Gianni A. DOTTO

Thermionic Couple
("The Dotto Ring")

The Dotto Ring was a successful treatment for cancer, yet it disappeared from public notice in the 1970s after the FDA suppressed the technology. In one account of the story, it has been claimed that the device also tended to LEVITATE, and this was the real reason the government suppressed the discovery. Dotto states (Section 2 below) that the combined Thompson-Peltier-Seebeck effect is akin to gravity.

The Story of the Dotto Ring

Background of the Theory of the Dotto Ring

US Patent # 3,839,771: Method for Constructing a Thermionic Couple

US Patent # 3,785,383: Electrostatic Wand (Abstract & Figure 1, 2)

The Story of the Dotto Ring
[An unidentified article published in the 1970s; author unknown]
Gianni A. Dotto was born in Venice, son of a prominent engineer who was the designer of two hydro-electric generating plants on both the American and Canadian sides of Niagara Falls. His father was an Italian Marquis and since Gianni is the eldest son, he would have inherited the title had he not become an American citizen. The family is directly descended form Galileo and the Galileo coat of arms has been adopted for use as the Foundation's letterhead.
Before World War II, Gianni had received flight training but Mussolini never did trust the Dotto family so Gianni was drafted into the Italian Army as a paratrooper. When Italy surrendered, Gianni was able to join the American Air Force as a fighter pilot in time to participate in numerous engagements against the German Messerschmidts before the war ended.
After the war, Gianni became the head of the racing division of Alfa-Romero and started race-driving cars of his own design. His racing career ended when his wife, Renata, handed him an ultimatum: "Either give up racing or me". He is a prolific inventor as he is the owner of many Italian patents bearing on the automotive industry and, subsequently, just as many American patents.
He is highly educated, holding the Italian equivalent of an American PhD in nuclear physics from Milan University and the same degree in mechanical engineering from another Italian technical school. Subsequently, he received a degree in electrical engineering from Wayne University of Detroit.
While Gianni was teaching at Milan University, the medical school requested the services of a physicist to collaborate with the doctors on a research project. This started him on a career as a "bio-physicist" --- that is, a physicist that specializes in the area of the science of physics that bears on the human body. This embraces an amazingly wide field, as it has to do with the magnetic fields, polarity, the various vibrations and pulsations generated by the brain and, of course, the effect of the many facets of nuclear fission on the human body.
It was there that Gianni discovered that magnetic fields induced by an electric coil and by permanent magnets had a small effect on the human body, but that a mild magnetic filed created by adjacent hot and cold areas was definitely beneficial. In other words, the thermal unbalance created a magnetic field that matched the natural field of the human body. The development of the "Dotto Ring" was Gianni's practicable way of producing a piece of equipment that could impress the beneficial magnetic field on the body. The ring is 27 inches in diameter, made of heavy copper and has an adjacent heated and refrigerated area.
Through the ring he has reproduced in a compact, accessible form the same magnetic environment responsible for the good health and longevity of the Hunza people. Visitors to Hunzaland always attribute this great advantage to their diet, air and water, but Gianni could not accept this belief because there are many valleys in the Himalaya Mountains where the diet, air and water are similar to that of the Hunzas' but the inhabitants of these valleys are devoid of the same health and longevity manifestations as in Hunza. With the principle of the Dotto Ring in mind, a panoramic view of the Hunza valley makes Gianni's theory easy to understand. At the head of the valley there is a huge glacier or ice mass and in the valley itself the temperature becomes quite warm, thus creating the thermal unbalance mentioned previously and which is recreated in the principle of the Dotto Ring. When a Hunza travels across his valley, he receives a beneficial treatment from a mild magnetic field. The similarity of the Dotto Ring to the Hunza valley is interesting to say the least.
Gianni has written what he describes as a "simple explanation of just how the ring works". Simple to a physicist perhaps, but difficult for a layman to understand; consequently, the following preliminary explanation has been outlined for the purpose of clarification:
The nucleus of each cell contains a material known as the DNA, which is an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. This substance contains the life or genetic code. The presence and function of the DNA has long been suspected by our doctor-scientists and had been presented as a theory, but it was only about 7 years ago with the development of the electron microscope that the presence of the DNA was confirmed. Now it can be seen, photographed and sketched. Imagine a tiny ladder twisted together in a coil fashion until the unit forms a double helix. The DNA is pliable and rubbery an is never still as it constantly vibrates in resonance with brain signals and even outside influences. The DNA is polarized, with one end being plus and the other being minus. A healthy DNS reproduces healthy cells and aids the body to naturally overcome and eliminate an invasion of bacteria or toxins. This, of course, adds up to good health. When the body is within the beneficial magnetic field of the Dotto Ring, polarization of the DNA is oriented properly and resonance is synchronized to that of a healthy cell.
Important animal tests required by the medial authorities have been underway for the past three years, culminating in seven official tests that were conducted under rigidly controlled conditions. The tests were conducted by Prof. Gerald Willis (Biology Professor at the University of Dayton) and Dr. Robert Zipf, PhD. Dr. Zipf is owner of a group of biological laboratories and has been Coroner of Montgomery Country (OH) for 20 years. The room in which the tests were conducted was kept under triple lock so that only Prof. Willis had access to the area. Dr. Zipf performed the pathology on the test mice.
Mice (6 per cage and 8 per cage per test) were injected with cancer cells, In three tests, C-27 cancer cells were used and in two other tests, Krib type carcinoma cells were used. The most recent tests were conducted in mice that had induced leukemia.
Results have been very good indeed. The untreated mice died in about 7 days while with few exception the treated mice survived. When the treated mice were finally sacrificed, they showed no evidence of cancer. These tests, as well as actual experience using the ring on the human body, prove definitely that there are no side effects.
Gianni Dotto has now had 5 years of experience in the use of his ring. For the past 2 years the ring has been in operation in his Bio-Physics Laboratory (Kettering, OH). Results have been uniformly good.
Following is the scientific paper prepared by Gianni Dotto.

Background of the Theory of the Dotto Ring
Most of the external physical factors which have been implicated in the evolution of life are of an electromagnetic nature. It has now been established that throughout the reviewable geological period the biosphere has been a region of electromagnetic fields and radiations of all the frequencies known to us --- from slow periodic variations to the earth's magnetic field and electric fields to gamma rays.
It is fundamentally possible on the basis of general considerations that any of the ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum could have played some role in the evolution of life and are involved in the vital processes of organisms. This has already been demonstrated for a considerable region of the spectrum; for electromagnetic radiations in the infrared to ultraviolet range (photobiology) and from x-rays (radiobiology).
The situation is different with the vast remaining region of the spectrum, which includes electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of super-high, ultra-high, high, low, and infra-low frequencies. Experimental investigations and theoretical considerations suggest that EMFs can have a significant biological action only when their intensity is fairly high and that such action can be due to only one process: conversion of electromagnetic energy to heat or vice versa.
There is an increasing amount of reliable experimental data which indicates that EMFs can have non-thermal effects and that living organisms of diverse species, from unicellular organisms to man, are extremely sensitive to EMFs.
Finally, it has been found that very weak natural EMFs can have non-thermal effects and that living organisms of diverse species, from unicellular organisms to man, are extremely sensitive to EMFs.
Finally, it has been found that very weak natural EMFs can affect organisms of various species. All this indicates the necessity for a fundamentally new approach to the problem of the biological action of EMFs and for the need to reconsider the question of the possible role of EMFs in the vital activity of organisms (Parin).
It is believed that my work is not the first attempt at such an approach to the problem on the basis of the concept of the informational role of EMFs in the evolution and vital activity of organisms. There are three kinds of "biological activity of EMFs":
(1) The effect of natural environment EMFs on the regulation of vital processes.
(2) The role of internal fields in the organism in the coordination of physiological processes.
(3) The interaction between organisms by means of EMFs.
It is not sufficient to consider only the energetic aspect of the interaction of EMFs with biological systems and a portion of my past investigations have dealt with the informational functions of these fields in living nature.
I have constructed equipment necessary to conduct my cancer research. A substantial data bank of case histories has been accumulated. Not all case histories are well defined, but general results are amazingly good. This is understandable, however, since I am in the process of establishing the first formulation of a new biological problem.
My concept of the information functions of EMFs in living organisms and the hypothesis expresses in this respect will undoubtedly rouse interest in a wide circle of the medical readers.
The objectives of this research project are:
(1) Prove that the human body responds favorably when exposed to EMFs.
(2) Establish what types of EMFs are more effective.
(3) Determine the specific frequency of EMFs for different types of disease.
Working Theory of the Dotto Ring
There are four basic, major but disparate theories explaining the development of cancerous tissue.
(1) Virus (theory supported by scientists of Sloan-Kettering, NY).
(2) Low negative voltage across cancer cell skin (Cone, NASA).
(3) Excess of base pairs per turn on DNA double helix (Dotto).
(4) Alteration of the DNA code due to a certain type of virus (Temin).
The first theory would be correct if we are to accept the hypothesis that all the viruses of the four groups responsible for the manufacture of the nuclei (even if similar in size, shape, and crystal form) are tuned to a different frequency, according to the location in the human body of different groups of cells. In this case, a virus out of position can create the Temin phenomena of mixing up the sequence of the DNA code. If this is the case, the theory that someday immunization against cancer will be as simple as polio immunization is unrealistic. The variety of cancer immunization viruses will be in the numerical magnitude of trillions.
Theory #2 (Cone, NASA) would be acceptable if we consider a cancerous cell a parasite cell, to some extent.
According to Theory #3 (Dotto), the magnetic charge of the genetic code is maintained at the proper level by the electrical property of the double helix, which functions as a common transformer; where voltage of the primary and the secondary winding is proportional to the number of turns of the coils.
If the DNA double helix of a cancer cell has a lesser number of turns than the DNA double helix of a normal cell, then the voltage across the cancer cell must be lower than the voltage across the normal cell; consequently, the number of base pairs per turn will be greater. Greater base pairs per turn of the double helix and eagerness of completing the outer electron orbiting of the atomic structure of the nucleus leads to a greater capacity of reproduction of the DNA.
The second and third theories then are similar in principle but explained from a different observer's viewpoint. One explains the result; the other explains the cause.
Theory #4 (Temin) is a consequence of Theory #1 (Sloan-Kettering, NY) --- however, with an incorrect interpretation of the phenomena. Due to the tremendous variety of viruses classified in 8 distinct groups, 4 RNA types and 4 DNA types, there is no way in which to resolve the immunization capability unless the immunization factor can be obtained with the natural method described in the second Dotto patent application # 42,301, filed June 1, 1970:
"Milk taken from the right breast of a nursing mother is maintained separate from the milk taken from the left breast. On high-G centrifuge, viruses are separated from proteins and fats. Immunization will start with oral or injection methods, by using RNA type viruses from the right breast and repeated tow months later with DNA type viruses from the left breast. In the human breast, there are all the variety of viruses necessary for the immunization."
Why, then, the electronic reactor (Dotto Ring Device) and not chemistry to resolve the problem?
To begin with: in the normal process of life of a healthy body, when a new cell is produced, the orbital electron spinning of the new cell assumes a direction opposite to one of the mother cell, in order to maintain the mutual attraction. When the increasing kinetic electron energy of the new cells overcome the energy of the mother cell, the orbital electron spinning of the mother cell is forced to change direction and mutual rejection occurs. In the process, the entire energy of the mother cell collapses (in the same fashion as a transformer core) and its energy is absorbed entirely by the new cells.
However, if the energy potential and derived magnetic field in the human body is diminished or unbalanced, the new cell loses the body support to increasing kinetic energy and the dying cell never changes direction electron spinning. The dying cell then maintains enough residual energy to be attracted by the new born cell and becomes its parasite. The DNA of the new cell now must perform double work; support the new cell and the parasite cell, with the result that the life span of the new DNA will be shortened. The oncoming new DNA must now have enough energy to support the dying cell and the parasite cell. Furthermore, it cannot rely any longer on the body support due to a weak or unbalanced magnetic field. In a desperate attempt to be liberated of the parasite cell, the DNA sends a message to the enzymes. Most of the time the enzymes are too busy in the assimilation of the processed food of modern civilization with the result that the DNA of the new cell has to support two parasite cells, and so on…
When the combined energy of the parasite cells becomes greater than the energy of the new cell, the new DNA loses control over the RNA in the formation of protein. The RNAs are then formed by the combined genetic code of the DNA of the parasite cells. This will occur when enough or greater genetic code in the summation of parasite cells overcomes the control of the normal DNA. The DNA code so completed may have all the information necessary to sustain life, but in the wrong sequential order; and a new strange life in the life is born. This phenomenon is known as cancer. From the above explanation it is quite obvious that a cell in the dying process must lose its entire energy to be removed by the blood or lymphatic system; otherwise the body must have enough enzyme supply to destroy the cells before they become parasites.
To prevent and control cancer, several methods can be applied:
(1) Magnetic intensity, homogeneity, and orientation in the human body must always be maintained at the optimum level.
(2) Mineral balance and proper distribution are essential.
That is, the cell needs copper to convert AC impulse from the nervous system to DC energy. This energy is necessary to maintain the DNA in the proper oscillatory frequency.
Aluminum and zinc are necessary to maintain the voltage level.
Iron is necessary to accumulate inductive energy EMF.
The most important elements, magnesium and oxygen, are necessary to insure the total collapsing effect of the iron when the electron orbital spinning in the nucleus reverses.
In modern civilization, where the entire environmental surrounding is bound to destroy humanity, the above conditions are essential for survival. While natural food consumption maintains the proper mineral balance, and may maintain the enzyme proportion in the high level, the most important factor is to supply the body with enough energy to maintain the magnetic field as described above. However, we must clarify that we call the magnetic force any energy capable of attracting or repelling matter. In reality, there are four different types of magnetic force, each one caused by a different physical phenomenon.
(1) Permanent Magnet ~ If we try to magnetize a copper bar, we will never succeed because in the copper the outer orbit of the electrons increases the kinetic energy without shifting electrons from one orbit to another. We will obtain the same effect if we try to magnetize a bar of nickel.
Now let's take a copper-nickel alloy, such as alnickel, and expose it to the EMF of a high inductive coil. The directional spinning of the electrons' orbit in the nickel does not change, but the orbital spinning of the electrons in the copper reverses its direction. Result: any atom of nickel strongly attracts an atom of copper, creating a bipole. The energy summation of all bipoles combined creates one of the strongest permanent magnets on the market --- alnickel V. Every permanent magnet then must be composed of at least two different atoms, one of which is willing to change the orbital spinning direction of the electrons. This type of permanent magnet is not recommended for any therapeutic purpose for the human body.
While in mice tests this type of permanent magnet seems to be very promising (Barnothy, Pressman, etc.), the physical working principle is similar to the H bonds' attraction that holds together the DNA. The tumor in the mouse disappears due to the disassembly of the DNA in the affected cell by the demagnetization effect of the H bonds. At the same time the genetic code of the healthy cell is also altered and the consequences in the following generations could be very undesirable.
(2) Electromagnet ~ This type of magnetic field obeys the third Newtonian law of motion (to every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction).
If an iron bar is inserted in the center of an inductive coil, every electron traveling along the coil wire forces one electron in the iron bar to travel in the opposite direction. This type of magnetic field is not recommended for any therapeutic purposes. On the contrary, it has been proved to be detrimental even in mice tests. Electrons flowing along the magnetic coil will shift electrons from one part of the body to another. In this process RNA type viruses of negative polarity will be shifted from diseased cells to healthy cells in the same fashion as electrons. Furthermore, the shifting of electrons deprives the healthy cells of the energy necessary to support life and will produce severe side effects of dizziness that will last for several days thereafter.
(3) Electrostatic Attraction ~ When we rub a bar of hard rubber or a bar of amber, one acquires electrons in excess and the other loses electron from the outer shell orbit. Consequently, one will attract particles rich in electrons and the other will attract particles poor of electrons. This type of magnetic attraction is not recommended because one will weaken the energy of the normal cells; the other will increase the negative potential of the skin of the cancer cell, thus facilitating the growth of the cancer.
(4) Thermomagnetic Field ~ The thermomagnetic field is the product of the Thompson-Peltier effects combined, known in physics as the Seebeck Effect.
The thermomagnetic field is responsible for the general gravitation system: heat (sun) attracts cool (planet) and vice versa. According to Dotto law:
F = G M'M"/[sq root of] 1-(K'/Pamu/K"/Eamu 4/3 pi)2 / R2 / [sq. root of]1-(K"/K1)2
K' = warmest body; K" = coolest body; Pamu = 1.00759; Eamu = 0.00055; G = 6.66 x 10-8 cm3 g-1 sec-2
The Newtonian law of attraction F = G (M'M"/R2) can be applied only between two masses having the same temperature.
This type of magnetic field is the only type of energy proven to be beneficial to animals and humans. Since humans have lived in this constant magnetic or gravitational field for millions of years, the body has become very sensitive to any variation.
The Thompson Effect
One end of a copper rod is heated and the other is cooled. If the hot side is heated high enough, it will thermally increase the kinetic energy of the outer orbit electrons to a point where their kinetic energy (1/2 mv2) will be greater than the work function and allow them to discharge into space. Due to the copper conductivity the electrons, instead of dissipating into the air, will shift in tremendous quantity toward the cools side in straight lines, following the heat propagation velocity. By reaction, excited electrons for the cool side will travel in the opposite direction at the speed of a particle (1/2 mv2) toward the hot side encircling the copper rod by gyroscopic phenomenon and following Fleming's rule. The product is very low voltage (few millivolts) as a resultant of the electrons traveling in a circular motion. But, as in any electrical circuit, the EMF in the copper rod is governed by Ohm's law ( E/R = I) and will be in the range of several thousand amperes.
The Peltier Effect
In a metal alloy bar (such as constantan, 60% Cu, 40% Ni) one end is heated and the other is maintained cold. When the hot end is heated enough, electrons of nickel and copper atoms become excited. The electrons of nickel force the electrons of copper to reverse orbital spinning (as described in part 1). By centripetal force electrons form the cool side shift toward the hot side. The hot side becomes negative in respect to the cold positive side, exactly opposite to the Thompson effect.
Of course, the Thompson and the Peltier effects are temporary; they last only until the proportion between the cool and the hot side reaches the electrons' numerical balance.
Let's now combine the Thompson and Peltier effects together in the thermocouple fashion. In the Thompson effect the electrons move from the hot side toward the cold side. In the Peltier effect the electrons travel from the cold toward the hot side, and back to the hot side of the copper to complete the circuit. The temporary phenomenon of the Thompson-Peltier effect now combined becomes permanent for as long as the temperatures of the hot and cold junction are maintained unbalanced. In physics this is known as the Seebeck Effect.
Let's now reduce the Peltier Effect rod to the minimum possible length according to the equation:
Con R = Cu R x pi. The electrons, in the reaction phenomenon described in the Thompson Effect, instead of traveling toward the copper hot junction, will be attracted by the centripetal force of the electrons spinning in the Peltier Effect, and the free electrons in the Peltier Effect will be attracted by the hot junction of the Thompson Effect. Furthermore, to obtain a sawtooth effect of a unijunction transistor, a silicon pellet is added between the two cold junctions, and the EMF becomes unidirectional with oscillatory frequency of approximately 1.9 megacycles. In this condition 95% of the EMF traveling in linear velocity motion equal to the heat propagation will be accelerated time and time again by the hot side of the ring, and the resulting kinetic energy in the orbital electrons will be so great that the various electron shells will travel on the same orbital plane. As a result, portions of the atom proton energy will be exposed toward the center of the ring. The phenomena that then occur in the Ring Device are unique in their nature and not replaceable by any artificial means.
In the Ring Device the following phenomena can be detected:
(1) The voltage is maintained at a minimum of 25 to 45 millivolts. This EMF will produce 120 gauss at the ring circumference, and 10 gauss at the center of the ring. This is approximately 5 times the earth's magnetic field. This magnetic field is sufficient to maintain the orientation of the human body, but too weak to jeopardize the orbital spinning in the H bonding of the DNA.
(2) In the electromagnetic field and permanent magnet the electrons travel from the south toward the north pole. If this type of magnetic field is applied to the human body it will have the same deteriorating effect as if the jumper used to start a car is connected to the opposite polarity of the battery. In the ring the EMF travels from the positive pole toward the negative in the same fashion dry batteries are instantly charged by inductive methods.
(3) Like in any electrical circuit, the energy across the ring is regulated by the Ohm law where (E = .045 volt / R= 5 x 10-6) I = 9,000 amp, as explained before.
It is quite obvious that there is enough energy to supply every one of the 6.3 trillion human cells the proper energy needed. The energy from the ring is transferred to the body by an inductive method similar to the one used to instantly charge a dry battery. During the treatment the ring is maintained at constant slow motion of 1-1/2 inch per second. This velocity is sufficient to cause energy transfer from the ring to the body by inductive method, but not fast enough to create any disturbance to the electron orbital spinning in the DNA H bonds. In the process, the parasite cells (cancer cells) are also charged to the energy level of the healthy cells, and like a faulty car battery, they release the energy and reverse polarity at each end of the inductive effect. Four to five passages of the ring near the tumor are sufficient to deprive the cell energy and to reverse the orbital spinning of the electrons in the phosphate bonds. In this condition, the bases of the DNA repel each other and the DNA dissolves. At the end of the cell life span the tumor disappears. Of course, for the Ring to be effective, the treatment must start when the disease is first detected. Radiations of any nature prior to the ring treatment will accelerate the orbital electron spinning in the DNA H bonds and will jeopardize the benefit of the Ring treatment.
From the above clarification it is quite evident that the Ring Device does not remagnetize, reorient, and homogenize the magnetic field in the body by external magnetization, but by energy transfer in the inductive fashion.
Let's explain with an example. Let's consider an electric generator where the rotor is formed of a plurality of magnetic poles. If the rotor is rotated by external means, the coil winding of the stator absorbs and transfers EMF at the expense of the magnetic pole (electric generator).
If the EMF is supplied to the stator winding, the rotor generates power (electric motor) at the expense of external EMF, while the magnetic pole of the rotor will gain intensity.
The human body is like a rotor with an infinite number of poles, DNA frequency, field orientation, etc. By applying energy from the stator (Dotto Ring) the body will create power, while the magnetic level, DNA H bond and the field orientation gain intensity. The Ring then transfers energy to the body and does not force the body to give up energy b means of external magnetic field. Furthermore, as will be explained later, the electrons at the end of sugar phosphate rod and in the atom of hydrogen (H bonds) present at the ends of the bases (nucleotides) have the electron orbital spinning in different directions. This is to ensure that sugar is bonded only with phosphate, adenine only with thymine, and guanine only with cytosine.
When in the 6 billion bases joined together to form the human DNA, one or two electrons spinning in the phosphate bond are forced to reverse orbital direction by means of a cosmic ray, radiation, high energy photon, microwave beam (radar), permanent magnet, high intensity electromagnet, laser, etc., due to the property of the sugar crystal of rotating the plane of polarized light to the right, the DNA immediately will release the hit base and attract a new one to reestablish the genetic code. But now it is quite possible that the new base connects itself upside down: phosphate with phosphate, sugar with sugar, and adenine or thymine with cytosine or guanine. The elements attract each other because of opposite directional spinning of the electrons in the H bonds and not because of different chemical composition.
The DNA now is completed again but with a wrong sequence in the genetic information. By reestablishing the homogeneity of the magnetic orientation of the DNA by means of inductive energy, the wrong base is rejected again and the proper one is attracted. In nature plants like peach, apricot, etc., restore the proper DNA sequence by means of glycosides, always present in the fruit pit. Glycosides are solids, generally crystalline, and most have a bitter taste. Their solution shows the property of rotating the plane of polarized light to the left. Under the influence of naturally occurring substances (enzymes) present in trace amounts in neighboring cells, glycosides can be split into one or more sugar and non-sugar portions termed Amygdalin.
Amygdalin shows greater property of rotating the plane of polarized light to the left than the crystalline sugar to the right. Under the influence of ultraviolet light coming from the sun, the plane of polarization is shifted to the left, and the proper orbital electron spinning in the phosphate base is restored.
The DNA readjustment effect is proportional, of course, to the amount of ultraviolet light available to the plant. For humans, the use of inductive energy is more effective and less complicated.
The Thompson-Peltier Effect then, such as produced in the Ring Device, is unique in its form and energy creation and cannot be replaced by any artificial means.
The ring is capable of creating a field feasible for use on the human body as a product of a voltage intensity similar to the voltage measured across a normal cell, but with a current intensity greater than the total amount of energy measured across the entire human body (3-6,000 amps).
The Aging Process
To understand the human aging process, let's now examine the structure and the function of the DNA. Imagine a flexible ladder 1 meter (39" long) composed of 6 billion steps. Each step has the form of two capital T's facing each other. The horizontal line of the "T" has 70% of its length made of sugar and 30% of phosphate.
The vertical line is of a different composition: adenine or guanine, or thymine, or cytosine.
At the vertical ends of the "T" there are atoms of hydrogen (The hydrogen, first element in the atomic chart, is composed of one proton and one electron).
Refer now to the alnickel permanent magnet explanation.
At the end of the phosphate rod the orbital electrons spin clockwise. At the end of the sugar rod the orbital electrons spin counter-clockwise. In the hydrogen atoms, at the end of adenine and thymine, the electrons spin clockwise, and in the hydrogen atoms at the end of guanine and cytosine they spin counter-clockwise. This type of "T" is called base or nucleotide. The DNA is then formed by 12 billion nucleotides facing each other and connected in a straight line to form the double helix. This is the genetic code and every one of the 6.3 trillion cells of the human body has at least one.
To form a new cell the DNA must repeat itself. This is accomplished by splitting the ladder along the middle of the step and reforming two DNAs absolutely identical and in the same sequence. To form two DNAs, another 12 billion nucleotides are necessary.
Inside the cell nucleus there are constantly at least 8 different types of virus, 4 RNA types (negative charge) and 4 DNA types (positive charge). Every pair of viruses (one RNA and one DNA type) attracts each other to form a dipole. They do so first to protect themselves against any external magnetic disturbance, and second to accumulate energy in the following manner:
Inactive viruses are crystalline forms, but in active status, such as inside the cell nucleus, they reveal one RNA or DNA core covered with protein. Of course, even inactive status they still maintain all the properties of a crystal, and as a crystal they are very sensitive to the high sound frequencies.
Under sound frequency up to 5 megacycles the two viruses continuously strain each other and produce energy due to the piezoelectric effect (the same principle is used in the energy conversion of the supersonic generator). In the ultrahigh sound frequency over 5 megacycles, an isolated inactive virus can be excited to alter the transition temperatures or Curie point and disintegrate (Ruben). The human DNA (like a Yogy antenna one meter long) is tuned to any radio emission between 375-385 megacycles)
Furthermore, the DNA is under the constant influence of charged ions traveling through the nervous system and acting as a modulation frequency. The combined action of the two physical phenomena force the DNA to emit a high frequency sound in the range of 1.9-2 megacycles in order to detect, by returning echo, what type of protein is missing in the cell. These sound frequencies are not only necessary to the DNA in scanning the type of RNA to produce, but also to maintain active the virus in bipole form by means of the strain effect.
To control the energy level from the piezoelectric effect, the RNA type virus covers itself with phosphate and the DNA type virus with sugar. In forming this special type of coating the virus, like any living organism, produces waste. These wastes are accumulated in the center of the rod just formed and will be called adenine, guanine, thymine or cytosine according to the type of virus in the bipole. The process to make the coating is accomplished at the expense of the electrical charge accumulated by the piezoelectric effect. At the end of the charge, to remain active the group of viruses removes the coating that now is in the form of a capital "T" and exposes itself to the high frequency sound produced by the DNA and the process starts all over again.
Due to the described phenomena, the DNA has always enough bases available to produce RNA strains and to reproduce itself. Now, let's go back to the flexible ladder composed of 6 billion steps. Suppose we twist this strange ladder so many times to have only a few steps for every turn of the coil so formed (these coils are called base pair per turn). Since every base has a different polarity according to the code formed by passed generations, the DNA can be compared to the multi-polarity rotor of an alternator. In the alternator, the speed is inversely proportional to the number of poles and the output power is directly proportional to the energy applied. At every electrical impulse flowing through the nervous system the DNA moves back and forth as many degrees as one base is separated from the next one. The more base pairs per turn the less degree the DNA has to move and less energy is required to make it vibrate.
Then there are three controlling factors for the DNA to reproduce itself and create a new cell:
(1) The kinetic energy of the electron in the H bonds.
(2) The number of the base pair per turn in the double helix.
(3) Energy and the frequency of charged ions traveling along the nervous system; i.e, the DNA of the embryo cell in the mother's womb has 46 base pairs per turn; the kinetic energy of the electrons in the H bond is weak; charged ions coming from the mother's body are strong. Result: the DNA produces one cell per second. After 6 weeks of pregnancy, the DNA in the cell of the embryo has 34 base pairs per turn, the kinetic energy of the electrons in the H bonds increases, the charged ions from the mother are unchanged; the DNA produces one cell every minute, and so on. By the time the fetus is in the 10th lunar month, the single DNA (half from the mother, half from the father) has already reproduced itself more than 6 trillion times.
When the baby is born, the slowing process of reproduction increases. At the age of two, the DNA winds again to have 22 base pairs per turn, 14 at the age of 21, and 10 at the age of 35. From the age of 35 to 55, the 10 base pairs per turn in the DNA do not change. At approximately the age of 55, the base pairs per turn are reduced to 6. By this time, the kinetic energy of the electron in the H bond and the energy of the charged ion become very weak and the DNA stops reproducing itself, and the aging process beings. To slow down the body aging process, three factors must be considered:
(1) Ways of stretching the DNA to increase the base pairs per turn back up to 10,by means of energy in motion up and down along the body as in the Ring Device.
(2) Increase the electron kinetic energy in the H bonds by means of proton pulling force. The proton energy available (as previously explained) toward the center of the ring is high enough to attract (in the vacuum) one electron 20 feet away)
(3) Increase the energy of the charged ions in the nervous system by means of exercise and proper diet.
At this point it is necessary to clarify one important factor that is the basic secret of life creation. Without explaining the working principle of this secret, we will never understand the vital importance of the homogeneity and orientation of the magnetic field in the human body. All the 6.3 trillion DNAs of the human body are absolutely identical, all are tuned to the same resonance frequency, a;; have exactly the same genetic code sequence. Yet the 6.3 trillion cells in the human body, where each DNA is enclosed, are all different, and each one of these cells fits exactly the proper place and functionality in the human system. How is this possible?
The human DNA, as mentioned before, is approximately 39 inches (1 meter) long and has 6 billion steps formed by 12 billion base pairs. The entire length of the DNA is necessary to maintain and transmit from generation to generation the entire genetic code. Yet only a portion of the DNA (different in every cell) is used to create a specific cell. How is this accomplished?
Suppose we have a thread one meter long. On this thread we insert 46 nylon light beads 1/2 inch long. Now let's insert this strange chain in the center of an electrostatic tube with bipole orientation. After a few seconds all the nylon beads will be charged with the same electrostatic energy and they will repel each other, leaving an interspace between them. They will repel each other, but not with the same force. The interspace between the beads located near the north side of the electrostatic charge will be shorter; gradually toward the opposite polarity of the tube the interspace will be longer. Now the only part of the thread we see is the one not hidden by the beads. Let's now call the thread DNA and the 46 beads chromosomes. Since the chromosomes act as a shield, the only portion of the DNA that controls a specific cell is the one of the interspace between the chromosomes, which for every cell has a different length according to different magnetic intensity, polarity and orientation in the human body. Each chromosome encloses 1,250 DNA lengths (genes) and each gene is formed of 100,000 base pairs (microgene). Of the total 6 billion steps of the ladder (DNA), only 250 million are really controlling the cell life.
The chromosomes appear immediately after the DNA is formed and they disappear when the cell is completed and just before the DNA is ready to repeat itself, to reappear again only in the new DNA. If the chromosomes of the new DNA, due to the phenomenon previously explained, have the wrong interspace sequence, it is quite possible that the DNA will produce, i.e., in the neck a cell that belongs in the kidney or vice versa. This also can be called a cancer.
Furthermore, like in a musical instrument, the sound produced by the DNA in the scanning system has different harmonics according to the chromosome's interspace.
The virus responsible for the creation of nucleotides in a different group of cells of different harmonics, adjusts the equilibrium potentials of the component charges in the crystal lattice. This pressure effect in the electrical field distribution governs the final crystal structure of the many compounds of the virus. If a group of RNA type of virus with a final crystal structure as a result of harmonics of one group of cells is transferred by means of electromagnetic reaction in a different group of cells, under the influence of the new harmonics, it will alter the transition temperature (Curie point).
In this transaction it will lose the protein coating and release the core DNA to control the protein creation in the new cell (Ruben). As a result, a new type of cell will be created different from any surrounding cell, and this also will be a cancer cell.
From the above described phenomenon, well known in physics, the Temin theory that the RNA type virus uses its own RNA core as a template to modify the structure of the genetic code and create the reversal of the DNA is absurd. If the phenomenon exists, it could not be a creation of the present civilization, but has existed from the beginning of time. And there are no records available of claims of apes deriving from humans.
Theories #1 and #4 of the introductory explanation support the principle that some forms of cancer and leukemia are caused by isolated viruses. In this case a physical principle known as the Pyro-Piezoelectric Effect will be with solution of the problem.
If a Rochelle slat crystal is rapidly cooled from 25° to 0° C., the polarization increases so fast that the normal conductivity cannot bring about equilibrium and a transient potential as great as a thousand volts can be produced between two electrodes contacting the crystal (Ruben).
Since in the isolated virus crystal, the RNA or DNA type core acts as an electrode between the two poles, when the voltage potential overcomes the core's DC resistance, the energy discharges across it will be so great as to disintegrate the virus core a common electric fuse. The same phenomena, of course, is applied to the joint virus (one DNA and one RNA type) existing in the cell nucleus and responsible for the DNA creation. Because of the electrical principle that in an inductance, two joint EMFs opposite and contrary eliminate each other, no voltage will appear across the joint virus.
In an experiment with dying AKR mice (mice carrying leukemia), a constant laboratory temperature of 35° was maintained. The cage containing the mice was placed two times a day for 20 minutes each time in a small refrigerator where temperature was kept at 0° C. After 5 days of treatment the mice were sacrificed and pathological studies revealed no evidence of lymphosarcoma. A piezobaric chamber, where a temperature body change of 25° C can be obtained in less than 1 minute, is under construction to repeat the experiment.
By evenly re-establishing the orientation of the body's magnetic field, the virus groups responsible for the manufacture of the nuclei (necessary for the reproduction of the DNA ) are bound to stay only in the specific group of cells tuned to their own resonance frequency with no chance of spreading to other parts of the body.
With the correction of the environmental resonance frequency of a group of cells, a virus out of position will become inactive in the same fashion as a portion of a variable capacitor not facing the stator. In Theory #3 (Dotto), the Ring re-establishes the proper number of base pairs per turn on the DNA double helix due to the phenomenon known as the Wunder Effect.
In a vacuum, a suspended secondary coil inserted in a primary coil of fixed number of turns, adjusts itself to the same primary number of turns when voltage is applied, with capability proportional to the current intensity and inversely proportional to the square of the spring reaction strength of the secondary coil. This principle is widely applied in automatic tuning devices for modern color television. By applying to the human body voltage, EMF and magnetic intensity similar to the value existing in the DNA of normal cells (in the human between the ages of 35 and 55) a voltage of 45 to 75 millivolts maintains a linearity of 10 base pairs per turn in the double helix (Crick-Watson). The DNA of the cancer cell adjusts itself to the proper level of functionality, regardless of cell condition, since absorbed energy will be inversely proportional to the existing cell energy level.
In the case of 6 base pairs per turn in the double helix (humans over 55), when the DNA stops the reproduction capability, the base pairs per turn are triggered back to 10 and remain so as long as the magnetic intensity is reapplied at least once every 14 days. This results in slowing down the aging process.
Another important factor must be clarified: In widely known mice experiments (Presman, Barnothy), a combined action of a constant permanent magnetic field and microwaves in the gigacycle range proved to be very effective in causing tumor regression in mice. This phenomenon is caused by the disturbance action of the microwaves on the normal orbital spinning of electrons in the DNA H bonds. But we must not forget that to the humans we must give the right to live, not merely to survive. However, frequency in the range of 1 to 3 mc and modulation frequency of 80 to 200 kc is known to penetrate deeper into the human body and is capable of breaking the thin skin of the cancer cell without jeopardizing the DNA code of normal cells (Presman).
For this reason, the Ring is pretuned on the Peltier junction to the average frequency of 1.8 mc and modulation frequency of 100 kc to obtain a current fluctuation chopping effect similar to a unijunction transistor. The Ring also is a 350 ohms television antenna, where the lower band resonance is tuned to a VHF (Thompson Effect junction) and the upper band (Peltier junction) is tuned to UHF resonance. The upper frequency then maintains the activity of the normal cell on the correct level, while the penetrating low frequency neutralizes the activity of the cancer cell.
Theory #2, which postulates that cancer cells, to some extent, may be considered as parasitic cells, is proven correct as far as the Ring is concerned. The Ring is an inductive coil. In the motion along the body, the Ring recharges the cells to the proper desired level. While the normal cells retain the charge, the cancer cells behave like a faulty battery. At the passage of the Ring, the temporary magnetic charge collapses in the same fashion as transformer laminations.
This collapsing effect is detectable by electrodes of an EEG sensitive to electrical brain impulses. By synchronizing a recorder to the Ring velocity, the location of the collapsing tumor can be detected within 5 cm accuracy.
Many years of investigation have proved the Ring to have no detrimental or side effects. On the contrary, it has proved to be very helpful for people who have suffered form exposure to radiation, cobalt, linear accelerators, etc.
For all the reasons stated above, the Ring should be considered primarily as a tool for physicians in disease prevention and disease control, rather than a cure.
Dr. Gianni A. Dotto
(8 February, 1972)
Anti Aging Device- Electromagnetic Radio Frequency generator
The last month has been an Odyssey. The good news the Radio Frequency version of the Dotto Ring is in. I will call it the Heavy Gravity machine for now. The field strenght is about 120 Gauss with a frequency of 1.9MHz. This is the frequency that Dotto claims triggers DNA replication. Anyone interested in this device, I urge them to read up on Dotto.
The Reader’s Digest is that Gravity=Life. More gravity=More Life or Negative Entropy or Anti-aging. Dotto studied an area in Northern Pakistan called the Hunza valley where the average lifespan was over 120 years old. Most people attribute the longevity of the Hunza’s to the food and the water found in that particular area. Dotto discounted this as the reason for the long lifespans. Dotto said the region contained magnetic anomalies not found anywhere else in the world. The Hunza valley has a unique juxtaposition of a mountainous glacier area next to a hot valley. Dotto states that it is the thermal unbalance of the region that creates a magnetic field stronger than the surrounding area.
The original Dotto Ring is a Thermo-couple that creates a hot and cold magnetic field equivalent to 5X the field strenght of the Hunza valley. According to the legend, Dotto reversed people’s age over 20 years. The premise is that the device created magnetic induction or energy transfer directly into the DNA. The DNA is a spiraling coil like a caduceus, as you age the coil shortens and tightens as a function of conservation of energy.
The DNA bases are proteins that hold magnetic charge like a battery. The proteins convert the magnetic energy into electrical energy to run the processes of the cells. This is known as pre-natal chi by the Chinese. The Chinese system believes you have a limited amount of pre-natal Chi and that once it is exhausted you die.
The RNA is on both ends of a DNA base, as the cells replicate pieces of the RNA are lost. The RNA strands shorten until they are too short to communicate to the DNA to split.
This essentially is also death from a western scientific point of view. In addition as the DNA coil shortens and tightens electrical impedance increases. Electricity is harder to run through the DNA coil. The replication process slows down as impedance increases. As you age you notice, you do not have as much energy and you need to sleep more. The feeling that people are growing younger around you and that you are growing older is another function of loss of energy within your genetics. The Bible has stories of people living for close to 1000 years old. We live for approximately 120, why the difference?
GRAVITY… and the use of Nuclear weapons. The garden of Eden was a heavier gravitational environment. Nuclear radiation has degraded our DNA through unhealthy mutations. Essentially genetics is a function of consciousness, higher evolved beings have longer DNA strands. There are functions within the junk DNA, that when rearranged will lead to much extended lifespans. My contention is that this can be achieved in this lifetime with the use of Bridge technologies such as the Heavy Gravity machine.
Now for the test results since I have received the machine on Feb 19th. For now all experiences are anecdotal and not the result of any medical tests. While the device is on after about 10 minutes, it triggers a response from the parasympathetic nervous system. That is relaxation, it nothing else happens it is a great meditation machine. The connective tissue in the body starts to soften and relaxation flows everywhere. Bowels movements are heavy, who needs colonics. The first two treatments my eyes were hurting while the machine was on. I am now noticing a month later, I am not squinting nearly as much. The most remarkable improvement has been my hearing, I can hear out of my right ear as well as my left now. There is surprisingly little wax buildup either even though I am a habitual cellphone user.
Over the last month I have had a tremendous amount of stress, tax troubles, family members dying and possible harassment from my new landlord due to condo conversion, yet I have held together and accomplished more in the last month than at any previous time in my life. This I attribute to the machine. Emotional detox, wow! The machine seems to work on different areas of the body almost like it is alive, quite strange. On two separate occasions, my liver was moving like a heartbeat and the rage that was coming off it was intense. I would say probably limit treatments to 30 minutes per day to start and not the 2 hours or more that I do. I have lost weight from my midsection, this may be due to bowel movements or perhaps there is a switch in the type of hormones being released into my bloodstream. I don’t need as much sleep and definitely have more energy. For now I am much more emotionally reactive, moving from vulnerable states to angry and vengeful. These moods pass quickly and are akin to the Reichian therapy sessions I use to go through. Organ pulsation is a sign of body armoring dissolving and the person becoming whole.
I am a lot less self-conscious and more spontaneous in the last month, I seem to just do things without thinking. One of the thought forms that I have been focusing on generating on the last few years is unlimited abundance, the irony of the recent problems with my landlord may lead to a buyout of my apartment, an interesting way to create abundance. What I am beginning to see is that this device creates compression, everything seems to speed up.

US Patent # 3,839,771
Method for Constructing a Thermionic Couple
October 8, 1974
Giani A. Dotto
A method for constructing a thermionic couple comprising an apparatus in the form of a ring or loop of metal such as copper having high electrical and thermal conductivity. The ring has spaced ends forming a gap joined by a bridge member formed of material having significantly lower electrical and thermal conductivity than the ring. A substantial thermal unbalance is induced between the junctions of the ring and the ring member. The width of the gap and the effective length of the bridge member is adjusted to produce a recurrent thermoelectric balance, resulting in repeated changed in the energy level of the metal atoms of the ring.
In a typical embodiment of the present invention, an electrically and thermally conductive metal strip has end portions thereof bridged by a member of a material having substantially different thermoelectric properties. Means are provided to establish a substantial temperature difference between the opposite end portions of the metal strip and bridge member, with an appropriate adjustment being made with respect to the point of connection of the bridge to one end portion of the strip, to provide a loop wherein oscillation involving high electrical excursions occurs, resulting in continuing changes in energy levels of the metal atoms in the strip.
Figure 1 is a plan view of one embodiment of the apparatus.
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary section showing detail of the bridge member and opposite ends of the ring of the embodiment in my invention shown in Figure 1.
Description of the Preferred Embodiments
Referring now to Figure 1 and Figure 2, a ring or loop 56 is formed with spaced apart ends 57 defining a gap therebetween. In an embodiment of the invention constructed and operated successfully, the ring was formed of a copper bar having a width of 9 inches and a thickness of 1/2 inch, formed into a loop approximately 27 inches in diameter, with a gap between the ears 57. The copper material used was an annealed copper having a purity of 99.99% copper, and an electrical resistance of [1.7 microhm-cm] ohms-circular mil per foot at 20° C. This is the international standard of resistance for annealed copper and is equal to 100% electrical conductivity. The thermal conductivity of this copper is in the order of 1 calorie per second through a thickness of 1 cm and across an area of one square cm at a temperature difference of 1° C.
On the outer sides of the ears 57 there are blocks 58 of insulating material which are both electrically and thermally insulative. Insulating tubes 59 (one shown in Figure 2) extend through the blocks 58 and the ears 57, providing an insulating passage for bolts 61 having suitable threaded fasteners 62 at one or both ends. This provides a means for adjusting the gap between the ears 57 without short-circuiting across the gap either thermally or electrically.
Attached to the ears 57, as by brazing or the like, is a bridge member 63 forming a separate "short circuit" electrical and thermal path between the ears, apart from the continuity of the bar. The bridge member is formed of one or more rods of a metal alloy such as Constantan, which is an alloy of essentially 60% copper and 40% nickel., having a significantly lower electrical and thermal conductivity than the copper bar and hence a significantly higher electrical and thermal resistance than the ring 56. For example, Constantan has an electrical resistivity in the order of 49 microhm-centimeter at 20° C and a thermal conductivity in the order of 0.054 calories per second through a thickness of 1 centimeter across one square centimeter at a temperature of 1° C.
A means for heating one end of the ring 56 is provided in the form of an electrical heater 64 connected to a suitable source of electrical power, and in the case of the specific device disclosed, having a capacity of 6000 watts and a heat exchanging area on the order of 200 square inches. A means for cooling the other end of the ring 56 is provided in the form of a refrigerating coil 66 connecting through suitable tubing to a refrigerating unit 67. In the case of the specific device disclosed, the refrigerating unit has a cooling capacity of 10,000 BTU and the cooling coil 24 has a heat exchanging area on the order of 200 square inches.
A two-channel electroencephalograph 68 (Figure 1) has one of its channels connected to the ears 57, to record the potential difference between the junctions of the ears and the bridge member. While operating the heating and cooling means, and observing the output of the oscillograph, the apparatus is initially "tuned" by fastening one end of the bridge member 63 to one of the ears 57, having the other end of the bridge member in contact with the other ear, and adjusting the threaded fasteners of the bolts 61 until the output in the oscillograph is observed to fluctuate in recurrent cyclic fashion. When this condition is achieved, the other end of the bridge member 63 is brazed to the other ear 57 of the ring.
Potential differences between the ears 57 have been recorded in the order of 0.156 millivolts, and the electrical resistance of the ring is in the order of 5.27 x 10-6 ohms. According to Ohm's Law, these conditions would indicate a current in the order of 30,000 amperes, at a frequency which, from observing the oscillograph readings, is in the order of 100 kilocycles per second with a modulation frequency of 10 kilocycles.
It appears that in operation of the device there is a change caused in the energy level of the electrons of the metal (copper) atoms, which is exhibited in a form of electron acceleration around the ring. No electron emission from the ring has been observed, by irradiating the ring with ultraviolet light during operation of the device, whereupon a pale blue-white "halo" appears about the ring or by enclosing the ring in a foggy chamber "curie" method. On the other hand, if a bar of cadmium is positioned in the center of the ring and the bar is heated high enough to thermally excite the kinetic energy of the outer orbit electrons to a point where their kinetic energy (1/2 MV2) will be greater than the work function and allow discharge into space, the electron will be attracted by the proton energy of the ring. The phenomenon is shown by the deposit of cadmium on the internal service of the copper ring as if cadmium-plated.
It is sometimes desirable to maintain the magnetic field of the ring between 240 and 160 Gauss. The amount of energy is determined by the temperature difference and the amount of resistance in the ring. The high temperatures are obtained by conventional electrical heaters. As an example. A heater having three elements, each one with a 1,000 watt rating, may be used. It is desirable to obtain a temperature of about 600° to 800° F. For the cold side a conventional coil like that of a freezer cabinet can be used, and connected to a refrigeration compressor.
The invention claimed is:
(1) The method of constructing a thermionic couple capable of exhibiting a cyclic thermionic unbalance in operation, comprising the steps of:
forming a ring of material such as copper having a low electrical resistivity in the order of 1.7 microhm-cm (at 20° C) and a relatively high thermal conductivity in the order of one calorie per second through a thickness of 1 cm and across an area of 1 square cm at a temperature difference of 1° C, with the ends of the ring defining a gap therebetween;
forming a bridge member spanning said gap of a material such as Constantan, having a significantly higher electrical resistivity, in the order of 49 microhm-cm (at 20° C) and a significantly lower thermal conductivity in the order of 0.054 calories per second through a thickness of 1 cm across an area of 1 square cm at a temperature difference of 1° C;
causing a substantial temperature difference between the ends of said ring to induce an electrical potential gradient between the ends of said ring;
placing the bridge member in contact with the ends of said ring resistance between the ends of said ring;
measuring the potential difference between the rods of said ring while the temperature difference is induced;
and adjusting the spacing between the ends of said rings and hence adjusting the effective length of the bridge member until the observed potential difference fluctuates in a cyclic manner;
and then securing said bridge member to the ends of said ring.

US Patent # 3,785,383
Electrostatic Wand
Gianni A. Dotto
(January 15, 1974)
Abstract --- Electrostatic means radiating electrical energy at selected frequencies of the order of megacycles per second is safely and harmlessly coupled capacitatively to tissue structure of a human being or of an animal with no significant flow of electrons for reducing sensitivity to pain, at least temporarily. The radiating means may comprise an evacuated glass envelop of inert gas and also contain an electrode that is intermittently subjects to an electropositive voltage during certain portions of the cycle to promote positive space charges within the envelope together with a controlled amount of ionization of said atmosphere and the production of selected forms of electromagnetic radiation such as infrared light, ultraviolet light, visible light, an mixtures thereof.