rexresearch.com


Arie Melis De Geus Patents
[ Jan Arie Michaël André de Geus ]

Fuel Additive









Related : ERDEMIR : Boric Acid / Alcohol Lubricant



http://register.octrooicentrum.nl/register/file/1995/1030700

NL1030700
Engine or gas turbine fuel, comprises hydrocarbon with added stable isotopes capable of forming fusion products with protons upon fuel combustion

[ PDF ]

Stable isotopes capable of forming fusion products with protons released during fuel combustion are added to a conventional hydrocarbon fuel material. A fuel for an internal combustion engine (6) or turbine comprises a conventional hydrocarbon material to which stable isotopes are added. Some of these isotope atoms or ions fuse with protons which are temporarily released during the explosive expansion of the fuel at the point of ignition. The mass defects of these fusion products generate additional energy to that released during the combustion process.

Brandstof voor Verbrandingsmotoren en Gasturbines met daaraan toegevoegde Nukleair Fuserende Component.
Fuel for combustion engines and gas turbines, with additional Nuclear Merging Component.

A Method and its derivatives Process to form stable isotopes to be added to hydrocarbon fuels, which are used in internal combustion engines, in which some of isotope listed atoms / ions merge with some protons (H ions), which instantaneously released when the explosive breakup of the said hydro-carbons, at the time of ignition, at the time of which, extreme pressure and high temperature performance. the mass defects in the fusion events produce additional power, which is added to the energy that is released from the conventional combustion-divider (oxidation) process, so that with substantially less consumption of hydrocarbon fuels, the same amount of energy per unit of time is generated.



"..., dus de fusie-energie per gr. van Li^7v3 met H^1v1 is een factor : 16,9x10^8/315 = 5,36 x10^6 groter dan de verbrandingswaarde
van Nonaan.

Conclusie: Toevoeging van een zeer geringe hoeveelheid Li^7v3, b.v. 1 pro-mille, waarbij slechts 1% van de Lithium kernen zou fuseren met rondvliegende protonen, zou dan nog 50x de energie van de verbranding van de conventionele brandstoffen, waaraan het toegevoegd is, opleveren."

Translation :

"..., and so the fusion energy per gram of Li^7v3 with H^1v1 is a factor 16,9 x 10^8/315 =  5,36 x 10^6 larger than the combustion value
for nonane.

Conclusion: Addition of a very small amount of Li^7v3, for example 1 pro-mille, of which only 1% of the Lithium nuclei would fuse with protons flying around, would still yield 50x the energy of the combustion of the conventional fuels to which it has been added."

One pro-mille, of which only 1% of the nuclei undergoes fusion.

At the bottom of page 6 :

"Vergelijken we ... ... 2,70 x 10^6 ... "

Translation :

"If we compare the energy yield of this fusion reaction with the energy released upon combustion of gasoline, using the same example as above, and taking Nonane for gasoline, then we find an energy yield factor for equal amounts of the Borium-Hydrogen fusion and the combustion of Nonane of the value 8,52 x 10^8/315 = 2,70 x  10^6."



http://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?topic=2469.85;wap2
http://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=2469.0;attach=14516

Peterae :

This one is for the Petrol Heads : Turbo Charge your car by adding Nuclear Fusion to you Combustion Chamber with this newly translated patent by Arie De Geus
NL1030700

First person to start selling a Lithium hydroxide monohydrate/ and Acetone additive or a sodium tetraborate pentahydrate & Acetone Fuel additive will make a killing.

NOTE : Dont add too much though, a ratio of 1/1000 additive to gasoline will give 50 times more combustion power

Lithium Hydride or Boric Acid to normal petrol or diesel, as the temperatures required to trigger a Li-H or B-H fusion reaction are easily met inside a normal combustion engine. It does require an engine with a compression ratio of 1:11 and preferably somewhere around 1:20; that means that the average Diesel engine should be able to do it.

"De Geus calculates the energy output of less than 1% of fuel additive to yield over 50 times the normal energy output of the engine/cylinders. Which would obviously blow up the engine.

"He advises a lot of tuning and tweaking to get the settings right. He advises to use a separate tank and fuel feed for the additive to avoid settling of components in the mixture inside the gas tank and to increase control over the exact amount added. He points out that there is no radiation and no waste isotopes, and that after over 1000 miles his engine showed no signs of negative effects.



Other Patents by Arie De Geus

NL1030697 -- Electronic apparatus, converts zero point energy into electron kinetic energy by making electrons oscillate in electron conducting matrix or plasma located within magnetic field
NL1030628 -- DC current generator, comprises horizontal axle turbine which converts energy of flowing fluid into mechanical energy using gravitational and permanent magnetic energy
NL1029488 -- Method has evolving physical and chemical processes with three energy conversions from zero-point energy to permanent magnetic energy...
NL1029476 -- Method and apparatus are for stimulation of zero-point energy...
WO0231833  -- NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATIONAL PROCESSES
US4204799 -- Horizontal wind powered reaction turbine electrical generator
WO0208787 -- METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SO CALLED "FRACTIONAL HYDROGEN" AND ASSOCIATED PRODUCTION OF PHOTON ENERGY
NL1033157 -- Electricity generating method, comprises accelerating free electrons along conductors by applying alternating voltage using enveloping permanent magnetic field
NL1033078 -- Energy generating process, by applying voltage between cathode comprising transmutation elements and anode in reactor vessel containing plasma
NL1032759 -- Method and apparatus are for withdrawal of zero point energy from space...
NL1032477 -- Energy production method, involves creating so called fractional hydrogen by applying voltage to hydrogen plasma using catalytic cathode...
NL1032476 -- Space station, uses reflectors and rotating heat pipe system to convert solar radiation into kinetic energy for generating electricity and artificial gravity
NL1032043 -- Bi-element pairs evidence an electrical energy difference and are sandwiched with electrets...
NL1031962 -- Energy generating process for producing electricity, comprises electron discharge in flow of nitrogen or air in order to cause nuclear transmutation of nitrogen into carbon monoxide
NL1031637 -- Thermodynamic process for converting heat into cooling work, e.g. for air conditioning, based on Rankine cycles...
NL1031494 -- Low frequency DC to AC power converter for e.g. LED lighting, includes pair of capacitors connected in series and to mechanical relay
NL1031363 -- Heat generating process for producing electricity, comprises nuclear fusion of argon by electron discharge...
NL1030908 -- Energy generating process, comprises fusion of noble gases by electron discharge inside reactor...
NL1030781 -- Electricity generating method, comprises supplying helium 3 and beryllium 9 to reactor and generating electromagnetic field in order to create nuclear inside plasma vortex



Related Patents


US4668247
Hydrogen energy releasing catalyst


Inventor(s):     BERENYI SZILARD, et al.

A hydrogen energy releasing catalyst comprises a liposoluble organometallic lithium and a vehicle or diluent oil. A process for preparing the aforementioned catalyst which comprises dissolving or dispersing a liposoluble organometallic lithium in a vehicle or diluent oil. A method of using the aforementioned catalyst which comprises adding it to a hydrocarbon fuel at a specified catalyst-to-fuel ratio according to the type of fuel and the combustion device used. In the case of a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine, the mileage increases from 15% to 35%, while in a furnace or boiler, the fuel efficiency increases from 20% to 35%.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a composition of matter for harnessing the hydrogen energy of a hydrocarbon fuel, a process for preparing it, and a method of using it.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Lithium stearate is well known as a lubricant or lubricating oil improver.

It has now been discovered that lithium stearate and other liposoluble organometallic lithium compounds can be used for harnessing the hydrogen energy of hydrocarbon fuels.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

One aspect of the present invention concerns a hydrogen energy releasing catalyst which comprises a liposoluble organometallic salt or salts and a vehicle or diluent thereof.

Another aspect of the present invention concerns a process for preparing the aforementioned catalyst which comprises dissolving or dispersing a liposoluble organometallic salt or salts in a vehicle or diluent oil.

Another aspect of the present invention concerns a method of using the aforementioned catalyst which comprises adding it to a hydrocarbon fuel at a specified catalyst-to-fuel ratio according to the types of fuel and the combustion devices used. In the case of a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine, the mileage increases from 15% to 35%, while in a furnace or boiler, the fuel efficiency increases from 20% to 35%.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a graph showing the relationship between the torque and the number of revolutions of a test engine.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The hydroqen energy releasing catalyst according to the invention comprises from 10% to 90% by weight of at least one liposoluble organometallic salt or salts and from 90% to 10% by weight of a vehicle or diluent thereof.

The liposoluble organometallic salt or salts useful for the present invention are composed of a metallic cation and a carboxylic acid anion. The carboxylic acids for the invention are selected from saturated or unsaturated fatty acids having 2 to 32 carbons, preferably from 15 to 27 carbons, most preferably from 15 to 18 carbons. Examples of such carboxylic acids are stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids. The metallic cation has a valence of 1 to 4. Examples of the preferred metal are sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, aluminum, and silicon.

The organometallic lithium is the principal and most active catalytic ingredient capable of harnessing the huge physicochemical energy of the hydrogen atom of a hydrocarbon fuel at temperatures reached by an ordinary combustion engine or furnace. Examples of the preferred organometallic lithium are lithium stearate, lithium oleate, and lithium palmitate.

The organometallic magnesium alone requires very high temperatures and high heat rates to be an active hydrogen energy catalyst. The energy gain by its use alone would be small in an ordinary combustion engine or furnace. However, when the organometallic magnesium is added to the organometallic lithium in the ratio of about 1:2 by weight, there is a greatly improved release of atomic hydrogen. This also results in a decrease in the amount of pollutants in the exhaust gas. Another benefit of its use is improvement in the solubility or dispersibility of the composition in a hydrocarbon fuel.

The organometallic aluminum does not participate in the catalytic reaction of a hydrocarbon fuel. However, when it is mixed with the organometallic lithium and organometallic magnesium in amounts about 1/4 by weight relative to the amount of organometallic lithium, it increases the pollutant absorbing power and the solubility or miscibility of the composition in the fuel.

Another optional ingredient is an peroxide oxidant or co-catalyst such as lipsoluble benzoyl peroxide or metallic peroxides in amounts from 0.1% to 12%, preferably from 1% to 3% by weight of the composition, to help speed up the interaction of components of the composition for activating them.

The vehicle useful for the invention includes aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, parafinic, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons, and other natural, silicon-based, or silicon-substituted synthetic oils, such as castor oil, alkyl glycols, and tetraethylsilane, and mixtures thereof. The amount of a vehicle is from 10% to 90%, preferably from 60% to 80%, by weight of the composition. The preferred aromatic hydrocarbons are of the naphthenic series in amounts preferably from 0.1% to 15%, most preferably about 5% by weight, of the vehicle.

The composition of the invention may be prepared by dispersing or melting and then blending one or more of the afore-mentioned organometallic compounds with one or more of the afore-mentioned vehicle oils. The resultant dispersion or solution is then heat cycled for a specific time at specific temperatures and pressures described below. Finally, it is cooled, and, if desired, other ingredients, such as oxidation promoters, are added.

More specifically, one or more of the organometallic compounds are placed in an autoclave, which is filled with an inert gas, such as helium, and heated at temperatures between 50 DEG and 800 DEG F., preferably between 80 DEG and 495 DEG F., most preferably at about 360 DEG, for melting. Throughout the preparation, the pressure is kept at from one to 30 atm, preferably from one to 10 atm. After the organometallic compounds are melted, the temperature is adjusted to between 250 DEG and 500 DEG F., preferably between 300 DEG and 360 DEG F, and vehicle components are added and the blend held at this temperature for a period of from 5 minutes to 12 hours, preferably from 15 minutes to 6 hours, most preferably about 3 hours. The blend is then subjected to 2 to 10, preferably 5 cycles of optional heat treatment and subsequent cooling cycles of temperatures between 100 DEG and 500 DEG , preferably between 200 DEG and 350 DEG, most preferably between 250 DEG and 300 DEG F., for a period of from 30 minutes to 6 hours, preferably about 2 hours. The blend is finally cooled to room temperature, and any remaining ingredients, such as metallic peroxides, are mixed therewith. The viscosity of the resulting blend is lower when the temperature and pressure used are higher and when the heat cycles are longer.

The composition of the invention may be mixed with a fuel prior to or at the time of combustion in amounts of from 0.0001% to 10%, preferably from 0.005% to 5%, most preferably from 0.05% to 2% by weight of the fuel. In the case of a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine, the mileage increases from 15% to 35%, while in a furnace or boiler, the fuel efficiency increases from 20% to 35%. The use of the composition in amounts above 10% does not significantly increase the energy harnessing rate. However, it still improves the pollution control and oxygen saving capabilities of the composition.

The mechanism by which the composition of the invention increases the energy harnessing rate is as follows: In high temperature flames the aforementioned organometallic cation produces P-N-P-N or N-P-N-P avalanche reactions releasing high energy ultraviolet radiation and electrons accelerated to high kinetic energy states. The high energy ultraviolet radiation ionizes the hydrogen atoms releasing accelerated, high kinetic energy subatomic protons and electrons. These subatomic ions collide with each other and convert or "thermalize" this high kinetic energy into infrared heat energy. Thus, the high energy ultraviolet radiation is converted to useful infrared heat energy. The amount of released hydrogen energy can be controlled by either (1) proportioning the amount of a composition of the invention added to the hydrocarbon fuel, or (2) regulating the rate of fuel feed or other operational parameters of the internal or external combustion engine to control the flame temperature at which the catalytic ingredient is activated. In this way, with the use of a composition of the invention, the reflected and measured efficiency of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel can be increased dramatically by combining the non-oxidative released energy with ordinary oxidative combustion. These non-oxidative released energies are the result of the ionization of the hydrogen atom.

In addition, there are even higher levels of harnessable energy derived from the subatomic protons and electrons. When these ionized subatomic particles (plasmoids) produced by the ionization of hydrogen atoms come into close proximity, plasmoid fusion occurs. The resulting plasmoid energy is 1836 times as great as that produced by the ionization of a hydrogen atom alone. When the composition of the invention is added in a sufficient ratio to a hydrocarbon fuel in a highly elevated temperature environment, there is an exhibited collective behavior of the ionized protons and electrons. This collective behavior state occurs when said subatomic particles reach a density of 5% or higher. This collective behavior is called non-nuclear plasma fusion. The amount of energy released in this extremely high energy state is proportional to the level of fusion density.

Examples of the invention will be described below to illustrate the invention, and should not be construed as limiting its scope.

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of Catalyst Composition #1

20% by weight of lithium stearate, 10% by weight of magnesium stearate, and 5% by weight of aluminum stearate (relative to the final composition) were placed in an autoclave which was filled with a helium gas. The autoclave was then heated to 425 DEG F. to melt the metallic carboxylic acid salts. The pressure was kept at 5 atm throughout the preparation. After the salts were melted, the temperature was adjusted to 325 DEG F. 57% by weight of mineral and organic oils and 8% by weight of silicon-based synthetic oils (relative to the final composition) were added to the molten salts and the mixture was kept at this temperature for 3 hours. The blend was then subjected to 5 cycles of heat treatments between 100 DEG and 360 DEG F. in a period of 2 hours. Finally, the blend was cooled to room temperature.

EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of Catalyst Composition #2

Catalyst #2 of the invention was prepared by repeating Example 1 except that the amounts of lithium, magnesium and aluminum stearates, and vehicle oils used were 16%, 8%, 4%, and 72% by weight, respectively.

EXAMPLE 3

Preparation of Catalyst Composition #3

Catalyst #3 of the invention was prepared by repeating Example 1 except that the amounts of lithium, magnesium and aluminum stearates, and vehicle oils used were 12%, 6%, 3%, and 79% by weight, respectively.

EXAMPLE 4

Preparation of Catalyst Composition #4

Catalyst #4 of the invention was prepared by repeating Example 1 except that only lithium stearate and a mineral oil were used, in amounts of 25% and 75% by weight, respectively.

EXAMPLE 5

Operation of Internal Combustion Gasoline Engine

A Ford car having a 302-CID, 4-cycle engine was used to make road tests of 10 round trips between Tappan Zee Bridge, NY, and Windsor Locks, CT, a distance of about 120 miles. The on-board instruments were calibrated to give maximum absolute errors of 0.001 mile and 0.001 gallon, respectively. Unleaded gasoline was used throughout the tests.

The first 5 round trips were made without using any catalyst of the invention. The resulting average fuel consumption was 8.28 gallons per 120 miles or 14.5 miles per gallon.

The second 5 round trips were made by adding Catalyst #1 of the invention to the gasoline fuel in the catalyst-fuel ratio of 1:1000 by weight. Since the air-fuel ratio necessary for the optimal catalyzed fuel operation is lower than that of the straight fuel operation because of the physical hydrogen reaction occurring with the aid of the catalyst of the invention, the air-fuel ratio in the catalyzed fuel operation was reduced so that the chemical combustion conditions might be kept equal in both types of operation.

The resulting average fuel consumption was 6.3 gallons for 120 miles or 19.0 miles per gallon. This figure is 31% higher than that of the above base line operation.

EXAMPLE 6

Operation of Internal Combustion Gasoline Engine

Example 5 was repeated except that the catalyst used and the catalyst fuel-ratio were Catalyst #4 and 1:2560, respectively.

The resultant fuel consumptions were 6.5 gallons for 120 miles or 18.6 miles/gallon for the catalyzed fuel operation, which is 28.6% higher than the 14.5 miles/gallon for the straight fuel operation.

EXAMPLE 7

Operation of Internal Combustion Diesel Engine

Example 5 was repeated except that the test vehicle, the fuel, the catalyst and the catalyst-fuel ratio were a Volkswagen Rabbit Diesel having a 1.5-liter diesel engine, an aviation fuel "A" (cetane rating #50), Catalyst #2, and 1:1250, respectively.

The resultant fuel consumptions were 2.7 gallons for 120 miles or 45 miles/gallon for straight fuel operation and 2.1 gallons per 120 miles or 57 miles/gallon for the catalyzed fuel operation, which is 27% higher than that of the straight fuel operation.

EXAMPLE 8

Operation of Internal Combustion Diesel Engine

Example 5 was repeated except that the test vehicle, the fuel, the catalyst and the catalyst-fuel ratio were a GM Oldsmobile having a 350-CID diesel engine, a diesel fuel (cetane rating #40), Catalyst #2, and 1:1500, respectively.

The resultant fuel consumptions were 5.8 gallons for 120 miles or 20 miles/gallon for straight fuel operation and 4.7 gallons per 120 miles or 25 miles/gallon for the catalyzed fuel operation, which is 25% higher than that of the straight fuel operation.

EXAMPLE 9

Operation of Internal Combustion Diesel Engine

A 40-ton trailer truck operated on diesel fuel was used to make road tests of two round trips of 1000 miles each. The first round trip was made using only diesel fuel having a cetane number of 40. The first half of the first round trip (500 miles) was run with a full load of 40 tons, while the return trip was performed with a half load. The second round trip was made in the same fashion using the same type of diesel fuel but mixed with Catalyst #2 of the invention at a catalyst-fuel ratio of 1:1500.

The resulting percent fuel savings for the operations with full and half loads were 22% and 17%, respectively.

The percent fuel saving was calculated as
100.times.(G1 -G2)/G1

where G1 and G2 are gallons of fuel used in the straight and catalyzed operations, respectively.

EXAMPLE 10

Operation of External Combustion Boiler

A boiler made by the Combustion Engineering Co. was used to conduct a series of tests. The boiler efficiency was defined as:
Boiler efficiency (%)=100.times.S(Es-Efw)/(F.times.H)

where S is the quantity of steam generated per hour, Es and Efw are the steam and feed water enthalpies, respectively, F is the quantity of fuel oil burned per hour, and H is the quantity of heat per gallon of the oil.

The boiler first was operated using #6 Fuel Oil without adding any catalyst of the invention. The average readings taken for various quantities during the operation were as follows:
Rate of steam generated: 22,000 lbs/hr
Steam temperature: 500 DEG F.
F.W. temperature: 186 DEG F.
Steam pressure: 175 psi
Heat rate of the oil: 145,000 BTU/gal
Boiler efficiency=100.times.22,000(1270-154)/(249.times.145,000)=68 (%)

Next, Catalyst #3 of the invention was injected into the burner manifold of the boiler at a catalyst-fuel rate of 1:2500, with the burner manifold recirculating valve closed. The rates of steam generated at 3 different rates of oil used were measured as shown in Table 1

TABLE 1
Level Oil consumed
Steam generated
Flame temperature

1 185 gal/hr 19,700 lbs/hr
2100 DEG F.
2 205 gal/hr 23,300 lbs/hr
2300 DEG F.
3 260 gal/hr 30,400 lbs/hr
2700 DEG F.

The boiler efficiency at each level was calculated as:
B.E.1=100.times.19,700(1270-154)/(185.times.145,000)=82 (%)
B.E.2=100.times.23,300(1270-154)/(205.times.145,000)87 (%)
B.E.3=100.times.30,400(1270-154)/(260.times.145,000)=90 (%)

From the above results it is apparent that the use of the catalyst of the invention made the boiler efficiency at each operational level 20%, 28%, and 32% higher than that of the base line operation. It is noted that the boiler was run at the third operational level for only a short period of time because it was loaded above normal operating level. Unfortunately, the boiler was incapable of achieving and maintaining flame temperatures of over 2800 DEG. The above results, however, showed that as the flame temperature increased from about 2100 DEG to 2700 DEG F., the boiler efficiency increased from 68% to 90%, indicating that the catalyst of the invention became more active at higher temperatures.

In both types of operations, a Hamilton 4-gas analyzer was installed to measure the quantities of oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons in the stack gas. This gas analysis showed that the excess oxygen level in the catalyzed operation was only 1.5% to 2.5% in contrast to approximately 6% in the straight operation. The content of water vapor in the stack gas was substantially decreased in the catalyzed operation. This substantial decrease in stack water vapor is explained as follows. The hydrogen atom is oxidized to form water vapor during the normal chemical process known as combustion. However, when the composition of the invention is added to a hydrocarbon fuel in the proper ratio and above a certain minimum temperature, the hydrogen atom ionizes and is no longer available in its native state to combine with oxygen to form water vapor. In addition, a fireside inspection revealed that the hard deposits built up on the inaccessible areas below the steam drum over years had gone. What was left in the other areas was also easily washed away with running water from a hose.

EXAMPLE 11

Torque Test with Internal Combustion Engine

A 327-CID Chevrolet engine with four barrel carburetor was installed on a dynamometer. First, six power pulls were made at around the factory specification point without using any catalyst of the invention. The measured torques are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2
Pull RPM Torque Corrected HP

1 4250 240 196
2 4000 265 204
3 4400 250 211
4 5000 196 187
5 4500 235 203
6 5300 170 177

The correction factor was 1.028 based on a dry bulb reading of 104 DEG F., a wet bulb reading of 76 DEG F., and a barometric reading of 30.54. During the test, the water temperature of the engine remained at 190 DEG F., the oil temperature, read at one of the external filters, was also 190 DEG, and the oil pressure was 50 psi.

Then, the engine was brought to an idle, and one pint of Catalyst #1 of the present invention was put into 20 gallons of gasoline in the tank. The engine was idled for five minutes to prime it with the catalyst, then 16 pulls were made. (The reason so many pulls made here is that the test operators were at first incredulous about the results, and every effort was made to find accurate figures.) A correction factor of 1.033 was used based on a dry bulb reading of 108 DEG F., a wet bulb reading of 76 DEG F., and a barometric reading of 30.55. The readings of torque are shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3
Pull RPM Torque Corrected HP

1 4600 237 210
2 4600 248 224
3 4200 270 223
4 4100 280 226
5 4000 275 217
6 4600 250 226
7 4650 242 221
8 4000 275 217
9 4400 255 222
10 4600 243 221
11 4800 238 226
12 4050 278 222
13 4400 264 229
14 4800 237 225
15 4500 246 219
16 4700 239 222

During the test, the water and lubricating oil temperatures were maintained at 190 DEG F. The above data from Tables 2 and 3 can be combine to form Table 4 below.

From Table 4, it is evident that the average horsepower in the catalyzed operation is 10.0% to 27.5% higher (over the same range of operation) than without the composition of the invention being present in the fuel. FIG. 1 is a graph illustrating the above results more clearly.

TABLE 4
Engine RPM HP Differential
% Gain

3000 36 27.5
3500 25 15.0
4000 21 11.0
4500 20 10.0
5000 43 23.0
5500 39 22.0



US4214615
Dispensing apparatus for adding colloidal magnesium to fuel tank

Inventor(s):     BOYER WINSTON, et al.

Abstract

Dispensing means for dosing a liquid fuel tank of an internal combustion engine with a unit dosage of colloidal magnesium metal dispersed in kerosene comprising a container, cap metering valve at the container bottom and a delivery line from the outlet of the valve between the fuel pump and the carburetor or air injector.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

(A) Field of the Invention

The invention lies in the field of making unit dosage packages of colloidal sols by arc sputtering of pure magnesium metal and is for the purpose of improving the metering of critical low concentrations of colloidal magnesium in gasoline, diesel fuel and jet aircraft fuel. The invention also lies in the field of portable dispensing devices for delivering colloidal magnesium as an ignition additive as pure magnesium to the conventional hydrocarbon fuel of an internal combustion engine in a vehicle, in particular automobile, diesel or jet aircraft piston engines, in which the additive is prepared by arc sputtering. Dispensing may be directly into the fuel tank or into the fuel line between the fuel pump and the carburetor. The invention serves the need of providing a more practical method at lower cost to supply critical concentrations in my prior patent applications.

(B) Description of the Prior Art

The prior art literature and text books recognize arc sputtering devices for creating colloidal suspensions.

(1) Prior Art Showing Arcing of Electrodes to Make Colloids:

The manufacture of colloids is shown in Brown, U.S. Pat. No. 1,910,212, and shows arc sputtering between silica electrodes or selenium electrodes to make the non-conductive material conductive in the presence of a reducing agent.

(2) Prior Electrical Devices for Cracking Fuel:

Electrical devices for upgrading liquid hydrocarbon fuels are known and may be in a form for attachment to an automobile. Some of these devices work on the principal of cracking the hydrocarbon fuel into fractions by the action of electricity, for example U.S. Pat. No. 4,011,843, which vaporizes fuel by passing electrical current fed by the car storage battery into an emulsion of gasoline or water.

Another example of electric treatment apparatus intended to break down gasoline into higher octane fractions is found in U.S. Pat. No. 1,992,310 which uses an electrolytic treatment of gasoline in a cell containing sulfuric acid electrolyte, a platinum anode and a lead cathode.

(3) Prior Apparatus for Space Charge Cracking of Hydrocarbon:

A further example is the apparatus in U.S. Pat. No. 2,766,582 in which an electrical space charge is created in the fuel prior to spraying the fuel through a nozzle in the form of a jet stream.

Still another example is U.S. Pat. No. 3,556,976 in which the apparatus cracks low grade gasoline into gaseous products which are fed into the internal combustion chamber of the vehicle.

(4) Prior Art Showing Metal and Metalloid Additives:

In Grebleck et al, U.S. Pat. No. 2,927,849, there is disclosed particles of magnesium less than 20 microns with alkali metal in a liquid hydrocarbon medium used as a jet fuel in the after burner of a jet propulsion device (Column 2, lines 5 through 20). Example V of this patent shows 20 micron magnesium particles (200 parts) mixed with oleic acid (1 part) and polyethylene (6 parts) to make a dispersion of uniformly dispersed magnesium in the fuel of the after burner.

PROBLEMS OF GRINDING METAL SUSPENSIONS TO FORM COLLOIDS IN INVENTOR'S PRIOR PATENT APPLICATIONS

In my prior patent applications, mentioned above, there is disclosed and acknowledged the methods of grinding colloids in a colloid mill and by a grinding device specifically exemplied in WB-1 wherein a 400 mesh magnesium powder is reduced to colloidal dimensions. The recoveries of properly dimensioned colloidal product is low, the procedures are very lengthy, and the practical implementation of the inventions at low cost and in high production is seriously impaired. It is well accepted in the grinding art that high energy requirements, expensive equipment and highly expert personnel are needed to achieve colloidal dimensions by simple fracture and comminution, especially with highly ductive metal such as pure magnesium.

Although the art of arc sputtering metals to form sols is known for about 100 years, there has never been heretofore suggested that by indexing the electrodes which are in the form of elongated rods of uniform cross section into 1/2 inch scribed markings which are visible to the naked eye, one can sputter away a predetermined length, filter the product and produce by a simple ingenious method a predetermined dosage in a unit dosage package.

DIFFERENCES OF THE PRESENT INVENTION OVER THE PRIOR ART

No prior literature or patent shows indexed electrodes for arc sputtering to prepare a unit dosage package of fuel additive. No prior art shows the dispenser for the package into the fuel system of an automobile, diesel truck or jet aircraft.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION

An object of the invention is to provide an improved arc sputtering magnesium colloid manufacturing apparatus mounted in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier, preferably kerosene, for the preparation of colloidal magnesium sol in an inert hydrocarbon suspending agent and is uniquely useful as a unit dosage package for the injection of the colloidal magnesium suspension into the fuel supply or into the fuel line between the fuel tank and the carburetor of an internal combustion engine.

A further object of the invention is to provide an arc welder and sputtering electrode combination wherein sputtering magnesium electrodes generates colloidal magnesium sol from the pure metal rods to create a unit dosage package carrying the magnesium suspension into the fuel line or fuel supply of an internal combustion engine for improved combustion of the fuel.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a new dispensing system for magnesium sol in kerosene for use in diesel engines, gasoline engines and aircraft engines as described in my copending applications, Ser. Nos. 569,320, 568,998, and 568,999.

Ser. No. 569,320 is now U.S. Pat. No. 4,080,179 granted Mar. 21, 1978.
Ser. No. 568,998 is now U.S. Pat. No. 4,080,178 granted Mar. 21, 1978.
Ser. No. 568,999 is now U.S. Pat. No. 4,080,177 granted Mar. 21, 1978.

Other and further objects of the invention will become apparent from the accompanying drawings, the following detailed description and the claims to the improved dosage system for more economically and more efficiently putting my ignition additive systems into practice in automobiles, diesel trucks, and jet aircraft.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

(a) Unit Dosage of Sol by Arc Sputtering Scribed Portions:

In an example of the new method and apparatus for manufacturing colloidal magnesium sol by arc sputtering, 1/4 inch square cross section rods of pure magnesium about 8 to 12 inches long are scribed from the bottom at 1/2 inch intervals and the rods mounted as electrodes in 500 ml of dry kerosene in a container. The rods are fitted as electrodes to an arc welder, the current adjusted to 1/2 to 1 amp and then the electrodes are sputtered until each electrode loses two 1/2 inch sections from each bottom rod. The black sol immediately produced is contaminated with about 40% to 60% solidified droplets of irregular shape which are easily removed by filtering through cotton or fiberglass, thereby providing a sol with about 1.7 grams in 500 cc. By sputtering additional 1/2 inch sections the concentration of sol can be built up to 3 to 4 grams.

(b) Dispensing of Unit Dosage into Fuel Lines of Gasoline Engines, Diesel Engines, or Jet Aircraft Engines:

The unit dosage colloidal magnesium sol dispensing apparatus is mounted either over the fuel tank or near the carburetor to proportion sol in the fuel. If mounted under the hood of an automobile or similar internal combustion engine powered vehicle the unit dosage package permits gravity flow of magnesium sol prepared by arc sputtering directly into the fuel line between the fuel tank and the carburetor of the engine.

One unit package of 500 cc is the optimum dosage at 1.7 grams of sol for each ten gallons of gasoline, leaded or unleaded, dispensed into the fuel tank or fed into the carburetor. In diesel fuel, the optimum dosage is increased, e.g., one 1000 cc unit package totalling 2.0 grams of sol is optimum for fifteen gallons of diesel fuel. In jet fuel, the optimum dosage is substantially more than in gasoline, e.g., one 5000 L cc package of 3 to 4 grams of sol for each 12 gallons of jet fuel.

At 2 to 3 units consumed between markings 28 in FIG. 3, e.g., 1/2 inch units, the amount of colloidal magnesium sol produced is about 1.6 to 1.7 grams. At 2 to 3 units between markings 28a, e.g., 1/4 inch units, the amount is about 0.8 grams.

By adjusting the volume for optimum dosage, volumes of 5000 cc for jet aircraft convert about 6 to 8 units 28 and volumes of 1000 cc for diesel fuel convert about 4 to 5 units 28. Of course, the sol should be measured for each case by evaporating kerosene.

(c) Dispenser Means:

The dispenser, which consists of a predetermined volume of colloidal magnesium sol in a concentration required for either gasoline, diesel or jet aircraft engines operating with high octane fuel, is in a container of a size which holds this predetermined volume. A stop cock metering valve is threadedly fitted into the bottom of the container for direct flow into the fuel tank or into the fuel line through a T fitting between the fuel pump and the carburetor.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view partly in section showing the preferred apparatus for carrying out the invention.

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary vertical section taken along line 2--2 of the apparatus in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged view of one of the electrodes used in the apparatus in FIG. 5.

FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a fuel tank of a vehicle and a unit package filled dispenser in accordance with the invention.

FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a vehicle with the unit package filled dispenser located in the trunk of the vehicle.

FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a vehicle with the unit package filled dispenser located under the hood of the vehicle.

PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL PREPARATION OF SOL BY ARC SPUTTERING

Prior to perfecting the apparatus for carrying out the invention, the first attempt at arc sputtering employed two 1/4 inch square cross section rods of pure magnesium which were held in two laboratory rubber covered clamps, rubber being used for insulation, (not shown in FIG. 1. because the clamps were found to be cumbersome and were discarded) each mounted on a ringstand in a V relation from the two ringstands, said clamps being placed to immerse the rods in a beaker at an angle of 10 to 15 degrees. The rods were immersed to a depth of about two inches in about 500 ml round bottom beaker partially filled with kerosene.

The leads from an arc welder 10 as in FIG. 1. were attached to the left rod 25 and the right rod 27 by clips in a manner similar to the attachment of clips 25c and 27c in FIG. 1. When the current was turned on from the arc welder 10 in FIG. 1 and adjusted to about 1 ampere the arc formed quickly and heated the tip of each rod to a molten state dropping 3 to 4 mm. sperical beads of pure shiny magnesium to the bottom of the beaker. Simultaneously, a dense black colored cloud quickly filled the kerosene in the beaker, obliterating the view of the two bottom tips in the V position. After about 10 to 12 seconds the arc sputtering operation was stopped, the bead product filtered and weighed, and it was found that only about 2% to 3% of sol was formed with the product being mostly beads. The yield of colloidal magnesium sol was so low that further experiments were made.

The next attempt changed the round beaker to a rectangular transparent container to determine if the arc sputtering could be visually monitored after the initial black sol cloud formed at the tips. It was found that agitation was necessary and the placement of two stirrers to sweep across the front of the V tip where the arc forms effectively permitted visual observation and adjustment of the electrodes. By trial and error it was found that the initial angle of the V at 15 to 20 degrees was too small and that the angle should be between 22 and 30 degrees, preferably about 25 degrees, in order to permit even arcing at low amperage from the arc welder. In this manner the black colloidal magnesium sol was produced in amounts 8 to 10 times the first experiments and instead of 95% of solidified shiny droplets, about 40% to 60% of solidified droplets 2 to 4 mm. in diameter of magnesium were formed as byproduct.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

(a) Arc Sputtering Method and Apparatus:

The preferred apparatus is shown in FIG. 1 and comprises a transparent rectangular tank 12 of inert insulating material, preferably glass or transparent thermoplastic, partially filled with a predetermined amount of liquid kerosene 29 into which the electrodes of pure magnesium are immersed. These comprise a left electrode 25 and a right electrode 27.

Pure magnesium is readily available as commercially pure magnesium at a purity of 99.9% mg. with less than 0.003% aluminum and copper impurity, about 0.03% or less of iron impurity, about 0.08% manganese impurity, about 0.001% nickel impurity and about 0.005% silicon impurity.

It is preferred to use round 1/4 inch rods about 14 inches long as the electrodes, but successful experiments were also run with 1/4 inch square cross sections cut out from 14 inch wide 1/4 inch thick stock.

As indicated in the early experiments described herein:

(1) visual monitoring of the arc which created the colloidal sol was found to require a critical placement of the rods of between about 1/2 to 11/4 inches, spaced from the inner transparent edge of the shorter side wall; and

(2) a critical angle of between about 22 degrees and 30 degrees, preferably 25 degrees, was required in order to provide the smallest amount of loss under conditions of agitation by placing two mixers 14 and 16 on opposite sides of the V rod. Mixer 14 is a left electric motor fitted mixer and mixer 16 is a right electric motor fitted mixer.

The rectangular container 12 has flat upper edges to adapt the mounting of the cross bar holding means 19, used for suspending the right and left mixers 14 and 16 and the electrodes.

In order to position the left electrode 25 and the right electrode 27 at the critical angle 26 between about 22 and 30 degrees, preferably about 25 degrees, support members 22 and 24 are provided for the left electrode 25 and the right electrode 27 respectively. These support members 22 and 24 are shaped as a staggered and backward Z, e.g., an annular base portion, an annular top portion and a mid portion. The bottom of 22 or 24 is an annular base portion which serves the mounting function for the bottom of the electric motor of the left motor fitted mixer 14 or of the right motor fitted mixer 16. The top annular portion is for suspending the left electrode 25 or the right electrode 27 at the critical angle of between about 22 and 30 degrees. To this end the top annular portion is bent obliquely upward in a direction away from the base.

The support members 22 and 24 are formed of suitable insulating material, rubber or plastic, to provide safe operation and assure proper electrical assembly.

To properly mount the left and right electrodes 25 and 27 in the upper annular portion of the holding means 24, effectively constituting an arm of 22 and 24 respectively, a close fitting insulating mounting ring is secured within the said annular arm.

After the left and right electrodes 25 and 27 are mounted at the preferred angle of about 25 degrees, clips 25c and 27c from the arc welder 10 are fitted to the electrode tops as shown in FIG. 1.

The arc welder is a Lincoln arc welder with the adjustments for voltage cut down to 70 volts.

(b) Operation of Arc Sputtering:

With the fitted electrode already described positioned about 5/8 inch from the transparent front edge and as shown in FIG. 2, the creation of the arc ocurs under 70 volts DC at a separation of about 1/4 inch while the arcing is continued for 30 to 45 seconds, during which time the mixers drive away the black cloud of sol particles created at the arc to permit visual observation.

In this 45 second interval about 1/4 to 3/8 inch of magnesium rod is consumed from the bottom of each electrode.

During operation, the operator, wearing heavy gloves, needs only once to gently push down each rod to maintain the gap at about 1/4 inch.

If the gap goes beyond 3/8 inch more beads form which cuts down the yield of the sol.

As a result of a number of trial runs it was discovered that, based upon the density of the 99.9% magnesium electrode which is 1.74 grams per cubic centimeter, about 1/4 inch of the 1/4 inch rod is consumed at each about 2 minute interval operating at the slowest possible rate, a rate required to prevent excessive formation of magnesium globules.

It is believed that the arc under the cooling conditions afforded by mixing by the high speed rotation of propellers 15 and 17 adjacent and along the precise site of formation of molten magnesium (melting temperature of about 650 degrees centigrade) creates a vapor phase dispersion of colloidal magnesium particles, each of these particles being surrounded by liquid kerosene which is non-conducting and relatively inert. In short, the arc creates a plasma of very fine particles of colloidal dimensions of magnesium metal which would tend to agglomerate and coelesce with other particles to form larger particles if there were not immediate mixing and cooling.

Observation of repeated runs provided the basis for an indexing discovery, namely, scribing the bottom portion of the magnesium rod at 1/4 inch intervals could serve as a rough indication of the concentration of magnesium sol produced. About 1/4 inch intervals of magnesium corresponds to about 1/2 the amount required as a unit dosage for gasoline in my copending application, Ser. No. 569,320.

It has been found that the propellers must be placed below the arc to create vigorous high mixing forces and drive away the sol particles as soon as they are formed. Also, the placement of the propellers behind the electrodes is of importance to achieve the optimum "dispersion freezing effect" of the colloidal particles of magnesium sol. As shown in FIG. 2, an optimum spacing 19D exists between the bottom tip of the electrode and the shaft of the propeller 17, this optimum distance being about 11/2 inches, e.g., between about 1 inch and 2 inches, with the propeller 17 or 15 being about 1/2 to 1 inch, preferably about 3/4 inch, below the bottom tip.

A further improvement for process control of the rate of electrode rod consumption of electrodes 25 and 27 is based upon the discovery that scribing of 1/16 inch apart markings 30 on an electrode, e.g., 27 as shown in both FIGS. 2 and 3, permits an indexing of these markings above the top arm of the mounting 24. Thus, at a selected rate of 1/2 inch, bottom consumption of the electrode 27 in FIG. 3, e.g., the markings 28 in FIG. 3, in a time interval of 2 minutes, the manual downward push adjustment need only be 1/16 downward push in each uniform 15 second interval. This feature of scribing at the bottom of electrode 27 as well as at the top facilitates maintaining production at the optimum condition. Markings 28a are 1/4 inch apart.

In the manner just described the critical concentrations for my prior patent applications are as follows:

Application
Date of Type of Optimum Unit
Kerosene
Serial No.
Filing Fuel Dosage Volume
569,320 4/17/75 Motor 1.7 grams 500cc gasoline
568,999 4/17/75 Diesel 2.0 grams 1000cc fuel
568,998 4/17/75 Aircraft 3-4 grams 5000cc jet fuel

(c) Filtering and Quality Control:

After the desired concentration is achieved the apparatus of FIG. 1 is turned off. To guarantee quality control, the liquid and its contents are filtered through cellulose, wool or glass wool, the beads separated and weighed, the amount of electrode rod consumed noted and the amount of sol determined by sampling an adequate portion of the total and evaporating the sample to dryness. The weight of the sample recovered relates to the whole in the proportion of the adequate amount to the total product. In this manner the above concentrations are obtained and packed in glass containers of the required size, e.g., 500 cc, 1000 cc and 5000 cc.

(d) Dispensing Means:

FIG. 4 illustrates a preferred form of dispensing means comprising a dispenser 36 for the fuel tank of an automobile, the dispenser 36 having as its contents a unit package of 500 cc, 1.7 grams of colloidal magnesium, which has been transferred to the interior container portion. The bottom left hand part of dispenser 36 is threadedly fitted with stop cock metering valve 38. The inlet to the stop cock metering valve 38 is at the bottom portion and the outlet flows directly into the fuel tank 32 of the automobile. The mounting of the dispensing means embodiment for the trunk of the automobile is shown in a better view in FIG. 5 where the relative portion before the mounting boss 40 and the curved filler line 34 through which the tank is filled at the gas station is illustrated to demonstrate the importance of separating the dosing operation from the gas tank filling operation at the gas station. Note that the dispenser of boss 40 at the base of valve 38 is at least half of the width of the tank and sufficiently far away from the curved filler line to prevent splashing the bottom of the valve. These locations permit partial or complete dosing of the fuel in the fuel tank 32 to assure that the optimum concentration of 1.7 grams is added for each 10 gallons of gasoline, whether said gasoline is leaded or unleaded.

As shown in FIG. 5, and in FIG. 3 as well, the fuel of which the required amount of magnesium colloid is added from the dispenser 36 passes through fuel line 42, through fuel pump 44 and then into the carburetor.

If it is desired to add 1/2 or 3/4 the amount of colloidal magnesium because the tank is 1/2 or 3/4 filled, based upon a 10 gallon filling, the stop cock metering valve can readily adjust the amount to be added. Refilling the dispenser 36 requires removing the top cap and added the needed amount, 500 cc,.

Under the hood dispensing is shown in FIG. 6 wherein the location of the dispenser 36 is now moved under the hood of the vehicle, either a gasoline or diesel powered vehicle. The dispenser 36 is compact enough to fit easily under the hood into T 38 between the fuel pump 44 and the carburetor 46.

A similar design arrangement for the dispenser 36 can be made in carrying out the dispensing method of the invention using electrical arc sputtered colloidal magnesium in kerosene for improving the performance of an aircraft piston engine or for an aircraft jet engine. The dispenser may be used to dose the fuel tank or the fuel line.

In view of the above description, it is seen that the electrical arc sputtering preferred apparatus provides an easily controlled yet ingenious method of producing 0.5 grams up to 4.0 grams per liter of magnesium sol for easy dispensing into the engine of a land vehicle, marine vehicle or aircraft.



US2007266622
Fuel oil additive and fuel oil products containing the fuel oil additive

Inventor(s):     HU SHIBIN [CN] +

Abstract

The present invention provides a fuel oil additive capable of effectively improving the quality of fuel oils, which comprises an oil-soluble metal salt of organic acid having the general formula MR, where R is an organic acid radical and the corresponding organic acid is a C1-C40 saturated or unsaturated fatty acid, naphthenic acid, aromatic acid or alkylphenol, M is a metal cation and the corresponding metal is an alkali metal, alkali-earth metal, rare-earth metal, transition metal, or the like. The present invention also provides fuel oil products added to the fuel oil additive, including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene, heavy oil, resid, or the like. The present invention especially provides a gasoline antiknock agent and a gasoline having excellent antiknock property, and this kind of gasoline antiknock agent is characteristic of effectiveness, economy, safety, no environmental pollution, no toxicity to human body, no adverse effect on parts of automobile engine, use convenience, and the like.



US4255158
Gasoline and petroleum fuel supplements

Inventor(s):     KING SAMUEL

A gasoline and petroleum fuel supplement formed of a combination of ingredients including a lower alkanol selected from the group consisting of methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, i-propyl alcohol and mixtures thereof and an alkali metal hydroxide selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and mixtures thereof. These ingredients may be added in various ratios to gasoline and/or to water, preferably distilled or deionized water, for use as fuel supplements for internal combustion engines.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a new gasoline and petroleum fuel supplement for use in internal combustion engines which results in or causes more complete combustion of the fuel in the engine and a reduction in the overall amount of pollution emitted from the engine exhaust.

Some reasons for present inefficiencies of gas as fuel in the present internal combustion engine include that the gasoline vapor is diluted with about 68 times its volume of air, 4/5 of which is inert nitrogen taking no part in the reaction, but rather tending to hinder and retard the combustion. This mixture under ordinary pressure would not burn, much less explode. The compression of this mixture before explosion can be taken to be about 80 pounds per square inch owing to the risk of premature ignition. Explosion then takes place with such rapidity that its diluting action of the inert nitrogen prevents complete combustion. Results of the incomplete combustion thus caused are low efficiency, carbon deposits in the engine, unburned blow-by vapors of poisonous gases, hydrocarbons, monoxides and the like which now attend the present gasoline powered motor.

It is known that a temperature of about 1200 DEG C. is needed to ignite the ordinary gasoline and air mixture at atmospheric pressure. At the moment of explosion, such portions of hydrocarbons as do not happen to be in contact with the proper quantity of oxygen required for their combustion, owing to the hindering action of the inert nitrogen, undergoes changes of various complexity. The result is that the products of combustion contain not only products of complete combustion but also the products of incomplete combustion. These are formed by the heat at the moment of explosion and these products combined with lubricants provide odors associated with gasoline motors and also deposit films of carbon on the inside of the cylinders.

Prior art patents relating to internal combustion engines and novel fuel compositions therefor are shown, for example, in the patents to Brent U.S. Pat. No. 3,765,848 relating to a motor fuel composition; Skala U.S. Pat. No. 4,020,798 for an internal combustion engine fueld by NAK; Osborg U.S. Pat. No. 4,081,252 for a method of improving combustion of fuels and fuel compositions; Records U.S. Pat. No. 1,684,686 describing an aqueous liquid fuel; Lee U.S. Pat. No. 4,088,454 for a method for producing a liquid fuel composition; and Michaels-Christopher U.S. Pat. No. 4,110,082 for a reformed hydrocarbons and alcohols from fuel alloys and reforming agents.

The present fuel supplement is a newly created formulation of chemicals which may be combined with gasoline and/or water to provide more complete combustion when used with gasoline in the present day internal combustion engine. The present mixture and ratio between the ingredients and the amount of gasoline is determined by the construction of the motor, weight of the vehicle and conditions of operation.

It is to be understood that the various chemicals and water, preferably distilled or deionized water, as described herein may be mixed in various desirable proportions in accordance with different internal combustion engines, and various features thereof including compression ratios, weights and other varying factors.

The present supplement provides increased gasoline mileage of up to 50% or more. It produces a gaseous vapor which causes the blow-by vapors in the engine to burn more completely when they become united in the motor. Consequently, the normally harmful, dangerous and wasted hydrocarbons and other gases as well as the inert nitrogen gases which are currently wasted, burn more cleanly during combustion.

This provides a reduced level of air pollution from internal combustion engines and reduces oil contamination.

The use of the supplement provides cleaner engine parts due to a cooler running cycle, less carbon deposits inside the engine as well as less gases entering the crank case to contaminate the oil. This produces some expected longer life of oil, parts and engines. The supplement reduces combustion heat and allows engines to run cool and, in some instances, may possibly reduce the gasoline octane rating required for internal combustion engines.

The fuel supplement is formed of a combination of essential ingredients in the following relative proportions: 250 to 3,000 ml of a lower alkanol, such as methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, i-propyl alcohol or mixtures thereof, and 0.75 gr to 120 gr of an alkali metal hydroxide, such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide or mixtures thereof. The sodium hydroxide and/or potassium hydroxide and/or lithium hydroxide may be added to the lower alkanol ingredients in solid form in the above stated proportions or may, in the alternative, be added in the form of an aqueous solution. When an aqueous solution of the hydroxides is used, the solutions may comprise, for example, from about 150 to 4,000 g/l of the respective hydroxides. Obviously, the size of the batch of fuel supplement produced is a matter of choice so long as the relative proportions of ingredients is maintained as stated above.

When the above ingredients forming the supplement are mixed together, the total mixture is then mixed either with gasoline or with water. In a preferred embodiment, the above ingredients are mixed with distilled or deionized water. When the supplement is mixed with the distilled or deionized water, the final product comprises from about 1/4 to about 3/4 by volume supplement and the remainder water. When the supplement is mixed with gasoline, the product comprises from about 70 to about 95% by volume of supplement and from about 5% to about 30% by volume of gasoline.

Either of these mixtures may be injected or otherwise added to the carburation system of an internal combustion engine, for example, at the PCV valve, carburetor intake manifold or to each cylinder. A carburetor intake manifold converter may also be used to inject and vaporize the supplement. Alternately, the supplement may be added directly to the gasoline in the fuel tank. It has been found that adding to the fuel tank approximately one ounce of supplement per gallon of fuel achieves the desired results.

The advantages of the invention will be appreciated more fully in view of the following examples.

EXAMPLE 1

A fuel supplement was added in a 1968 Pontiac Le Mans Sedan having a 350 V8 engine weighing 3,620 pounds registered weight. The supplement was formed by mixing approximately 33% by volume of supplement with 66% distilled water. The supplement was prepared by mixing 1,000 ml of methyl alcohol, 1,000 ml of ethyl alcohol, 7.5 gr of sodium hydroxide and 7.5 gr of potassium hydroxide. The mixture was added slowly to the distilled water in the above proportions. The supplement was added to the intake manifold through the PVC line and the supplement was vaporized and the gaseous vapors were added through the carburetor to the combustion chamber using the intake manifold converter. The mileage increased from 15 miles per gallon, without using the supplement, to 25 to 30 miles per gallon with the supplement.

EXAMPLE 2

Example 1 was repeated except that the supplement was added through the positive crank case ventilation system. A similar increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 3

Example 1 was repeated except that an additional 1,000 ml of methyl alcohol was used in place of the ethyl alcohol of Example 1. A similar increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 4

Example 1 was repeated except that the ethyl alcohol and sodium hydroxide were deleted from the supplement. A similar, but slightly lower increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 5

Example 1 was repeated except that the ethyl alcohol and potassium hydroxide were deleted from the supplement. A similar increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 6

Example 1 was repeated except that the potassium hydroxide was deleted from the supplement, and the supplement was formed by mixing approximately 50% by volume of supplement with 50% distilled water. A similar increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 7

Example 6 was repeated except that the ethyl alcohol portion of the supplement was replaced with n-propyl alcohol. A similar increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 8

Example 6 was repeated except that i-propyl alcohol was used in place of the mixture of n-propyl alcohol and methyl alcohol. A similar, but slightly lower increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 9

Example 5 was repeated except that potassium was used in place of sodium hydroxide. A similar, but slightly lower increase in mileage was evidenced.

EXAMPLE 10

Example 5 was repeated except that lithium hydroxide was used in place of sodium hydroxide. A similar increase in mileage was evidenced.

It should be noted that gasoline octane ratings, driving and highway conditions will cause some variances in the miles per gallon when the supplement is used with the gasoline in various vehicles.



US2006218853   / WO2004104141
COMPOSIITON FOR PREVENTING SCALING, EXCLUDING OF SOOT, CLINKER AND SLUDGE, AND CONTROLLING FLAME IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS

Inventor(s):     OH MI-HYE [KR]; RYU HWAN-WOO [KR]; OH SEUNG-HWAN [KR]; KIM YONG-WAN [KR] +

Abstract

A fuel additive composition comprising hydrogen peroxide, an amine-based stabilizer, borax, and sodium hydroxide is disclosed. The composition is added to such fuel as coal, oil, and gas to facilitate combustion and remove impurities in a combustion apparatus, thereby improving thermal efficiency, and it reduces discharge of noxious gases such as SOx, NOx, and CO.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] (a) Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention relates to a water-soluble fuel additive composition comprising borax, sodium hydroxide, an amine-based stabilizer, hydrogen peroxide, and water, which facilitates combustion, increases thermal efficiency, reduces smoke generation, excludes soot and clinker from a furnace, and controls flame, thereby improving the radiant heat transfer system.

[0003] (b) Description of the Related Art

[0004] Conventionally, removal of soot and clinker in a furnace has been performed physically, and air pollution control has been done by post-treatment. Improvement of thermal radiation systems to enhance thermal efficiency has focused on mechanical aspects. However, operation status of furnaces and characteristics of fuels have caused problems.

[0005] To take a gas boiler as an example, hard solid materials such as sludge, which are generated by whitening and the like, may increase gas consumption or cause explosions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0006] It is an object of the present invention to provide a fuel additive composition which is added to fuel, such as coal, oil, and gas, to facilitate combustion, exclude impurities such as soot and clinker from a combustion apparatus to facilitate heat transfer, and control flame size, thereby improving the radiant heat transfer system.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] FIG. 1 is a graph showing the decrease of exhaust gas with time when the fuel additive composition of the present invention has been added to fuel.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0008] The present invention provides a fuel additive composition comprising 8 to 40 parts by weight of hydrogen peroxide, 8 to 40 parts by weight of an amine-based stabilizer, 10 to 40 parts by weight of borax, 16 to 40 parts by weight of sodium hydroxide, and water.

[0009] The composition is prepared by dispersing it in water, so that the content of the composition with respect to water ranges from 1:2 to 1:50 by weight.

[0010] The fuel additive composition is added at 0.02 to 0.5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of fuel.

[0011] The composition may further comprise methyl alcohol or a surfactant, in which the content of the composition to them ranges from 1:1 to 1:3 by weight.

[0012] The composition may further comprise one or more catalysts selected from the group consisting of potassium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and sodium carbonate, in which the content of the composition to a catalyst ranges from 1:0.03 to 1:0.3 by weight.

[0013] The present invention also provides a method of preparing a fuel additive composition, comprising the steps of:

[0014] mixing 16 to 40 parts by weight of sodium hydroxide in an aqueous solution in which 10 to 40 parts by weight of borax has been dissolved;

[0015] adding 8 to 40 parts by weight of an amine-based stabilizer to the resultant mixture; and

[0016] adding 8 to 40 parts by weight of hydrogen peroxide to the resultant mixture.

[0017] The present invention further provides a use of the fuel additive composition.

[0018] Hereinafter, the present invention is described in more detail.

[0019] The fuel additive composition of the present invention comprises hydrogen peroxide, an amine-based stabilizer, borax, sodium hydroxide, and water, and it facilitates combustion of fuel, thereby leading to complete combustion.

[0020] Hydrogen peroxide generates oxygen radicals, and thus facilitates combustion of fuel. Oxygen radicals are oxygen in an atomic state, and they are very unstable. Thus, they exist for a very short time and are highly reactive. In the composition of the present invention, hydrogen peroxide generates oxygen radical, thereby facilitating combustion of fuel fed into the furnace and the combustion tube. Therefore, the fuel may burn easily even with a small amount of oxygen. Also, the oxygen radicals reduce NOx (thermal NOx) and prevent generation of PM (particulate matter) such as SOx and CO in a combustion apparatus.

[0021] Because hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen radicals or oxygen molecules even at room temperature, glycerin or an amine-based stabilizer is used to inhibit it. As a result, radicals are generated in a large amount at about 400[deg.] C., which facilitates combustion of fuel. At about 800[deg.] C. or above, oxygen radicals from borax facilitate combustion.

[0022] The amine-based stabilizer is selected from the group consisting of dimethanolamine, diethanolamine, trimethanolamine, and triethanolamine.

[0023] Using the amine-based stabilizer, decomposition is retarded even up to about 180[deg.] C. or higher. At about 180[deg.] C. or higher, oxygen radicals are generated in a large amount, so that combustion of the fuel is facilitated even with a low oxygen content. The amine-based stabilizer also prevents low-temperature corrosion and increases dispersibility in the aqueous solution, thereby reducing differences of specific gravity of the matter.

[0024] Borax, or hydrated sodium borate (Na2B4O7.10H2O), excludes soot, clinker, and sludge from the furnace of the combustion apparatus, thereby increasing thermal conduction efficiency, and prevents corrosion of the furnace, thereby extending the furnace life.

[0025] Part of the borax mixed in the fuel is decomposed to generate oxygen radicals, but intact borax is deposited on the furnace surface to form a film, thereby preventing corrosion at elevated temperatures, reducing viscosity of ash, removing PM such as soot, clinker, and sludge, improving thermal efficiency, and reducing air pollutants (dust, smoke, NOx, and SOx). If used in a combustion apparatus, oxygen radicals generated from the fuel additive composition of the present invention reduce generation of thermal NOx, and sodium included in the mixture forms sodium sulfate, so that SOx exhausted to the air is reduced.

[0026] Borax, which is powder, is added to and dissolved in water. However, because deposition may occur over time, sodium hydroxide and the amine-based stabilizer are added to increase solubility of the borax in water and prevent the deposition.

[0027] The fuel additive composition is prepared by dispersing 8 to 40 parts by weight of hydrogen peroxide, 8 to 40 parts by weight of borax, 10 to 40 parts by weight of the amine-based stabilizer, and 16 to 40 parts by weight of sodium hydroxide, in water. The content of the composition to water ranges from 1:2 to 1:50 by weight.

[0028] If the content of the components falls outside this range, combustion may be retarded, which causes an increase of fuel use, and cleansing power may be reduced or deposition may occur during dispersing.

[0029] The fuel additive composition may further comprise potassium carbonate, calcium carbonate, or sodium carbonate to reduce smoke generation during combustion. They induce low-temperature combustion thereby reducing NOx generation, and control flame size during combustion thereby improving the radiant heat transfer system and reducing fuel consumption. The content of the composition of the present invention to the additive ranges from 1:0.03 to 1:0.3 by weight.

[0030] The content of the fuel additive composition of the present invention may be controlled appropriately depending on the kind and quality of fuel, operation status of the furnace, and degree of aging. Preferably, it is added at 0.02 to 0.5 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of fuel. The fuel additive composition enhances cleansing power and prevents low-temperature corrosion and high-temperature corrosion.

[0031] The fuel additive composition of the present invention is prepared by the steps comprising:

[0032] mixing 10 to 40 parts by weight of borax in an aqueous solution in which 16 to 40 parts by weight of sodium hydroxide have been dissolved;

[0033] adding 8 to 40 parts by weight of an amine-based stabilizer to the resultant mixture; and

[0034] adding 8 to 40 parts by weight of hydrogen peroxide to the resultant mixture.

[0035] Borax is added at 50 to 95[deg.] C. to maximize its solubility, and hydrogen peroxide is added at the last step to appropriately control the oxygen radical content. If hydrogen peroxide is mixed along with borax in the first step, oxygen radicals are generated excessively, so that foaming occurs and oxygen radicals are lost. Also, the temperature of the resultant fuel additive composition is elevated, which makes further processing complicated and dangerous.

[0036] Potassium carbonate, calcium carbonate, or sodium carbonate is added after addition of hydrogen peroxide.

[0037] Any solid, liquid, or gas fuel may be used in the present invention.

[0038] For example, a solid fuel such as coal, coke, and charcoal, a liquid fuel such as gasoline, kerosene, light oil, heavy oil, coal tar, oil sand, oil shale, methanol, and ethanol, and a gaseous fuel such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and acetylene may be used.

[0039] The fuel additive composition of the present invention burns carbon particles (e.g. coal) before ashing, thereby preventing coagulation of carbon particles with ashes and altering film formation of borax and the viscosity of ashes, so that deposition of clinker, soot, and sludge in the furnace can be prevented.

[0040] Particularly, under the reducing atmosphere in the furnace, the ashing point is decreased. The fuel additive composition of the present invention checks a decrease of the ashing point by oxygen radicals, thereby preventing clinker generation. Also, borax, which penetrates into the pores of coal, prevents coagulation of ashes by a glass bead reaction. Undecomposed borax is deposited on the furnace surface to form a film, thereby preventing high-temperature corrosion, interfering with clinker deposition, and enhancing thermal efficiency.

[0041] In a preferred embodiment, if the fuel additive composition of the present invention is employed in a gas boiler, it prevents generation of sludge and reduces energy consumption.

[0042] In a gas boiler, fine dust included in air which has been taken in for combustion, may be hardened by whitening and the like to form solid materials like sludge to a thickness of about 1 to 2 mm. When the fuel additive composition of the present invention is used, it decreases the melting point and flashing point, thereby removing the sludge or preventing sludge generation. For example, when the fuel additive composition of the present invention was dispersed in water in a proportion of 1:40 and employed in a 20 ton/H gas/oil combined rotary boiler of H apartment, the flame turned an orange color and elongated, and about 5% of energy consumption was saved.

[0043] In another preferred embodiment, if the fuel additive composition of the present invention is employed in a gas turbine, it removes dust attached to the blade of the turbine. The dust induces vibration when the gas turbine is operated at high speed. The fuel additive composition of the present invention removes the dust and rapidly burns dust and soot, thereby enabling effective high-speed operation and offering about 2% of thermal efficiency improvement.

[0044] In another preferred embodiment, the fuel additive composition of the present invention may be mixed with light oil for a diesel engine to reduce energy consumption. To be specific, the fuel additive composition is mixed with light oil for a diesel engine along with methyl alcohol or a surfactant. As a result, dust generation during combustion can be reduced and about 9% of energy consumption can be saved.

[0045] In another preferred embodiment, the fuel additive composition of the present invention is dispersed in water to increase the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of fine coals by about 10%, reduce ash generation by facilitating combustion, and enable recycling of coal ashes. Also, if the composition is sprayed to or mixed with coal, briquettes, coke, or charcoal, combustion is facilitated and smoke and noxious smells can be significantly reduced. Especially, when potassium carbonate is mixed with the composition, smoke generation is reduced, low-temperature combustion is facilitated thereby decreasing discharge of such noxious exhaust gas as NOx, and the radiant heat transfer system is improved during combustion of gas fuel, thereby leading to reduced fuel consumption.

[0046] In another preferred embodiment, the fuel additive composition of the present invention may be a simple salt treated in a cement kiln to improve combustion rate per unit area of a kiln and reduce clinker productivity. In general, combustion rate is determined by flame length. The fuel additive composition of the present invention induces complete combustion and thus reduces flame length. And, in the case of porous coal fuel, borax penetrates deep into the pores of the coal and generates oxygen radicals at elevated temperatures. A melting point decrease and porosity enhancement by calcium carbonate- or sodium carbonate increases a contact area of oxygen thereby increasing the combustion rate, reducing flashing temperature, and reducing smoke generation from a Ringelmann turbidity of level 3 to level 1.

[0047] In still another preferred embodiment, the fuel additive composition of the present invention is employed in an oil boiler to induce complete combustion of fuel, thereby reducing fly ash, improving dust collecting efficiency, and extending catalyst life of a dust collector. To be specific, when the composition was sprayed into the combustion chamber of an oil boiler while being dispersed in water, about 3% of fuel consumption was saved and sludge inside the boiler was removed. Also, generation of dust and smoke was reduced and scale and sludge generated in the pre-heater was removed.

[0048] Thus, the fuel additive composition of the present invention may be used for a combustion apparatus to remove scale, to prevent corrosion, soot generation, clinker generation, and sludge generation, and to control flames.

[0049] Hereinafter, the present invention is described in more detail through examples. However, the following examples are only for the understanding of the present invention and they do not limit the present invention.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

[0050] 30 kg of borax and 20 kg of sodium hydroxide were dissolved in 50 kg of water at 70[deg.] C. Then, 20 kg of triethylamine, 20 kg of hydrogen peroxide, and 10 kg potassium carbonate were added to prepare a fuel additive composition. The resultant fuel additive composition experienced no precipitation or deposition of borax, and remained as a stable aqueous solution.

Comparative Example 1

[0051] A fuel additive composition was prepared as in Example 1, without using sodium hydroxide. The resultant composition experienced precipitation as time went by.

Comparative Example 2

[0052] A fuel additive composition was prepared as in Example 1, at a temperature of 40[deg.] C. The resultant composition experienced precipitation as time went by.

Comparative Example 3

[0053] A fuel additive composition was prepared as in Example 1, at a temperature of 45[deg.] C. The resultant composition experienced precipitation as time went by, as in Comparative Examples 1 and 2.

Comparative Example 4

[0054] 30 kg of borax, 20 kg of sodium hydroxide, and 30 kg of hydrogen peroxide were dissolved in 50 kg of water at 70[deg.] C. Then, 20 kg of triethylamine, 20 kg of hydrogen peroxide, and 10 kg potassium carbonate were added to prepare a fuel additive composition. The temperature of the resultant fuel additive composition rapidly rose to 100[deg.] C. as time went by. This is because of excessive generation of oxygen radicals, which is caused by addition of hydrogen peroxide.

Testing Example 1

Energy Efficiency Test

[0055] An energy efficiency test was performed for the composition of Example 1.

[0056] Coal having a moisture content of 1.73%, an ash content of 14.73%, and a volatile content of 30.12% (calorific value=6,977 kcal; ash fusion temperature (FT)=1,588[deg.] C.), and a boiler having a steam production capacity of 10 ton/h were used. The boiler was operated under a pressure of 8 kPa with a load of 80%. As a result, 16.8% of coal consumption was saved.

Testing Example 2

Pollution Reduction Test

[0057] Dust content, sulfur dioxide concentration, and Ringelmann turbidity were measured for the composition. The results are shown in the following Table 1.

TABLE 1

  Before  After  Measurement

Test items  measurement  measurement  result

Average dust content  1673.8  1082.3  Decreased by

(mg/Nm<3> )      35.3%

Average dust discharge  42.5  26.9  Decreased by

amount (kg/h)      36.7%

Average sulfur dioxide  321.5  249.1  Decreased by

concentration (mg/Nm<3> )      22.5%

Average sulfur dioxide  8.158  249.1  Decreased by

discharge amount (kg/h)      24.1%

Ringelmann turbidity  1  1  Same

(smoke concentration)

Testing Example 3

Fuel Consumption Saving Test

[0058] The composition was employed in a combined heat and power plant using bituminous coal. Fuel consumption saving effect due to reduction of air pollutants and clinkers was determined.

[0059] The composition was diluted to about 1,000:1, based on the coal weight, in water, and sprayed on lump coal placed on a coal feeder. The lump coal was crushed to 200 mesh or below and burnt with a burner.

[0060] A boiler having a steam production capacity of 120 ton/h and Chinese Tatong bituminous coal (calorific value=6,600 kcal/kg; ash fusion temperature=1,180[deg.] C.; sulfur content=0.8%) were used. Fuel consumption was 300 ton/h and temperature inside the furnace was 1,300 to 1,700[deg.] C. A horizontal firing type burner and a natural circulation type boiler were used.

[0061] A. Air Pollutants Generation Reduction Effect

[0062] Dust content, SOx concentration, NOx concentration, and CO concentration were measured for 4 weeks.

[0063] 1. Dust content: Measured with a cylindrical filter. Before addition of the composition, average dust content was 19.4 mg/cm<2> . It decreased by about 47.0%.

[0064] 2. SOx concentration: Measured by precipitation titration method. SOx concentration decreased by about 10.2%.

[0065] 3. NOx concentration: Measured by zinc 1-naphthyldiamine method. NOx concentration decreased by about 13.0%.

[0066] 4. CO concentration: Measured by nondispersive infrared analysis method. CO concentration decreased by about 27%.

[0067] B. Fuel Efficiency Improvement Effect

[0068] Fly ash content decreased from 30.8% to 13.0%, which is about 57.8%.

[0069] Additionally, the content of bottom ash, one of the clinkers, decreased from 59.0% to 25.0%, which is about 57.6%.

[0070] C. Clinker Removal Effect

[0071] Although the coal used in the test had a lower ash fusion temperature of 1,180[deg.] C. than those commonly used (1,300 to 1,400[deg.] C.), no clinker was observed on the furnace wall or in the super heater. Also, there was no fouling.

Testing Example 4

Fuel Consumption Saving Test

[0072] The following test was performed to confirm clinker removal and thermal efficiency improvement.

[0073] The composition diluted in water was sprayed on crushed coal. The proportion of coal, water, and the composition was 1000:10:1. The mixture was sprayed on lump coal on a coal feeder. The coal was crushed to 200 mesh or below and burnt with a burner.

[0074] The coal had a moisture content of about 2.36%, an ash content of about 27.89%, and a volatile content of about 17.97%. A horizontal firing type boiler was used. Steam production capacity was 220 ton/hr, and vapor pressure was 9.8 MPa. The temperature inside the furnace was 1,500[deg.] C. to 1,700[deg.] C., the air ratio was about 4.8, the combustion exhausting temperature was 120[deg.] C., and the vapor temperature was about 540[deg.] C.

[0075] A. Fuel Saving Effect

[0076] Coal to which the fuel additive composition of the present invention had been added was used for 14 days. 76,710 tons of vapor were produced with 9,786.54 kg of coal. When only coal was used for 15 days, 68,462 tons of vapor were produced with 9,910.58 kg of coal. Therefore, the fuel additive composition of the present invention offers better fuel efficiency.

[0077] B. SOx Reduction Effect

[0078] Exhaust gas reduction effect with time was evaluated for coal to which the composition of Example 1 (C1) had been added, and the composition (C2) which had been prepared by adding 10 wt % (10 kg) of potassium carbonate and to which no additive had been added.

[0079] The test condition was as follows. The results are shown in FIG. 1.

[0080] Measuring device: Test 350M/XL (manufactured by TESTO)

[0081] Measuring method: Static potential chemical type

[0082] Measuring device type approval number: ASGAM-2001-6 (National Institute of Environmental Research)

[0083] Measuring device performance test report: Prepared by Korea Testing Laboratory

[0084] In FIG. 1, #1 and #2 (---, ---) show SOx discharge when the composition of Example 1 was not added. --- is when C1 only was added, --- is when 10 wt % of C2 was added along with C1, and --- is when 15 wt % of C2 was added along with C1.

[0085] Using the fuel additive composition of the present invention, fuel exhaust gas discharge decreased from about 1,100 ppm to about 600 ppm on average. Therefore, SOX reduction effect was about 45%.

[0086] C: Fine Particle removal in Fly Ash

[0087] Fine particle content was measured for 6 days for Boiler No. 1 to which the composition of the present invention had been added, and Boiler No. 2 to which the composition had not been added.

[0088] Fine particle content of Boiler No. 1 was 7.39% and that of Boiler No. 2 was 8.76%. Thus, fine particle content was decreased by about 15.64%.

[0089] As described above, the fuel additive composition of the present invention reduces dust, SOx, and NOx generation and induces complete combustion thereby reducing fuel consumption, and prevents soot, clinker, sludge, and corrosion in a combustion apparatus, thereby enhancing heat transfer efficiency and improving operation stability.



US2460700
Method of Operating an Internal Combustion Engine

WE. Lyons

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