Scalar Beam Generator
John Bedini's "Scalar Beam" device
Here's a suggestion for "scalar" experiments from a conversation
with John Bedini. Mr. Bedini encourages everyone to try this
experiment, but warns us that this device is patent applied for,
so you should only build a single unit for your own use.
| \ \ _______\ S
| Obtain two Radio Shack ceramic
\|_______| N glue their north pole faces
\ | | N
the magnets with about 50 turns
\ of #30 magnet
wire. Wire gauge is not
\ \\\\ \ critical.
|\ \ \\\\ \
\ \ _\\\\__\
\ \ | |||| |
\ | |||| |
\ | ________
| | [ small, ]
| -----[ noisy ]----------o
6v to 12v power supply
The brush noise from the DC motor provides a pulse signal to the
coil, which modulates the 'colliding' field pattern of the magnets
and creates interesting scalar effects within a narrow pencil-beam
pattern which extends from each face of the magnet out to a few
|\ \\\ \
\ \\\\ \
|\ \ \\\\ \
scalar effect comes from the
joint between magnet faces
\ | |||| |
Mr. Bedini suggests these experiments:
Purchase two identical music CDs. Listen to both to verify that
they are identical. Now let the "scalar beam" play all over the
surface of one of the CDs for about one minute. You may want to
build a simple rotating platform to make this process more
convenient. Now play the two CDs and compare them again. Hear any
difference? (Note, this process is patent pending, so do not use
it for any other purpose except to demonstrate the reality of the
Connect a small probe-coil to an oscilloscope, then move it around
in the beam and observe the waveforms.
Taste some wine, then put it in a small airtight container and
place it against the magnet face for a few (minutes? hours?) Taste
it again. Improvements? Try it with and without
the power supply connected to verify that any changes are caused
by the scalar beam and by just the magnetic field.
FROM : Some tests I intend to try (but as yet have not!):
Place various foodstuffs in the beam then compare flavor with
Grow two collections of plants, water one with normal water, water
the other with water that's been treated by several
minutes??hours?? exposure to the beam. As a control, use
water which was held nearby identical magnets but without the
Aim the beam directly at a plant for many days, compare it with
another untreated plant as a control. (Shield the magnet, or
place a similar magnet-block near the control plant.)
Sprout two groups of seeds, one treated and one untreated, and
look for differences in number, health, growth rate, etc., between
the two groups.
Measure the growth of the tip of a plant stem by using a tiny
lever, mirror, and laser beam. Graph the growth rate,
then treat the plant with the scalar beam and look for changes in
the growth rate. (Note that this method can also be used to
observe plants' realtime response to numerous stimuli both
conventional and "weird." Fertilizer? Light? Music?
Magnetism? Pyramids? Good/Bad thoughts?)
Observe microscopic lifeforms in pond water, then expose them to
the beam and see if their behavior changes while it is
operating. Or, expose the water to the beam for several
minutes??hours??, then compare the number and activity of
lifeforms in the water with an untreated bottle. Or, compare the
effects of adding treated or untreated water to the slide under
Use an opamp buffer and an audio amplifier to listen to the noise
output of a capacitor which is shielded in a thick copper box, (or
does a resistor or transistor work better?) then aim the beam at
the box and listen for signals, or monitor changes to component
values. See: http://amasci.com/freenrg/grav3.txt, Hodowanec's
capacitor-based gravity detector, for more info.
Apparatus and method for reducing
electronic relaxation noise present information recording
A method and apparatus is provided for reducing relaxation noise
in a conducting medium. The device is fabricated by affixing two
magnets at like, repelling poles; wrapping said magnets with a
coil of wire in an orientation orthogonal to the interface between
the joined magnets and the like poles of the magnets to form a
magnetic unit; connecting said coil to a motor means, an
electrical power supply means and a switch means; attaching a
spindle to said motor means. The spindle receives said conducting
medium. The apparatus can be in a housing. The conducting medium
is placed on said spindle. By activating the device, a modulated
magnetic electromagnetic field is created simultaneous to the
spinning of the conducting medium. The information recording
medium rotates through the modulated electromagnetic field,
thereby reducing the relaxation noise.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates to the general field of playback of recorded
conducting media or conductors, more specifically, an apparatus
and method that reduces electronic relaxation noise, also known as
"linger noise", that exists in information recording medium.
2. Description of Related Art and Information
The utility of the present invention is based on fundamental laws
of nuclear and electronic physics at the electron level,
particularly with respect to electron gas relaxation phenomena in
conductors immediately preceding the initiation of normal current
flow per ohms law.
For current to flow through a medium conductor or a conducting
plate (conductor) that involves electromagnetic (EM) effects in
recording and playback, and in transmission of signals, and thus
to provide signals through normal circuitry, conducting plates,
etc., a finite time is required before the flow is established,
and before stability, referred to as a "stable signal" or stable
flow pattern, can be established. This time delay is referred to
as electron gas relaxation time.
The relaxation phenomenon involves at least three major stages,
all of which must be substantially completed before the relaxation
time is actually complete, and coherent signals or patterns are
being transmitted in the conductor. Further, the relaxation time
involves damped oscillations.
The first stage in the relaxation time is the relaxation of the
electrical charge density. Electrons initially distributed
throughout the conductor are "excited" by taking on excess energy
in the form of potential gradients across them. They are now
substantially involved in working their way to the surface, since
most of the current flow must occur on the surface of the
conductor, not in its interior. If the total charge is not zero, a
very highly non-linear first phase results, and the division
between first and second stages is substantially blurred.
A simplifying assumption is made, that the initial charge is zero,
so that the compensated charge fluctuations may be described by
linear equations. Then the relaxation of electrical charge density
can be assumed to be mostly independent of the initial conditions
and of the size and shape of the conductor.
Treating the Drude electron gas model as applicable, and assuming
each electron is independent of the rest, damped harmonic
oscillator equations result for the relaxation. This yields a
short relaxation time for stage 1. This erroneously short
relaxation time basically results from assuming that the electrons
move rather independently and are de-coupled. With coupling
remaining as is almost always the case, a combination of stage 1
and stage 2 actually applies immediately, and sometimes an extra
combination of stage 3 as well Much "noise" known as small field
perturbations in random directions, is present during phase 1.
This is because of the random motion of the electrons in all
directions, as the addition of the excess energy to them
essentially results in an increase in the average electron's
kinetic energy and increases the violence and frequency of their
collisions with the lattice and with each other.
The second stage is the expulsion of the electric and magnetic
fields to the exterior of the conductor, and the expulsion of the
excited electrons as axial currents (on the average) to the
surface. This electron movement during the second stage is still
immersed in the midst of a great collision/violence among the
electrons in the electron gas in the conductor. Accordingly, there
are erratic electric and magnetic fields from the erratically
moving charges, whose violent movements are, in fact, expelling
these fields from the conductor and in all directions in the
conductor. Consequently, there is much noise, distortion and
scattering going on in this stage.
In the third stage, the electrons reach the skin of the conductor,
resulting in a marked decrease in collision frequency and
violence. The relaxation process terminates with the slower ohmic
and radiative damping of the surface currents.
As an end result of the three relaxation stages, a sinusoidal
charge disturbance is formed and propagated in the conductor with
a phase velocity Vp of roughly 1.times.10@8 cm/sec, or roughly
10@6 meters per second. Further, this disturbance is extremely
noisy. It is also moving far slower than the speed of light, hence
"lingers" in a circuit after each and every stimulation, directly
adding noise to slightly succeeding "signal stimuli." The "signal"
moves down the conductor at nearly C, the velocity of light in
The net result in a continual digital process is that the 3-stage
relaxation phenomena continually generates lingering noise signals
in a circuit. This noise is continually produced both when signals
are initially recorded on a conductor, increasing the noise in the
signal actually recorded, and again when the conducting medium is
later optically re-stimulated to detect the recorded "signal and
noise". Examples of conducting media are audio compact disc,
CD-ROM (read only memory), video laser disc, photo-CD and
photgraphic film. The net result is that continual relaxation
noise is added to both the recording and playback stages of any
recording process utilizing such a conducting medium. Relaxation
noise is also added to any signal translated down or in a
conductor and through circuits.
In searching prior art that disclosed magnetic and/or modulated EM
devices designed for processing or clarifying conducting media for
the purpose of reducing relaxation noise, no references were
located that either disclosed or anticipated the present
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The device is a housed magnetic unit that, when electrically
activated by a switch and motor means, creates a modulated EM beam
or field that dampens and reduces electron relaxation or linger
noise in a recorded conducting medium as the conducting medium
passes through the EM field.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a device that produces a
permanent magnet magnetic field.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the outside of a housing
for the apparatus.
FIG. 3 is an inside view of the bottom half of the housing
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the orientation of the
conducting medium (compact disc), to a molded spindle.
FIG. 5 is an inside view of the top half of the housing and
FIG. 6 is a side view of the housing and components.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The method and apparatus or device of the present invention is
discussed hereinafter in terms of 3-stage relaxation noise
actually introduced to all signal conducting media by the
recording process, and again introduced in the playback from such
recorded conducting media.
First, the sharp distinction between the first and second
relaxation stages is removed. The moment the charges present in
the electron gas in a conductor are excited with excess energy
from the leading part of the incoming signal stimulus, excess
fields exist on the electrons, directly combining with the E- and
B-fields already in existence. Consequently, stages 1 and 2 are
considered combined. In other words, even in stage one, a strong
component of the excited fields is attempting to axially eject or
expel electrons from the conductor, while other strong fields
oriented within the conductor are affecting the entire electron
gas, increasing its collision frequency and noise. Axially, there
is less collision damping, so on the average an axial movement
toward the surface results. Axial expulsion is a radial effect.
Next is the effect of an additional magnetic field from an
external magnetic pole, which is what the present invention
provides. The magnetic pole, for example, may be fairly localized
in the case of recording signals and replaying signals, or it may
be distributed in a "cover" or "blanket" covering the outside
surface of the conductor. In the case of flat conducting plates,
the blanket may cover both sides.
When any field element attempts to emerge from the conductor, or
can be decomposed into longitudinal and axial components where the
axial component attempts to emerge, it is directly coupled to one
or more axially (on the average) moving electrons within the
plate, which constitutes the source or sources of the fields. The
source electrons are also attempting to move to the surface
themselves. However, the strength of the electron-associated
magnetic field will be altered, affected and resisted by the
externally introduced modulated EM field of the present invention.
The net effect of the magnetic field, as produced by the present
invention, is to induce damping and "magnetic braking" of the
electrons and damping of their fields. In addition, a moving
electron in a magnetic field is forced to turn away from its path,
again increasing damping. In the externally introduced modulated
EM field of the present device, the axially (on the average)
moving electron is forced to develop an electric field gradient at
right angles to its (on the average) axial movement, and "back
against" the "linger noise" stimulus. In short, the electron
develops a "back EMF" from all of the other electrons in the gas,
which resist its movement and damp it. This dampens the electron's
axial component, consequently its movement and concomitant
relaxation "stage 1" and "stage 2" noise, resulting in a
materially reduced relaxation noise.
The result of the use of the present invention, is that as the
electrons continue to violently alter their directions due to
collisions, they are continually damped by the modulated EM field
created by the device. Consequently, the erratic movement of the
electrons are constrained, their velocities are lowered, their
collision frequency is diminished, and relaxation noise is
reduced, compared to the situation where no external EM field is
present. The net result is a reduction of relaxation or linger
noise resulting in clarifying of audio and/or visual signals from
When the external modulated EM field of the present invention
crosses the relaxation excitation E-fields of the conductor,
longitudinal components on the electrons, in either direction, are
produced which contribute to the overall damping. The fundamental
principle is that, as the electrons increase their kinetic energy
during stage 1 and stage 2 of the relaxation time, that increase
is being resisted by a magnetic braking/damping effect, and the
axial ejection and noise components that continually develop are
damped by the introduced EM field.
This results in a reduction in the production of both immediate
and linger noise. It is the mirror symmetry of the "magnetic
brake" effect. The excited electrons try to move faster, in effect
creating "eddy currents" in the conductor. Moving in the fixed
magnet's modulated EM field, these "eddy currents" exert a
magnetic repulsion force upon the magnetic pole, which in turn
exerts a braking effect back upon the "eddy currents" themselves.
This latter effect constitutes noise reduction in the conductor.
The end total result of the use of the device of the present
1. Reduction of the velocity and kinetic energy of the electrons
during coupled phase 1 and phase 2;
2. introduction of substantial additional damping upon the
harmonic damped-oscillation relaxation noise that results in
phases 1, 2 and 3,; and
3. substantial reduction of the overall relaxation noise in the
system, in the resulting conducting medium, and in the resulting
playback from the conducting medium.
The device directly reduces the relaxation noise in all conducting
media which involve EM effects in recording and playback, and in
transmission of signals. In any operating system, whether
recording or playback as such is being performed or not, the
present device directly reduces the continuously-forming
"lingering relaxation noise" from signals that have previously
occurred, and that are actually slower-moving charge disturbances
constituting relaxation noise in the system's operation. The
relaxation noise is also a power loss from the signal. Reduction
of the signal power being lost in the system constitutes effective
enhancement of the noise-free power transmitted by the system.
Application of the device increases the signal-to-noise ratio by
dramatically reducing the lingering relaxation noise that is
continually produced in: 1) systems operation; 2) the conducting
medium; and 3) detection, amplification, and playback from the
conducting medium. Media conductors or conducting plates that the
apparatus may be applied to are audio compact discs, CD-ROM discs,
photographic compact discs, video laser discs, motion picture and
still-camera film of all types, x-ray film, optical media, and
other medium which involve EM effects in recording and playback
and in the transmission of signals through normal circuitry and
conducting plates. Video, audio and digital tapes also benefit
from the present invention but conducting tape must be treated
with the device before recorded upon.
The systems may be any EM system such as electrical,
electro-optical, magnetic, and magneto-optical systems. The
continuously-formed lingering relaxation noise is a direct part of
the so-called "standard noise" in the system.
When the device is applied to a conductor, such as an audio
compact disc (CD) that normally produces playback distortion as a
result of relaxation noise, the distortion is reduced and there is
an improvement in sound quality with improved clarity and
sharpness of the music or other such sounds. When the apparatus is
applied to a medium that has a visual expression, such as a
CD-ROM, Photo-CD, video laser disc or photogaphic film, there is
improved visual effects with greater clarity, sharpness and color
to the resultant pictures and photographs.
One embodiment of the invention is a device comprised of a pair of
permanent magnets in an orientation in which their like poles,
i.e., north or south, are in a facing and repulsing relationship.
A coil of wire is then wound around the pair of fixed magnets in
an orientation orthogonal to both the interface between the facing
magnets and their north and south poles.
A motor means and electric supply means is provided for creating a
pulsed current characterized by sharp voltage spikes to the coil
of wire creating a modulated EM field while also producing a means
for spinning the conducting medium when placed on a spindle that
is driven by the motor means. A far greater effect is given by the
brushes of the motor means when DC current is applied at a
constant rate. At the same time, the motor means provides a more
constant means of maintaining optimum rotation of the spindle thus
exposing the conductor to the constant effect of the EM field.
The molded spindle allows for improved centering and stability
during rotation of the conducting medium. The conducting medium is
oriented to the device so that its plane is parallel to a plane
running through the north pole orientation of the magnets. As the
conducting medium passes through the modulated EM field, the
electrons of the conductor are effected by the field, thus
reducing the relaxation noise.
The device is housed in a container, such as a molded plastic
housing, to maintain magnetic unit placement and to allow for
greater penetration of the modulate magnetic field by the magnetic
unit and with greater effect on the conductor.
One application of the device of the present invention is in
clarifying sounds emitting from an audio compact disc. Compact
discs are comprised of an aluminum surface encased in a plastic
coating. The disc itself is composed of a very thin piece of
stamped aluminum, which is the conducting medium, encased in
plastic. The thin aluminum layer is the active ingredient that
contains the recorded data.
A second application is in the clarification of compact discs such
as video laser discs, photo-CDs and CD-ROMs. Processing of visual
compact discs produces a clearer, sharper, brighter and more
colorful image both on the computer screen and in a photo image.
A third application is in the clarifying of photographic films of
all types. Exposed film that has been clarified before developing
the film produces a consistantly clearer image than film that is
Referring first to FIG. 1, 10 is a device comprised of a magnetic
unit 12 which is further comprised of a pair of permanent magnets
14 and 16 orientated with like poles in a facing, contacting and
repelling relationship and fused with an adhesive means 18 forming
a seam with joined magnets 14 and 16 producing a shaped magnetic
field 22. Magnets 14 and 16 are oriented with their north poles in
an abutting relationship, although the magnets may be abutted
using their south poles.
FIG. 1 further shows a coil of wire 20 wound around magnets 14
and 16 of the magnetic unit's out facing poles with coil 20
having an orientation perpendicular to the plane of the
interface between magnets 14 and 16. Coil 20 may consist of 150
to 300 turns of a #34 enamel-insulated high temperature wire,
with 250 turns preferable. Magnetic field 22 is shown emitting
above adhesive seam 18 of magnetic unit 12.
Also shown in FIG. 1 is circuitry 3 for providing an
electrical supply to coil 20 of magnetic unit 12 used in
apparatus 10. Circuitry 3 is comprised of a DC motor 5, a
controlling switch 7, either a 9 volt DC battery or a DC power
supply 9 and connecting wire 11 to coil 20. DC motor 5 also
provides a means for rotating spindle 33 seen in FIG. 2. In the
alternative, electrical power may be provided by a 120 volt AC
power supply 13 which is reduced to 9 volts by passing through a
9 volt AC to DC convertor or power step-down unit 15.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a housing 31 which contains
apparatus 10 and its components. Seen emerging from the top of
housing 31 is spindle 33 for the placement and orientation of
conducting medium 24. Spindle 33 emerges from the top side of
housing 31 for ease of placement of the conducting medium.
Closure of switch 7 creates a modulated EM field 22 simultaneous
to the spinning of conducting medium 24. As the conducting
medium spins, it passes through field 22 thus producing the
desired effect on the conductor.
FIG. 3 is an inside view of the bottom half of housing 31
showing compartments, A-1 and B-1 separated by a divider 35.
Compartment A-1 is adapted to fit over compartment A-2 of the
top half of housing 31, seen in FIG. 5. Compartment B-1 contains
a 9 volt DC battery or DC power supply 9, space for switch 7 and
space for motor 5.
FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing the orientation of
conducting medium 24 to spindle 33 and motor 5.
FIG. 5 is an inside view of the top half of housing 31
showing compartments A-2 and B-2 separated by divider 37.
Compartment A-2 contains magnetic unit 12 with connecting wire
11 from coil 20. Wire 11 passes through a recess in divider 37
and into compartment B-2 to connect to motor 5 and switch 7.
Compartment B-2 contains motor 5 and a side wall of B-2 contains
a recess for switch 7. Beneath motor 5 and on the roof of the
top half of housing 31 is an opening for the emergence of
FIG. 6 is a side view of housing 31 showing the
relationship of the various elements to each other. Magnetic
unit 12 is located in compartment A-2 of housing 31. Connecting
wires 11 connect coil 20 to a 9 volt battery or AC to DC
convertor 9 and motor 5. Spindle 33 is connected to motor 5 and
emerges through the top of housing 31 to accept conducting
medium 24. Conducting medium 24 is shown in close proximity to
magnetic unit 12 and oriented in a plane perpendicular to the
plane of intersection of magnets 14 and 16 so that when
apparatus 10 is activated, the rotating conductor 24 will pass
through the modulated EM field 22.
An analysis of an audio compact disc was carried out with the test
completed using a Schlumberger 1510 Audio Spectrum Analyzer to
display real-time fast fourier transform (FFT) spectra of the
sound, a Tektronix 465B dual-trace oscilloscope to display phase
differences between left and right stereo channels as well as
waveform shapes, and a Leader LMV-185A 2 channel AC Millivoltmeter
to simultaneously read the amplitude of the left and right stereo
channels. The spectrum analyzer has a frequency range of up to 25
khz, a dynamic range of 70 db, and an absolute range of 100 db
using attenuators, and an accuracy of 0.1 db and 1/256 of the
frequency range selected. All measurements were made using the 25
khz range. The oscilloscope has an upper frequency range of 100
mhz. The test CD was played on the Denon DCD-1500 II compact disk
player connected directly to the above instrumentation.
The test CD, CDP 7 46446 2, DIDX 2249 Stereo, UK: CD-PCS 7078,
manufactured by Capitol Records, otherwise known as the Beatles:
Abbey Road album originally recorded in 1969 and digitally
re-mastered in 1987 for CD, was subjected to the above equipment
and technique. Spectral measurements at a 00:24 interval was made
on track #7, a selection known as "Here Comes the Sun".
Track #7, at a 24 second interval, is exhibited in Example I as a
series of bar graphs in diagrams 1-8. The bar graphs
simultaneously show the relative loudness in decibels "before" and
"after" clarifying of the device. Each pair of bars represents the
relative loudness of frequencies between 100 hertz and 25600 hertz
of Track #7 time 24 seconds of the audio CD analyzed.
Diagram 1 shows the entire spectrum from 100 to 25600 hertz in 8
frequency bands as labeled at the bottom of the diagram. It is
noted that each frequency range except for 200 to 400 hertz is
about 1 or 2 decibels louder after processing by the device.
Diagrams 2-8 display the same data in more detail showing a larger
number of smaller frequency ranges in intervals of only 100 hertz
each. Because frequency ranges are smaller there are more
variations in the data, however, the readings show the trend of
being 1 to 2 decibels louder after processing.
It is noted that each of the spectral differences as well as the
average spectrum difference follow a profile demonstrates the
effect that clarifying by the instant device has on the CD.
An analysis of an audio compact disc was carried out by first
recording "The Best of Mike Olfield--Elements", track "Portsmouth"
without clarifying the CD, on a hard drive using a WAV file of
Voyetra's WINDAT software with a sound card connected to a
CD-ROM's audio output. The recording was in mono at a sample rate
Following the first recording, the CD was then clarified, using
the device, by placing the CD in the modulated electormagnetic
field of the present device for 10 seconds on each side followed
by again recording the CD using the above technique.
Using the WINDAT program, the "before" clarifying and "after"
clarifying recordings were trimmed so that application of the
device could be easily compared with non-application. Ten second
and 0.25 second excerpts were used. The ten second excerpts were
measured from the point where sound began to come off of the CD.
The 0.25 second excerpts were taken from a consistent point within
the body of the recording.
The sound files were converted into graphics using two Shareware
programs: Screen Thief and Blaster Master. The recordings were
loaded into Blaster Master individually and the graphical
representation of each recording was captured using Screen Thief.
The graphics of the sound files were then laid down and compared
using Deluxe Paint II Enhanced.
The graphical representation of the sounds, in Diagrams 9-11, is
based on amplitude and time. The left side of the graphic is the
beginning of the recording, and right side is the end. The
beginning of the graphic is defined as the point where sound began
showing up on the graphic.
Diagram 9 illustrate a 10 second comparison of the unclarified
with the clarified CD. The waveform represents amplitude. It is
noted that waveform A, the unclarified sample, is taller than
waveform B, the clarified sample.
Diagram 10 is of the same recording but compares exclusively
unclarified, partial waveform C, unique to waveform A, and
clarified partial waveform D, unique to waveform B. That is, all
of the points in the unclarified graph, waveform A, that
correspond to points in the clarified graph, waveform B, have been
erased resulting in waveform C, and all of the points in the
clarified graph, waveform B, corresponding to the unclarified
graph, waveform A, have been erased, resulting in waveform D. This
technique leaves a graph showing the data that is unique to the
recording in question. Thus, in Diagram 10, the graph labelled
"Exclusively Clarified", the visible lines show data that is
unique to the clarified recording, and the "Exclusively
Unclarified" graph shows sound or noise that was no longer present
Diagram 11 illustrates a 0.25 second comparison of the unclarified
CD, waveform E, with the clarified CD, waveform G. Waveform F is
the exclusively clarified and shows what is unique to waveform G.
A graphic of an exclusively unclarified waveform was eliminated
because interest was in the clarified waveform and what is unique
Three criteria were used in analyzing the graphs of Diagrams 9-11:
Response Time, Noise level and Density. Response Time refers to
"when the sound starts", a key factor because the CD excerpt
recorded was timed from the moment that sound began recording off
of the CD. The position of the remaining material recorded is
dependent on the accuracy of the starting point. In the ten second
excerpt of Diagrams 9 and 10, there were no measurable time
discrepancies, as the graphs matched up as represented in the
Diagrams with the peaks in the sound occurring in the same places
throughout the sample.
The 0.25 second excerpts showed a lag time between unclarified
waveform E with clarified waveform G. As many of the peaks of
waveforms E and G as possible were matched-up and then compared to
how much "extra" sound was left at the beginning. By comparing the
length of the sound to the length of the whole sample, it was
determined that the unclarified 0.25 second excerpt was lagging
behind the clarified excerpt by about 0.01 second. A small
discrepancy at the starting point would not be visible on the ten
second scale, but on the 0.25 second scale is noticeable.
In terms of Noise Level, the unclarified sample was "noisier" in
both excerpts, ten second and 0.25. By noise level is meant, that
overall, the unclarified sample consistently had several peaks
where the volume line went further than the corresponding volume
line in the clarified sample. This lower level in the clarified
sample is the result of a reduction of "noise" level in the
clarified sample. Extraneous noise makes the overall signal
noisier and less clear. The clarified sample has an improved and
smoothed out dynamic because of a reduction in noise level.
Density is defined as the solidity of the volume or amplitude
lines rather than the range of the lines. Comparison of the volume
lines of waveform A, unclarified, with waveform B, clarified,
shows waveform B to have a much more consistent volume level than
waveform A. Increased Density gives greater consistency to the CD,
producing a much fuller sound.
In Example III, the identical technique used in Example II was
duplicated. An analysis of the audio compact disc, "The Cross of
Changes" by Enigma, track "Return to Innocence" was carried out by
first recording, without clarifying the CD, on a hard drive using
a WAV file of Voyetra's WINDAT software with a sound card
connected to a CD-ROM's audio output. The recording was in mono at
a sample rate of 44100. Following the first recording, the compact
disc was then clarified, using the device, by allowing the CD to
spin for 10 seconds on each side followed by again recording the
CD using the above technique. The analysis technique as described
in Example II was then completed.
Diagram 12 illustrates a ten second excerpt comparison of waveform
A, unclarified, with waveform D, clarified. Waveform B is
exclusively unclarified, and unique to waveform A. Waveform C is
exclusively clarified and is what is unique to waveform D of the
sound track. Waveform A, the unclarified sample, is significantly
different than waveform D, the clarified sample.
Diagram 13 illustrates a 0.25 second comparison of the same
recording of unclarified waveform E with clarified waveform G of
the CD. It also shows exclusively clarified waveform F,
demonstrating the unique difference between waveforms E and G.
Response Time, Loudness and Density were analyzed. In the 0.25
graphic of Diagram 13, the Response Time of waveform G is slightly
ahead of waveform E, indicating that sound from the recording
began sooner than in waveform E. The amplitude lines of waveform G
are slightly reduced overall in comparison with waveform E,
resulting in a reduction of Noise Level. The Density of waveform G
is much greater than in waveform E, especially in the last
one-third segment of Diagram 13.
A Photo-CD was analyzed both "before" and "after" passing the CD
through the modulated eletromagnetic field of the device to
determine specific changes in the retrievable data from the CD.
The method and steps used to derive and quantify the effect that
clarifying had on the conductor was determined using the following
method and steps:
1. A demonstration Photo-CD sampler, produced by Kodak, was down
loaded to the hard drive of an Apple Centris 650, 25 HRZ, 6800040
motherboard and a new file created and properly designated as
"before". The photo-CD had not been clarified by the device.
Images were transferred to a commercial graphics software program,
PhotoShop, developed by Adobe Software.
2. The Photo-CD was removed from the ROM and treated with the
present device by spinning the CD on each side for 15 seconds. The
CD was then down loaded to the hard drive and a second new file
created and properly designated as "after". The images created
were transferred to the PhotoShop graphics software program with
file separation maintained at all times.
3. Print number 3 of the Photo-CD list, contained in the "before"
or unclarifyied, was brought to the screen and a text translator
was used to convert the picture to post script computer language.
Picture number 3 represented a photo image that measured
21/2.times.13/4 inches, using 132 LPI, 72 DPI and utilized
approximately 250K of memory. Following the text translation
process to convert the small image to post script, it was then
saved to a new file. Following the conversion, there were 360
pages of post script computer language created to describe the
image number 3.
4. The identical process as described above was used to create a
post script file for the image following use of the device on the
photo-CD. The "after" or clarifying effect resulted in 348 pages
of post script computer language.
5. The first 16 pages of post script language was specific to
language to program the printer. The balance of the pages in both
cases was post script language to describe the specific image that
was converted. The first 4 pages of both files were then converted
into text files using Wordperfect 6.0. The process of converting
the post script files to text files was for the specific purpose
of utilizing a specialized software program that could compare the
text language of both files. The process of converting the first 4
pages of both post script files to text files took 25 minutes and
resulted in the generation of 101 pages of new text language. The
ratio of pages of text converted from post script is approximately
1 to 25. If the entire post script files (354 pages average) were
converted to text file using the same ratio, it would require
approximately 8,850 pages of text file to fully describe a single
21/2.times.13/4 inch colored image.
6. The software used to simultaneously compare the text in the two
files, DocuComp II, version 1.05, is a product of Advance
7. The first 4 pages produced a total of 101 pages of text file.
When placed into the DocuComp file, it resulted in the following
summary of information changes: The 4 pages represent slightly
more than 1% of the total data available from each image. If the
entire 708 pages were converted and analyzed, it would take
considerable memory capacity and about 37 hours (4 pages of each
file takes 25 minutes) of computer running time to analyze 708
pages of post script computer language.
8. Four pages from each file generated a total of 56 material
changes, on the average, resulting in over 5,000 changes for the
entire image when "before" clarifying was compared to "after"
9. The "before" unclarified file, resulted in 53,336 bytes of
information The "after" clarified file version, generated 50,521
bytes of information. The comparison represents a difference in
information retrieved equal to 5.7% less for the clarified file.
Clarifying the Photo-CD with the device realigns the data into a
tighter format by reducing superfluous data. Each Pixel has a
"halo" or influence zone. Exposing the pixel to a modulated EM
field reduces the halo by suppressing electron activity or
relaxation noise thus causing the pixel to be sharper with
improved clarity. The photo-CD manufacturing process can produce
residual color around each individual pixel referred to as pixel
residual or bleeding. When a pixel, represented by post script and
text script, is sharper, it does not require as much information
to accurately describe or define it. When a pixel halo or
influence zone is reduced, it requires less information to
describe the data. In Example IV, 5.7% less information was
required following clarifying by the device, at the same time
improving the image to describe the same segment of the picture.
The analysis process of converting each image to post script and
then to text is accurate. Changes created by treating a photo-CD
with the present device can be demonstrated by a computer
comparison of the information generated from both images.
Diagram 14 is a Summary of Post Script Changes with a list of
differences between the "before" and "after" application of the
device to the photo-CD.
Using the identical technique and steps as described in Example
IV, steps 1-9, a second Photo-CD, Nature's Way, published by
Gazelle Technologies and produced by Kodak, was tested "before"
and "after" application of the present device. In this Example,
the original bytes numbered 74,151 before clarifying with the
device. After clarifying, the number of bytes were reduced to
70,214 resulting in a 5.6% byte reduction.
Diagram 15 is a Summary of Post Script Changes with a list of
differences between the "before" and "after" application of the
device to the photo-CD.
Diagrams 16 and 17 are black and white, "before" and "after",
copies of color pictures of the photo image of the photo-CD,
demonstrating the effect that clarifying the conducting medium has
on the comparable results.
John BEDINI's Patents
Device and method for utilizing a monopole motor to create
back EMF to charge batteries
Analog vector processor and method for producing a binaural
Circuits and related methods for charging a battery
Monaural to binaural audio processor
Device and method of a back EMF permanent electromagnetic
Apparatus and method for reducing electronic relaxation
noise present information recording medium
MONAURAL TO BINAURAL AUDIO PROCESSOR
Device and method for pulse charging a battery and for
driving other devices with a pulse
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