is simply not enough DNA information available to complete any sort of division.

The Mitochondrial Decline Theory

The mitochondria are the power producing organelles found in every cell of every organ. Their primary job is to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP). They do so in the various energy cycles that involve nutrients such as acetyl-L-carnitine, CoQ10 (idebenone), NADH and some B vitamins. As the mitochondria decline, aging increases.

The Cross-Linking Theory

The Cross-Linking Theory of aging is also referred to as the glycosylation theory of aging. In this theory, it is the binding of glucose (simple sugars) to protein, (a process that occurs under the presence of oxygen) that causes various aging problems. Once this binding has occurred, the protein becomes impaired and is unable to perform as efficiently. Living a longer life leads to the increased possibility of oxygen meeting glucose and binding glucose to protein. This can lead to cross-linking disorders including senile cataracts and the appearance of tough, leathery and yellow skin....



http://worldwide.espacenet.com/advancedSearch?locale=en_EP
ASTRAGALIN PATENTS

Traditional Chinese medicine extract and preparation method thereof
CN103230436
The invention relates to a natural medicine composition, a preparation method thereof, and an application thereof in preparing an attenuating and synergic medicine used in cancer chemotherapy. The natural medicine composition is composed of a Mongolian milkvetch root and Baikal skullcap root water decoction concentrate extract, astragalin, Baikal skullcap root total flavonoid, and baicalin according to a ratio of 2-5:2-6:3-7:4-7. The composition provided by the invention has an excellent treatment effect against cancer-chemotherapy-related diarrhea, and provides a synergetic effect for cancer chemotherapy

Method for separating astragalus polysaccharide and astragalin astragaloside by ultrasonic film chromatography
CN102040666
The invention discloses a method for separating astragalus polysaccharide and astragalin astragaloside. The method is characterized by adopting the process combining the separation of an ultrasonic film separator and the separation of reversed-phase preparative column chromatography. The whole technological process is simple, quick and large in processing amount and purifies two active ingredients, namely the astragalus polysaccharide and the astragalin astragaloside, at the same time. The obtained product has high purity. The method has the advantages of simple process, high automation control degree and simple industrial application.

PURIFICATION PROCESS FOR ASTRAGALIN
KR20100117718
The invention discloses a method for separating astragalus polysaccharide and astragalin astragaloside. The method is characterized by adopting the process combining the separation of an ultrasonic film separator and the separation of reversed-phase preparative column chromatography. The whole technological process is simple, quick and large in processing amount and purifies two active ingredients, namely the astragalus polysaccharide and the astragalin astragaloside, at the same time. The obtained product has high purity. The method has the advantages of simple process, high automation control degree and simple industrial application.

Method for extracting and separating astragalin from plant Mesona chinensis Benth
CN101921301
The invention provides a method for extracting and separating astragalin from the plant Mesona chinensis Benth. The method comprises the following steps: using the water-acetone solution for Mesona chinensis Benth for extraction, concentrating and drying the extract to obtain a crude extract, performing chromatographic separation to the crude extract with a macroporous adsorption resin column, collecting eluent, concentrating and drying the eluent to obtain a fine extract, processing the fine extract through high performance liquid chromatography to separate and prepare an astragalin pure product with the purity of 99%. The raw material of the invention is cheap and accessible and barely causes environmental pollution; the technology is simple, practical and fast; and the obtained astragalin has high purity and suitable for mass industrial production.

PREPARATION METHOD FOR RARE BIOACTIVE MATERIAL, ASTRAGALIN
KR20100111591
PURPOSE: A method for preparing astagalin by enzyme reaction from astragalin precursor is provided to ensure high productivity and to promote industrial application of astagalin. CONSTITUTION: A method for preparing astagalin comprises: a step of obtaining oil from green tea seeds and adding 5-20 times volume of water to residue; a step of heating at 50-80 celsius degree and adding amylase at 60-65 celsius degree for less than 12 hours; a step of filtering the enzyme reactant and removing moixture; a step of powederizing; and a step of adding methanol and dissolving soluble ingredient. The strain producing amylase is Aspergillus aculeatus. The amount of the crude amylase is 0.001-1.0%(w/w). The tea tree providing green tea seed is Camellia oleifera.

Separation and preparation method of patuletin-3-O-glucoside and astragalin
CN101565437
The invention relates to a separation and preparation method of patuletin-3-O-glucoside and astragalin. The method adopts counter current chromatography to separate and prepare the patuletin-3-O-glucoside and astragalin from alcohol reflux extracts of plant flaveria bidentis; a solvent thereof comprises three components, namely ether or n-alkane or fatty ester, acetonitrile or fatty alcohol or aliphatic ketone and water; the volume ratio is as follows in sequence: 30 to 10:1:30 to 10; and the method is applicable to prepare the monomeric patuletin-3-O-glucoside and astragalin by various types of counter current chromatographs, and can be directly filled with large amount of crude products or synthetic mixtures with the separation purity of more than 95 percent.

PREPARING METHOD OF ASTRAGALIN
KR101315942
A method for preparing astragalin is provided to mass-produce the astragalin from a plant by selectively removing saccharide from a plant extract containing kaempferol glycosides using an enzyme. A method for preparing astragalin represented by a formula(1) comprises the steps of: (a) extracting a plant with water or an organic solvent to obtain a plant extract comprising camelliaside A or camelliaside B; and (b) isolating the astragalin from the extract using an enzyme capable of removing saccharide selectively such as rhamnosidase, galactosidase, pectinase, xylosidase, hesperidinase, naringinase, and cellulase. Further, a reaction time of the enzyme is 10 to 60 hrs and a reaction pH of the enzyme is 4.0 to 9.0.

ASTRAGALIN-CONTAINING FOOD
JP2002291441
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a food having enhanced stability of astragalin, which is a main flavonid included in an extract of persimmon leaves. SOLUTION: This food is obtained by formulating one or two or more sugar alcohols selected from a group consisting of lactitol, mannitol, palatinit and maltitol to the extract of persimmon leaves. The food is further formulated with one or two or more kinds of perfumes selected from a group consisting of perfumes of lemon, menthol, peppermint and spearmint.

FOOD INCLUDING EXTRACT OF PERSIMON LEAVES
JP2002291440
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a food having enhanced stability of astragalin, which is a main flavonid included in an extract of persimmon leaves. SOLUTION: This food is obtained by formulating one or two or more sugar alcohols selected from a group consisting of lactitol, mannitol, palatinit and maltitol to the extract of persimmon leaves. The food is further formulated with one or two or more kinds of perfumes selected from a group consisting of perfumes of lemon, menthol, peppermint and spearmint.

METHOD FOR PRODUCING KAKIBA (PERSIMMON LEAF) ESSENCE
JP3643928
The invention relates to a natural medicine composition, a preparation method thereof, and an application thereof in preparing an attenuating and synergic medicine used in cancer chemotherapy. The natural medicine composition is composed of a Mongolian milkvetch root and Baikal skullcap root water decoction concentrate extract, astragalin, Baikal skullcap root total flavonoid, and baicalin according to a ratio of 2-5:2-6:3-7:4-7. The composition provided by the invention has an excellent treatment effect against cancer-chemotherapy-related diarrhea, and provides a synergetic effect for cancer chemotherapy.

Method for detecting medicine material astragalus quality
CN1857380
The present invention discloses the fingerprint method for detecting the quality of astragalus medicine material and its extract. The fingerprint method includes: adopting octodecyl silane bonded silicon gel as filler, acetoitrile-water as flow phase for gradient elution and astragalin A dissolved in methanol as contrast; taking detected astragalus sample through crushing astragalus root, methanol extracting and other steps; detecting the astragalus sample in high efficiency liquid phase chromatographic process to obtain the fingerprint of the detected astragalus sample; and comparing the fingerprint of the detected astragalus sample and the standard fingerprint for similarity degree over 0.90.

Preparation and application of astragalus flavonid and total astragalin composition
CN1857443
The present invention relates to compound preparation with astragalus flavonid and total astragalin composition as main component for treating cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases. The astragalus flavonid and total astragalin composition contains astragalus flavonid and total astragalin in 1-99 wt%, and sowthistle-leaf ixeris flavonid and saponin, general peony glycosideor, or seabuckthorn flavonid in 1-99 wt%, and is compounded with pharmaceutically acceptable supplementary material to prepare pharmaceutically acceptable preparations. The medicine of the present invention is used in preventing and treating cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, senile dementia, and other diseases.

Composition containing effective parts of astragalus root and Acanthopanx senticosusharm and its use thereof
CN101023975
The present invention relates to a compound containing astragalus effective component astragalin and acanthopanax effective component eleutheroside. It said compound other medicinal material effective component can be added. Said compound can be used for curing angiocardiopathy and cerebrovascular disease, regulating immunity and resisting tumor.
 




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