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Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Patents










US Patents

USPA 2007217981
PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS FOR THE SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE UTILIZING EFFLUENT STREAMS

Abstract --- Disclosed are processes and systems for sequestering carbon dioxide from a flue gas effluent from a parent process such as a coal-fired electric power plant. In one non-limiting embodiment of the invention, a mineral having a metal is dissolved with an acid to provide a solution having a predetermined pH. Carbon dioxide from the flue gas effluent and a base are added to the solution to provide a metal carbonate reaction to precipitate a metal carbonate, e.g., magnesium carbonate, from the solution. Heat, which may be supplied by the flue gas effluent, is used to power a base management system for recovering used base form the process.
 

USPA 2007051615
METHOD OF CONVERTING GREEN HOUSE GASES FROM FOSSIL FUELS INTO NON-TOXIC BASE ELEMENTS

Abstract --- A process which includes the steps of first collecting the green house gases, such as CO2, SO2, Nox, CO, emitted from a furnace where fossil fuels are burned; flowing the gases to a sequestration unit where the gases are cleaned and scrubbed; moving the scrubbed gases to a compressor for reducing the volume of the gases; introducing the gases into a plasma arc for ionizing the gases to charged components; providing a source of free electrons; capturing the free electrons in a dense free electron zone; introducing the charged components from the plasma arc into the dense free electron zone for rendering the ions into elemental fragments of carbon, oxygen gas, nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and other elemental components; collecting the elemental fragments of carbon and other elements; routing the oxygen gas to the furnace to provide oxygen to burn additional fossil fuels.
 

USPA 2007081924
Scrubbing "ionized" rainstorm tunnel (S.I.R.T)

Abstract --- Method and apparatus for Scrubbing exhaust streams to approach Zero Emissions with utility in Coal Fired Electricity Generation. The Scrubbing "Ionized" Rainstorm Tunnel (S.I.R.T.) a.k.a. Natural State Hydrologic Cycle Emulator comprises a tunnel that sprays exhaust streams with "ionized" water, cost effectively scrubbing toxic constituents mimicking the atmospheric and hydrologic cycle. Various tunnel configurations greatly increase dwell times beyond that of other methods to any chosen scrubbing agent allowing for more complete absorption of all toxic emissions i.e. sulfates, nitrates, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds produced by combustion of coal or other dirty fuels. The design incorporates advantageous removal points for further micro and nano effluent treatment and simplified sequestration of Carbon Dioxide if desired. A Nozzle Automated Positioning and Retrieval System (NAPRS) allows for continuous operation of boilers or other processes as failed spray nozzle heads can be serviced outside the tunnel without down time.
 

USPA 2007144747
COAL BED PRETREATMENT FOR ENHANCED CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

Abstract --- A method is claimed for enabling storage of greater volumes of carbon dioxide for sequestration while simultaneously enhancing methane recovery from the coal bed. The process is implemented by injecting hydrogen into a coal bed, such as a depleted underground coal deposit, at a temperature below about 800 degrees Centigrade ( 10 ); extracting the hydrogen together with methane from the deposit ( 20 ); separating the hydrogen from the methane ( 30 ); delivering the methane as a product of the process ( 40 ); reinjecting the separated hydrogen into the deposit to continue the process until sequestration of carbon dioxide is desired ( 50 ); optionally producing hydrogen from methane ( 60 ) and optionally injecting carbon dioxide for sequestration.
 

USPA 2007261947
Process for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Mineral Carbonation

Abstract --- The invention provides a process for sequestration of carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation comprising the following steps: (a) converting a magnesium or calcium sheet silicate hydroxide into a magnesium or calcium ortho- or chain silicate by bringing the silicate hydroxide in direct or indirect heat-exchange contact with hot synthesis gas to obtain the silicate, silica, water and cooled synthesis gas; (b) contacting the silicate obtained in step (a) with carbon dioxide to convert the silicate into magnesium or calcium carbonate and silica.
 

USPA 2007253886
Carbon sequestration and dry reforming process and catalysts to produce same

Abstract --- A carbon sequestration and dry reforming process for the production of synthesis gas and sequestered carbon from carbon dioxide. Two-dimension (non-porous) catalysts for sequestering carbon are also disclosed and a process to produce same as well as a method for activating two dimension catalysts.
 

USPA 2005180910
Carbon dioxide sequestration using alkaline earth metal-bearing minerals

Abstract --- A method for mineral sequestration of pollutant gases resulting from the combustion of carbon-based fuels such as carbon and sulfur dioxides is provided and includes, providing a particulate magnesium-containing mineral and exposing the magnesium-containing mineral to a weak acid to dissolve magnesium from the mineral and form a magnesium-containing solution. The surface of the particulate magnesium-containing mineral is physically activated to expose and dissolve additional magnesium into the solution. Pollutant gases such as carbon dioxide are mixed with the magnesium-containing solution. When the pH of the magnesium-containing solution is increased, solid magnesium carbonate is formed.
 

USPA 2005169825
Method of collecting carbon dioxide contained in fumes

Abstract --- The fumes flowing in through line 1 are contacted in column C 1 with a solvent, at low vapour pressure, absorbing the carbon dioxide. The solvent laden with carbon dioxide is regenerated by distillation in column C 2. In order to improve the regeneration operation, a gas is injected through line 11 into column C 2 so that this gas carries along the carbon dioxide contained in the solvent. The carbon dioxide-rich gaseous effluent obtained at the top of column C 2 can be liquefied by compression and cooling, then stored in surge tank R, which allows its transportation and possibly underground sequestration.
 

US2005180910
Carbon dioxide sequestration using alkaline earth metal-bearing minerals

Abstract --- A method for mineral sequestration of pollutant gases resulting from the combustion of carbon-based fuels such as carbon and sulfur dioxides is provided and includes, providing a particulate magnesium-containing mineral and exposing the magnesium-containing mineral to a weak acid to dissolve magnesium from the mineral and form a magnesium-containing solution. The surface of the particulate magnesium-containing mineral is physically activated to expose and dissolve additional magnesium into the solution. Pollutant gases such as carbon dioxide are mixed with the magnesium-containing solution. When the pH of the magnesium-containing solution is increased, solid magnesium carbonate is formed.
 

USPA 2004200393
Production of hydrogen and removal and sequestration of carbon dioxide from coal-fired furnaces and boilers

Abstract --- Methods for reducing and eliminating carbon dioxide from the emissions of solid fuel fired power plants, particularly coal fired power plants, and to sequester the carbon dioxide, typically by using existing equipment. In some embodiments, the methods involve pyrolyzing the solid fuel to remove volatile matter and using the volatile matter to produce hydrogen. Additionally, the methods may involve burning the solid fuel or pyrolized solid fuel at very fuel rich stoichiometric conditions. Sequestration may include the production of a carbon dioxide-containing solution and the pumping of the solution into the ground, particularly in areas high in limestone.
 

USP 7043920
Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration

Abstract --- A low or no pollution engine is provided for delivering power for vehicles or other power applications. The engine has an air inlet which collects air from a surrounding environment. At least a portion of the nitrogen in the air is removed. The remaining gas is primarily oxygen, which is then routed to a gas generator. The gas generator has inputs for the oxygen and a hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel and oxygen are combusted within the gas generator, forming water and carbon dioxide. The combustion products are then expanded through a power generating device, such as a turbine or piston expander to deliver output power for operation of a vehicle or other power uses. The combustion products are then passed through a condenser where the steam is condensed and the carbon dioxide is collected or discharged. A portion of the water is routed back to the gas generator. The carbon dioxide is compressed and delivered to a terrestrial formation from which return of the CO2 into the atmosphere is inhibited.
 

USPA 2004161364
Carbon sequestration in aqueous environments

Abstract --- The present invention relates to the use of a substance, such as an aquatic herbicide, to facilitate the sequestration carbon dioxide by removing a portion of a plant biomass from a body of water.
 

USP 6945029
Low pollution power generation system with ion transfer membrane air separation

Abstract --- A low or no pollution power generation system is provided. The system has an air separator to collect oxygen. A gas generator is provided with inputs for the oxygen and a hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel and oxygen are combusted within the gas generator, forming water and carbon dioxide. Water or other diluents are also delivered into the gas generator to control temperature of the combustion products. The combustion products are then expanded through at least one turbine or other expander to deliver output power. The combustion products are then passed through a separator where the steam is condensed. A portion of the water is discharged and the remainder is routed back to the gas generator as diluent. The carbon dioxide can be conditioned for sequestration. The system can be optimized by adding multiple expanders, reheaters and water diluent preheaters, and by preheating air for an ion transfer membrane oxygen separation.
 

USP 6667022
Process for separating synthesis gas into fuel cell quality hydrogen and sequestration ready carbon dioxide

Abstract --- A method and apparatus for separating gas mixtures containing synthesis gas (syngas) into separate streams of wet hydrogen containing significantly reduced amounts of CO2 and CO, with the CO2 being "sequestration ready" and containing less than 1% fixed gases. In the preferred embodiment, a mixture of limestone and iron oxide circulates between two fluidized beds whereby one bed is fluidized with a gas containing syngas, while the other bed is fluidized with a gas containing steam and oxygen. As the fluidizing gas containing syngas passes through the bed, the CO2 reacts with CaO to form CaCO3. Virtually all of the CO is removed by a water gas shift reaction, forming hydrogen and CO2, with the remainder being removed by reaction with the iron oxide, reducing Fe2O3 to FeO. Some hydrogen is also removed by reaction with the iron oxide, reducing Fe2O3 to FeO, while the remainder of the hydrogen passes through the fluid beds, leaving in a purified state, i.e., PEM fuel cell quality.
 

USP 6976362
Integrated fischer-tropsch and power production plant with low CO2 emissions

Abstract --- A plant for producing Fischer-Tropsch liquids and electrical power with greatly reduced emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is made up of a syngas generator unit, an air separation unit, a Fischer-Tropsch unit, a CO2 removal unit, and a combined cycle electricity generation unit. Each of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, carbon dioxide, and electrical power can be recoverable under proper economic conditions. Electrical power is recoverable by the use of a gas turbine fueled by predominantly hydrogen and a steam turbine powered by steam generated by cooling exhaust gases from the gas turbine. Sequestration of CO2 and fueling the gas turbine with hydrogen reduces the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere.
 

USP 7132090
Sequestration of carbon dioxide

Abstract --- A process for selectively removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous stream by converting the carbon dioxide to a solid, stable form is provided. In a sequestration process, carbon dioxide enriched air is passed through a gas diffusion membrane to transfer the carbon dioxide to a fluid medium. The carbon dioxide rich fluid is then passed through a matrix containing a catalyst specific for carbon dioxide, which accelerates the conversion of the carbon dioxide to carbonic acid. In the final step, a mineral ion is added to the reaction so that a precipitate of carbonate salt is formed. This solid mineral precipitate can be safely stored for extended periods of time, such as by burying the precipitate in the ground or depositing the precipitate into storage sites either on land or into a body of water. An apparatus for removing carbon dioxide from a gaseous stream is also provided.
 

USP 6598398
Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration

Abstract --- A low or no pollution engine is provided for delivering power for vehicles or other power applications. The engine has an air inlet which collects air from a surrounding environment. At least a portion of the nitrogen in the air is removed using a technique such as liquefaction, pressure swing adsorption or membrane based air separation. The remaining gas is primarily oxygen, which is then compressed and routed to a gas generator. The gas generator has an igniter and inputs for the high pressure oxygen and a high pressure hydrogen-containing fuel, such as hydrogen, methane or a light alcohol. The fuel and oxygen are combusted within the gas generator, forming water and carbon dioxide with carbon containing fuels. Water is also delivered into the gas generator to control the temperature of the combustion products. The combustion products are then expanded through a power generating device, such as a turbine or piston expander to deliver output power for operation of a vehicle or other power uses. The combustion products, steam and, with carbon containing fuels, carbon dioxide, are then passed through a condenser where the steam is condensed and the carbon dioxide is collected or discharged. A portion of the water is collected for further processing and use and the remainder is routed back to the gas generator. The carbon dioxide is compressed and cooled so that it is in a liquid phase or super critical state. The dense phase carbon dioxide is then further pressurized to a pressure matching a pressure, less hydrostatic head, existing deep within a porous geological formation, a deep aquifer, a deep ocean location or other terrestrial formation from which return of the CO2 into the atmosphere is inhibited.
 

USP 6667171
Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation

Abstract --- This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.
 

USP 6763886
In situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration

Abstract --- A coal formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. Hydrocarbons, H2, and/or other formation fluids may be produced from the formation. Heat may be applied to the formation to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature. The portion may be allowed or forced to cool after mixture production is ended. Carbon dioxide may be stored within the portion.
 

USP 6736215
In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containig formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration

Abstract --- A hydrocarbon containing formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. Hydrocarbons, H2, and/or other formation fluids may be produced from the formation. Heat may be applied to the formation to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature. Pyrolysis products may be produced from the formation. After pyrolysis, the temperature of the portion may be raised to a synthesis gas production temperature. A synthesis gas producing fluid may be introduced into the formation to generate synthesis gas. After synthesis gas production, the portion may be cooled and used to store carbon dioxide or other fluids.
 

USP 6871707
In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with carbon dioxide sequestration

Abstract --- A hydrocarbon containing formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. Hydrocarbons, H2, and/or other formation fluids may be produced from the formation. Heat may be applied to the formation to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature. The portion may be allowed or forced to cool after mixture production is ended. Carbon dioxide may be stored within the portion.
 

US2001015061
Hydrocarbon combustion power generation system with CO2 sequestration

Abstract --- A low or no pollution engine is provided for delivering power for vehicles or other power applications. The engine has an air inlet which collects air from a surrounding environment. At least a portion of the nitrogen in the air is removed using a technique such as liquefaction, pressure swing adsorption or membrane based air separation. The remaining gas is primarily oxygen, which is then compressed and routed to a gas generator. The gas generator has an igniter and inputs for the high pressure oxygen and a high pressure hydrogen-containing fuel, such as hydrogen, methane or a light alcohol. The fuel and oxygen are combusted within the gas generator, forming water and carbon dioxide with carbon containing fuels. Water is also delivered into the gas generator to control the temperature of the combustion products. The combustion products are then expanded through a power generating device, such as a turbine or piston expander to deliver output power for operation of a vehicle or other power uses. The combustion products, steam and, with carbon containing fuels, carbon dioxide, are then passed through a condenser where the steam is condensed and the carbon dioxide is collected or discharged. A portion of the water is collected for further processing and use and the remainder is routed back to the gas generator. The carbon dioxide is compressed and cooled so that it is in a liquid phase or super critical state. The dense phase carbon dioxide is then further pressurized to a pressure matching a pressure, less hydrostatic head, existing deep within a porous geological formation, a deep aquifer, a deep ocean location or other terrestrial formation from which return of the CO2 into the atmosphere is inhibited.
 

USP 6648949
System for small particle and CO2 removal from flue gas using an improved chimney or stack

Abstract --- A novel stack application for improved carbon dioxide and particle removal/collection from flue gases produced during coal power-generation processes. Flue gas tangential inlet velocity is increased to subject upward-flowing flue gas in a stack to a centrifugal force, thereby propelling entrained solid particles and CO2 in the flue gas to the stack wall for collection. Collection efficiency is further improved by a cascading water film or algae-laden water film on the inside of the stack wall and on surfaces of an optional internally mounted vortex generator to eliminate the re-entrainment of small particles and for ease of transporting the captured particles in a slurry. The stack can also be utilized as a photochemical or a biological reactor to promote a photosynthesis reaction between carbon dioxide and algae-laden water to form carbohydrate substrates for carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization.
 

USP 6447437
Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

Abstract --- Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO2, CO, NOx, and SOx emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH4HCO3 and/or (NH2)2CO, plus a small fraction of NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N03- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO2, CO, NOx, and SOx emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO2, CO, N2, SOx, and/or NOx are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H2, CH4, or NH3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO3-runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.
 

USP 6115672
Method for measuring and quantifying amounts of carbon from certain greenhouse gases sequestered in and by grassy and herbaceous plants

Abstract --- Carbon sequestration of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) is effected through enhancement of plant growth using defoliation techniques with and without grazing animals. Processes and devices for measurement of the verifiable quantity of carbon sequestered are disclosed.
 

USP 6148602
Solid-fueled power generation system with carbon dioxide sequestration and method therefor

Abstract --- A method of generating power with sequestration of carbon-dioxide emission includes compressing ambient air, separating substantially pure oxygen from the ambient air and then further compressing the substantially pure oxygen separated from the ambient air. After the oxygen has been further compressed, the oxygen is divided into a first oxygen stream and a second oxygen stream. The method includes introducing the first oxygen stream and a solid fuel, such as coal, into a solid-fuel gasifier for converting the first oxygen stream and the solid fuel into a combustible gas and combusting the gas in the presence of the second oxygen stream, the combusting step including the step of introducing water into the combustor during the combusting step for generating an exhaust stream of carbon dioxide and steam. The exhaust stream of carbon dioxide and steam is then passed through a turbine for driving the turbine and generating power. The exhaust stream is then cooled for producing carbon dioxide gas and water so that the carbon dioxide gas may be separated from the water and collected. Introducing water into the combustor during the combusting step increases the mass flow and the volume flow of the exhaust stream passing through the turbine, thereby elevating the amount of power generated by the turbine.
 

USP 6190301
Embedding of solid carbon dioxide in sea floor sediment

Abstract --- The invention relates to a process and vehicle for the disposal of carbon dioxide. Gaseous carbon dioxide is solidified and allowed to free fall through open water where i at least partially embeds itself in sedimentary formations. Sedimentation ensures that the marine environment is an overall carbon sink through carbonate sequestration.
 

USP 6170264
HYDROCARBON COMBUSTION POWER GENERATION SYSTEM WITH CO2 SEQUESTRATION

Abstract --- A low or no pollution engine (20) is provided which collects air from a surrounding environment. After removing a portion of the nitrogen, the remaining gas is primarily oxygen, which is routed to a gas generator (70). The gas generator has an igniter and inputs for the high pressure oxygen and a high pressure hydrogen-containing fuel, such as hydrogen, methane or a light alcohol. The fuel and oxygen are combusted within the gas generator, forming water and carbon dioxide with carbon containing fuels. The combustion products are then expanded through a power generating device (48). The combustion products are then passed through a condenser (80), and then is routed back to the gas generator. The carbon dioxide is compressed and cooled so that it is in a liquid phase or super critical state. The dense phase carbon dioxide is then further processed from which return of the CO2 into the atmosphere is inhibited.
 

USPA 2007028848
Method of sequestering carbon dioxide in aqueous environments

Abstract --- The present invention provides a method of sequestering carbon dioxide in aqueous environments. In a first step, an area is assessed to determine whether the area is capable of supporting the addition of organisms of higher trophic level (OHTL). Next, OHTL are added to the area in order to produce enough rapidly sinking and refractory particulate matter (PM) to sequester carbon dioxide above the level of carbon dioxide sequestration that exists before the addition of OHTL. Preferably, the PM produced by the OHTL sinks at rates significantly greater than and/or is significantly less biodegradable than that produced by other components of the biological carbon pump. Finally, this increase in the level of carbon dioxide sequestration is quantified. The method of the present invention may also include the step of reporting the quantified increase in the level of carbon dioxide sequestration.
[ Document not available]
 

USPA 2002035307
In situ thermal processing of a coal formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration

Abstract --- A coal formation may be treating using an in situ thermal process. Hydrocarbons, H2, and/or other formation fluids may be produced from the formation. Heat may be applied to the formation to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature. Pyrolysis products may be produced from the formation. After pyrolysis, the temperature of the portion may be raised to a synthesis gas production temperature. A synthesis gas producing fluid may be introduced into the formation to generate synthesis gas. After synthesis gas production, the portion may be cooled and used to store carbon dioxide or other fluids.
[ Document not available ]


WORLD ORGANIZATION


WO 2005108297
CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE AND MITIGATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

Abstract --- The present invention describes methods and systems for extracting, capturing, reducing, storing, sequestering, or disposing of carbon dioxide (CO2), particularly from the air. The CO2 extraction methods and systems involve the use of chemical processes, mineral sequestration, and solid and liquid sorbents. Methods are also described for extracting and/or capturing CO2 via condensation on solid surfaces at low temperature.
 

WO 0198313
CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION BY COBALT (II) COMPLEXES

Abstract --- This invention relates to novel cobalt (II) complexes, to a method for preparation of the complexes, to a process for use of the complexes in the sequestration of carbon dioxide from gas streams and to a process for use of the complexes in the production of useful products from carbon dioxide.
 

WO 2007106372
CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION MATERIALS AND PROCESSES

Abstract --- The disclosure provides methods and systems for sequestering and/or reducing carbon dioxide present in an industrial effluent fluid stream containing carbon dioxide. A scrubbing material comprising a first component, a second component (distinct from the first component), and preferably water, is contacted with the effluent fluid stream. The first component comprises a source of calcium oxide and a source of alkali metal ions. The second component comprises a slag having one or more reactive silicate compounds. Methods of reducing carbon dioxide from exhaust generated by combustion sources, lime and/or cement kilns, iron and/or steel furnaces, and the like are provided. Carbon dioxide emission abatement systems are also disclosed. Methods of recycling industrial byproducts are further provided.
 

WO 2007077139
PROCESS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND A PROCESS FOR THE SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

Abstract --- A process for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, the process comprising injecting a carbon dioxide containing stream into a reservoir, wherein the carbon dioxide containing stream has been obtained from a gaseous mixture by cryogenic separation. A further aspect of the invention discloses a process for enhanced oil recovery, the process comprising injecting a gaseous mixture comprising carbon dioxide into a subsurface reservoir to enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons from the reservoir, wherein the carbon dioxide content in the gaseous mixture has been enriched by cryogenic separation. Typically a carbon dioxide depleted stream is also produced and used as a fuel gas, particularly for a gas to liquids plant.
 

WO 2007106883
PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS FOR THE SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE UTILIZING EFFLUENT STREAMS

Abstract --- Disclosed are processes and systems for sequestering carbon dioxide from a flue gas effluent from a parent process such as a coal-fired electric power plant. In one non-limiting embodiment of the invention, a mineral having a metal is dissolved with an acid to provide a solution having a predetermined pH. Carbon dioxide from the flue gas effluent and a base are added to the solution to provide a metal carbonate reaction to precipitate a metal carbonate, e.g., magnesium carbonate, from the solution. Heat, which may be supplied by the flue gas effluent, is used to power a base management system for recovering used base form the process.
 

WO2007071633
PROCESS FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

Abstract --- A process for sequestration of carbon dioxide comprising the following steps: (a) dispersing solid waste material comprising calcium oxide and a calcium-comprising mixed oxide in water to dissolve at least part of the calcium oxide and to form calcium oxide-depleted solid waste material in a calcium hydroxide solution; (b) separating the calcium hydroxide solution from the calcium oxide-depleted solid waste material; (c) converting the calcium hydroxide in the separated calcium hydroxide solution in precipitated calcium carbonate; and (d) contacting an aqueous slurry of the calcium oxide- depleted solid waste material with carbon dioxide for mineral carbonation of the carbon dioxide to form carbonated solid waste material.
 

WO2007077137
PROCESS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND A PROCESS FOR THE SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

Abstract --- The process comprises the step of injecting a gaseous mixture comprising carbon dioxide into a subsurface reservoir to enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons from the reservoir, wherein the carbon dioxide content in the gaseous mixture has been enriched by a process of solvent absorption. A carbon dioxide depleted stream is also produced and used as a fuel gas for a gas to liquids plant. In preferred embodiments the solvent absorption process comprises a series of flash columns which progressively release carbon dioxide . Much of the carbon dioxide can therefore be recovered at increased pressures thus reducing the amount of compression required before the carbon dioxide is injected into the subsurface reservoir.
 

WO2007003013
PREPARATION AND USE OF CATIONIC HALIDES, SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

Abstract --- A process is described for sequestering carbon dioxide. In the process, a carbonate, oxide or hydroxide of a divalent cation is reacted with the carbon dioxide and water and/or with a species resulting from the dissolution of the carbon dioxide in water, to form a hydrogen carbonate of the divalent cation. The carbonate, oxide or hydroxide of the divalent cation has a low solubility in water. The divalent cation of the hydrogen carbonate of the divalent cation thus formed is exchanged for a monovalent cation using an ion exchange medium, to produce a solution of a hydrogen carbonate of the monovalent cation.
 

WO2007015689
INTEGRATED HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLAN/FUEL CELL SYSTEM WITH CO2 EMISSIONS ABATEMENT

Abstract --- An integrated power production system including a fossil fuel power plant for processing fossil based fuel such as coal or natural gas arranged in tandem with a carbonate fuel cell having an anode and a cathode section. The flue gas of the power plant serves exclusively as the inlet gas for the cathode section of the fuel cell. Anode exhaust gas leaving the anode section of the fuel cell is subjected to processing including sequestration of the carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas.
 

WO03103805
WIND LENSES FOR CAPTURING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE...

Abstract --- A wind lens is used to concentrate the atmosphere to allow the absorption of carbon dioxide in cold liquids such as alcohols. Carbon dioxide is stripped from the absorbing liquid by heating. Separated carbon dioxide is then collected and pumped into a cold water chamber within a stable glacier below 500 metres. Stable carbon dioxide clatherates are formed and the carbon dioxide is safely stored without significant environmental effects.
 

WO0175277
SOLID-FUELED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM WITH CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

Abstract --- A method of generating power with sequestration of carbon-dioxide includes compressing ambient air, separating substantially pure oxygen from the air and then further compressing the oxygen. After compression the oxygen is divided into a first oxygen stream and a second oxygen stream. The first oxygen stream and a solid fuel, such as coal, are introduced into a solid-fuel gasifier for creating a combustible gas. The gas is combusted in the presence of the second oxygen stream, water is introduced into the combuster during the combustion for generating an exhaust stream of carbon dioxide and steam. The exhaust gas is then past through a turbine for driving the turbine and generating power. The exhaust gas is then so that the carbon dioxide gas may be separated from the water and collected. Introducing water into the combuster during the combustion increases the mass and the volume flow of the exhaust stream passing through the turbine, thereby elevating the amount of power generated by the turbine.
 

WO2007106372
CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION MATERIALS AND PROCESSES

Abstract --- The disclosure provides methods and systems for sequestering and/or reducing carbon dioxide present in an industrial effluent fluid stream containing carbon dioxide. A scrubbing material comprising a first component, a second component (distinct from the first component), and preferably water, is contacted with the effluent fluid stream. The first component comprises a source of calcium oxide and a source of alkali metal ions. The second component comprises a slag having one or more reactive silicate compounds. Methods of reducing carbon dioxide from exhaust generated by combustion sources, lime and/or cement kilns, iron and/or steel furnaces, and the like are provided. Carbon dioxide emission abatement systems are also disclosed. Methods of recycling industrial byproducts are further provided.
 

WO2007077138
ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESS AND A PROCESS FOR THE SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

Abstract ---A process for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, the process comprising injecting a carbon dioxide containing stream into a subsurface formation, wherein the carbon dioxide containing stream has been obtained from a gaseous mixture by utilising a first membrane to separate hydrogen within the gaseous mixture, and then utilising a second membrane to separate carbon dioxide within the gaseous mixture. A further aspect of the invention discloses a process for enhanced oil recovery, the process comprising injecting a gaseous mixture comprising carbon dioxide into a subsurface reservoir to enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons from the reservoir, wherein the carbon dioxide content in the gaseous mixture has been enriched by utilising a first membrane to separate hydrogen within the gaseous mixture, and then utilising a second membrane to separate carbon dioxide within the gaseous mixture. Typically a carbon dioxide depleted stream is also produced and used as a feed gas or a fuel gas for a gas to liquids plant.
 


CANADA


CA2122200
SEQUESTRATION OF TOXIC, HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC MATERIALS IN SEDIMENT

CA2541681
METHOD OF CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

CA2507946
SECONDARY HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE REFORMATION SYSTEM,,,

CA2537383
CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN FOAMED CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIALS

CA2523135
CARBONATION OF METAL SILICATES FOR LONG-TERM CO2 SEQUESTRATION

CA2503655
CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND DRY REFORMING PROCESS AND CATALYSTSTO PRODUCE SAME

CA2531181
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR GENERATING STANDARDIZED CARBON EMISSION REDUCTION CREDITS
 


EUROPE / ASIA



FR2872566
Oxy-combustion process for the production of energy from a fossil fuel with subsequent sequestration of carbon dioxide produced

KR20030011693
PROCESS FOR CONVERTING COAL INTO FUEL CELL QUALITY HYDROGEN AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CARBON DIOXIDE

MXPA06008537
METHOD OF CONVERTING GREEN HOUSE GASES FROM FOSSIL FUELS INTO NON-TOXIC BASE ELEMENTS

EP1801346
Process for carbon dioxide sequestration by injection in coal seams

EP1350766
Desalination...  and concomitant carbon dioxide capture yielding liquid carbon dioxide

CN1898010
Method for carbon sequestration in the form of a mineral in which carbon has a +3 degree of oxydation

CN1884140
Photoayhthetic carbon-sequestration ecological denitrogenation process

AU2003235033
Land management for carbon sequestration

JP62081478
SEQUESTRANT AND METHOD OF SEQUESTRATION
 


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080519092205.htm

Simple, Low-cost Carbon Filter Removes 90 Percent Of Carbon Dioxide From Smokestack Gases

ScienceDaily (May 20, 2008) Researchers in Wyoming report development of a low-cost carbon filter that can remove 90 percent of carbon dioxide gas from the smokestacks of electric power plants that burn coal and other fossil fuels.

Maciej Radosz and colleagues at Wyoming's Soft Materials Laboratory cite the pressing need for simple, inexpensive new technologies to remove carbon dioxide from smokestack gases. Coal-burning electric power plants are major sources of the greenhouse gas, and control measures may be required in the future.

The study describes a new carbon dioxide-capture process, called a Carbon Filter Process, designed to meet the need. It uses a simple, low-cost filter filled with porous carbonaceous sorbent that works at low pressures. Modeling data and laboratory tests suggest that the device works better than existing technologies at a fraction of their cost.

Journal reference:

   1. Flue-Gas Carbon Capture on Carbonaceous Sorbents: Toward a Low-Cost Multifunctional Carbon Filter for 'Green' Energy Producers. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. May 21, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie0707974


Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 47 (10), 3783 -3794, 2008

Flue-Gas Carbon Capture on Carbonaceous Sorbents: Toward a Low-Cost Multifunctional Carbon Filter for "Green" Energy Producers

Maciej Radosz,* Xudong Hu, Kaspars Krutkramelis, and Youqing Shen

Soft Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071

Abstract:

A low-pressure Carbon Filter Process (patent pending) is proposed to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas. This filter is filled with a low-cost carbonaceous sorbent, such as activated carbon or charcoal, which has a high affinity (and, hence, high capacity) to CO2 but not to nitrogen (N2). This, in turn, leads to a high CO2/N2 selectivity, especially at low pressures. The Carbon Filter Process proposed in this work can recover at least 90% of flue-gas CO2 of 90%+ purity at a fraction of the cost normally associated with the conventional amine absorption process. The Carbon Filter Process requires neither expensive materials nor flue-gas compression or refrigeration, and it is easy to heat integrate with an existing or grassroots power plant without affecting the cost of the produced electricity too much. An abundant supply of low-cost CO2 from electricity producers is good news for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (ECBMR) operators, because it will lead to higher oil and gas recovery rates in an environmentally sensitive manner. A CO2-rich mixture that contains some nitrogen is much less expensive to separate from flue-gas than pure CO2; therefore, mixed CO2/N2-EOR and CO2/N2-ECBMR methods are proposed to maximize the overall carbon capture and utilization efficiency.


Polymers containing ionic groups for gas separation and storage
US2007119302
RADOSZ MACIEJ (US); SHEN YOUGING 2007-05-31
Abstract --- Polymeric materials containing ionic groups, which can be used as membranes and sorbents for separating gas components, for example, separating CO2 from flue gas streams and from natural gas streams, and sorbents for storing gas components. Such separation materials are used for pre-combustion separations, post-combustion separations, and natural gas separations, and are alternatives to the conventional amine absorption process.




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