rexresearch.com


Meinhard SCHWAIGER

D-Dalus Aircraft













http://www.d-dalus.com/

IAT21 innovative aeronautics Technologies Gmb

Leitenbauerstrasse 10
4040 Linz, Austria
OFFICE: +43 1 512908360
Fax: +43 1 512908390

office@iat21.at




D-Dalus is an exciting innovation in the area of unmanned air vehicles (UAV), of which the first prototype has been developed and successfully tested.

The propulsion consists of 4 sets of contra-rotating disks, each set driven at the same rpm by a conventional aero-engine. The disks are surrounded by blades whose angle of attack can be altered by off-setting the axis of the rotating disks. As each blade can be given a different angle of attack, the resulting main thrust can be in any required direction in 360° around any axis. This allows the craft to launch vertically, remain in a fixed position in the air, travel in any direction, rotate in any direction, and thrust upwards thereby ‘gluing down’ on landing.

During the relatively brief development period, a completely new aircraft has been designed with flight characteristics that cannot be emulated by any known aircraft-type. For this purpose IAT 21 has developed, tested and internationally patented a special propulsion system, a virtually frictionless pivot bearing as well as a completely new aircraft configuration.

T-Dalus is an autonomous pallet-transportation-system which is able to lift supplies on pallets and distribute them according to their programmed route and destination. The use of IAT21's unmanned pallet transporter (UPT) requires no specific infrastructure such as delivery stations etc.

T-Dalus is equipped with an autopilot-system and can therefore be controlled from a central computer or navigation system.

Integrated sensors permit sensitive lift and release of pallets, a recognition of obstacles and platform orientation in build-up areas.

W-Dalus is the underlying technology for small sized power plants in the field of alternative energy generation. It utilises wind, light and heat energy with high efficiency thereby enabling new ways of decentralised power generation. Using a special wing geometry the contact safety Cyclogiro-Rotor is can transform wind energy into electricity even under low wind force and also when the so-called “border-wind-speed” is exceeded.

Due to the compactness of the rotor configuration, W-Dalus can be easily integrated on existing roofs, where the roof area additionally acts as a wind speed amplifier.

Pooling wind energy with photovoltaic and solar-thermal energy generation in a combined installation provides an optimised energy yield.











http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2011-06/protoype-hovercraft-demonstrates-new-propulsion-system-made-rotating-cylinders
6.22.2011

A Completely New Kind of Aircraft Propulsion System, Made of Rotating Cylinders
No wings, no rotors, no jets

By

Rebecca Boyle


An Austrian engineering firm debuted a new type of hovercraft at the Paris Air Show this week, claiming it can take off and land vertically without using any rotor blades or fixed wings.

The D-Dalus vehicle uses four contra-rotating turbines for propulsion, each reaching 2,200 rpm. Each turbine blade has a variable angle of attack, which according to the designer allows the main thrust to be fired in any direction, around any axis. This allows the craft to launch vertically, hover, rotate in any direction and even thrust upwards, holding itself down.

The designer, Austrian Innovative Aeronautical Technology (IAT21), maintains a sparse website that says the craft has several patented inventions, including “a friction-free bearing at the points of high G force, and a system that keeps propulsion in dynamic equilibrium, thereby allowing the guidance system to quickly restore stability in flight.”

IAT21 has been working on a prototype for three years and has recently completed initial testing using a 120 bhp KTM engine to drive the turbines, according to Gizmag. The company completed tests transitioning from vertical to forward flight in a laboratory near Salzburg, Austria.

The current model has 5-foot-long turbines and can lift a payload of about 150 pounds. IAT21 is working with Cranfield University in the U.K. on a larger, more powerful motor, a new hull shape and advanced guidance and control systems, Gizmag says.

It’s designed to work as a drone for sea- and land-based uses, like search and rescue, disaster monitoring and surveillance, IAT21 says. Eventually, larger models could be used for passenger flight.



http://www.gizmag.com/d-dalus-uav-design/18972/

Austrian research company IAT21 has presented a new type of aircraft at the Paris Air Show which has the potential to become aviation's first disruptive technology since the jet engine. Neither fixed wing nor rotor craft, the D-Dalus uses four, mechanically-linked, contra-rotating, cylindrical turbines for its propulsion, and by altering the angle of the blades, it can launch vertically, hover perfectly still, move in any direction, and thrust upwards and hence "glue down" upon landing, which it can easily do on the deck of a ship, or even a moving vehicle. It's also almost silent, has the dynamic stability to enter buildings, handles rough weather with ease, flies very long distances very quickly and can lift very heavy loads. It's also so simple that it requires little maintenance and requires no more maintenance expertise than an auto mechanic. It accordingly holds immense promise as a platform for personal flight, for military usage, search and rescue, and much more.



"The propulsion consists of 4 sets of contra-rotating disks,"

There are 4 pod like propeller systems, one in each corner of the square flying frame that you see in the image. These are NOT your typical props, they are paddle wheels like the paddle wheel driven gambling boats you see in the rivers of Southern USA.

The pod pairs front and back spin in opposing directions to become gyroscopically neutral and stabile, this is what contra-rotating disks" refers to.

"each set driven at the same rpm by a conventional aero-engine."

Each pod pair has its own engine, they all run at the same speed. The engine is the same as the engine in your car accept that it is tuned for aircraft, this is what "aero-engine" means.

"The disks are surrounded by blades whose angle of attack can be altered by off-setting the axis of the rotating disks."

The large black disks that you see 4 in each pod, those have a smaller disk shaped apparatus, blade controllers, inside them which control and set the angles of the blades, or paddles, that you see positioned across each pod.

When the entire pod is in rotation the disk apparatus, blade controllers, inside the those black disks DO NOT ROTATE, they remain stationary to the frame surrounding the entire D-Dalus, thus creating directional control of the blades and trust.

It appears that in the image they have removed the engines, computers, and the sensor arrays that were previously hanging in the center. And I ASSUME in the image they have removed some of the blades so that the internals of the pods can be seen, and to confuse you so that you do not comprehend exactly what they are getting at.

When the blade controllers off-set the main axle of the pod they create directional thrust by positioning the blades, for example of downwards thrust to push the vehicle upwards, the blades on the bottom of the disk in the pod would be WIDE OPENED pointing down and the blades at the top would be closer to being closed. The result would be the blades would slice the air above pulling it down inside the pod and then it would be pushed straight out the bottom of the pod where the blades would be wide open. Yes, each blade is changing angle as the pod and it's blades rotate, conceptually in slow motion it would be like a bird flapping it's wings !

"As each blade can be given a different angle of attack, the resulting main thrust can be in any required direction in 360° around any axis."

By adjusting the blade controllers they can direct the thrust in each pod simply and independently, and in any direction around each pod to control the movement of the D-Dalus with large amounts of thrust to maintain stability in any situation.

"This allows the craft to launch vertically, remain in a fixed position in the air, travel in any direction, rotate in any direction, and thrust upwards thereby ‘gluing down’ on landing."

We can do A LOT OF COOL STUFF by being able to direct large amounts of thrust from 4 points in any direction.

So now YOU know how it works, IS THIS A REVOLUTION ???

I think that the next step would be to drive one with two jet engines between the pods, they would be connected to the pods as optional thrust output for the engines, but this concept begs an important question.

Why not just build two jet engines attached to each other that can pivot relative to one another with some controlled outlets at the side to maintain stability, this would be a much more powerful design ! The answer to that seems to be that the jet engine version MAYBE the future of domestic air travel, but the D-Dalus is designed to work in factories on docks moving pallets and car boxes autonomously under managerial control. Every great technology has to get its start SOMEWHERE !!!

We probably want to credit this tech, NOT to the D-Dalus team in Austrian, while they are brilliant and creative Paul Moller deserves the credit for inventing this tech with YEARS of inventiveness as his flying car has 4 thrusters, each with independent engines, with pivoting pods, and pivoting blades to direct the thrust.

MOLLER INTERNATIONAL



US 7735773
Aircraft

Publication date: 2005-12-15
Inventor(s): SCHWAIGER MEINHARD [AU] + (SCHWAIGER MEINHARD)
Applicant(s): IAT 21 INNOVATIVE AERONAUTICS + (IAT 21 INNOVATIVE AERONAUTICS TECHNOLOGIES GMBH)
Classification: - international: B64C29/00; B64C39/00; (IPC1-7): B64C27/22 - European: B64C29/00B2B; B64C39/00C3
Also published as:     
WO 2004054875  (A1)
SI 1575828  (T1)
PT 1575828  (E)
KR 20050098232  (A)

Abstract -- The invention relates to an aircraft comprising a fuselage and at least two substantially hollow cylindrical lifting bodies which are applied to the fuselage and comprise a plurality of rotor blades which extend over the periphery of the lifting bodies, the periphery of the lifting bodies being partially covered by at least one tail surface. The aim of the invention is to provide an aircraft with an extremely high degree of maneuverability, compact dimensions and economy of fuel. To this end, the lifting bodies are driven by at least one drive unit and respectively comprise a cylindrical axis which is substantially parallel to a longitudinal axis ( 1 a) of the aircraft.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] 1. Field of the Invention

[0003] The invention relates to an aircraft comprising a fuselage and at least two substantially hollow cylindrical lifting bodies which are applied to the fuselage and comprise a plurality of rotor blades extending over the periphery of the lifting body, with the periphery of the lifting body being partially covered by at least one tail surface.

[0004] Such an aircraft is especially provided with a system of special lifting bodies which are configured as rotors, having a rotary axis which is arranged substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Each rotor is provided with a certain number of airfoil-like rotor blades which are substantially arranged on two disk-like end bodies in such a way that during a full rotation of the lifting body (rotor) the central axis of the rotor blade performs a circular movement spaced from the rotary axis as the radius, and that the rotor blade can be changed individually in its position during a full rotation. A defined action of force (e.g. lifting force, lateral force) can be produced on the aircraft in every momentary position of the rotor blade.

[0005] Numerous efforts have been undertaken to combine the advantages of an aircraft with those of a helicopter. Of special interest is the property of helicopters to be able to start and land vertically or to hover in the air whenever necessary in order to rescue people or in order to fulfill special transport and mounting flight maneuvers or similar tasks. The disadvantageous aspect in current helicopters is the high technical complexity, especially in the field of rotor control and the high risk of crashes even in the case of slight contact of the rotating rotor blades with obstructions such as the tips of trees or rock walls. Especially conditions during assignments in Alpine rescue operations are exceptionally critical because on the one hand a position as close as possible to a rock wall would be required, and on the other hand the slightest collision could lead to fatal consequences. Work can therefore only proceed by observing respectively large safety margins. A further disadvantage is the high fuel consumption of helicopters, even in cruising flight.

[0006] In order to avoid such disadvantages, so-called VTOL or STOL aircraft have been developed which with respect to their configuration are principally similar to airplanes, but are equipped with the ability, through various technical measures, to be able to start and land vertically, or can at least make do with extremely short take-off and landing runways.

[0007] Such a solution has been disclosed in EP 0 918 686 A (corresponding to U.S. Pat. No. 6,231,004) for example. This specification describes an airplane comprising airfoils which are substantially formed by cross-flow rotors. It is thus possible to produce a vertically downwardly directed air stream through a respective deflection of the air stream in order to enable a vertical take-off of the aircraft. The thrust can be deflected accordingly for cruising.

[0008] The disadvantageous aspect in this known solution is on the one hand that the airfoils which are optimized for generating lift have a high air resistance, so that fuel consumption is excessively high, especially at higher flight speeds, and that the aircraft in total has a relatively large wing span. It therefore requires much space and cannot be used or only with difficulty under conditions with limited available space.

[0009] Further aircraft have been described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,519,562 A. The solution is complex and has a low efficiency, so that such a system was never accepted on the market. The rotors described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,261,051 B are also not suitable for representing an aircraft with vertical take-off capabilities that can be used in practice.

[0010] A further aircraft which generates lift by using modified cross-flow fans is disclosed in DE 196 34 522 A. Apart from the question of the proper function of such an aircraft which is not obviously clear, it also comes with the disadvantages as explained above.

[0011] A further aircraft with a cross-flow rotor as a drive element is also known from U.S. Pat. No. 6,016,992 A. A very large cross-sectional surface in the direction of flight is also obtained in this case as a result of the cross-flow rotor, and the need for space is as high as in the solutions described above.

[0012] A further known aircraft with the possibility of vertical take-off is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,361,386 A. Extremely variable airfoils are provided in this aircraft which are provided with openings for gas outlet. Fuel consumption is extremely high as a result of the system-inherent adverse efficiency of such a system.

[0013] Close to the state of the art is also the drive concept for watercraft which is known as Voith-Schneider drive. This drive system which has already been known for approximately 75 years differs substantially in such a way that the swiveling movement of the individual blades during a full rotation of the live ring occurs at a fixed kinematic ratio with respect to each other. Thrust is thus always only possible in one direction. In contrast to this, a second force component in the transversal direction can be produced by the inventive rotating lifting body, irrespective of a first force component, e.g. an evenly remaining vertical lifting component.

[0014] The present invention relates to further embodiments of VTOL aircraft which are equipped with rotating lifting bodies whose rotary axis is arranged substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0015] It is the object of the present invention to provide an aircraft which allows vertical take-off and vertical landing, which is capable of hovering in the air, with a mobility which allows a slow forward, backward, parallel side movement to back-board or starboard, as well as a rotary movement about the vertical axis clock-wise and counter-clockwise, and which at the same time is suitable for high cruising speeds. As a result of the chosen configuration of the outside geometrical shape of the aircraft, the transition from a hovering state to a forward movement with high cruising speed must be ensured. In particular, high fuel economy shall be achieved with a comparatively low technical complexity. A further claim relates to the fulfillment of the highest safety standards which offer the aircraft the possibility to land securely even in the case of a total failure of the drive engines. Moreover, the rotating lifting bodies are to be protected with a covering in such a way that the aircraft can also be maneuvered very close to obstructions (e.g. rock walls, walls of high-rise buildings) and that even in the case of contact of the aircraft with an obstruction a crash can securely be pre-vented as a result of the rotating elements of the lifting body which are protected against collision. The pilot is provided with a secure and collision-free exiting of the aircraft by means of an ejection seat, which also represents a further claim.

[0016] These objects are achieved in accordance with the invention in such a way that the lifting bodies are driven by at least one drive unit and each comprise a cylindrical axis which is substantially parallel to a longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Each rotor is provided with a certain number of airfoil-like rotor wings which are substantially arranged on two disk-like end bodies in such a way that during a full rotation of the lifting body (rotor) the central axis of the rotor blade performs a circular movement spaced from the rotary axis as the radius, and the rotor blade preferably can be changed individually in its position during a full rotation. A defined action of force (e.g. lifting force, lateral force) can be generated on the air-craft in every momentary position of the rotor blade. This change in the position can occur as a whole. It is also possible that the rear section of the rotor blade is swivellable independent of the front section in order to thus achieve an optimal airfoil shape in every situation.

[0017] Through a suitable choice of the configuration of the lifting bodies in the aircraft it is also ensured that the space above the cockpit is kept free, thus enabling the pilot a secure and collision-free possibility to exit the aircraft by means of an ejection seat (this is not possible in a helicopter for example).

[0018] This configuration of the lifting bodies offers a further possibility for military applications. Radar and other optical devices can also be arranged above the aircraft for reconnaissance purposes. With this aircraft it is not necessary to leave a protective terrain formation without previously detecting and evaluating the action behind such terrain formation by means of a surveillance device which is flexibly mounted on the aircraft and can be extended upwardly vertically above the hovering aircraft and can thereafter be retracted again.

[0019] The solution in accordance with the invention allows maneuvering the aircraft even at low speeds or while hovering without having to change the speed of the drive unit, because the direction and strength of the lifting forces are variably within wide margins through the control of the rotor blades. An extremely high versatility is thus achieved.

[0020] Several advantages can be achieved simultaneously by arranging the lifting bodies parallel to the fuselage. On the one hand, the lifting bodies can be provided with a relatively large diameter without increasing the cross-sectional surface to a large extent in the direction of movement, thus leading to a lower need for fuel in rapid cruising flight. On the other hand, the aircraft in accordance with the invention is provided with a highly compact configuration and thus not only requires little space in a hangar or the like, but is also extremely maneuverable. This allows landing the aircraft on wood clearings or in urban regions between buildings for example where the landing of a helicopter due to the predetermined rotor diameter would no longer be possible. Moreover, the lifting bodies configured as rotors are especially sturdy in their design and apart from the rotor blades generally do not comprise any further movable parts, so that the technical complexity remains within acceptable limits. By applying the lifting bodies close to the fuselage, the mechanical strain upon the rotor suspensions is very low, thus allowing for a respective lightweight design which contributes to fuel savings.

[0021] An especially compact arrangement of the individual components is given when the lifting bodies are arranged in the upper region of the fuselage. This additionally contributes to an especially aerodynamically favorable configuration because the intake region can be accessed by flow in a fully free manner which re-mains unobstructed by other parts of the aircraft.

[0022] A further, especially advantageous embodiment of the invention provides that the lifting bodies are driven in opposite directions by gas turbines. As in helicopters, the use of gas turbines leads to an especially advantageous ratio of output to own weight. An additional advantage over helicopters is provided by the present invention in such a way that the rotary speeds of the rotating lifting bodies are substantially higher than those of conventional helicopter rotors, so that the constructional complexity of the transmissions is reduced substantially. Depending on the size, purpose and security regulations, the two rotors can be driven by one common gas turbine or each lifting body can be provided with its own gas turbine.

[0023] The efficiency of the lifting body can especially be improved further in such a way that the rotor blades which are movably arranged in the rotor consist of at least one fixed axis and two rotor blade segments which are movable independent from each other, so that the rotor blade geometry can be adjusted at every moment in each current position optimally to the respective situation. It is thus possible to optimize the lifting forces and the lateral forces and to minimize the resistance forces.

[0024] Especially high cruising speeds can be achieved in such a way that additional propulsive units for producing a thrust for the propulsion of the aircraft are provided. It is possible and also principally adequate for lower cruising speeds that the propulsion is generated by the adjustable rotor wings of the lifting bodies, such that the aircraft is brought to a position which is lowered forwardly and a thrust force is derived from the resulting lifting force. The cruising speed is limited in this case however, so that additional propulsive units need to be used advantageously for the higher cruising speeds. They can be configured as by-pass propulsive units for example. The takeoff and landing process can be supported in such a way that the additional propulsive units are arranged in a swivellable manner. On the one hand, the lifting force can thus be increased when the propulsive jet faces vertically downwardly, and on the other hand the maneuverability can be increased in addition to a respective control of the swiveling angle.

[0025] Fuel consumption during vertical takeoff and landing and during hovering is relevantly influenced by the shifted air quantity. It is therefore especially advantageous when the lifting bodies extend over at least 40%, preferably over at least 70% of the length of the fuselage.

[0026] In this way it is possible, with a predetermined cross-sectional surface, to achieve the highest possible lifting power of the lifting bodies.

[0027] The maneuverability, especially during hovering and during takeoff and landing, can be improved in such a way that adjustable guide blades are provided in the region of the air outlet openings. At a lower cruising speeds the possibility of control by the tailplane unit is strongly limited, so that a sufficient maneuverability is obtained through the individual adjustability of the rotor blades. In order to also enable a rotation of the aircraft about a vertical axis, it is especially advantageous in this connection that the adjustable rotor blades are arranged in two paired lifting bodies running in opposite directions and each consists of two segments which can be actuated independent from each other. Further adjustable guide blades which are swivellable about a transversal axis of the aircraft allow a forward and backward movement in the hovering state which can be controlled in an especially fine manner.

[0028] It is further especially preferable when the lifting bodies are provided with an external covering as a mechanical protection of the rotor blades against a collision with a solid obstruction. This means that the covering is not only configured for receiving the bearing of the rotor shaft but is also configured in a mechanically sturdy way in order to protect the lifting body against damage when the aircraft collides with an obstruction at a low relative speed.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0029] FIG. 1 shows a schematic view of a first embodiment of an aircraft in accordance with the invention in an axonometric representation;



[0030] FIG. 2 shows a side view of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0031] FIG. 3 shows a sectional view of the aircraft of FIG. 1 along line A-A in FIG. 2;



[0032] FIG. 4 shows a sectional view of the aircraft of FIG. 1 along line A-A in FIG. 2 with the illustration of an opened and closed covering of the lifting body, as is provided for high cruising speeds;



[0033] FIG. 5 shows a view of the aircraft of FIG. 1 from the front;



[0034] FIG. 6 shows a view of the aircraft of FIG. 1 from above;



[0035] FIG. 7, FIG. 7A and FIG. 7B schematically show a lifting body of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0036] FIG. 8, FIG. 8A and FIG. 8B show the configuration, direction of rotation and function of the lifting body of FIG. 1;



[0037] FIG. 9, FIG. 9A and FIG. 9B show a rotor blade with two movable segments in a cross-sectional view in the position of neutral lifting forces, maximum lift and negative lift of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0038] FIG. 10, FIG. 10A, FIG. 10B, FIG. 10C and FIG. 10D show rotor blade incidences in selected positions along the direction of rotation of the lifting body of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0039] FIG. 11 shows the individual lifting forces of the lifting bodies for achieving a stable equilibrium in the air by the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0040] FIG. 12A and FIG. 12B show the position of the individual and overall centers of mass of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0041] FIG. 13 shows the forwardly inclined position of the aircraft of FIG. 1 for achieving a forward drive component for slow forward movement;



[0042] FIG. 14, FIG. 14A, FIG. 14B, FIG. 14C and FIG. 14D show the lifting body configuration and the incidence of the rotor blades for achieving lateral forces for the transversal movement of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0043] FIG. 15 shows the generation of a force component acting in pairs in opposite directions transversally to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft for generating a rotary movement of the aircraft about the vertical axis;



[0044] FIG. 16, FIG. 16A, FIG. 16B and FIG. 16C show a special variant of a lifting body with "double" length and rotor blades capable of décalage for generating different lifting and transversal forces of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0045] FIG. 17 shows the incidence of the rotor blades during descent in free fall for the purpose of autorotation of the lifting body, e.g. after a motor failure of the aircraft of FIG. 1;



[0046] FIG. 18 and FIG. 18A to FIG. 18G show an embodiment of an aircraft with only two lifting bodies which are driven in opposite directions and are arranged successively in a central axis of the aircraft;



[0047] FIG. 19, FIG. 19A and FIG. 19B show an embodiment of an aircraft with a system of oppositely rotating cross-flow rotors with a common rotary axis;



[0048] FIG. 20 shows a schematic view of an aircraft in accordance with the invention with an arrangement of a surveillance device which is flexibly linked to the aircraft;



[0049] FIG. 21 shows a further embodiment of the invention in a representation from the front;



[0050] FIG. 22 shows the embodiment of FIG. 21 from above;



[0051] FIG. 23 shows the embodiment of FIG. 21 in an axonometric view;



[0052] FIG. 24 shows a further embodiment of the invention in a side view;



[0053] FIG. 25 shows the embodiment of FIG. 24 from the front;



[0054] FIG. 26 shows a schematic representation to explain how the rotor blades are triggered;



[0055] FIG. 27 shows a detail of FIG. 26.



DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0056] The aircraft according to FIG. 1 to FIG. 6 consists of a fuselage 1 with a longitudinal axis 1a and of four lifting bodies 2, 3, 4 and 5 which are arranged parallel to said longitudinal axis 1a in a preferred manner above the center-of-gravity position and which are protected by a side protection means 6 against collision with a solid obstruction. In the rear section 9 there are in the known manner a horizontal tail unit 11 and a rudder unit 10, and preferably also the drive unit such as one or two gas turbines and the transmission and additional drive units (not shown here in closer detail) which are configured here as by-pass propulsive units which provide the aircraft with a high cruising speed or can support the take-off and landing process in the case of a respective pivoting configuration. Skids or similar supports 12 support the aircraft on the ground. The rear section of the aircraft is joined with the front section by means of longitudinal struts 13, 14, which have a flow-optimized cross-sectional shape or a weight-optimized framework construction. Furthermore, a stable construction for a bearing (not shown here) for the lifting bodies 2, 3, 4, 5 in the middle section is provided with the longitudinal struts and the side protection.

[0057] FIG. 2 shows the length ratios, according to which the length of the rotating lifting bodies 2, 3, 4, 5 corresponds to approximately 50%, preferably 30 to 70%, of the total length of the aircraft. FIG. 3 shows the lifting bodies 2, 3, 4, 5 with the rotary directions 20a, 20b rotating in opposite directions about the rotary axes 7a, 7B and the rotor blades 8 required for generating the lifting force. Additional drive units (not shown here in closer detail) are provided for a high cruising speed with simultaneous fuel economy. For reducing the air resistance, the lifting bodies 2, 3, 4, 5, which cannot produce the required lift at high cruising speeds, are covered by means of suitable covering skirts in a flow-optimized manner in the aircraft. In accordance with FIG. 4, these covering skirts can be arranged as compact surfaces 40a, 40b (as shown in FIG. 4 for example in the opened state for an optimal effect of the lifting bodies) or as a system of lamellae 40a', 40b', 41a', 41b' which can be set optionally as a closed covering or for an unhindered passage of the air.

[0058] As is shown in FIG. 7, a lifting body 2, 3, 4, 5 substantially consists of a rotary axis 7, two end disks 2a-2b, 3a-3b, 4a-4b, 5a-5b with the diameter D 23b and a certain number (preferably 4 to 10) of rotor blades 8 which are arranged movably about a swiveling axis 8A in the two end disks (e.g. 2a-2b) and describe a circular path 23a with the radius R 23 during a full rotation. The depth of the rotor blade t 8e depends on the size of the overall construction and is approximately 30 to 50% of the circular path radius R 23. The length L 8d of the rotor blade 8 is preferably approximately 25 to 35% of the total length of the aircraft. When in operation, the lifting body rotates at a nominal speed (preferably approximately 750 to 300 l/min) about the rotary axis 7. During a full rotation, the rotor blades 8 are set in every momentary position individually with respect to the tangent 23b of the circular path 23a with the radius R 23, so that in the region of the upper and lower extreme position maximum lifting forces can be generated and only flow resistance forces act upon the rotor blade in the two vertical extreme positions. The preferred arrangement of the direction of rotation 20 of the lifting bodies in the aircraft is in the opposite direction.

[0059] FIG. 8 shows the flow conditions in closer detail. The airfoil theory is relevant as a result of the rotor blade geometry, according to which at a defined relative speed a pressure increase is generated beneath the set rotor blade and a negative pressure above the same. The respective force components acting upon the rotor blade are the result of these two pressure components. Ambient air is preferably taken in from above 18A at a respective incidence of the rotor blades relative to tangent 23b of the circular path 23a during a fill rotation of the lifting bodies 2, 3, 4, 5 at nominal speed, pressed into the rotating lifting body 18B, sucked downwardly 19A and pressed out 19B. An optimal embodiment is shown in FIG. 9, FIG. 9A and FIG. 9B. In this embodiment the rotor blade 8 consists of at least three elements, which are a stable pivoting axis 8A, a movable rotor blade nose 8B and a movable rotor blade tip 8c. For normal operations, the rotor blade nose 8B is swivellable about the angle [alpha] 21a, preferably by +/-3[deg.] to 10[deg.] relative to the tangent of the circular path 23a and the rotor blade tip 8c is swivellable about the angle [beta] 21b, preferably by +/-3[deg.] to 10[deg.] relative to the tangent of the circular path 23a. The rotor blade tip and rotor blade nose are swivellable by >90[deg.], preferably approximately 105[deg.], for the special case of "autorotation". Ac-cording to FIG. 9A, a vertical force component Fa 22 can be generated in the direction of the rotary axis 7 of the lifting body when at a nominal speed in the up-per extreme position the rotor blade nose 8B is set at the angle [alpha]<0[deg.] and the rotor blade tip with the angle [beta]>0[deg.], each relating to the tangent direction 23b of the rotary circular path 23a, and vice-versa according to FIG. 9B a vertical force component Fa 22 can be generated against the direction of the rotary axis 7 of the lifting body when at a nominal speed in the upper extreme position the rotor blade nose 8B is set at the angle [alpha]>0[deg.] and the rotor blade tip with the angle [beta]<0[deg.], each relating to the tangent direction 23b of the rotary circular path 23a. FIG. 10 shows in detail the two oppositely driven lifting bodies with the incidences of the rotor blades in different positions, which incidences are optimal for generating a maximum lifting force at nominal speed. FIG. 10A (a detail W of FIG. 10) shows the angular conditions of the rotor blade nose and the rotor blade tip upon entering the upper circular path after leaving the neutral vertical position. FIG. 10B (detail X of FIG. 10) shows the angular conditions of the rotor blade nose and rotor blade tip in the upper extreme position of the circular path. FIG. 10C (detail Y of FIG. 10) shows the angular conditions of the rotor blade nose and rotor blade tip in the upper circular path prior to the entrance in the neutral vertical position. FIG. 10D (detail Z of FIG. 10) shows the angular conditions of the rotor blade nose and rotor blade tip in the lower extreme position of the circular path.

[0060] A stable equilibrium position in FIG. 11, FIG. 12A and FIG. 12B in the air is pro-vided in such a way that every single lifting body 2, 3, 4, 5 can generate individual lifting forces A1 through A4 35a, 35b, 35c and 35d and thus an equilibrium state relative to the overall center of mass S 32 of the overall mass m33 and to the bulk centers of mass 32a of the partial mass of cockpit m1 33a, with the partial center-of-gravity distance s3 34a, and 32b of the partial mass of the rear region of the aircraft m2 33b, with the partial center-of-gravity distance s2 34b, and the lateral center-of-gravity distance s3 34c of the overall center of mass S 32 of the overall mass m 33 can be produced in each situation. This allows responding at all times to any changing equilibrium position.

[0061] After reaching a defined height position, which can be assumed by means of the rotating lifting bodies 2, 3, 4, 5, a transition from a hovering state to a slow forward movement or rearward movement is thus enabled in such a way that the aircraft assumes an inclined position (FIG. 13) and a force component 35a', 35b' can be derived from the resulting lifting force 35a, 35b of the lifting bodies, which force component allows a forward or rearward acceleration, whereas the vertical force component 35a'', 35b'' continues to keep the aircraft vertically in the equilibrium.

[0062] A movement of the aircraft transversally to the longitudinal axis is enabled in the hovering state through a special incidence of the rotor blades relative to the tangent direction 23b of the path of movement 23a of the rotor blades. FIG. 14 shows a transversal movement with the speed vx 36 which is achieved in such a way that according to FIG. 14A the rotor blades in the position of vertical extreme position are brought to a respective inclined position 21, so that air is sucked in from one direction 18A and is pressed out 19B virtually transversally through the aircraft. The airfoil theory is applicable in this case too. FIG. 14B shows the rotor blade position in a neutral position, whereas according to the rotor blade incidence according to FIG. 14C a force component Fq 22 would act upon the aircraft away from the rotary axis and would have a movement with the speed vx 36 from the right to the left. According to the illustration according to FIG. 14D, a force component Fq 22 would act upon the aircraft in the opposite direction, in the direction of the rotary axis, and would lead to a movement with the speed vx 36 from the left to the right. A rotary movement 36a in the hovering state about the vertical axis 1b of the aircraft clockwise or counter-clockwise can be achieved by paired opposite generation of the force component Fq 22 in the forward and rearward region of the lifting body according to FIG. 15.

[0063] The same as the above described effects and maneuvers can also be achieved in cases where instead of the four only two paired lifting bodies 2, 3 are used which run in opposite directions and are provided with twice the length 2L 8d (FIG. 16). In this embodiment, the rotor blades are elastically deformable about the pivoting axis 8A. The rotor blade nose 8B and the rotor blade tip 8c can be displaced parallel at both ends or in a different way. FIG. 16A shows a neutral position of the rotor blade (sectional view II-II of FIG. 16), as is obtained in the case of a displacement in opposite direction of the two ends of the rotor blade according to FIG. 16B (sectional view I-I of FIG. 16) and FIG. 16C (sectional view III-III of FIG. 16). In an embodiment with only two lifting bodies rotating in opposite directions, this allows correcting different center-of-gravity positions during the flight, performing forward and rearward movements with low flight speed and rotary movements about the vertical axis.

[0064] In the case of a sufficiently large adjusting possibility of the pivoting movement of the rotor blade, an autorotation of the lifting bodies and thus a secure landing process is enabled after the failure of a drive unit for example above a critical flying height. FIG. 17 shows the respective angles of incidence [alpha] 21 of the rotor blades and the relative air flow 41 and the direction of rotation 20 of the lifting bodies when the aircraft drops with the speed of descent 40 in free fall in the vertical direction.

[0065] A further embodiment of an aircraft with two lifting bodies 2, 3 rotating in opposite directions is shown in FIG. 18. FIG. 18A shows a side view and FIG. 18B shows a front view. The two lifting bodies rotating in the opposite direction are arranged behind one another along the central axis of the aircraft along a common rotary axis. FIG. 18C shows a sectional view I-I of FIG. 18A, which show the bearing of the rotary axis of the lifting bodies 2, 3 and the lateral protective covering. FIG. 18D shows the sectional view II-II of FIG. 18A and FIG. 18E shows the sectional view III-III of FIG. 18A, which show the arrangement and direction of rotation of the lifting bodies arranged behind one another, in the representation for a conventional hovering state or ascending flight. FIG. 18F shows the sectional view II-II of FIG. 18A, and FIG. 18G shows the sectional view III-III of FIG. 18A in the position of the rotor blades for achieving autorotation in free descent after failure of one drive unit for example.

[0066] FIG. 19 shows a further embodiment of an aircraft which is suitable for vertical take-off and landing, provided with lifting bodies 36, 37, 38, 39 however which are arranged as cross-flow rotors. FIG. 19A shows the top view of such an aircraft and FIG. 19B shows a representation according to sectional view I-I of FIG. 19. In this embodiment so-called cross-flow rotors are in use which are provided with external flow guide devices 6 which are arranged in a respectively adjustable way and thus allow achieving a virtually unlimited maneuverability (forward movement, backward movement, transversal movement, rotary movement about the vertical axis). These lifting bodies 36, 37, 38, 39, which are configured as cross-flow rotors, each consist of two round end disks which carry a plurality of rotor wings 36a, 37a and rotate about a rotary axis. In a preferred embodiment, an inner cross-flow rotor 37 with opposite direction of rotation is inserted in an external cross-flow rotor 36 each for increasing the flow efficiency.

[0067] As a result of the fact that there are no rotating units above the aircraft, the pilot can be allowed a safe and secure exit from the aircraft by ejection seat if so required. Moreover, a unit designated as a surveillance device 43 (radar, optical sensor) can be provided in accordance with FIG. 20 above the aircraft, which surveillance device, when the aircraft is in the hovering state, can be brought vertically upwardly by means of a flexible connection 44 and can thereafter be retracted again. This is useful in situations when the aircraft is to be used in military assignments to fly below enemy radar beams behind protective cover in the terrain or in aligned buildings and is to detect the military situation behind a protective terrain formation and, instead of a brief hazardous peek above the terrain, only upwardly extends the surveillance device 43 in a vertical direction, surveys the military situation and thereafter retracts the surveillance device again with the flexible connection securely into the fuselage of the aircraft.

[0068] The aircraft of FIG. 21 consists of a fuselage 1 with a longitudinal axis 1a and two cross-flow rotors 2 and 3 which are arranged above said longitudinal axis 1a. In the rear section of the fuselage there are in the known manner a horizontal tail unit 11 and a rudder unit 10. Skids 46 support the aircraft on the ground. Two by-pass propulsive units 47 are provided behind the cross-flow rotors 2, 3 in the region of the tailplane 4, 5 in order to produce the respective thrust.

[0069] FIG. 22 shows that the length L1 of the cross-flow rotors 2, 3 corresponds to approximately 50% of the length L of the entire aircraft.

[0070] FIG. 25 shows the structure of the aircraft on an enlarged scale in a sectional view. The rotors 2, 3 comprise a plurality of blades 8 which are arranged along the circumference. The rotors 2,3 are each covered on the circumference by a first guide surface 49 and a second guide surface 50. The first tail surface 49 is configured as a part of the outside surface of the fuselage 1, whereas the second guide surface 50 is configured as a flow guide plate. As a result of the rotation of the cross-flow rotors 2, 3 along the arrows 51, an air flow is induced so that the air is taken in along the arrows 52 and is ejected in the direction of the arrows 53. The upper open region of the rotors 2, 3 is thus used as an air intake opening 54, and the lower open region is used as an air outlet opening 55. The impulse of the downwardly ejected air quantities leads in total to a lifting force for the aircraft, which is represented by arrow 56 and which is sufficient, in the case of a respective configuration, to lift the aircraft from the ground.

[0071] Adjustable guide blades 17 are provided below the rotors 2, 3, which in the embodiments of FIG. 24 consist of several segments 17a, 17B, 17c which can be pivoted independent from each other about an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. As a result, a rotation of the aircraft about a vertical axis 1b can be effected by the guide blades 17. It can be seen that the guide blades 17 which are arranged below the air outlet openings are able to change the direction of the air jets along the arrows 53. In the position as shown in FIG. 6, a force component to backboard is generated by pivoting the movable guide blades 17, which is indicated by the arrow 56. Guide blades 58 can be used within the cross-flow rotors for improved guidance of the air flow. The guide blades 58 can be provided with a movable configuration, which improves the maneuverability at high efficiency.

[0072] The drive of the cross-flow rotors 2, 3 can occur in principle by piston engines, but is preferably carried out by gas turbines, which is not shown in the drawings.

[0073] FIG. 26 shows that the individual rotor blades 8 are arranged in a pivoting way about a pivot 61 via a tow-bar. The tow-bars 60 are held in a common star point 62 which can be displaced relative to the axis 63 at will. An overall flow in any direction can thus be set. The rotor blades 8 are guided in pins 64 in connecting links 65 in order to guarantee respective stability.

[0074] FIG. 27 shows that an end region 66 of the rotor blade 8 is separately adjustable. A lever 67 connected with the end region 66 comprises a pin 68 which is guided in a second connecting link 69, so that the rotor blade 8 assumes an asymmetric airfoil profile, which increases the conveying output and the efficiency. The stronger the incidence of the rotor blade 8, the stronger the additional incidence of the end region 66 and thus the overall profiling of the rotor blade 8.

[0075] The present invention describes an aircraft which offers the possibility of vertical take-off and vertical landing, allows a virtually unlimited maneuverability in the hovering state, offers a high cruising speed with simultaneous fuel economy, al-lows the pilot a secure exit from the aircraft if required, and houses a flexibly arranged surveillance device above the aircraft.



CN 1738743
Aircraft

Publication date:     2006-02-22
Inventor(s):     WOLFGANG SCHWAIGER MEINHARD FE [AT] + (SCHWAIGER MEINHARD,FEICHTNER WOLFGANG)
Applicant(s):     IAT 21 INNOVATIVE AERONAUTICS [AT] + (IAT 21 INNOVATIVE AERONAUTICS)
Classification: - international: B64C29/00; B64C39/00 - European: B64C29/00B2B; B64C39/00C3
Also published as:     
CN 1738743  (B)
AT 411988  (B)



FLUGGERÄT  
Publication date:     2006-12-15
Inventor(s):     SCHWAIGER MEINHARD DIPL ING [AT]; FEICHTNER WOLFGANG [AT] + (SCHWAIGER MEINHARD DIPL.ING, ; FEICHTNER WOLFGANG)
Applicant(s):     IAT 21 INNOVATIVE AERONAUTICS [AT] + (IAT 21 INNOVATIVE AERONAUTICS TECHNOLOGIES GMBH)
Classification: - international: (IPC1-7): B64C29/00; B64C39/00
Also published as:     
AT 501864  (B1)

Description

The invention relates to an aircraft with a system of special lifting body, which are formed as rotors, with a rotation axis that is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, each rotor is equipped with a certain number airfoil-like blades, which is essentially in two disc-like end body are arranged such that during a full rotation of the buoyant body (rotor), the central axis of the rotor blade with a circular motionthe distance from the axis of rotation as the radius of runs and the rotor blade can be adjusted individually during a complete revolution in his position. Thus, a defined force (eg buoyancy, shear force) are generated on the aircraft at any instantaneous position of the rotor blade.

There have been multiple efforts to combine the advantages of an airplane with those of a helicopter.Of particular interest is the property of helicopters, vertical take off and land can be, or stand still and when needed in the air to be able, for example, to recover persons, or to meet special transportation and assembly flight maneuvers or similar tasks.A disadvantage of existing helicopters, are the high technical complexity, especially in the area of rotor control, and the enormous risk of falling even at most slightly touching the rotating rotor blades with an obstacle such as walls or B treetops. Just working conditions, such as mountain rescue, are extremely critical, since the one hand, a position as close as possible to ega rock wall would be required, on the other hand, the lowest fatal collision has already resulted, thus can be used only in accordance with large safety margins in compliance. Another disadvantage is the high fuel consumption of helicopters, which is given also in cruise.

To avoid these disadvantages, so-called VTOL and STOL aircraft have been developed from the structure are similar in principle planes, equipped However, various technical measures with the ability to have to take off and land vertically, or at least extremely short startup - and runways do.

One such solution is disclosed for example in EP 0 918 686 A.This document describes a plane that has wings, which are essentially formed by cross-flow rotors. In this way it is possible, by corresponding beam deflection to create a vertically downward directed air stream to allow the vertical takeoff of the aircraft. For cruise flight, the thrust will be redirected accordingly.The disadvantage of this known solution is the one that optimized for the generation of lift wings have a high air resistance, so that fuel consumption is excessive, especially at higher airspeeds and that the aircraft has an overall relatively large span. It therefore requires a lot of space and is not even in tight or poorly used.

Another aircraft, the lift generated by using modified cross-flow fan is disclosed in DE 196 34 522 A. Apart from the question of the function is not immediately evident ability of such a flying machine here, the above described disadvantages are given.

Another aircraft with a cross-flow rotor as the driving element is known from U.S. 6,016,992 A..Here too, results from the cross-flow rotor in flight direction, a very large cross-sectional area, and the space requirement is similar to that of the solutions described above.

Another well-known aircraft with the possibility of vertical launch is disclosed in U.S. 3,361,386 A.. In this extremely variable wing aircraft are provided, which are provided with openings for gas leaks.Through the system-related poor efficiency of such a system, the fuel consumption is extremely high.

Another variant of such a flying machine is also described in the patent application DE 10461st

The prior art is obvious also that drive design for boats, which, as Voith - Schneider is known drive. This has been about75 years known drive system differs substantially in that the pivoting motion of individual blades, during a full rotation of the turntable, in a fixed relationship to each other kinematic expires. For a thrust is always possible only in a single direction. In contrast, in the presented innovative rotating lifting body, regardless of a first force component, such asconstant vertical lift component, a second force component in the transverse direction can be generated.

The subject invention further relates to variants of VTOL aircraft that are equipped with rotating floats, whose rotation axis is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

Object of the present invention is to create an aircraft that enables a vertical launch and vertical landing, which can take up in the air a state of suspension, with a movement, a slow forward, backward, parallel lateral movement to port or starboard and can perform a rotational movement around the vertical axis or counterclockwise, and that is simultaneously suitable for a high cruising speed.Selected by the formation of the outer geometric shape of the aircraft to ensure the transition is from a state of suspension in a forward motion with a high cruising speed. In particular, a high fuel economy can be achieved at comparatively low, technical effort.Another claim relates to the fulfillment of the highest safety standards, which allow the aircraft even in a catastrophic failure of the drive motors a safe landing. In addition to the rotating body lift with a fairing so protected that the aircraft is also very close to such obstacles (B.Rock wall, high-rise wall) approach can be maneuvered and that can be reliably prevented even when in contact with an obstruction of the aircraft, caused by the collision protected against rotating elements of the float, one can crash. One is for the pilots safe and collision-free means of exiting the aircraft ejection seat is also possible, and provides a further claim dar.

According to the invention these objects are achieved by the fact that the aircraft is equipped with air bags, which are formed as rotors, with a rotation axis that is substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, and that each rotor is equipped with a certain number airfoil-like blades, which in essentially on two disc-like end body are arranged such that during a full rotation of the buoyant body (rotor), the central axis of theRotor blade, a circular motion with distance from the axis of rotation as the radius of runs and the rotor blade can be adjusted individually during a complete revolution in his position. Thus, a defined force (eg buoyancy, shear force) are generated on the aircraft at any instantaneous position of the rotor blade.

By suitable choice of the arrangement of the buoyancy in the aircraft, also the space is kept free above the canopy, allowing the pilot a safe and collision-free exit of the aircraft is possible by means of ejector seat (this is not, for example, when a helicopter is possible).

In the military field of application of this arrangement, the lifting body is another way for reconnaissance purposes and may indeed radar orother optical devices are arranged above the aircraft. With this aircraft, it is not left to need a protective landform without first flexible with the aircraft linked to purification unit, which can be spent, for example, vertically above the in limbo persisting flying machine into the air and then brought back into the action have collected behind the landform and to assess.

The inventive solution allows a change of aircraft maneuvering at low speeds or hovering, without the speed of the drive unit must be because the direction and strength of the buoyancy forces by controlling the Rororblätter be varied within wide limits. This extremely large maneuverability is achieved.

The arrangement of the buoyancy body parallel to the hull, several advantages are achieved simultaneously.For one, the floats have a relatively large diameter, without the cross-sectional area in the direction of movement to increase too much, which is also in a low-speed cruising fuel consumption given. Second, the inventive aircraft built extremely compact and therefore requires not only a little space in a hanger or the like, but is also extremely agile.This allows for example the landing on forest clearings or in urban areas between buildings, where the landing of a helicopter due to the given rotor diameter would not be possible. About these are formed as the rotor floats particularly robust in construction and generally include the blades except themselves no other moving parts, so that the technical effort justified.By attaching the buoyancy in the immediate vicinity of the hull, the mechanical stress of the rotor suspension is very low, so that an appropriate lightweight construction is possible, which in turn contributes to fuel savings.

A particularly space-economic arrangement of the individual components is given when the floats are placed at the top of the fuselage.In addition, it involves a particularly aerodynamic performance is achieved because the suction can flow freely and unobstructed by other parts of the aircraft.

Another provides especially favorable embodiment of the invention that the buoyancy due to gas turbines are driven in opposite directions. Similar to helicopters is also given for the use of gas turbines, a particularly favorable ratio of power to weight.An additional advantage over helicopters is in the present invention is that the speeds of the rotating buoyancy substantially higher than that of conventional helicopter rotors, so that reduces the construction cost for essential gear. Depending on size, purpose and safety regulations, the two rotors are driven by a common gas turbine, or it can lift each body its own gas turbine will be assigned.

The efficiency of the lifting body may in particular be further improved so that in the rotor movably arranged rotor blades consist of at least a fixed axle and two independently movable blade segments so that the blade geometry may be at any moment in any current position optimally adapted to each situation; thus, both the buoyancy forces and lateral forces and optimize the resistance forces are minimized.

Particularly high travel speeds can be achieved, additional engines are designed to generate a thrust for the propulsion of the aircraft. In itself, it is possible and generally for lower travel speeds and sufficient that the thrust generated by the adjustable rotor blades of the lifting body, in which the aircraft is brought into a forward lowered position and is derived from the resultant buoyancy force an advancing force.The travel speed is limited in this case, that are used for higher travel speeds in an advantageous way, additional engines. This can for example be formed as turbofans. The landing process can be aided by the additional engines are arranged to pivot.On the one hand this allows the buoyancy force can be increased if the engine jet is directed vertically downward, and the other by appropriate control of the swing angle can be further increased maneuverability.

The fuel consumption during vertical takeoff and landing and in hover flight is significantly influenced by the reacted amount of air.It is therefore particularly advantageous if the buoyancy of at least 40%, preferably at least 70% of the length of the trunk cover. In this way it is possible to achieve at a given cross-sectional area of ??the greatest possible performance buoyancy of the floats.

The maneuverability, especially in hover and at the start or during the landing can be improved in the area that the exhaust vents adjustable guide vanes are provided.At low flight speeds, the possibility of control is severely limited by the tail, so that there is a sufficient maneuverability due to the adjustability of the blades.To allow rotation of the aircraft and around a vertical axis, it is particularly preferred in this context, if the adjustable blades in two pairs Running counter to GE floats are arranged and consist of two segments which are independently actuated bar. More adjustable vanes that are pivotable about a transverse axis of the aircraft, allow forward and backward movement in limbo, which is particularly finely controlled.

Furthermore, it is particularly preferred if the floats are designed with an outer casing of the rotor blades as a mechanical protection against a collision with a fixed obstacle.This means that the fairing is designed not only to accommodate the mounting of the rotor shaft, but also in mechanical correspondingly more robust way to protect the floats from damage if the aircraft mif low relative velocity collision suffers with an obstacle.

As a result, the present invention is further illustrated by the examples shown in the figures.

In the drawings FIG1 is a schematic view of a flying machine invention in an axonometric view, Figure 2 is a side view of the aircraft of Figure 1 3 shows a section of the aircraft of Figure 1 along the line A - A in FIG 2, 4, a section the aircraft of Figure 1 along the line A - A in FIG 2 with the presentation of an open or closed, covering the float, as they are intended for a high cruising speed, 5 is a view of the aircraft of FIG1 front, 6 is a view of the aircraft of Figure 1 from above, Fig 7 - 7b schematically show a buoyancy of the aircraft of Figure 1, Figure 8 - 8b the arrangement, direction and mode of action show the float of the aircraft of Figure 1, Figure 9 to Figure 9b shows a blade with two movable segments in cross section in the position of neutral buoyancy, maximum negative buoyancy and buoyancy of the aircraft of Figure 1, Figure 10 - FIGlOd show rotor positions in selected positions along the rotational direction of the float of the aircraft of Figure 1, Figure 11 shows a variant of a buoyant body with one-piece blades and mechanical adjustment of the rotor blades of a lifting body of the aircraft of Figure 1, Figure 12 shows the individual buoyancy of the buoyant body to achieve a stable balance in the air of the aircraft of FIG 1, FIG 12a and FIG12b show the position of the individual and overall mass centers of the aircraft of Figure 1, Figure 13 shows the tilted forward position of the aircraft of Figure 1 to achieve a forward drive component for a slow forward motion, Fig 14 - Fig 14d shows the lifting body configuration and the employment of the rotor blades to generate lateral forces for the lateral movement of the aircraft of FIG 1, FIG15 shows the generation of a pair in opposite directions, we force acting component perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft for generating a rotary motion of the aircraft about the vertical axis, Fig 16 - 16c show a particular variant of a float with "double" length and cabinets Baren rotor blades for generating different buoyancy and shear forces of the aircraft of FIG 1, FIG17, the position of the rotor blades shows during a descent in freefall for auto rotation of the float, for example, after an engine failure the aircraft of Figure 1, Figure 18 shows 18g show an embodiment of an aircraft with only two floats, which are driven in opposite directions, arranged behind each other in a central axis of the aircraft are, Fig 19 - Fig19b show a variant of an aircraft with a system of opposing cross-flow rotors with a common rotational axis 20 shows a schematic view of an inventive arrangement of a flying machine with the flexibility associated with the aircraft reconnaissance unit.
The aircraft acc. 1 to FIG6 comprises a fuselage (1) having a longitudinal axis (la) and four parallel to this longitudinal axis in a preferred way above the center of gravity S (32) arranged buoyancy (2, 3, 4 and 5), by a side protection (6) against collision with a fixed obstacle protected. In the rear area (9) are located in a known manner, a horizontal stabilizer (11) and a vertical stabilizer (10), preferably also the prime mover (eg, a odtwo gas turbine (s) and the transmission) as well as additional drive units (not shown in detail), designed as eg turbofan engines, which give the aircraft a high cruising speed and assist with appropriate swivel design the take-off and landing process can. Skids, or like pillars (12) support the aircraft off the ground.By longitudinal struts (13, 14), an aerodynamic cross-section shape or a weight-optimized truss structure can have, the rear portion of the aircraft with the front portion is connected, furthermore, with the long vines and the side protection is a stable structure for storage (not shown in more detail ) provided the buoyancy in the middle. FIG2, the length ratios are apparent, according to the length of the rotating body lift about 50% of the total length, preferably 30 to 70%, corresponding to the aircraft. In 3, the opposite to the rotation axis (7a, 7b) rotating buoyancy (2, 3, 4, 5) with the directions of rotation (20a, 20b) and the lift force required to produce the rotor blades (8) below.For a high cruising speed, while fuel economy, the additional drive units, not further represented, provided and to reduce drag, the buoyancy body, at a high cruising speed can not generate the required lift cover, streamlined means of suitable cladding aprons in the aircraft. According to Fig 4 may be covering these aprons as compact surfaces (40a, 40b) are formed (egin Figure 4 in an open state for an optimal effect of the buoyant body, shown) or as a system of fins (40a ', 40b', 41a ', 41b'), the choice of a closed casing or for an unobstructed air passage can be made. As in Fig7 shows, there is a lifting body (2, 3, 4, 5) mainly from a rotation axis (7), two end caps (2a - 2b, 3a - 3b, 4a - 4b, 5a - 5b) with the diameter D (23b ) and a certain number (preferably 4 to 10) of rotor blades (8), which is movable about a pivot axis (8a) in the two end caps (eg 2a - 2b are arranged), and one complete rotation a circular path (23a ) described by the radius R (23).The depth of the rotor blade t (8e) is dependent on the magnitude of the overall design and is approximately 30 to 50% of the orbit radius R (23), the length L (8d) of the rotor blade (8) is preferably from about 25 to 35% of Total length of the aircraft. In the operating condition of the lifting body is rotating at rated speed (preferably about750-3000 1/min) about the rotational axis (7), and during a full rotation, the rotor blades (8) in every momentary position individually in relation to the tangent (23b) of the circular path (23a) with the radius R (23) employed, so that in the upper and lower extreme position of maximum lift forces can be generated and in the two vertical Extrempositio [pi] s only drag forces acting on the rotor blade.The preferred arrangement of the rotation (20) of the lifting body aircraft in the other direction. 8 shows the flow conditions are shown in more detail, is significantly due to the geometry of the rotor blade airfoil theory, according to which each is produced below the rotor blade employed in a defined relative velocity and an increase in pressure above a vacuum.The corresponding force components acting on a rotor blade resulting from these two pressure components. With appropriate positioning of the blades relative to the tangent (23b) ^ of the circular path (23a) during a full rotation of the float at the rated speed, ambient air is preferably drawn from the top (18a), pressed into the rotating buoyancy body (18b), down sucked in (19a) and pressed out (19b). An optimal variant is in the FIG 9, FIG9a and 9b shown. In this variant, there is a rotor blade (8) from at least three elements, namely a stable pivot axis (8a), a moving rotor blade leading edge (8b) and a moving rotor blade tip (8c). For normal operation, the rotor blade leading edge (8b) by the angle [alpha] (21a), preferably + / 3 [deg.] - 10 [. Deg] relative to the tangent of the circular path (23a) pivoted and the rotor blade tip (8c) to the angle ss (21b), preferably by + / - [. deg] 3 to 10 [deg.] Relative to the tangent of the circular path (23a) pivot. For the special case of "autorotation" rotor blade tip and rotor blade leading edge by> 90 are [deg.], Preferably about 105 [deg.] From swiveling. According to <1> FIG 9a is a vertical force component Fa (22) in Rich processing axis of rotation (7) of the float, produced when [deg.] At rated speed in the upper extreme position of the rotor blade leading edge (8b) with the angle [alpha] <0 and the rotor blade tip with the angle ss> 0 [deg.], Based on the tangent direction (23b) of the current orbit (23a), are employed and vice versa according to FIG 9b is a vertical force component Fa (22) is opposite the direction of rotation axis (7) the float generated when at full speed in the upper extreme position [deg.] the rotor blade leading edge (8b) with the angle [alpha]> 0 [deg.] and the rotor blade tip with the angle ss <0, based on the tangent direction (23b) of the current orbit (23a), hired to be. FIG10, the two counter-rotating lift with the body are shown to generate maximum power at rated speed boost optimal positions of the rotor blades in different positions in detail. 10a (detail E of Figure 10) shows the angular relationships of the rotor blade leading edge and blade tip as it enters the upper orbit after leaving the neutral vertical position 10b (detail X from FIG10) shows the angular relationships of the rotor blade leading edge and blade tip in the upper extreme position of the orbit, 10c (detail Y from FIG 10), the angular relationships of the rotor blade leading edge and blade tip into the upper orbit shows before entering into the neutral vertical position, Fig lOd (detail Z from FIG 10) shows the angular relationships of the rotor blade leading edge and blade tip in the lower extreme position of the orbit.

A simplified version of a buoyant body, FIGIllustrated 11th This variant differs from the previously described fact that the rotor blades (8) formed integrally rotatable about an axis and are mechanically with the aid of a coupling element (28), which is designed as a rod or other construction, transfer of train and pressure forces, may be controlled.In a preferred embodiment, the coupling member in a special setting (29, 30), in the two end plates (2a, 2b, ...5a-5b housed) is guided such that, for the generation of an optimal lift force at the rated speed, while a full rotation of the buoyant body (2, 3, 4, 5) about the rotational axis (7) with the direction of rotation (20) and the respective current rotation angle [delta] (31), the rotor blade (8) in the upper extreme position with the angle [alpha] '(21c), in the lower extreme position with the angle [alpha]' (21d)> [alpha] '(21c) and the two sides, each vertical extreme positions, ieparallel to the tangent direction of the current orbit (23a), can be employed. Lateral forces to produce a sideways movement or a rotation about the vertical axis of the aircraft will be achieved by appropriate adjustment of the setting (29, 30) in the transverse direction (27x), while maintaining while maintaining the speed of the float, the buoyancy forces unchanged.An influence of buoyancy forces is by adjusting the setting (29, 30) by changing the center position (27) in vertical direction (27T) is provided. The central axis (27y) is parallel to the axis of rotation (7). An aircraft, fitted with a buoyant body in accordance with this embodiment would even be completely mechanically controlled.

A stable equilibrium position (FIG. 12 to FIG12b) in the air is given by the fact that every single buoyancy (2, 3, 4, 5) individual buoyancy forces Ai to A4 (35a, 35b, 35c and 35d can produce) and thus a state of equilibrium to the overall center of mass S (32) of the total mass m (33) andto the main part of mass points (32a) of the partial mass of cockpit m! (33a), with the partial gravity distance Si (34a) and (32b) of the partial mass of the rear portion of the aircraft m2 (33b), with the partial gravity distance s2 (34b), and the lateral center of gravity distance s3 (34c) of the total center of mass S (32) of the total mass m (33) can be manufactured to any situation. Thus, at any time to react to changing equilibrium.

After reaching a defined height position by means of rotating buoyancy (2, 3, 4, 5) can be taken in a transition is possible from a state of suspension in a slow forward movement and backward movement by the fact that the aircraft is a tilt position (Fig. 13) holds and from the resultant buoyancy force (35a, 35b) of a buoyancy force component (35a ', 35b') can be derived that a forward orBackward acceleration allows, while the vertical force component (35a ", 35b"), the aircraft continues vertically in balance.

A movement of the aircraft perpendicular to the longitudinal axis is in limbo due to a special position of the rotor blades to the tangent direction (23b) of motion (23a) of the rotor blades possible. In Figure 14 is a cross-motion with velocity vx (36) is shown, which is achieved in that according to FIG14a, the rotor blades into the position of the verticals are brought extreme position in a corresponding tilt position (21), so sucked in by a direction of the air (18a) and quasi-transverse extruded through the aircraft (19b) is, and here is the wing theory apply. In Figure 14b, the rotor blade position in a neutral position is shown, while according to the rotor blade pitch of FIG14c on the aircraft, a force component Fq (22) from the axis of rotation would be carried away, and a motion with the velocity vx (36) from right to left would result and acc. Representation of FIG 14d on the aircraft, a force component Fq (22) would be exerted in the opposite direction, toward the axis of rotation and a motion with the velocity vx (36) from left to right would result.By paired opposite directions generating the force components of Fq (22) in the front and rear of the float of FIG 15, a rotary motion (36a) in suspension are reached about the vertical axis (lb) of the aircraft in or counterclockwise.

The same as previously described effects and maneuvers can be achieved even when used instead of four, only two pairs of oppositely arranged buoyancy (2, 3), but are executed with a double length 2L (8d) (Fig. 16). In this embodiment the blades are flexible about the pivot axis (8a) deformable. The rotor blade leading edge (8b) and the rotor blade tip (8c) can be moved in parallel at both ends or different. FIG16a is a neutral position of the rotor blade (section II-II of Fig 16) shows how it according to an opposite shift of the two ends of the rotor blade. 16b (section II of Fig 16) and 16c (section III-III of Figure 16) is formed.Thus it is possible to correct for a variant with only two counter-rotating floats to different centers of gravity in flight, run forward and backward movements with low flight speed and turning motions about the vertical axis to.

With a sufficiently large adjustment of the pivoting motion of the rotor blade is in a descent to egFailure of a drive unit above a critical altitude autorotation of buoyancy and thus a safe landing procedure possible. 17 shows the corresponding position angle [alpha] (21) of the rotor blades and the relative airflow (41) and the rotational direction (20) of buoyancy when the aircraft with the speed of descent (40) in free fall in a vertical direction is downward.

Another embodiment of a flying machine with two counter-rotating floats (2, 3) is shown in Figure 18, where 18a and 18b is a side view showing a front view. The two counter-rotating buoyancy bodies along the central axis of the aircraft along a common axis of rotation arranged behind each other. FIG 18c shows a section II of FIG18a, where the superposition of the rotational axis of the lifting body and the body side cladding are presented. Fig 18d shows the section II-II of Fig 18a and Fig 18e shows the section III-III of FIG 18a resulting in the placement and rotation of the two consecutive floats are shown in the illustration for a normal state of suspension or climb. Fig 18f shows the section II-II of Fig 18a and Fig 18g shows the section III-III of FIG18a in the position of the rotor blades to achieve the auto-rotation in the free descent to failure, for example, a drive unit.

19 shows a further variant of an aircraft capable of vertical take-off and landing, but executed with buoyant bodies (36, 37, 38, 39), which are designed as a cross-flow rotors. Figure 19a shows the top view of such a drone and an illustration according to FIG 19b. Section II of Fig 19thIn this embodiment are so-called cross-flow rotors in use that are associated with the outer flow guide (6) provided that are arranged accordingly adjusted, and thus reach in turn a seemingly unlimited maneuverability (forward movement, backward movement, lateral movement, rotational movement about the vertical axis) can be.These floats, designed as a cross-flow rotors consist of two round end plates that carry a plurality of rotor blades (36a, 37a) and rotate around an axis of rotation. In a preferred embodiment are to increase aerodynamic efficiency, each inserted in an external cross-flow rotor (36) a smaller inner cross-flow rotor (37), with opposite direction of rotation.

Due to the fact that there above the aircraft's engines are not rotating, the pilots, if needed, a harmless and safe means of exiting the aircraft and ejection seat possible. Furthermore, according to Fig 20, above the aircraft as a reconnaissance unit (43) designated unit (radar, optical sensor, ...) Can be provided which can, if necessary, in the limbo of the aircraft, using a flexible connection (44) vertically placed in the air and then recovered. This is eg useful if you want to achieve with the use of military aircraft in a flying under enemy radar beams behind protective covers in the ground or in building line, and to record the military situation, egis behind a protective landform, rather than fired a short-term dangerous "emergence" only the education unit (43) vertically into the air, captured the military situation and then introduced the reconnaissance unit with the flexible connection was safely back in the fuselage of the aircraft.

The present invention describes a flying machine, which has the possibility of a vertical takeoff and a vertical landing, an almost unlimited maneuverability allowed in limbo, a high-speed cruise offers at the same time fuel economy, the pilot in case of need a secure exit permits the aircraft and an flexibly arranged reconnaissance unit accommodates above the aircraft.



EP2336075 (A1)
Driverless transport device
    
Inventor: SCHWAIGER MEINHARD [AT]     
Applicant: AMX AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES GMBH [AT]     
EC: B62D7/02C
B62D7/04     
IPC: B60K7/00 B62B3/06 B62D1/24





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