Sonic Resonance Boiler
The Press ( 30 January 2008 )
Peter Davey, 92-Year Old Sax-Player Uses Resonance to Boil Water Inexpensively.
HOT PROSPECT: Peter Davey, a 92-year-old Christchurch inventor and saxophone player, says he has used his love of music to come up with a device that boils water rapidly, in just the amount required.
Inventor and saxophone player Peter Davey has come up with a device that he claims boils water in no time.
He calls it the "sonic boiler" because he claims it uses the power of sound. How the heater actually works has confounded experts.
The device looks oddly like a bent desk lamp, with a metallic ball at the end instead of a lightbulb. When plugged into the power supply, and the ball is lowered into water, it boils the liquid within seconds -- even as little as a tablespoonful.
"Everybody boils twice the amount of water they need so I decided I would find a way to boil water and make steam more economically," said Davey, a former Spitfire pilot.
"This boils exactly what you want to drink."
Davey, who lives in a tumbledown two-storey historic homestead called Locksley in Dallington, has been using the boiler to make hot drinks for 30 years.
He said he first came up with the concept 50 years ago and it took him half of those years to figure out how to make the device.
"The principle is beautiful. I have cashed in on a natural phenomenon and it's all about music," he said.
"If I hadn't been playing the saxophone, I probably wouldn't have come up with the idea."
Davey noticed as he played the saxophone at home that everything resonated at a different frequency.
"The glasses will tinkle on one note. Knives and forks in the drawer will tinkle on another note and I realised that everything has its point of vibration," he said. "In the same way, a component in the ball is tuned to a certain frequency."
Davey said it took years of trial and error to get the device to where it is now. He has made a number of prototypes using the same principle, including a steamer.
Friends dropping by over the years have urged Davey to make them a sonic boiler and that got him thinking commercially.
Davey, who turns 92 today, is now looking for a manufacturer who will buy the technology and make the devices for the mass market.
"Nowadays, with the economy of water and electricity, I think it could be even more important than when I conceived the idea," he said. "They could sell a million of the things in China."
Davey estimated boilers could be made as cheaply as $9 each. He could imagine cafes using them as a gimmick to make express tea and coffee.
"I cannot wait to explain the principle to somebody who wants to take it on," he said.
The Press invited a retired Canterbury University engineer, Professor Arthur Williamson, to look at the boiler and he was stumped.
He watched Davey boil various quantities of water, took notes of the energy used and temperatures reached. He left scratching his head.
"I don't know enough about sound to know whether you can transfer that amount of energy via soundwaves. I doubt it," said Williamson.
He did remember an alternative kettle years ago that had two perforated metal plates inside. The power ran between the plates, through the water. "The resistance through the water provided the load. I wonder if it isn't working like that? Without taking it to bits, you can't tell."
The kettle was specially designed to prevent people getting a shock from touching the boiling water.
Williamson's verdict of the sonic boiler? "It is an interesting gimmick, irrespective of how it works. I would probably buy one as a gimmick. I think more homework needs to be done."
Also queuing up for a boiler, after first seeing one in the 1960s, is Stu Buchanan, leader of the Garden City Big Band and a friend of Davey.
"It's rather spectacular. I don't know why it has never taken off as a utensil for people. I think it's a class act," said Buchanan.
Davey was born in Hamilton in 1916. During World War 2 he flew Spitfires for the 602 City of Glasgow Squadron of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force. The squadron operated along the south coast of England, escorting bombers to Holland and Belgium, doing convoy patrols and fighter sweeps into France.
After the war's end he married and had two children. He bought Locksley in 1964. Davey shares the top storey of the homestead with his 55-year-old son, also called Peter, and a grey tabby cat called Santa. The ground floor is let to lodgers who help pay the bills.
( January 31, 2008 )
Revolutionary Sonic Boiler Probably Not A Scam!
Well, we don’t really know how quickly Peter Davey’s “sonic boiler” is supposed to be working. The article says it boils the water “within seconds”, which is a bit of a fuzzy definition. I’d like to see exactly how fast it actually does boil it.
And if you want to transfer energy to a liquid, hitting the resonant frequency of that amount of liquid in that container is actually not a good way to do it. That’ll just spray water up the walls. And talk of “resonances” is of course practically diagnostic of crackpottery.
But, making the usual allowances for scientific illiteracy in the popular press, it’s possible that someone could have come up with a way to dump energy into water faster than your normal immersed heating element can do it.
Immersed elements are already pretty darn good, though.
The “2200-2400W” electric jug in my kitchen will bring half a litre of water to a good enthusiastic boil in about eighty seconds, and it draws as much power as you can get from the maximum ten-amp-per-socket current rating of 220-240V countries like Australia and New Zealand, where this inventor resides.
The sonic boiler could be running at 15 amps or more, but that’s cheating; 15-amp sockets are special equipment (used for things like air conditioners), and anybody can boil tons of water in half a second if they’re allowed to use as much electricity as they like.
About 500ml is the minimum amount you can put in most electric jugs without leaving some of the heating element hanging in the air to overheat. It’s also two mugs worth of liquid. So, as Peter Davey says, people certainly do often boil more water than they need. But making an electric jug of conventional design that can heat one mug worth of liquid is not a great engineering challenge. Let’s do the sums and see how fast such a jug could perform, in Physics Experiment Land where pulleys have no friction and cows are spherical.
The (physics, rather than dietary) calorie is the amount of thermal energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree. So if you start with 250 millilitres of water at 25°C (which means almost exactly 250 grams of it) and need to raise it all to 100°C, you need 75*250=18,750 calories, which is 78,450 joules.
A joule is a watt-second. So if you’ve got a 2400-watt heater that transfers heat with perfect efficiency to water, you must run it for 32.7 seconds to do this job.
Taking that into account, my electric jug is, clearly, not that far from the theoretical maximum water-heating efficiency.
Assuming its element could be fully submerged in only 250ml of water, that water would boil in about forty seconds, which is only 1.22 times the Physics Experiment Land time for the job.
Given that the element has to heat up from the inside out, and that some energy is lost through the walls of the jug, and that some more is lost to internal evaporation and sound and so on, this electric jug is clearly working about as well as it even theoretically could, when you take real-world limitations into account. Some other 2400-watt heater, built in such a way as to be less limited, could only possibly do the job in 82% of the time, unless it was magically getting energy from nowhere. And Peter Davey does not appear to be making any such claims.
(I’m also assuming that he’s not cheating by pre-heating the boiler before it’s dipped in the water. It’s not hard to boil water “instantly” if you drop a red-hot rock in it.)
So I say good luck to this bloke. He may well have come up with a genuinely new and interesting heater element design, which may have advantages over existing bare immersible heaters, which are generally rather dangerous things. And his heater may work very nicely with even small amounts of water, which in itself is a step forward; you can get electric kettles with the element built into the baseplate which work with arbitrarily small amounts of water, but they take longer to heat up in the first place because of all the extra metal around the element. There may indeed be a niche for this sonic heater, if it performs as advertised.
But there ain’t no such thing as a free lunch. If the sonic heater works very much faster, in seconds-per-gram terms, than any old discount-store electric jug, then it’s another perpetual motion machine, which would have a few applications beyond just making a quick cup of tea.
9 Comments »
1. Technically, you could change the pressure of the water to make it boil at a lower temperature. That’s cheating, though. (This actually might be how the device works; it also gives a reason for the talk of resonance.)
Comment by evilmrhenry — January 31, 2008 @ 7:24 pm
2. Well, the picture doesn’t give any indication of a pressure vessel, and a device that lowered the air pressure in an unsealed container filled with water would act as a straw and draw the water out.
The thing about resonance is that its main useful property in an application such as this would be to transmit mechanical energy- and given that converting electrical energy to mechanical energy is not as efficient as converting electrical energy to thermal energy, then even if your mechanical->thermal conversion is 100% efficient, you’ve used more energy than you would if you converted electrical energy directly to thermal energy, which is bloody close to 100% efficient as it is.
Unless there’s something weird like sonoluminescence going on (possible I guess) I can’t see how this is more effective than an straight resistive element job.
Comment by dabrett — January 31, 2008 @ 9:07 pm
3. Out of curiosity… what’s the energy coupling like of a microwave oven? Does a 1000W microwave heat up water as fast as a 1000W kettle would? I’m assuming that the 1000W lable is the power available within the cooking area, as the magnatron is hardly 100% efficient.
Comment by jaws_au — January 31, 2008 @ 10:46 pm
4. About your water heating math…been along time since I was in high school chemistry, but isn’t getting water to the boiling temperature the easy part of boiling? I seem to recall that there’s a “transition energy” you need to pump in to actually make the transition from very hot water to steam.
Comment by opus7600 — February 1, 2008 @ 12:31 am
5. I wonder if this device includes one of those ultrasonic transducers that atomize water like those “cool mist” vaporizers. You turn it on and the water immediately starts bubbling and you get a mist out of it. The water isn’t getting any warmer, but you get the illusion of boiling. The fact that the inventor is using his bare hands to hold the glass of boiling water gives me pause. Even though glass is, in general, a good insulator, it isn’t that good.
So, take the ultrasonic transducer out of a vaporizer, add a traditional resistive heating element, and you get a device that makes water appear to boil right away, and you can stall any skeptics until the regular heating element actually heats the water.
One other thought came to mind: a small-scale reverse-cycle air conditioner, which has been mentioned by Dan on several occasions. Assuming you could get the dimensions of such a device small enough, you could put a whole lot more power into the water than just the energy from the wall socket.
Comment by Mohonri — February 1, 2008 @ 1:15 am
6. You can see in the picture that the person just out of the shot is holding a temp probe in the water. So I doubt he’d be fooled by simulated boiling.
Comment by Jax184 — February 1, 2008 @ 8:03 am
7. Well, he does mention sonics and heat pumps are great for cheating thermodynamics - maybe he has built a very small thermoacoustic heater. If you squint hard enough that bulb might even be a Helmholtz resonator - although I am not sure that such would be useful in this application.
If the device is a mini-heat pump (rather than an immersion heating element that does not need to be fully submerged) then that is a terrific achievement - whatever the technology.
Comment by aLUNZ — February 1, 2008 @ 1:16 pm
8. Actually, no this is not really that new. This technology and immersion ultrasound horns/plates/cups are already used by many researchers in the fields of chemistry/physics/health. However, it will never be used for this reason, there is no way. Look up Sonochemistry in google. Back to the drawingboard… or your day job. Interesting but bad idea.
Comment by Sonochemist — February 2, 2008 @ 12:07 pm
9. Oh I forgot to add….Depending on the frequency the temperature of the bulk solution and the temperature of the solution during ultrasound could be different. Also, it doesn’t take much energy to get the “boiling” effect you see when ultrasound is induced on an aqueous medium. Less than 10W.
Esa Ruoho ( February 3, 2008 )
More on the Sonic Boiler
The photos shown to date reminded me of a website I found a couple of years ago describing a similar thing. Here are my notes from that find;
"As a sensitive musician Mr Davey noticed, that there was such a frequency of the motor and propeller buzzing, when the aeroplane cabin and his body were getting into a resonance. At this unique resonance frequency he always was experiencing an influx of heat in his aeroplane cabin. He did not know yet, that in future this phenomenon will be utilised in ultrasonic weapon systems for effective and undetected killing of people. But he decided to test whether the same phenomenon is to appear, if a metal hemisphere which simulates his pilot cabin is submerged in water and is excited into a resonance frequency. So he found two tops from old bicycle bells, joined them together, tuned one of them to 50 Hz frequency, attached electricity wire to each one of them, and thrown them into water. Surprisingly, water started to boil extremely fast. So he made his first heater patent based on this observation. This patent was already registered in 1944. After a hero return from the war, he had a device, which repetitively proved to everyone who measured it, that it has the efficiency decisively exceeding 100%. Realising this, he believed that the world is going to pounce on the opportunity of production and use of this technical miracle. After all, people are full of declarations about apparent saving on energy, resources, about protection of our natural environment, etc. However, the reality turned out to be completely opposite. Immediately after it was experimentally confirmed that the device has unexplainably high efficiency, the heater and the inventor fell into disfavour of various institutions that are interested in selling electricity and that protect the monopoly on electrical power. In the result, this extraordinary invention received an extraordinary treatment! Namely authorities were doing everything in their powers to disallow the production and sale of this heater in New Zealand. One of legal tricks that were used against this heater, was that it was declared officially to be "unsafe to health and life of users". (Please notice that practically every electrical device working on 220 Volts can be declared unsafe, if someone in the position of authority wishes to put it down.) In turn in New Zealand it is impossible to undertake the production and sale of anything, that is not officially approved by the government. In the result, Mr Davey was fighting for almost 50 years to receive a permit for the industrial production of this heater. And during these almost 50 years, the permission was continually refused to him, no matter what research outcomes he submitted to please authorities, and no matter how hard he tried. But it is interesting, that in Australia an electric jug with a heating element of the design very similar to the Davey’s heater was put in mass production (this Australian jug most probably is produced in there still even today). This Australian jug is working on the principle of electrical resistance of water (i.e. not telekinesis as the heater of Mr Davey does). Water that it heats is a resistor, in which heat is generated because of the electric current flows through this water. This Australian jug is exactly the same "dangerous to the health and lives", like the telekinetic heater of Mr Davey. Only that it did not encountered in Australia similar bureaucratic resistance because the energy efficiency of it is "normal". When I met Mr Davey for the first time in 1990, he still was appealing to authorities, and still had a hope to receive a permit for the production of his heater - in spite of these almost 50 years of lost battles with bureaucrats. He was even showing to me a large stock of components he gathered to start a production immediately after the permit is granted to him. However, he gave up the experimental production of research copies of his heater.
The design of the Davey's sonic heater is extremely simple. It actually is composed of two major parts only - see Figure K8 (3) from monograph [1/4]. The most important out of these two parts is a resonating hemispherical bowl (1) made of a sound inducing metal plate. The second part is a buffering hemispherical bowl (2) almost identical in shape to the bowl (1). This second bowl has the radius around 4 mm larger than the resonating hemispherical bowl (1). Both bowls are assembled symmetrically one around the other, means the hemispherical bowl (1) is placed inside of the hemispherical bowl (2). Coin is 32 mm wide = 1.25984 inches / Big bowl approximately 1.75 inches wide and .75 inches thick / Small bowl approximately 1 3/8 inches wide. Of course, apart from these two bowls, the heater also includes a long rod, nuts, washers, and electrical wires. These are to hold it together, to supply electricity to both bowls, and to allow the heater to be submerged into water that it heats. But these other parts are marginal additions only. The major parts are the bowls. During experimental production of this heater, the resonating hemispherical bowl (1) usually is made from an old cover for a bicycle bell. The dimensions of this hemispherical bowl are not important. It is only vital that it falls into a sonic resonance at the frequency of 50 Hertz, and that it has the outer surface which is parallel and equidistant from the external buffering hemispherical bowl (2). To each of these two bowls a different wire of the household electricity supply (i.e. 220 V, 50 Hz) is connected. The heater must be submerged in water that it heat. It brings water to the boiling point extremely fast. More details about the design and operation of this sonic heater is provided in subsection K3.3 from volume 10 of monograph [1/4]. After being constructed, the Davey's telekinetic heater must be "tuned" in two different manners. The first tuning depends on providing the hemispherical bowl (1) with such frequency of the own oscillations, that makes this bowl to resonate acoustically when a sound of the frequency 50 Hertz is emitted nearby. The second tuning of the heater depends on appropriate selecting the distance "L" between both bowls (1) and (2). On this distance depends the formation of the standing wave between both bowls. Thus it decides about the energy efficiency of the entire heater. From the information that the inventor repeated to me, I gather that the measurements carried out by New Zealand scientists suggested that this heater may consume even less than the equivalent for around 5% of the energy that it generates in form of heat. This would indicate, that the electrical efficiency of this heater is around 2000%.
Shocking History of Revolutionary Boilers...
The design of the Davey's telekinetic heater is extremely simple. It actually is composed of only two major parts - see "Fig. #B2" below, or see "Fig. K8 (3)" from monograph [1/4]. The most important out of these two parts is a resonating hemispherical bowl (1) made of a sound inducing metal plate - the inventor always uses stainless steel bowl. The second part is a buffering hemispherical bowl (2) - almost identical in shape to the bowl (1). This second bawl has the radius around 4 mm larger than the resonating hemispherical bowl (1). Both bowls are assembled symmetrically one around the other, means the hemispherical bowl (1) is placed inside of the hemispherical bowl (2). Of course, apart from these two bowls, the heater also includes a long pipe (8) which holds remaining parts together, two nuts (5) and (3) which fix both bowls in their proper locations, a washer (4) which allows to regulate the mutual distance "L" between both bowls, and electrical wires (6) and (7) which supply electricity to both bowls and allow the heater to be submerged into water that it heats. But these other parts are marginal additions only. The major parts are the bowls. During experimental production of this heater, the resonating hemispherical bowl (1) usually is made from an old cover for a bicycle bell. The dimensions of this hemispherical bowl are not important. It is only vital that it falls into a sonic resonance at the frequency of 50 Hertz, and that it has the outer surface which is parallel and equidistant from the external buffering hemispherical bowl (2). To each of these two bowls a different wire of the household electricity supply (i.e. 220 V, 50 Hz) is connected. The heater must be submerged in water that it heats. It brings water to the boiling point extremely fast. More details about the design and operation of this telekinetic heater is provided in subsection K3.3 from volume 10 of monograph [1/4].
Tuning of the heater:
After being constructed, the Davey's telekinetic heater must be "tuned" in two different manners. The first tuning depends on providing the hemispherical bowl (1) with such frequency of the own oscillations, that makes this bowl to resonate acoustically when a sound of the frequency 50 Hertz is emitted nearby. The second tuning of the heater depends on appropriate selecting the distance "L" between both bowls (1) and (2). On this distance depends the formation of the standing wave between both bowls. Thus it decides about the energy efficiency of the entire heater.
George Wiseman re : Dumas Effect
From: Jerry Decker <firstname.lastname@example.org>
To: Interact <email@example.com>
Subject: George Wiseman on the Dumas Effect
Date: Mar 10, 2015
George Wiseman is an expert on HHO and has done many fascinating experiments, many documented at his www.eagle-research.com website. I sent him the DUMAS info and he shares this;
I independently discovered what you are calling the Dumas Effect (I'm calling it the Wise Heater) in the early 1990's when I was trying to find a method to split water without using electrolyte (using pure water).
I danced for joy when I started making copious volumes of gas with little electricity... But I noticed that the little jar I was experimenting with was getting really hot; so I thought some of the gas might be steam...
So I dutifully put a condenser on the gas output, which would condense any steam and allow it to drip back into the jar.
I was really sad (happy dance stopped) when I concluded that the gas was 99.99% steam. Not one bit of Brown's Gas was generated by this method.
But I found the effect interesting, because the jar did heat up twice as fast as I would expect for the energy consumption. And MOST of my money making innovations come from side effects of my main research...
So I dutifully made measurements and compared the Wise Heater to a heating element that used a similar amount of wattage (my soldering iron). I used a wattmeter to measure the energy input (calculated to joules) and a thermometer on the jars.
I report this experiment in my Brown's Gas, Book 1, written in the early 1990's see excerpt below:
I placed two copper plates .0625 inch (1/16’) from each other in about 276 ml (just over a cup) of de-ionized water.
Note: the water used in this experiment must be as pure as possible. ANY impurity will cause electrical consumption to rise.
The plates were about .5 inch high by 1.5 inches long. They were held together by plastic bolts and apart by plastic washers. I soldered #14 solid copper leads to the plates.
I plugged this directly into 120 VAC, as I had been assured (by MAXA) that Brown’s Gas could be produced by AC current.
My electrolyzer as described in Experiment 1, drew only .5 Amp of current but went from 20°C (68°F) to 50°C (122°F) in ten minutes and to 94°C (201.2°F) in 25 minutes from the start of the experiment.
I got all excited because there was a lot of gas. But I thought some of it must be steam, because of the high temperature. So I sealed my electrolyzer, assembled a condenser to separate the steam from the Brown’s Gas and directed all the vapors through the condenser, and then to a ‘displacement’ container.
I figured the steam would condense (turn back to liquid) and drain back to the electrolyzer. I figured the Brown’s Gas (being oxygen and hydrogen) would remain in a vapor state when cooled and would displace water in my displacement container.
By condensing the steam, I found that the vapors being produced by the electrolyzer were nearly all steam (99.99%).
So much for copious Brown’s Gas.
So much for a simple AC application with no electrolyte and no transformer.
I did discover that the plates allowed the most current flow when they were in a horizontal position (plate surfaces vertical but depth shallow), so that the bubbles could remove themselves from between the plates quickly, allowing more liquid to come in from underneath.
Bubbles between the plates impedes the electrical flow that produces more gas.
I also discovered that the electrical forces involved were powerfulenough to rip the molecules right out of the copper plates.
When operating this experiment for a period of time the water becomes cloudy with copper. When examined, the plates show obvious loss of copper.
A side effect of this experiment seems to be ‘over-unity’ heat. Over-unity means that more energy is produced by a device than is supplied to it. To take 276 ml from 20°C to 50°C in ten minutes
indicates 34,643.52 joules. The electrical power used was about 36,000 joules.
This may not seem to be over unity on the face but you must remember that this was an open container at 3000 ft elevation with no insulation to prevent radiation, conduction and convection losses.
I ran a side experiment with electric resistance heaters drawing the same amperage at the same voltage in the same container with the same volume of water and it took twenty minutes to go from 20°C to 50°C and almost an hour to reach 85°C (185°F). The electric element was never able to bring the water to a full boil.
Note, electric elements are supposed to be 98% efficient, so the above experiment 'indicates' that the Wise Heater is more than twice as efficient at heating water as an electric element.
I also discovered that DC current flow (with set-up as per Experiment1, but with a bridge rectifier installed) at this high voltage still produced the ‘over-unity’ heat.
I duplicated this experiment several times and have had friends duplicate it.
However, getting back to the original experiment, high voltage (AC or DC) and no electrolyte did not produce significant amounts of H2 and O2, and what was produced was certainly not Brown’s Gas.
The high voltage seemed to cause the H and O to reduce directly back to water as soon as it formed in the electrolyzer; with the net result of simply converting electricity into heat...
So I suggest to you, as I did to Sterling during the Brown's Gas on Catalyst experiments, That the Wise Heater experiment be repeated, but use stainless steel plates (to increase electrodeposition voltage; so the plates won't degrade).
The idea is to use plates like they are capacitor plates and 'vibrate' the water to heat it up.
There is a magnetic field between capacitor plates (I've proven that by putting a flat coil between pates and putting AC onto the plates; the coil output electricity like a transformer.)
Water is polarized by magnetic fields, so when you put AC to the plates, it causes the water to be polarized one direction and then the other as the AC reverses voltage. Pulsing DC acts similarly. The 'flipping' of the water molecules back and forth heats up the water.
Obviously, 50 or 60 Hz may not be the optimum, and both the plate spacing and plate height need to be experimented with, but the technology is valid and works as is. No need to be complicated, it's very simple. BTW, a glass jar prevents electrical shock, yet allows the heat to be gathered.
You want to use pure water because any ions that cross the 'capacitor' gap 'bleed' electricity. You want any electrical charge that's built up on a plate to return to the Grid on the opposite cycle, thus 'conserving' electricity. The Wise Heater technology could be considered a spinoff of my 'Energy Conserver Theory" and my "Capacitive Power Supply" projects.
Thus I can confirm that the Dumas Effect is likely REAL because of my own independent experiments.
May the blessings be
Peter Daysh Davey believed it to be a sonic effect more than just electricity, that you had to 'tune' the gap to make it produce large volumes of steam quickly and cheaply.
Peter Davey water heater using cones instead of hemispheres;
"Well as it uses from 100% to around 20% of a normal forced current heater like a commercial waterboiler. The consumption depends on factors I have not investigated yet.
By the way - there are no splitting water into H/O2 or forming of gasses whatsoever. So no electrolysis here!
But something even more interesting is the viscosity of the water once resonated. It gets much thicker than tap water. And it seems to get rid of all the impurities in the water - laying at the bottom in a brownish colour.
When resonating salt water the same thing happens. Only now there is a much thicker layer at the bottom - now including the salt.
This could be a starters point for understanding Keely resonance technology, as water is a miracle learning tool. In my view mainly because of it's willingness to form any crystal bundles whatsoever - the incredible water memory capacity.
Keely also noted water is as made for frequency manipulation. The Oxygen atom weighing exactly 16 times that of the hydrogen atom also makes it perfect for frequency disassociation.?"
But he decided to test whether the same phenomenon is to appear, if a metal hemisphere which simulates his pilot cabin is submerged in water and is excited into a resonance frequency.
So he found two tops from old bicycle bells, joined them together, tuned one of them to 50 Hz frequency, attached electricity wire to each one of them, and thrown them into water.
Surprisingly, water started to boil extremely fast. So he made his first heater patent based on this observation. This patent was already registered in 1944.
(New Zealand patent number 92.428 dated on 12 December 1944 - I have attached a pdf of if - JWD)
After a hero return from the war, he had a device, which repetitively proved to everyone who measured it, that it has the efficiency decisively exceeding 100%.
Mr Davey was a musician who volunteered to defend freedom and his country as a fighter pilot during the World War Two. He took part in the Battle for Britain. Fighter aeroplanes of that time had propellers and engines, which during acrobatics of aerial battles were making the pilots cabin to vibrate at various frequencies.
As a sensitive musician Mr Davey noticed, that there was such a frequency of the motor and propeller buzzing, when the aeroplane cabin and his body were getting into a resonance.
At this unique resonance frequency he always was experiencing an influx of heat in his aeroplane cabin.
He did not know yet, that in future this phenomenon will be utilised in ultrasonic weapon systems for effective and undetected killing of people. But he decided to test whether the same phenomenon is to appear, if a metal hemisphere which simulates his pilot cabin is submerged in water and is excited into a resonance frequency of an AC current.
So he found two tops from old bicycle bells, joined them together, tuned one of them to 50 Hz frequency, attached electricity wire to each one of them, and thrown them into water.
Surprisingly, water started to boil extremely fast. So he made his first heater patent based on this observation. This patent was already registered in 1944.
In times when I kept in touch with Mr Davey he explained to me that the fine tuning of the bowl (1) to the frequency of the current he carried out with the saxophone.
Namely, holding the heater in his fingers he played on the saxophone the tune "low B" - which (the tune) is harmonic to the frequency of 50 Hz. (Other easily accessible sources of sounds having frequency 50 Hz include: piano - "low D", tuning fork - "50 Hz", buzzing electrical transformer, modern oscilloscope with a speaker.)
If the bowl (1) of the heater would NOT fall into a resonance (i.e. would NOT vibrate noticeably) during this playing, then he slightly grinded (on a fast grinder) the front face of this bowl and then tried again. These repetitions he carried out as long as required for the bowl (1) always fall in the resonance (vibrations) when he played this tune.
In turn the fine tuning of the distance "L" the inventor carried out by measuring the electricity consumption by the heater (means measuring the value of Amperes that flow through the heater). Namely he measured this power consumption for several different distances "L" and then set on a given heater the distance "L" for which this power consumption was the lowest.
(1) The "sonic boiler" boils water immediately after it is submerged in this water.
(2) The "sonic boiler" boils water simultaneously in the entire volume of this water.
(3) Practically all phenomena which we get to know during the use of classical electrical heaters of water, for the "sonic boiler" have a completely different course.
(4) The "sonic boiler" is exceptionally safe in use.
(5) The "sonic boiler" boils any amount of any liquid that is based on water.
(6) The "sonic boiler" changes physical attributes of water that it boils. the sound of water boiled with this boiler is completely different than in boiling with normal methods.
(7) The "sonic boiler" in the technical version shown here has a similar consumption of energy as every other heater of water (in spite that in the version shown in "Fig. #B1" it apparently consumed almost zero electricity).
That idea of tuning to water is pure Keely who claimed 42.8khz would dissociate water in an explosion instantaneously generating upwards of 29,000psi...imagine that force to drive engines!
Jerry @ Keelynet y mas (and more)
An Improved Electrical Immersion Heater
( 1950 )
Peter Daysh DAVEY
This invention relates to electrical immersion heaters and more particularly to electrical immersion heaters which utilize the conductivity of liquid for their operation.
It is well known that co-axial electrodes in water heaters and particularly for use with such a heater for immersion in a vessel of liquid including a system through which water flows are common to the art in connection with electric immersion heaters.
The objects of this invention are to provide an improved electrical immersion heater which is very rapid in raising liquid temperatures when in use and which will not when in use undergo any ill effects if the liquid in which it is placed should evaporate entirely or the liquid supply is cut off; but will operate again immediately further liquid is provided for the heater.
According to this invention the improved heater comprises a central electrode, circular electrodes arranged concentrically about the central electrode, means for holding the circular electrodes so that they vibrate and an electrical connection from one side of a source of alternating current to the central electrode and to electrodes alternate from the central electrode, and an electrical connection from the other side of a source of alternating current to the circular electrode adjacent he central electrode and to circular electrodes alternate from the circular electrode adjacent the central electrode.
Further the invention comprises a casing having holed ends and a side or sides separating the ends, a central electrode holding the ends and sides together, grooves in the inner surfaces of the ends loosely retaining electrodes therein an electrical connection from one side of a source of alternating current to the central electrode and to circular electrodes alternate from the central electrode, and an electrical connection from the others side of a source of alternating current to the circular electrode adjacent the central electrode and to circular electrodes alternate from the circular electrode adjacent the central electrode.
The invention will now be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which :
Figure 1 is a schematical representation of the circuit arrangement used in all forms of the invention;
Figure 2 is a side elevational view of one form of the invention adapted for use as a portable immersion heater,
Figure 3 is a plan view of Figure 1,
Figure 4 is a cross section on line A-A of Figure 3, while
Figure 5 is a diagrammatical view in longitudinal section of the immersion heater affixed in a water heating system.
In accordance with the present invention the improved heater as schematically represented in Figure 1 has a central electrode 1 surrounded by a second electrode 2 spaced therefrom and which, in turn, is surrounded by a third electrode 3 spaced therefrom, the space 4 between the second electrode 2 and central electrode 1 and the space 5 between the second electrode 2 and third electrode 3 are equal, and the first and third electrodes 1, 3 are in electrical connection with one another. When a heater having such circuit arrangement is immersed in a liquid and the second electrode 2 is connected with a terminal 6 of a source of alternating current and the first and third electrodes 1, 3 are connected with a terminal 7 to said source, the current passing through the electrodes 2, 1, and 3 and the liquid heats the liquid very rapidly.
As illustrated any desired number of electrodes, concentric with the electrode 1 can be used and spaced apart, provided an earthed electrode 8 as a safety factor.
The heater may be used by mere immersion in a bulk of liquid, see Figures 2, 3, and 4, or it may be interposed in a conduit through which liquid flows, e.g., a water pipe, see Figure 5.
The size of the gaps or spaces such as 4, 5 between the electrodes 1, 2, or 3 controls the speed of heating, the smaller the gap or spaces such as 4, 5, the greater is the speed f heating, hence, if the heater be interposed in a water pipe or the like, see Figure 5, the gap or space such as 4, 5 must be determined according to the desired temperature and flow-volume.
In the simplest form of the invention, the central electrode 1 is a brass rod of circular cross section and the second and third electrodes 2, 3 are also of brass and are tubular and co-axial with said rod 1, the third electrode 3 is electrically connected with the first electrode 1 by a brass strip or wire 9 integral with, or secured to, the third electrode 3, and the second electrode 2 has a brass strip or wire 10a spaced from said strip or wire 9 sufficiently to prevent sparking if the circuit remains closed after all the liquid has evaporated, or said strips or wires 9, 10a can be electrically insulated from each other. The electrodes may be plated brass.
As an example suitable sizes of the parts may be a brass rod for central electrode 1 of 1/4" diameter with tubular brass second and third electrodes 2, 3 1/32" thick and spaced 1/4" from each other, the gap or space 4 between the second and first electrode also being 1/4". The assemblage may be 1-1/2" in height and the second electrode 2 may be spaced from the strip or wire 9 which connects the third electrodes 1, 3 about 1/8".
As applied to a portable immersion heater for a bulk of liquid, the form of the invention as illustrated in Figure 5, 2, 3 and a casing made up of ends 10, 11 which have holes 12, 13 , 14 having ingress and egress for liquid being treated, and thus to provide for the convective movement of liquid as it is heated, and also made up of sides 14 which separate the ends 10, 11. The central electrode 1 such as a brass rod is utilized to hold the casing together by screws 15, 16 countersunk into the ends 10, 11, see Figure 4. The ends 10, 11, and side 14 are made of electrical insulating material such as porcelain. The inner surfaces of the ends 10, 11 have oppositely positioned grooves 18 and the grooves 17 are concentrically spaced on said surfaces. The spacings of the grooves 17 are arranged to give desired spacing to electrodes such as 1, 2, 3 as set forth above. The grooves 17 are also arranged to accommodate the ends of the electrodes such as 2, 3 so that the latter are loosely retained in the grooves 17 and are free to move from side to side therein as electric current passes from liquid in the spaces between the electrodes. In this form of the invention an earthed electrode 8 is fastened round the outside of the side 14 as a safety means in the event of an electrical fault developing in the heater. Various methods can be employed satisfactorily in effecting and maintaining an electrical connection and in one example the electrodes may be separated and retained in place with rubber blocks, the resiliency of rubber allowing a small movement of oscillation to take place. In this case contact may be maintained by brass strips clamped between the rubber blocks and the electrodes. Flexible retaining grooves may be used where connections may be made with stranded copper wire crimped and/or soldered to the rims of the electrodes.
As indicated in Fiure 3 the electrical connections as described above are incorporated in the end 10, the earth connection 8 being illustrated in Figures 2 and 4. When a heater made according to this form of the invention is immersed in liquid in a vessel it will be found that the liquid in its immediate neighborhood boils very rapidly and convection currents are set up through the concentric electrodes and through the holes 12 and 13, thus enabling the whole bulk of the liquid to be heated speedily.
In another form of the invention as illustrated in Figure 5, the immersion heater is interposed axially in the length of a water pipe and will be found to heat adequately a sufficient flow of water passing through the water pipe. In this form of the invention, as referenced in Figure 5, a conduit 18 leading from a controlled source of water supply is widened to form a casing 19 which contains the end plates 10, 11 with holes 12, 13 and the electrodes 1, 2, 3 or a multiple thereof as previously described. The electrical connections may be from terminals 6, 7 in the casing 19 and electrically wired to the respective electrodes as described before herein. After passing through the holes 12, 13 heated water emerges into a narrow conduit again and passes through the conduit to a faucet.
In as much as there is no flow of electric current when there is no liquid to complete the circuit it follows that the heater cannot burn out if, through negligence, all the liquid is allowed to evaporate, or the source of liquid supply to a conduit in which the immersion heater is affixed is cut off.