rexresearch.com


Peter GRANDICS

Pyramid Electrical Generator








Detailed technical explanation with experiments:

Infinite Energy, Vol. 13, Issue 73 (2007): Pyramidal Electric Transducer: A DC to RF Converter for the Capture of Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy

PDF

See also : TRAWOEGER, Tomas : Pyramid Electrical Generator


United States Patent  6,974,110
December 13, 2005
Method and Apparatus for Converting Electrostatic Potential Energy

Abstract

A new method is described to produce useful electrical energy from DC electrostatic fields using a pyramid-shaped capacitor. The system uses no moving parts and no mechanical energy is introduced. Also, when a pyramid-shaped electrode is charged with DC high voltage, a propulsive force is generated. This will allow the manufacture of vehicles capable of levitation and flight.

Current U.S. Class:  244/171.5 ; 244/62
Current International Class:  F03H 005/00 ()
Field of Search:  244/172,158R,169,62,53R,51
References Cited:
U.S. Patent Documents ---  3013201  December 1961  Goldie //  4127804  November 1978  Breaux //  4151409  April 1979  O'Hare //  4595852  June 1986  Gundlach //
 5052638  October 1991  Minovitch //  5305974  April 1994  Willis //  5813217  September 1998  Beall //  5947421  September 1999  Beattie et al. //  5966986  October 1999  Laul //
 6089511  July 2000  Rasmusson //  6193194  February 2001  Minovitch

Other References

DC Circuits vol. II, Circuit Analysis Methods, 1979. .
Engineering Circuit Analysis, Third Edition, 1978. .
R.V. Anderson, in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres, (H. Holezalek & R. Reiter, eds, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, 1977), pp. 87-99. .
R.G. Roble & I. Tzur, in The Earth's Electrical Environment, Studies in Geophysics (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1986), pp. 206-231. .
R.P. Feynman, Lectures on Physics (Addison-Wesley, Inc., Palo Alto, California, 1964), v.2, ch. 9, pp. 1-11. .
W. Gringel, J.M. Rosen, & D.I. Hofmann, in The Earth's Electrical Environment, Studies in Geophysics (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1986), pp. 166-182. .
R.H. Holzworth et al., "Direct Measurement of Lower Atmospheric Vertical Potential Differences," Geophys. Res. Lett. 8: 783-786 (1981). .
R.H. Holzworth, "Hy-wire Measurement of Atmospheric Potential," J. Geophys. Res. 89: 1395-1401 (1984). .
R.E. Orville, in The Earth's Electrical Environment, Studies in Geophysics (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1986), pp. 23-29. .
R.B. Standler & W.P. Winn, "Effects of Coronae on Electrid Fields Beneath Thunderstorms," Quart. J.R. Met. Soc. 105: 285-302 (1979)..

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the generation of electrical power by drawing energy from an electrostatic potential field. The conversion of DC electrostatic energy into useable electrical energy by electrostatic generators is already described in the prior art as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,013,201, 4,127,804, 4,151,409 and 4,595,852. Generally, such prior art electrostatic generators utilize mechanical energy to separate charges and thus contain complex mechanics that is difficult to scale up for a high output system. Therefore, the present invention aims to provide an electrostatic generator in which electrical power is derived exclusively from the energy of DC electrostatic fields without the input of mechanical power.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Pursuant to this invention a simple technique is described to convert the energy of a DC electrostatic field into an alternating current by wrapping a coil around the pyramid. The resulting AC current can be rectified and used for practical purposes. A pyramid-shaped capacitor can also be used in an inverse mode of operation for the generation of propulsive force.

Accordingly, one embodiment of the present invention is a method for converting DC electrostatic energy into usable electrical energy, the method comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a capacitor of pyramidal shape;

(2) placing an insulated coil on the surface of the capacitor, the coil having leads;

(3) attaching a rectifier to the leads of the coil, the rectifier having leads; and

(4) attaching a capacitor or a battery to the leads of the rectifier so that DC electrostatic energy is converted into usable electrical energy.

Another embodiment of the present invention comprises a method for converting DC electrostatic energy into propulsive force comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a first capacitor of pyramidal shape;

(2) placing an insulated conductive tip on the point of the capacitor;

(3) providing a static generator for charging the capacitor, and

(4) attaching 3 ball-shaped smaller capacitors to the bottom of the pyramidal-shaped capacitor; and

(5) providing means to extend or retract the ball-shaped capacitors from the pyramidal-shaped capacitor, so DC electrostatic energy is converted into propulsive force by the action of the first capacitor and the 3 ball-shaped smaller capacitors provide directional control.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The following invention will become better understood with reference to the specification, appended claims, and accompanying drawings, where:

FIG. 1 is a diagram demonstrating the pyramid experimental setup;

FIG. 2 is the pyramid coil signal as detected by oscilloscope; and

FIG. 3 is a diagram demonstrating power transmission on the pyramid setup.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Pursuant to this invention, a novel method is described to convert DC electrostatic energy into an AC current that can be rectified and used for practical purposes. The shape of the capacitor and the body of such device is designed to convert the DC electrostatic energy into the AC current for maximal effect.

A pyramidal or conical shape is preferred for one of the capacitor electrodes (FIG. 1). In FIG. 1, a detector coil 102 is provided that is in turn connected to an oscilloscope 104. The coil surrounds the metallic pyramid 100. In the experimental setup shown, the field is established between a top plate 106 and the pyramid 100 by using a ground 108 connected to a source of DC electrical energy 110. When a high voltage DC field (30 kV) is established on such capacitor, a regularly repeating, clocklike signal is detected in the coil placed on the pyramid's surface (FIG. 2). This is an unexpected observation as corona discharges are irregular by nature.

The alternating current from the coil can be rectified and used for practical purposes. If a suitable DC electrostatic field could be found in nature, this principle would be useful in tapping the energy of such field. To test for this possibility, I have measured the rectified signal from the coil without an external power source. The rectified coil output was collected in a capacitor and voltage measured in 1 h intervals. The voltage measured is significantly higher if the capacitor electrode is pyramid-shaped as opposed to a box-shaped electrode of the same height and volume. When the pyramid is placed into a Faraday cage, the signal is abolished (see details in the Example). The data has demonstrated in principle that with this experimental setup electrical energy can be extracted from the Earth's electrostatic field. The Earth's surface and the ionosphere substitutes for the two charged electrodes, which exhibit negative and positive polarities, respectively.

Atmospheric electricity manifests as a buildup of electrostatic energy, a phenomenon that permanently electrifies our environment (Anderson, R. V. in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres, H. Holezalek and R. Reiter, eds., (Steinkopff, Darmstadt, 1977) pp. 87-99). The voltage gradient between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere is thought to be maintained by the electrical activity of the troposphere as well as the solar wind-coupled magnetospheric dynamo (Roble, R. G. Tzur, I. in The Earth's Electrical Environment, Studies in Geophysics (National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1986) pp. 206-231). The Earth's electrostatic field is never depleted, despite the constant discharges of energy. There are two segments of atmospheric electrical processes that potentially could be tapped, fair weather and thunderstorm related atmospheric electrical phenomena.

The Earth's voltage field creates a potential difference of about 400,000 V (Feynman, R. P. Lectures on Physics (Addison Wesley, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif., 1964) v.2, Chapter 9), with a voltage gradient of about 200-300 V/m around the surface of the Earth (W. Gringell, J. M. Rosen, D. I. Hofmann, in The Earth's Electrical Environment, Studies in Geophysics (National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1986) pp. 166-182). Given this voltage drop of 200-300 V/m, the desired 30 kV potential can be obtained at a pyramid height of about 100-150 m.

Due to the evolving nature of our understanding of atmospheric electrical processes, we do not have a clear picture of the magnitude of electrical energy generated (and dissipated) in the global atmospheric electrical circuit by localized convective phenomena. Direct measurement of the atmospheric vertical potential difference using tethered balloons have shown that under fair weather conditions and at low altitudes (150-550 m), short circuit currents on the order of 10 .mu.A were obtained with a single wire collector yielding a power of about 1 W (Holzworth, R. H. et al., Direct measurement of lower atmospheric vertical potential differences, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 783-786 (1981), and Holzworth, R. H. Hy-wire measurement of atmospheric potential, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1395-1401 (1984)).

These data remarkably demonstrated that it is possible to couple to a large portion of the atmosphere and also gave an indirect proof of the presence of a fair weather convective generation process. Since at a low altitude of 1500 m, the entire atmospheric vertical electric potential (400 kV) could be bridged, it may even be possible to couple right into ionospheric electrical processes (Holzworth, R. H. et al., Direct measurement of lower atmospheric vertical potential differences, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8,783-786 (1981)). This would significantly expand the available energy pool for this device.

The other possibility is to tap localized peaks of atmospheric electrical activity arising from thunderstorm activity. The approximate order of magnitude of electrostatic energy generated in the troposphere could be estimated by the amount of energy dissipated by lightning discharges. The estimates for the total number of lightning strikes over the entire surface of the Earth vary from 100 to 300 per second (Orville, R. E. in The Earth's Electrical Environment, Studies in Geophysics (National Academy Press. Washington D.C., 1986) pp. 23-29). The estimate for the power discharged in an average lightning event is 10.sup.12 watts over a time period of about 0.2 sec (Christian, H. J. and McCook, M. A. in A lightning primer at http://thunder.msfc.nasa.gov/). This yields a total of 2-6.times.10.sup.13 W-sec of electrical energy spent by lightning discharges globally in each second, or approximately 4.times.10.sup.17 W-h per year. Over 90% of all lightning occur over landmasses. The distribution of tropospheric electrical activity is highly concentrated, the major production zones being Central Africa, the south central United States and the Amazon Basin (Miller, T. L. Global lighting activity at http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/rotating/otd_oval_full.html). This suggests that the density of atmospheric electrical activity in these zones may be high enough to tap.

The current annual global electricity production by the world's power generating industry is 1,22.times.10.sup.16 W-h (Seth, A. Nuclear power and its role in global electricity and energy, Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, at http://www.ieer.org/ensec/no-1/glbnrg.html (1997)) which is only a small fraction, about 1/30th, of the electricity generated and discharged naturally by lightning activity. As lightning represents only peak charge density events, the localized total charge production of thunderstorms is necessarily underestimated by a factor, the magnitude of which is still unknown.

These indicate that atmospheric electricity, if harnessed, could meet all the energy needs of mankind. This invention describes a new electrical phenomenon that allows the conversion of electrostatic energy into an alternating current.

Research on the average electrical power generated and dissipated by the Earth's global electrical circuit suggests that about 2000 thunderstorms are in progress at any given time, and that the average storm current delivered to the ionosphere is of the order of one ampere (Roble, R. G. Tzur, I. in The Earth's Electrical Environment, Studies in Geophysics (National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1986) pp. 206-231). The potential difference between the Earth and the ionosphere is of the order of 500 kV; therefore, the total source power is of the order 2000.times.1.times.5.times.10.sup.5, or 10.sub.9 watts over the entire planet. Thunderstorms produce an average of one to several nanoamperes per square meter at the surface (Standler, R. B. and Winn, W. P. Quart. J. Met. Soc. 105 285 (1979)). These estimates would suggest that there might not be sufficient energy to tap.

However, the limitation of these low, average Earth surface current densities is not applicable to the pyramid collector for several reasons. In thunderstorms, terawatts of electrical power are generated over relatively long periods of time. To capture this electric power and prevent its dissipation, an effective "charge sink" is necessary. The sub-optimal geometry of the Earth's surface terrain and its relatively low conductivity produce an ineffective sink which leads to small ground surface current densities. A metal pyramid, however, due to its optimal geometry and construction acts as an effective charge sink.

FIG. 3 shows power transmission on the pyramid setup. In FIG. 3, a pyramid 200 as described above is in contact with a coil 202 and a bridge rectifier 204. The latter is charging capacitor 206 which feeds load 208. Oscilloscope 210 measures the voltage drop on the load.

Accordingly, one embodiment of the invention is a method for converting DC electrostatic energy into usable electrical energy, the method comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a capacitor of pyramidal shape;

(2) placing an insulated coil on the surface of the capacitor, the coil having leads;

(3) attaching a rectifier to the leads of the coil, the rectifier having leads; and

(4) attaching a capacitor or a battery to the leads of the rectifier so that DC electrostatic energy is converted into usable electrical energy.

As detailed below, typically, a clock-like signal is detected from the leads of the coil. The signal can be rectified, pooled in a capacitor, or pooled in a battery.

A production pyramid, with a projected 40,000 m.sup.2 base surface area, a height of 150 m, and a metallic composition would provide a far more effective charge sink than the surrounding ground surface. As current always flows in the direction of least resistance, this would lead to a concentrated flow of current from the thunderclouds into the pyramid. As a result, a column of air above the surface of the pyramid would become highly ionized and much more conductive than the air in the surrounding area. This would ensure a rapid transfer of charges from the thunderclouds into the pyramid. Therefore, the current flowing into the pyramid would likely be very strong. As a result, lightning activity could be reduced or abolished. In addition, since the threshold effect causes exponential power amplification, such a pyramid could produce very large quantities of electrical energy.

The generation of thunderstorm-related electrical energy in the atmosphere shows a high degree of concentration into three major geographical zones (Miller, T. L. Global lightning activity at http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/rotating/otd_oval_full.html). By placing energy-producing pyramids into these zones of high-energy electrical activity, vast quantities of electricity could be obtained. Atmospheric electricity would be a renewable, clean energy source, and could give us the opportunity to begin reversing the process of global warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This process, which now produces well-measurable results, threatens to upset our ecosystem with unpredictable consequences (Kerr, R. A. Science 286 1828 (1999)).

Electrostatic energy could also be used to produce a propulsive force. A capacitor made into the shape of a pyramid or cone is suitable. The conductive elements of the capacitor are layered into the pyramidal or conical segment of the hull of such craft. Optimally, there should be several layers of negatively charged conductors on the outside while a single layer of positively charged conductor is in the inside of the craft. All conductive elements should be carefully insulated in order to maintain the charges inside the capacitor.

In the center of the craft, a conductive, insulated pole is mounted such that the pole extends out into the exterior at the top of the craft. The tip of that pole has a metal ball mounted on which is also positively charged. When all capacitor plates are charged, a pressure differential is induced and above the craft the pressure will be higher than at the bottom of the craft. This pressure differential is unstable and progresses towards an equilibrium. It will propel the craft forward in order to eliminate the pressure gradient. This requires that a sufficiently high voltage (>100,000 V) be applied. The capacitors incorporated into the hull will give control over the lift.

To obtain directional control over all three axes of movement, three capacitors need to be mounted at the bottom of the craft placed 120.degree. apart from each other. These capacitors could take the shape of a ball and would be mounted on retractable shafts. The top half of the capacitors would be positively charged while the bottom half is negatively charged. When in flight, the capacitors are retracted and charged based on the needs of directional control so that the ball-shaped capacitors provide lateral movement control for the vehicle. To achieve forward movement, the charges on one capacitor facing the direction of the desired path should be reduced relative to the other two capacitors. This would make the craft tilt forward and start moving in that direction. An alternative method of lateral directional control could be obtained by dividing the capacitor bank inside the hull into segments which segments would be charged individually.

Upon landing, the three ball capacitors would be protracted on their shafts and serve as landing gear. On landing, they would be discharged because the earth is the greater ground. On launching, the main capacitors of the hull would be activated leading to takeoff. The three-capacitor landing gear would then be retracted and charged up so that they can function for lateral directional control after takeoff. On-board static generators would supply voltage required for the operation of the craft.

Accordingly, another embodiment of the invention comprises a method for converting DC electrostatic energy into propulsive force comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a first capacitor of pyramidal shape;

(2) placing an insulated conductive tip on the point of the capacitor;

(3) providing a static generator for charging the capacitor, and

(4) attaching 3 ball-shaped smaller capacitors to the bottom of the pyramidal-shaped capacitor; and

(5) providing means to extend or retract the ball-shaped capacitors from the pyramidal-shaped capacitor, so DC electrostatic energy is converted into propulsive force by the action of the first capacitor and the 3 ball-shaped smaller capacitors provide directional control.

Inertial forces pose great obstacles to improving the performance of current propulsion systems. The most significant aspect of this type of propulsion would be the loss of inertia during acceleration. The passengers of such craft would feel no forces acting upon their bodies even if the craft achieved enormous accelerations.

This overall design is suitable for the development of a wide range of transportation vehicles, from automobile-type to aircraft and potentially to spacecraft. With such technology, we could eliminate a major factor in environmental pollution which place a great stress on our ecosystem. In the United States, transportation vehicles produce 66% of the greenhouse gases.

The subject invention offers a solution by providing a renewable, non-polluting electricity generation method as well as an electricity-based transportation method capable of levitation and flight.

The following Example illustrates the features and advantages of the subject invention. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the description in this disclosure is to facilitate comprehension of the invention and should not be construed to limit the scope thereof as persons skilled in the art can, in light of this disclosure, generate additional embodiments without exceeding the scope or departing from the spirit of the claimed invention.

EXAMPLE 1

Demonstration of the pyramid generator: For the experiments, I have selected a one-foot base length foam pyramid from a pyramid vendor (The Pyramid Project, Ft. Wayne, Ind.). The outside of the pyramid was covered with aluminum foil. The pyramid was placed on a 2'.times.2'insulating polyethylene platform equipped with an adjustable height 2'.times.2'size aluminum top plate, 1/16" thick. The height of the aluminum plate was adjusted as needed and a gap of 1 1/4" between the plate and the tip of the pyramid was used in the experiments. In some experiments, an aluminum pyramid was used with a wall thickness of 1/16".

A high voltage (HV) CRT power source producing 30 kV DC was taken from a color monitor. I have assumed that an actual energy-producing pyramid should be relatively high in order to obtain a large voltage drop from its tip to the ground. Therefore, assuming a height of 100-150 m for a life-size pyramid and a voltage drop of 200-300 V/m near the surface of the Earth, the 30 kV is in the range of the voltage-drop expected for the height of a life size pyramid.

The positive pole was attached to the top aluminum plate. This simulated the positive charge of the atmosphere. One corner of the pyramid was attached to the negative pole of the high voltage power source, while the opposite corner of the pyramid was grounded. This setup served as a model for the electrostatic field distribution around a potential life-sized pyramid. As controls, either a 1'.times.1' sheet of aluminum foil or an aluminum foil-covered box, having the main dimensions of the test pyramid (1'.times.1'.times.7 5/8"), was used as a negative pole. The detector coils were made by winding up a 24 gauge enamel-coated magnet wire (20 turns, approximately 8 cm in diameter). A Tektronix high-frequency oscilloscope, Model no. 2236 was used for signal acquisition and analysis.

The first sets of experiments were control measurements with a box of the same height and base length as the test pyramid. The detector coil was placed on the top of the box. Measurements were taken with or without the high voltage applied. One corner of the box was attached to the HV power source (negative pole) and the opposite corner to the ground. The same arrangement was used for the flat square (1'.times.1') foil. The peak-to-peak signal amplitude for the box was 8 mV and the signal frequency was 2 MHz. For the flat foil sheet, the signal amplitude was 12 mV with a frequency of 1.43 MHz. The signal form was of a decaying sine wave.

When high voltage was applied to these shapes, signal amplitude of 14 mV was obtained for the flat sheet and of 16 mV for the box. The signal frequency was 1.54 MHz for the flat sheet and 2 MHz for the box. The waveforms were of decaying sine waves in all these experiments.

When the pyramid was tested without HV, the peak-to-peak signal amplitude was measured at 60 mV with a frequency of 2 MHz. When the high voltage was applied, the signal amplitude increased up to 180-200 mV, while the frequency remained at 2 MHz. The pyramid produced signal intensity significantly higher than the controls. The signal is regularly repeating, clock-like in nature (FIG. 2). When a metal (aluminum) pyramid of the same size (wall thickness 1/16" inch) was tested in the same high voltage field using the same detection coil, a voltage of 1-1.5 V was detected at the frequency of 2 MHz.

To collect energy from the coil, a bridge rectifier (1000 V peak voltage at 6 A) was attached to the leads of the coil. The rectified current was fed into a capacitor (1500 .mu.F, 250 V DC max.), and a direct current of 45 V was obtained. This has demonstrated a simple method to convert electrostatic energy into a continuous direct current. An 8-turn coil having an output of 200-300 V AC (peak-to-peak) was also used for energy conversion. The rectified current from the 8-turn coil powered a 0.186 W light bulb (FIG. 3). The bridge rectifier is optimally made of fast-recovery diodes.

Even in the absence of an externally applied voltage, current is always present in the circuit. Charge builds up in the capacitor and 1 V was obtained overnight using the 20-turn coil setup. Over 48 h, a voltage of 5 V was measured. Faraday shielding practically abolished the phenomenon.

The preferred shape of the pyramid as a charge collector was again demonstrated in further experiments using the 8-turn coil-bridge rectifier-capacitor (1,500 .mu.F) assembly placed on the 1 ft base length aluminum pyramid. A same volume and height aluminum box was used as control. Charging times of 1-2 h were used under fair weather conditions. For the pyramid, 550 mV was measured on the capacitor while on the box 100 mV was obtained. This demonstrated the superiority of the pyramidal shape in capturing atmospheric electrostatic energy. It also demonstrated that we could tap into the electrostatic field of the atmosphere and draw electric energy. For the collection of energy, a battery could substitute for the capacitor.



US2010207399
PYRAMID ELECTRIC GENERATOR

Inventor(s):     GRANDICS PETER

Abstract

A pyramid electric generator for harvesting the vibrational energies of Earth's atomic oscillators according to the present invention comprises: (1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized; (2) a coil wound with an insulated conductor on a nonconductive coil form, the coil being connected at its top lead to the conducting surface of the antenna/waveguide such that the coil is connected near the point at which the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide, the antenna/waveguide serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency; (3) the bottom lead of the coil is connected to a driver operating in the LF or ELF bands. In another mode of operation, a secondary coil is positioned coaxially within the first coil acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding. The generator resonantly couples into specific frequencies of Earth's atomic oscillators and extracts electric energy thereof.

CROSS-REFERENCES

[0001] This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/140,887 by Grandics, entitled "The Pyramid Electric Generator," and filed on Jun. 17, 2008, which was a continuation-in-part of PCT Application Serial No. PCT/U.S.07/69804 by Grandics, entitled "An Electric Power Converter for Extraction of Atmospheric Electrical Energy," designating the United States and filed on May 25, 2007, which in turn claimed priority from U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/818,360 by Grandics, also entitled "An Electric Power Converter for Extraction of Atmospheric Electrical Energy," and filed on Jul. 3, 2006. The specifications of these three prior applications are incorporated herein in their entirety by this reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This invention relates to the generation of electrical power by drawing energy from Earth's electric field. Earth represents a resonant system in which both atmospheric and telluric electrical processes can be harvested. In U.S. Pat. No. 6,974,110, we have provided an apparatus and method for converting the electrostatic potential energy of Earth's atmosphere into usable power. The present invention aims to provide an electric generator that, in addition to tapping atmospheric electric processes, extracts electrical power from the vibrational energy of atomic oscillators by a novel resonant coupling method.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0003] An electrical generator according to the present invention provides a new method of tapping Earth's electric energy field.

[0004] One aspect of the present invention is an apparatus for capturing both atmospheric and telluric electric energies, comprising:

[0005] (1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized having a conducting surface; and

[0006] (2) a coil wound with an insulated conductor over a non-conductive coil form, the coil being connected to an AC or AC-DC driver at its bottom lead and, by its top lead to the conducting surface of the antenna/waveguide near the point where the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide, with the antenna/waveguide serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency;

[0000] wherein the generator absorbs impulses from Earth's electric oscillations; and
wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveforms in the coil, representing harvested electrical energy of atomic oscillators and measurable on the leads of the coil.

[0007] Preferably, the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape. When the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape, the apex/primary coil is preferably connected near or at the apex of the antenna/waveguide.

[0008] Another aspect of the invention is an electric generator for harvesting the energies of atomic oscillators comprising:

[0009] (1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized having a conducting surface; and

[0010] (2) a primary (apex) coil wound with an insulated conductor over a non-conductive coil form, the coil being connected to an AC or AC-DC driver at its bottom lead and, by its top lead to the conducting surface of the antenna/waveguide near the point where the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide, and the antenna/waveguide serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency; and

[0011] (3) a secondary coil of smaller diameter than the primary (apex) coil having a greater number of turns than the primary coil, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the primary coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding inductively coupled with the primary coil;

[0000] wherein the generator absorbs impulses from Earth's electric oscillations; and
wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveforms in the secondary coil, representing harvested electrical energy of atomic oscillators and measurable on the leads of the secondary coil.

[0012] Yet another aspect of the present invention is an electric generator for harvesting the electric emissions of atomic oscillations comprising an oscillator. In this aspect, the electric generator typically comprises:

[0013] (1) a primary (apex) coil wound with a conductor over a secondary coil, the primary coil being connected electrically at its bottom lead to a driver operating in the LF or ELF bands while connected by its top lead near the point at which the electric field contacts the conductive surface of the antenna/waveguide; and

[0014] (2) a secondary coil of smaller diameter than the primary (apex) coil having a greater number of turns than the primary coil, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding inductively coupled with the primary;

[0000] wherein said resonant step-up transformer's output voltage exceeds 500 VRMS;
wherein the electric generator attracts impulses from Earth's electric oscillations;
and wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveforms representing harvested electric energy of atomic oscillations in the secondary coil.

[0015] Another aspect of the present invention is a method of tapping Earth's electric energy field, comprising the steps of:

[0016] (1) positioning an electric generator according to the present invention as described above such that it is exposed to Earth's electric oscillations; and

[0017] (2) generating a sinusoidal voltage signal representing harvested electric energy of atomic oscillators by the operation of the generator.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0018] The following invention will be better understood with reference to the specification, appended claims, and accompanying drawings, where:

[0019] FIG. 1 is a graph showing the formation of electric vortices across and around the pyramid.

[0020] FIG. 2 is a graph showing the circuit diagram and measurement points of the pyramid generator.

[0021] FIG. 3 is a graph showing the minimum circuit diagram and relevant measurement points of the pyramid generator.

 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0022] One aspect of the invention is an apparatus for capturing atmospheric and telluric electric energies, comprising:

[0023] (1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized having a conducting surface; and

[0024] (2) a coil wound with an insulated conductor over a non-conductive coil form, the coil being connected to an AC or AC-DC driver at its bottom lead and, by its top lead to the conducting surface of the antenna/waveguide near the point where the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide, with the antenna/waveguide serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency;

[0000] wherein the generator absorbs impulses from Earth's electric oscillations; and
wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveform in the coil, representing harvested electrical energy of atomic oscillators and measurable on the leads of the coil.

[0025] Typically, the electric generator stimulates and attracts the electric emissions of atomic oscillators by the use of high voltage. Typically, the antenna/waveguide is designed based on functions of phi and/or pi.

[0026] In one alternative, the antenna/waveguide is placed on an insulated base.

[0027] Typically, the antenna/waveguide is at a high voltage during the operation of the generator. Typically, the antenna/waveguide voltage is measured by using an E-field antenna.

[0028] The antenna/waveguide can be connected to an oscillator. The oscillator can be a resonant step-up transformer.

[0029] Preferably, the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape. Preferably, the antenna/waveguide exhibits functions of phi and/or pi. However, any geometric form employing these functions can be used for the antenna/waveguide. When it is of pyramidal shape, the primary (apex) coil is preferably connected near or at the apex of the antenna/waveguide. The shape and size of the antenna/waveguide can be optimized depending on the intended use of the generator.

[0030] Typically, the generator further comprises an insulating base on which the antenna/waveguide is placed. The size and shape of the insulating base can also be optimized, depending on the intended use of the generator.

[0031] Typically, the output of the apex coil-antenna/waveguide series resonant circuit or that of the secondary coil is harvested. One way to do this is by connecting to a step-down transformer and rectifier-capacitor-load resistance. The optimal circuit can be selected by one of ordinary skill in the art to optimize power extraction. The load draws power from the generator.

[0032] The driver can supply AC or a combination of AC-DC power to activate the resonant circuit.

[0033] Typically, the antenna/waveguide is positioned in the general North-South direction. In this arrangement, when the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape, the height of the pyramid can vary from about 0.1 m to about 1000 m. The optimal pyramid size is a function of the power requirements. However, a pyramid can be built as high as 1 km in height. The base surface area of the pyramid may range from about 0.01 m<2 >to about 1,000,000 m<2>. Naturally, other heights and base surface areas or shapes can be used for particular applications. The numbers of sides can also vary. When the pyramid is small (e.g., the 6.26 feet base length described in this application), there is an insufficient atmospheric potential gradient on its apex to trigger the attraction of energy. In such event, a driver is necessary to bring the pyramid to the electric potential necessary for its harvesting function.

[0034] Another embodiment of the present invention is an electric generator for harvesting the energies of atomic oscillators comprising:

[0035] (1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized having a conducting surface; and

[0036] (2) a primary (apex) coil wound with an insulated conductor over a non-conductive coil form, the coil being connected to an AC or AC-DC driver at its bottom lead and, by its top lead to the conducting surface of the antenna/waveguide near the point where the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide, and the antenna/waveguide serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency; and

[0037] (3) a secondary coil of smaller diameter than the primary (apex) coil having a greater number of turns than the primary coil, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the primary coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding inductively coupled with the apex coil;

[0000] wherein the generator absorbs impulses from Earth's electric oscillations; and
wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveforms in the secondary coil, representing harvested electrical energy of atomic oscillators and measurable on the leads of the secondary coil.

[0038] In this embodiment, more than one resonant step-up transformer winding can be used. As described above for the first embodiment, in this embodiment, the electric generator stimulates and attracts the electric emissions of atomic oscillators by the use of high voltage. Typically, in this embodiment, the antenna/waveguide is designed based on functions of phi and/or pi. In one alternative, in this embodiment, the antenna/waveguide is placed on an insulated base. Typically, in this embodiment, the generator further comprises an insulating base on which the antenna/waveguide is placed. Typically, in this embodiment, antenna/waveguide is at a high voltage during the operation of the generator. Typically, in this embodiment, the antenna/waveguide voltage is measured by using an E-field antenna. In this embodiment, the antenna/waveguide can be connected to an oscillator. The oscillator can be a resonant step-up transformer. Preferably, in this embodiment, the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape. Preferably, in this embodiment, the antenna/waveguide exhibits functions of phi and/or pi. Typically, in this embodiment, the antenna/waveguide is positioned in the general North-South direction. In this embodiment, in this arrangement, when the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape, the height of the pyramid can vary from about 0.1 m to about 1000 m. The optimal pyramid size is a function of the power requirements. However, a pyramid can be built as high as 1 km in height. In this embodiment, the base surface area of the pyramid may range from about 0.01 m<2 >to about 1,000,000 m<2>.

[0039] In this embodiment, typically, the primary (apex) coil of the resonant transformer is connected near the point where the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide.

[0040] In this embodiment, typically, the bottom lead of the secondary coil is connected to ground. In this embodiment, typically, the primary (apex) coil is inductively coupled to the secondary coil.

[0041] In this embodiment, typically, the output of the secondary coil is connected to a load for drawing power from the generator.

[0042] Another embodiment of the present invention is an electric generator for harvesting the electric emissions of atomic oscillations comprising an oscillator.

[0043] In this embodiment, typically, the oscillator operates in the LF or ELF bands.

[0044] Typically, in this embodiment, the electric generator comprises:

[0045] (1) a primary (apex) coil wound with a conductor over a secondary coil, the primary (apex) coil being connected electrically at its bottom lead to a driver operating in the LF or ELF bands while connected by its top lead near the point at which the electric field contacts the conductive surface of the antenna/waveguide; and

[0046] (2) a secondary coil of smaller diameter than the primary coil having a greater number of turns than the primary coil, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding inductively coupled with the primary;

[0000] wherein said resonant step-up transformer's output voltage exceeds 500 VRMS;
wherein the electric generator attracts impulses from Earth's electric oscillations;
and wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveforms representing harvested electric energy of atomic oscillations in the secondary coil.

[0047] In this embodiment, typically, the output of the secondary coil is connected to a load for drawing power from the generator.

[0048] Another aspect of the invention is a method of tapping Earth's electric energy based on the following concepts:

[0049] (1) utilizing a pyramidal antenna/waveguide designed based on the functions of phi and/or pi;

[0050] (2) using the antenna/waveguide to absorb and focus specific frequencies of Earth's electric field;

[0051] (3) positioning a coil(s) connected to the pyramidal antenna/waveguide near or at its apex according to the present invention; and

[0052] (4) generating a high-voltage sinusoidal signal, representing harvested atmospheric and telluric electrical energy, by the operation of the system.

[0053] Typically, the harvested electric energy can be fed into a power grid for distribution, but smaller units capable of distributed power generation or for use as stand-alone generators are also feasible by the concept of this invention.

[0054] In this aspect, the method typically comprises a method of tapping Earth's electric oscillatory energies comprising the steps of:

[0055] (1) positioning an electric generator according to the present invention as described above such that it is exposed to Earth's electric oscillations; and

[0056] (2) generating a sinusoidal voltage signal representing harvested electric energy of atomic oscillators by the operation of the generator.

[0057] The invention is described by the following Example. This Example is included for illustrative purposes only and is not intended to limit the invention.

Example

[0058] We have introduced a new theory of space, energy and matter that predicted that electromagnetic interaction propagates through a carrier medium called the space lattice that is made up of pulsating, phi-based spiral vortices (STAR), the excitation of which generates propagating sinusoidal lines of force across the space lattice recorded as electromagnetic waves by our instruments [1,2]. We have also predicted that natural pressure gradients exist within the space lattice that can be used for power generation by inserting a capacitor into such gradient. Furthermore, we proposed that a pyramid-shaped capacitor is an optimally shaped device for tapping the energy gradient of the space lattice that manifests in the form of an electrical potential gradient in Earth's atmosphere. This was subsequently demonstrated [3-5]. We also found that the pyramid-shaped capacitor design should be based on functions of phi and/or pi [5] because electrical energy propagates along a phi-based spiral [6].

[0059] We suggested that elemental particles are composed of STAR oscillators that make up the space lattice by electromagnetic compression of its elemental cubes into pulsating conical/vortexual subunits that form the basis for all particles of matter [1,2]. We proposed that atomic and subatomic oscillators could vibrate in a very wide frequency range from sub-acoustic to extremely high EM frequencies [1,2]. This does not mean that material bodies can take or maintain a physical form at any energy level, but this allows the recycling of atoms into the space lattice as part of their natural evolution [2,6].

[0060] Atomic oscillators are constantly in motion, and such motion is electric because all motion and energy is fundamentally electric [2,6]. It is known that atomic bodies constantly exchange electric energy. Such energy flow can be harvested when the spiral physical nature of electric waves is recognized. Russell observed that energy moves during its generative cycle in spirals towards the higher potential [7]; therefore, we reasoned that an "attractor" of high electric potential must be provided to pull in the random electromagnetic emissions of atomic oscillators. The "attractor" must function as a phi-based antenna/waveguide to focus the phi-based electric emissions of atomic bodies into the apex of a vortex, the same method Nature uses for power multiplication [6,7]. Therefore, a phi-based pyramidal antenna/waveguide must be at a high voltage in order to perform its attractor function.

[0061] To achieve this goal, a geometrically optimized pyramidal antenna/waveguide must be connected to an oscillator that operates at a high voltage and is tuned to a suitably selected frequency.

[0062] The appropriate resonant frequency is dictated by practical considerations. Atomic oscillators can vibrate in a very wide frequency range [1, 2, 7, 8] but short wavelength radiations are readily re-absorbed by atoms and are rapidly attenuated; therefore, long wavelength electromagnetic emissions should be targeted. The operation of the pyramid generator is most practical in the ELF to the LF range. As electric radiation propagates in a vortex [2,7,8], the emitted electric vortex over the pyramidal antenna (FIG. 1) increases its "size," and so it is capable of funneling atmospheric electromagnetic emissions of the same frequency back into the antenna/receiver. Thus, the pyramid electric generator could capture the energy emitted by both telluric and atmospheric atomic oscillators. We have tested these assumptions and demonstrated the basic principles of an electric generator.

Methods and Results

[0063] In our previous paper, we reported on a pyramid-shaped capacitor/antenna connected in series to a coil that form a resonant circuit for harvesting an expanded range of atmospheric and telluric electric energies [6]. As the signals in the pyramid energy harvester system are at extremely high voltages, we have developed a measurement and control system that allows secure remote transmission of test signals with great accuracy while removing all the hazards associated with direct connection of ultra-high voltages (over 50 kV AC) to the measurement and data-logging system. The voltage and current signals measured across a resistor are turned into a proportional electronic signal, which is then fed to a light emitting diode (opto transmitter) and sent through an optical cable to the instrumentation part of the system where it is converted back by an opto receiver module into an electronic signal for acquisition and processing by the National Instrument PXI 1042Q controller programmed with Labview 6. An ENI-1140LA amplifier was used to activate the oscillator at the resonant frequency.

[0064] For the experiments, we used a novel tetrahedral pyramid-shaped antenna/waveguide that expressed the golden mean in its ratios. The base length of the pyramidal antenna was 6.26 feet. The pyramid was built of a wooden frame and covered with 26 AWG triangular copper sheets on its sides that were electrically connected. It was placed on an insulating base and positioned in the general North-South direction.

[0065] The apex coil was wound on a HDPE cylindrical coil form using a 14 AWG insulated magnet wire with a monofilament spacer polyester twine (0.05'' diameter) between the turns, and connected to the conducting surface of the pyramid near its apex. Thus, the apex coil is connected to the pyramidal antenna/waveguide acting as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency by coupling to the ambient electromagnetic environment. The bottom lead of the apex coil was connected to a driver and grounded via the driver (FIG. 2). The purpose of the monofilament spacer is to reduce interwinding capacitance in the apex coil by increasing distance between wire turns of the coil.

[0066] The parameters of the apex coil are shown in Table 1.

[0000]

TABLE 1
Physical and electrical parameters of the apex coil

  Number of turns of wire  290
  Coil height  0.87  m
  Coil diameter  0.787  m
  Wire diameter  1.6277  mm
  Inductance  42.86  mH
  Resistance  6.5  ohms

[0067] In the experiment, the controlled variable was the voltage, which was increased in steps by the controller until a maximum voltage in the system (permitted by circuit components and test equipment) was achieved for the given resonant frequency. The objective was to "drive the atmosphere and ground" by radiating a high voltage (~200 kV p-p), LF (~70 kHz) signal fed by a powerful signal generator at a resonant frequency determined by the pyramid as a quasi-capacitive series element connected to the apex coil and radiating to the local atmosphere and the ground.

[0068] The experimental data are shown in Table 2. An apparent power gain of nearly 170-fold was achieved in the resonant circuit relative to input power from the driver.

[0000]

TABLE 2
Power measurements in the resonant pyramid-coil system.

Frequency  Drive voltage  Drive current  Drive power  Drive power
(kHz)  (rms)  (rms)  (VA)  (W)
70.9   321.1 V   3.2 A  1125.54  735.5

Frequency  Apex voltage  Apex current  Apex power  Apex power
(kHz)  (rms)  (rms)  (kVA)  (kW)
70.9  67.922 kV  2.903 A  196.621  40.393

[0069] A load may be connected to the system to draw power from it. The load may also be connected via a secondary coil inductively coupled to the apex coil. The load may be a resistor, a rectifier or storage capacitor powering a DC load. The high voltage, high frequency output can also be converted to the frequency and voltage of standard mains power.

[0070] A graphic representation of the system is shown in FIG. 2. The pyramidal antenna/waveguide, placed on an insulating base, is coupled to the ambient electromagnetic environment and serves as an antenna/waveguide for the harvesting of atmospheric and telluric electromagnetic oscillations at resonance frequency (FIG. 1). The atmospheric electric vortex possibly acts as an ionic antenna pulling in EM radiations from a large atmospheric domain.

[0071] The pyramid's apex is connected to a coil of high turn number (FIG. 2). This apex coil wound on a nonconductive coil form forms a resonant circuit with the pyramid that acts as a quasi-capacitive series element. An RF power amplifier activates the apex coil. The measurement points are also indicated, displaying the positions of voltage and current sense resistors and opto-electric transmitters. A detailed description of the system follows in FIG. 2.

[0072] The source of radiative and electromagnetic power to earth is the Sun 1, which is harvested by effect of pyramid operations. Solar radiation is separated into light, heat, electromagnetic waves 2 by interaction with atmosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere. "Electrosphere" 3 comprises of ionized, highly conductive air. It can be understood as a conductive spherical band about 60 mi above the surface of the earth. Virtual "Ground" 4 in electrosphere-a low impedance spherical area that in the circuit may be considered as a "ground" (for non-harvesting calculations) or a variable circuit source (for harvesting calculations). Effective resistive impedance 5 is from pyramid surface to "sky" or "electrosphere" (radiative impedance). Effective capacitive impedance 6 is from pyramid surface to "sky" or "electrosphere". Effective resistive (conductive) impedance 7 is from pyramid external surface to nearby atmosphere due to "corona" type ionic conduction through ionized air, caused by high peak voltages on the pyramid's surface. Conductive pyramidal transducer/energy harvester 8 is coupled to the ambient electromagnetic environment as above. Radiated "near field" electromagnetic field 9 from pyramid surface (toward "sky") is measured by E-field antenna 10. The antenna does indirect measurement of pyramid surface voltage based on E-field pick-up of alternating current field within ~20 ft of pyramid surface, at a particular fixed distance and orientation. Impedance-matching resistor 11 couples E-field antenna to coaxial cable and impedance-matching capacitor 12 for coupling E-field antenna to coaxial cable. Coaxial cable 13 connects to measurement system interface with a "BNC" connector 14 to provide electrical interface to measurement system. System "ground" (common connection point) 15 is for measurement/control system components. Switch 16 is for disconnection of pyramid/antenna from pyramid driving electronics. Radiative "cone" 17 emits from inside and bottom surface of pyramid towards "ground" underneath the pyramid harvester system. Radiated E-M field 18 is directed from pyramid to ground surface directly underneath. Resistive impedance 19 of radiated E-M field ("virtual" component) is derived from measurement and calculation of E-M field model to ground area. Capacitive impedance 20 of radiated E-M field to "ground" area is a "virtual component" derived from measurement and calculation of E-M field model. Virtual resistance of radiated energy 21 from bottom of pyramid, is conducted through earth to "firm ground" potential (another "virtual component" derived from measurement and calculation). Pyramid ground 52 is an equipotential "zero-impedance" point in the earth which serves as the ground reference for both conducted (from pyramid ground stake 52) and radiated 18, 19, 20, 21 energy underneath the pyramid harvester device. In a non-harvesting model this ground point is always at zero potential. However, in an energy-harvesting model the point 22 serves as an AC voltage source, sending conducted energy back into the pyramid system through all the components that "drain" to it in the non-harvesting model. Sense resistor 23 for apex current monitor in pyramid energizing system is a low value resistor (typically 0.05 to 0.2 ohms) that allows a small voltage to develop, proportional to the current flowing to the pyramid apex from the energizing system. Apex current monitor opto transmitter 24 measures the voltage across resistor 23 and turns it into a proportional electronic signal, which is then fed to a light emitting diode and transmitted through an optical cable to the instrumentation part of the system. All the signals in the pyramid harvester system are at extremely high voltages, and the optical cable allows secure remote transmission of these signals to the measurement and data-logging system (not shown on this diagram). Resistance 25 of the apex excitation coil 26 is measured at DC. This is a "virtual" component, since the resistance is in the coil itself, and is not a separate component. Apex coil 26 translates the stimulation power signal from amplifiers 34, 35 into a very high voltage at the resonant frequency established by the coil and intrinsic capacitance of the pyramid. Mutual inductance coupling exists between the apex coil and the harvest or secondary coil 27. This is another "virtual component" consisting of the electromagnetic signal coupling between the two coils based on many different factors. Optional resistor 28 can be used for resonance or phase tuning of pyramid network. The main resonance is determined by apex coil 26 inductance and pyramid lumped capacitive element 8. However, this will make the voltage at the junction of the pyramid (capacitor) and the apex coil 26 approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the current. One approach to reduce the phase angle and also to possibly tune the resonant frequency and the Q of the circuit is to insert an additional reactive element 29 in parallel into the apex coil 26. The apex coil winding resistance is expressed here as resistor 25 in series with inductor 26. The inserted element is an additional optional capacitor 29 in parallel with the apex coil. This capacitor develops an independent L-C resonant circuit, besides the L-C resonant circuit of the apex coil and pyramid. An anticipated function if used in the circuit would be to lower the resonant frequency. Drive current monitor current sense resistor 30 is for drive current opto transmitter 31. Summing/protection resistors are placed in series with 32 drive 1 and 33 drive 2. Power amplifiers 34, 35 drive coil/pyramid resonant system. Power (drive) amplifier signal input 36 is fed through opto receiver 37. The signal in the optical cable 38 is from the National Instruments control system for control of power amplifiers. Pyramid system ground (star-ground) connects to top of pyramid ground stake, after ground stake disconnect switches 39 and 50. Power supply 40 is for pyramid driver amplifier. Resistor 41 is used for voltage measurement across power driver higher value terminals. Opto transmitter 42 is for voltage measurement across power amplifier and includes drawing of optical cable to measurement system. Current-sensing resistor 43 is for current measurement from pyramid amplifiers to ground post. Opto transmitter 44 is for transmitting ground current to control and measurement system. Voltage sense resistor 45 is between pyramid ground stake 52 and remote ground stake 55 (100 kohm-1 Mohm). Opto transmitter 46 is for voltage sense from pyramid ground 52 to remote ground 55. Current sense resistor 47 from pyramid ground to remote ground is for opto transmitter 48. When used, this closes switch 49B to short out the voltage measurement 45 and also short out the intrinsic ground impedance 58 between pyramid ground and remote ground stakes. Ground post disconnect switch 49 is below the system star ground stake and is very dangerous when open. Main connection point for pyramid system is the star ground terminal 50. Ground surface 51 is on which pyramid system is placed. Ground stake 52 for pyramid system is a 1'' diameter copper rod, 8-12 ft deep. R absolute 53 is between ground stake and earth integrated from ground stake theoretically through entire earth. "Absolute ground" is located under pyramid and ground stake 54. Remote ground stake 55 is about 200 feet away from pyramid system and is used as remote reference ground although a real remote ground would likely be much further away. R absolute 56 is from remote ground stake to absolute ground under remote stakes 57. Ground impedance 58 between 52 and 55 stakes appears mostly resistive and is about 28-30 ohms based on AC measurements at 1 KHz. The remote ground setup is not required for the operation of the system but provides test data. Harvest/secondary coil 59 is an inductor wound with 3 to 6 times as many turns as the apex coil, and connected to it by mutual inductance 27. Current sense resistor 60 is placed on top lead of harvest coil. Opto transmitter 61 is for top harvest coil current. Voltage sense resistor 62 that measures voltage across harvest coil is for opto transmitter 63. Load resistor 64 is for secondary/harvest coil and the load resistor is optimized to draw the maximum power from the harvest/secondary coil such that the energy harvest efficiency of the entire system is optimized. This is the defining element of the system. Voltage sense resistor 65 for the opto transmitter for load voltage 66 measures the voltage across the load. Current sense resistor 67 is placed at bottom side of harvest coil. Opto transmitter 68 is for bottom lead current sense resistor 67. A jumper is placed to system ground 69 that allows grounded operation of the harvest coil with system ground 70. More than one step-up transformer coil can be used as energy harvester in the pyramid generator system.

[0073] The minimum system is shown in FIG. 3. When a minimum system is used, a load can be directly connected to the pyramid's surface.

DISCUSSION

[0074] This invention demonstrates a novel approach to harvest Earth's electric energy. The masses of Earth and its atmosphere represent a coupled resonant system that is continually electrified by solar radiation. We have found that a pyramidal antenna designed based on the functions of phi and/or pi is optimal for the capture of atmospheric electrostatic discharge (ESD) impulses [3-5]. Atmospheric ESD is a product of solar radiation and is a wide bandwidth phenomenon. The pyramid as a wideband, non-resonant antenna is uniquely adapted to harvest the energy of atmospheric ESD.

[0075] This invention also points out an additional energizing mechanism at work during the operation of the pyramid electric generator. The observation is derived from our theory on energy, matter and space [1,2] as well as that of Russell [7]. Both Russell and we observed that spiral motion is a fundamental action of matter and that the vortex is the mechanism of power multiplication in Nature. A vortex concentrates power into its apex where the highest velocity of motion, the highest pressure and the highest electric potential resides [1, 2, 6, 7]. As electricity propagates along a pulsating phi-based spiral [6,7], a phi-based antenna/waveguide is suitable to focus its energy into the apex of a vortex inside the antenna. A phi-based pyramid is optimal for this purpose.

[0076] As atomic bodies can oscillate in a very wide frequency range [1, 2, 7, 8], a pyramidal antenna/waveguide coupled to an oscillator that is tuned to a suitable frequency can focus the "electric noise" from Earth's atomic oscillators into the apex of the pyramid at a high voltage. Russell observed that energy moves towards the higher potential during its generative cycle [7]; therefore, it is essential that the pyramidal antenna be at a high potential. Our results corroborated this assumption.

[0077] For practical reasons on our small pyramid, we have chosen a frequency above the audio range but below the radio frequency spectrum; our antenna was made to emit at the target wavelength. The wavelength of the 50-120 kHz range is 6 km to 25 km, thus allowing energy to be harvested over a large atmospheric domain. As electrical energy propagates in a vortex [6,7], the emitted electric vortex (ionic antenna) over the pyramidal antenna/waveguide increases its "size" and enables it to funnel the same frequency atmospheric electromagnetic radiations back into the antenna. Thus, the pyramid electric generator captures at the selected frequency the energy emitted by Earth's atomic oscillators.

[0078] The presence of an electric (ionic) vortex was demonstrated by radar testing of the space over a 44 m tall fiberglass pyramid located near Moscow [12]. The Russians found that the large ionized column of air over the area of the vertical axis of the pyramid had a width of about 500 m and reached an altitude of 2 km. It is remarkable that this effect was induced by a nonconductive pyramid surface and demonstrating a significant degree of atmospheric ionization even under fair weather conditions. Thus, a suitably sized large or an electrically activated small pyramid should open a low impedance path to higher elevations of relatively conductive atmospheric domains.

[0079] In conclusion, the total power that can be extracted from Earth's atomic oscillators must be extremely large, likely far exceeding current global electric generation capacity. In our experiment, we measured over 196 kVA power at the pyramid's apex at about 200 kV p-p voltage using a 6.26 feet base length pyramid. This power is 175 times greater than the power necessary to drive the pyramid to this operating voltage. By constructing the pyramid generator from appropriate high voltage components and using higher drive voltages, a significant increase in power output is envisioned. The power extraction will also be enhanced by further optimization of the designs of both the pyramid and the coil system.

[0080] The power output will also increase by employing larger pyramid structures and coils. As voltage is the primary factor in attracting power into the system, the necessary voltage can be provided by the vertical atmospheric potential on a tall pyramid. Since the atmospheric vertical potential gradient could go as high as 1200 V/m near Earth's surface under fair weather conditions [13], a pyramid height of 20-150 m seems sufficient to provide the apex voltage for a self-sustaining power generator. As the pyramid scales up volumetrically, a power generator pyramid of the size range of the GPG could likely have an output in the range of hundreds of gigawatts. Groups of several pyramid electric generators could be placed within specific geographical areas, thus combining their energy harvesting capacity.

REFERENCES

[0081] The following references are specifically applicable to the Example and are incorporated herein in their entirety by this reference; these references are referenced in the Example by the reference numbers assigned to them.

[1] Grandics, P. 2002, "The genesis of electromagnetic and gravitational forces." J. New Energy, 6, (3) 33-45.

[2] Grandics, P. 2007, "The genesis of fundamental forces acting at a distance and some practical derivations." Infinite Energy, 12, (71) 13-24.

[3] Grandics, P. 2000, "A method to capture atmospheric electrostatic energy", in Proceedings of IEJ-ESA Joint Symposium on Electrostatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 355-361.

[4] Grandics, P. 2006, "A DC to RF converter for the capture of atmospheric electrostatic energy", in Proceedings of the 5thConference of the Societe Francaise D'Electrostatique, SFE 2006, Grenoble, France pp. 279-284.

[5] Grandics, P. 2007, "Pyramidal Electric Transducer: A DC to RF Converter for the Capture of Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy." Infinite Energy, 13, (73) 20-27.

[6] Grandics, P. 2009, "The pyramid electric generator." Infinite Energy, 14, (84) 55-59.

[7] Russell, W. 1947, in The Secret of Light, 3<rd >ed. University of Science and Philosophy, Waynesboro, Va., pp. 218-288.

[8] Russell, W. 1957, in Atomic Suicide? 2<nd >ed. University of Science and Philosophy, Waynesboro, Va., pp. 129-153.

[9] Nishida, K, Kobayashi, N and Fukao, Y. 2000, "Resonant oscillations between the solid earth and the atmosphere", Science 287, (5461), 2244-2246.

[10] Tanimoto, T, Um, J, Nishida, K, and Kobayashi, N. 1998, "Earth's continuous oscillations observed on seismically quiet days", Geophys Res Lett. 25, 1553-1556.

[11] Tanimoto, T. 2001, "Continuous free oscillations: Atmosphere-solid earth coupling". Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci. 29, 563-584.

[12] http://www.pyramidoflife.com/eng/tests_experiments.html.

[13] Marshall, T C, Rust, W D, Stolzenburg, M, Roeder, WP, and Kriebel, P R. 1999, "A study of enhanced fair-weather electric fields occurring soon after sunrise". J Geophys Res. 104, 24,455-24,469.

ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION

[0095] The present invention provides a new method of tapping Earth's electric energy pool and providing usable power that can be fed into the power grid or supplied by stand-alone power generators. It does so without the need for mechanical energy or the consumption of fossil fuel or the long-term risks associated with power generated by nuclear fission, including the risk of diversion of fissionable material to terrorist aims or the risk posed by the required long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. Devices according to the present invention can operate virtually continuously with little to no maintenance.

[0096] Articles of manufacture and methods according to the present invention possess industrial applicability for the generation, storage, and transmission of electrical energy.

[0097] With respect to ranges of values, the invention encompasses each intervening value between the upper and lower limits of the range to at least a tenth of the lower limit's unit, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Moreover, the invention encompasses any other stated intervening values and ranges including either or both of the upper and lower limits of the range, unless specifically excluded from the stated range.

[0098] Unless defined otherwise, the meanings of all technical and scientific terms used herein are those commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. One of ordinary skill in the art will also appreciate that any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can also be used to practice or test this invention.

[0099] The publications and patents discussed herein are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention. Further the dates of publication provided may be different from the actual publication dates which may need to be independently confirmed.

[0100] All the publications cited are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties, including all published patents, patent applications, literature references, as well as those publications that have been incorporated in those published documents. However, to the extent that any publication incorporated herein by reference refers to information to be published, applicants do not admit that any such information published after the filing date of this application to be prior art.

[0101] As used in this specification and in the appended claims, the singular forms include the plural forms. For example the terms "a," "an," and "the" include plural references unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. Additionally, the term "at least" preceding a series of elements is to be understood as referring to every element in the series. The inventions illustratively described herein can suitably be practiced in the absence of any element or elements, limitation or limitations, not specifically disclosed herein. Thus, for example, the terms "comprising," "including," "containing," etc. shall be read expansively and without limitation. Additionally, the terms and expressions employed herein have been used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the future shown and described or any portion thereof, and it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed. Thus, it should be understood that although the present invention has been specifically disclosed by preferred embodiments and optional features, modification and variation of the inventions herein disclosed can be resorted by those skilled in the art, and that such modifications and variations are considered to be within the scope of the inventions disclosed herein. The inventions have been described broadly and generically herein. Each of the narrower species and subgeneric groupings falling within the scope of the generic disclosure also form part of these inventions. This includes the generic description of each invention with a proviso or negative limitation removing any subject matter from the genus, regardless of whether or not the excised materials specifically resided therein. In addition, where features or aspects of an invention are described in terms of the Markush group, those schooled in the art will recognize that the invention is also thereby described in terms of any individual member or subgroup of members of the Markush group. It is also to be understood that the above description is intended to be illustrative and not restrictive. Many embodiments will be apparent to those of in the art upon reviewing the above description. The scope of the invention should therefore, be determined not with reference to the above description, but should instead be determined with reference to the appended claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. Those skilled in the art will recognize, or will be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.



US8004250
PYRAMID ELECTRIC GENERATOR

Also published as:  WO2008005628 (A2)  WO2008005628 (A3)  ZA200900748 (A)  RU2009103639

Abstract 

A pyramid electric generator for harvesting the vibrational energies of Earth's atomic oscillators according to the present invention comprises: (1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized; (2) a secondary coil wound with an insulated conductor on a nonconductive coil form, the coil being attached electrically to the conducting surface of the antenna/waveguide such that the secondary coil is attached near the point at which the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide; (3) the antenna/waveguide connected with the secondary coil serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency; and (4) a primary coil of a few turns wound around the secondary coil, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the primary coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding, inductively coupled with the primary coil.; The generator resonantly couples into specific frequencies of Earth's atomic oscillators and extracts electric energy therefrom.

CROSS-REFERENCES

This application is a continuation-in-part of PCT Application Ser. No. PCT/US07/69804 by Grandics, entitled "An Electric Power Converter for Extraction of Atmospheric Electrical Energy," designating the United States and filed on May 25, 2007, which in turn claimed priority from U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/818,360 by Grandics, also entitled "An Electric Power Converter for Extraction of Atmospheric Electrical Energy," and filed on Jul. 3, 2006. The specifications of these two applications are incorporated herein in their entirety by this reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the generation of electrical power by drawing energy from Earth's electric field. Earth represents a resonant system in which both atmospheric and telluric electrical processes can be harvested. In U.S. Pat. No. 6,974,110, we have provided an apparatus and method for converting the electrostatic potential energy of Earth's atmosphere. The present invention aims to provide an electric generator that, in addition to tapping atmospheric electric processes, extracts electrical power from the vibrational energy of atomic oscillators by a novel resonant coupling method.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An electrical generator according to the present invention provides a new method of tapping Earth's electric energy field.

One aspect of the present invention is an apparatus for capturing both atmospheric and telluric electric energies, comprising:

(1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized, having a conducting surface;

(2) a primary coil wound with a conductor over a secondary coil, the coil being attached electrically to a driver operating in the LF radio band; and

(3) a secondary coil smaller in diameter than the primary coil having a greater length and a greater number of turns than the primary coil and having a first lead and a second lead, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding, inductively coupled with the primary coil and an external capacitor connected in parallel with the secondary coil to provide a specific resonant frequency; or

(4) a secondary coil smaller in diameter than the primary coil, having a greater length and a greater number of turns than the primary coil and having a first lead and a second lead, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding, inductively coupled with the primary coil and connected with the antenna/waveguide serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency;
wherein the conducting surface of the antenna/waveguide is configured such that the secondary coil is connected near the point at which the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide;

wherein the generator absorbs electromagnetic impulses from Earth's electric field; and wherein a high voltage sinusoidal waveform is generated in the secondary coil representing harvested atmospheric and telluric electrical energy and measurable on the leads of the secondary coil.
Preferably, the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape. When the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape, the secondary coil is preferably connected near or at the apex of the antenna/waveguide.

Another aspect of the present invention is an electric generator for harvesting the electric emissions of atomic oscillations comprising an oscillator. Typically, the oscillator operates in the LF or ELF bands.

Typically, in this aspect of the present invention, the generator comprises:

(1) a primary coil wound with a conductor over a secondary coil, the coil being connected electrically to a driver operating in the LF or ELF bands; and

(2) a secondary coil of smaller diameter than the primary coil having a greater length and a greater number of turns than the primary coil, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding inductively coupled with the primary;
wherein said resonant step-up transformer's output voltage exceeds 500 VRMS;

wherein the electric generator attracts impulses from Earth's electric oscillations; and

wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveforms representing harvested electric energy of atomic oscillations in the secondary coil and measurable on leads of the secondary coil.

Another aspect of the present invention is a method of tapping Earth's electric energy field, comprising these steps:

(1) positioning an electric generator according to the present invention as described above, so that it is exposed to a source of atmospheric and telluric electric energy; and

(2) producing a high-voltage sinusoidal signal representing electrical energy harvested by the operation of the generator.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The following invention will be better understood with reference to the specification, appended claims, and accompanying drawings, where:

FIG. 1 is a graph showing the formation of electric vortices across and around the pyramid.

FIG. 2 is a graph showing the circuit diagram of the pyramid generator.

FIG. 3 is a graph showing the power in the secondary coil vs. the power in the primary coil.

FIG. 4 is a graph showing the power in the secondary coil vs. the apex voltage on the pyramid.

FIG. 5 is a graph showing the circuit diagram of the pyramid generator with the measurement points.


 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

One aspect of the present invention is an electric generator for attracting the electric emissions of atomic oscillations by the use of high voltage, to harvest electric energy therefrom.

One embodiment of this aspect of the invention is an apparatus for capturing atmospheric and telluric electric energies by harvesting the energies of atomic oscillators, comprising:

(1) an antenna/waveguide that is geometrically optimized, having a conducting surface;

(2) a primary coil wound with an insulated conductor, the coil being connected to an AC or AC-DC driver; and

(3) a secondary coil smaller in diameter than the primary coil, having a greater length and a greater number of turns than the primary coil and having a first lead and a second lead, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding, inductively coupled with the first coil; and an external capacitor connected in parallel with the secondary coil to provide a specific resonant frequency; or

(4) a secondary coil smaller in diameter than the primary coil, having a greater length and a greater number of turns than the primary coil and having a first lead and a second lead, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding, inductively coupled with the first coil and connected with the antenna/waveguide serving as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency, with the secondary coil attached near the point at which the electric field contacts the antenna/waveguide;

wherein the generator absorbs electromagnetic impulses from Earth's electric field; and

wherein a high-voltage, sinusoidal waveform is generated in the secondary coil representing harvested atmospheric and telluric electrical energy and measurable on leads of the secondary coil.

Preferably, the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape. However, any geometric shape can be used for the antenna/waveguide. When it is of pyramidal shape, the secondary coil is preferably connected near or at the apex of the antenna/waveguide. The shape and size of the antenna/waveguide can be optimized depending on the intended use of the generator. Preferably, the antenna/waveguide exhibits ratios of pi and the Fibonacci number (phi).

Typically, the generator further comprises an insulated base on which the antenna/waveguide is placed. The size and shape of the insulated base can also be optimized, depending on the intended use of the generator. The second lead of the secondary coil is typically connected to earth ground.

Typically, the output of the secondary coil is harvested. This can be done by connecting to a rectifier-capacitor-load resistance, or by a third coil inductively coupled with the secondary coil. In one alternative, the output of the secondary coil is coupled to a load for drawing power from the generator. The optimal circuit can be selected by one of ordinary skill in the art to optimize power extraction. The load draws power from the generator. The load can be a resistor, a rectifier or a storage capacitor powering a DC load. Typically, the antenna/waveguide is at a high voltage during the operation of the generator. Typically, the antenna/waveguide voltage is greater than 500 VRMS. The antenna/waveguide can be connected to an oscillator. The oscillator can comprise a resonant step-up transformer.

Typically, the antenna/waveguide is in resonance with the secondary coil. Typically, the primary coil is inductively coupled to the secondary coil.

Typically, the antenna/waveguide is positioned in a generally north-south direction to tap atmospheric and telluric electric energy. In this arrangement, when the antenna/waveguide is of pyramidal shape, the height of the pyramid can be from about 0.5 m to about 1000 m, more typically, from about 0.50 m to about 150 m. The optimal pyramid size is a function of the power requirements. However, a pyramid can be built even 1 km in height. Typically, the base surface area of the pyramid ranges from about 0.25 m<2 >to about 1,000,000 m<2>; more typically, from about 0.25 m<2 >to about 25,000 m<2>. Naturally, other heights and base surface areas can be used for particular applications. The numbers of sides can also vary. When the pyramid is small (e.g., 6-feet base length described in this application), there is an insufficient atmospheric potential on its apex to trigger the attraction of power. In such event, an AC or AC-DC driver is necessary to bring the pyramid to the electric potential necessary. A suitable voltage is typically greater than 500 VRMS.

In one alternative, the primary coil is wound with a conductor over the secondary coil, the primary coil being connected electrically to a driver operating in the LF or ELF bands.

Another aspect of the present invention is an electric generator for harvesting the electric emissions of atomic oscillations comprising an oscillator. Typically, the oscillator operates in the LF or ELF bands.

Typically, in this aspect of the present invention, the generator comprises:

(1) a primary coil wound with a conductor over a secondary coil, the coil being connected electrically to a driver operating in the LF or ELF bands; and

(2) a secondary coil of smaller diameter than the primary coil having a greater length and a greater number of turns than the primary coil, the secondary coil being positioned coaxially within the first coil and acting as a resonant step-up transformer winding inductively coupled with the primary;

wherein said resonant step-up transformer's output voltage exceeds 500 VRMS;

wherein the electric generator attracts impulses from Earth's electric oscillations; and

wherein the attracted energy manifests as high voltage sinusoidal waveforms representing harvested electric energy of atomic oscillations in the secondary coil and measurable on leads of the secondary coil.

In this alternative, the output of the secondary coil can be coupled to a load for drawing power from the generator.

Another aspect of the invention is a method of tapping Earth's electric energy based on the following concepts:

(1) utilizing a pyramidal antenna/waveguide designed based on the ratios of pi and phi;

(2) using the antenna/waveguide to absorb and focus specific frequencies of Earth's electric field;

(3) positioning a resonant coil system connected to said antenna/waveguide near or at its apex according to the present invention; and

(4) generating a high-voltage sinusoidal signal, representing harvested atmospheric and telluric electrical energy, by the operation of the coil system.

Typically, in this method, the method comprises the steps of:

(1) positioning an electric generator according to the present invention as described above such that it is exposed to Earth's electric oscillations; and

(2) generating a high voltage sinusoidal signal representing harvested electric energy of atomic oscillators by the operation of the generator.

Typically, the harvested electric energy can be fed into a power grid for distribution, but smaller units capable of distributed power generation or for use as stand-alone generators are also feasible by the concept of this invention.

The invention is described by the following Example. This Example is included for illustrative purposes only and is not intended to limit the invention.

EXAMPLE

We have introduced a new theory of space, energy and matter that predicted that electromagnetic interaction propagates through a carrier medium called the space lattice that is made up of pulsating, phi-based spiral vortices (STAR), the excitation of which generates propagating sinusoidal lines of force across the space lattice recorded as electromagnetic waves by our instruments [1,2]. We have also predicted that natural pressure gradients exist within the space lattice that can be used for power generation by inserting a capacitor into such gradient. Furthermore, we proposed that a pyramid-shaped capacitor is an optimally shaped device for tapping the energy gradient of the space lattice that manifests in the form of an electrical potential gradient in Earth's atmosphere. This was demonstrated subsequently [3-5]. We also found that the pyramid-shaped capacitor design should be based on ratios of pi and phi [5] because electrical energy propagates along a phi-based spiral [6].

We suggested that elemental particles are composed of STAR oscillators that make up the space lattice by electromagnetic compression of its elemental cubes into pulsating conical/vortexual subunits that form the basis for all particles of matter [1,2]. We proposed that atomic and subatomic oscillators could vibrate in a very wide frequency range from sub-acoustic to extremely high EM frequencies [1,2]. This does not mean that material bodies can take or maintain a physical form at any energy level, but this allows the recycling of atoms into the space lattice as part of their natural evolution [2,6].

Atomic oscillators are constantly in motion, and such motion is electric because all motion and energy is fundamentally electric [2,6]. It is known that atomic bodies constantly exchange electric energy. Such energy flow can be harvested when the spiral physical nature of electric waves is recognized. Russell observed that energy always moves during its generative cycle in spirals towards the higher potential [7]; therefore, we reasoned that an "attractor" of high electric potential must be provided to pull in the random electromagnetic emissions of atomic oscillators. The "attractor" must function as a phi-based antenna/waveguide to focus the phi-based electric emissions of atomic bodies into the apex of a vortex, the same method Nature uses for power multiplication [6,7]. Therefore, a phi-based pyramidal antenna/waveguide must be at a high voltage in order to perform its attractor function.

As all material manifestations are tonal [8], acoustic vibrations are always generated during the oscillations of atomic bodies, even though they are inaudible most of the time. Sometimes, however, they are detected; one such example is Earth's hum [9-11]. Earth's solid mass and its atmosphere represent a coupled resonant system, and is therefore our expanded target power source. Acoustic waves are also electrical [8] and can be harvested. To achieve this goal, the geometrically optimized pyramidal antenna/waveguide must be connected to an oscillator that operates at a high voltage and is tuned to a suitably selected frequency.

The appropriate resonant frequency is dictated by practical considerations. Atomic oscillators can vibrate in a very wide frequency range [1,2,6-8] but short wavelength radiations are readily re-absorbed by atoms and are rapidly attenuated; therefore, long wavelength electromagnetic emissions must be targeted. The operation of the pyramid generator is feasible in the ELF to the LF range. As electric radiation propagates in a vortex [2,6-8], the emitted electric vortex over the pyramidal antenna (FIG. 1) increases its "size," and so it is capable of funneling atmospheric electromagnetic emissions of the same frequency back into the antenna/receiver. Thus, the pyramid electric generator could capture the energy emitted by both telluric and atmospheric atomic oscillators. We have tested these assumptions and demonstrated the basic principles of an electric generator.

Methods and Results

In our previous papers, we reported that a pyramid-shaped capacitor/antenna converts atmospheric electrostatic discharge impulses (ESD) into a periodic high-frequency signal that can be detected in an insulated coil placed in proximity of the capacitor [3,4]. Here, we report on further developments including a new design for the resonant coil system and an expanded range of energy sources targeted. A Tektronix TPS 2024 digital oscilloscope was used for signal acquisition and analysis, and Tektronix A503 current amplifiers were used with the Tektronix A6302 and A6303 probes for current measurement. High voltage was measured using a Tektronix P6015 probe. An ENI-1140LA amplifier was used to activate the primary coil of the resonant coil system at the selected frequency.

For the experiments, we used a geometrically optimized pyramid-shaped antenna/waveguide [3-5]. The pyramid expressed ratios of pi and phi and was approximately a 1:125 scaled down replica of the Great Pyramid of Giza (GPF), 6 feet base length. The pyramid was built of a wooden frame and covered with triangular copper sheets of 0.66 mm thickness on its sides that were electrically connected. It was placed on an insulating base and positioned in the general North-South direction.

The secondary coil (coil 2) was wound with a 20 AWG insulated magnet wire with a monofilament nylon spacer (0.06 mm diameter) between the turns on a fiberglass cylindrical coil form, and connected to the conducting surface of the pyramid near its apex. Thus, the secondary coil was connected with the pyramidal antenna/waveguide as a quasi-capacitive series element to provide a specific resonant frequency with coupling to the surrounding electromagnetic environment. The other lead of coil 2 was grounded (FIG. 2). The purpose of the monofilament spacer was to reduce interwinding capacitance in coil 2 by increasing distance between wire turns of the coil.

A primary coil of larger diameter (coil 1) was wound on or near the lower cylindrical volume of coil 2 with the lead connected to earth ground, and served as a driver coil inductively coupled with the secondary (coil 2). The secondary was isolated from the primary by layers of silicon rubber and foam. The two coils make a resonant step-up transformer, the parameters of which are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1
Physical and Electrical Parameters of the Resonant Transformer

  Secondary turns of wire  840 turns
  Height  0.85 m
  Wire diameter  0.00081 m
  Primary turns of wire  5 + 9/10 turns
  Height  0.21 m
  Wire diameter  [1/4]'' O.D. copper pipe
    with .030'' wall thickness
Primary
  Inductance  98 [mu]H
  Resistance  0.118 ohms
Secondary
  Inductance  24.16 mH
  Resistance  24.42 ohms
  Capacitance  1040 nF
  Winding ratio  1:143
  Mutual inductance  6.13 mH

In the experiment; the controlled variable was the voltage, which was increased in steps until the maximum voltage in the secondary (permitted by circuit components and test equipment) was achieved for the given resonant frequency. The objective was to "drive the atmosphere" by radiating a high voltage (~20 kV p-p), LF (40-120 kHz) signal developed by the high ratio step-up transformer and fed by a powerful signal generator at a resonant frequency either with an L-C resonant secondary coil, or a resonance determined by the pyramid as a quasi-capacitive series element connected to the secondary coil of the transformer and radiating to the local atmosphere. The data are shown in Table 2.

The experimental data are shown in Table 2. The current readings were also confirmed by using "current sensing" resistors (not shown). A apparent power gain of nearly 100-fold was achieved in the secondary coil relative to input power in the primary coil, and a linear increase of power in the secondary coil with the increase of input power into the primary coil (FIG. 3). The power in the secondary coil exponentially increases with the pyramid apex voltage (FIG. 4).

TABLE 2
Power Measurements in the Pyramid-Resonant Coil System

Primary               
Frequency (kHz)   83.00
VP RMS   3.97   6.38   9.86   20.3   26.7   33.8   39   40.8
IP RMS (mA)   87.6  222   300   792  1117  1389  1541  1838
IP angle with respect to VP   18[deg.]   24[deg.]   14[deg.]   22[deg.]   23[deg.]   21[deg.]   20[deg.]   28[deg.]
Total power (VA)   0.35   1.42   2.95   16.02   29.70   46.77   59.95   74.75
True power (W)   0.33   1.30   2.87   14.85   27.35   43.66   56.34   66.01

Secondary
VS RMS  341  872  1150  3540  4670  6220  7140  7710
IA RMS (mA)   62.2  148   193   438   579   728   834   919
IA angle with respect to VS   42[deg.]   43[deg.]   44[deg.]   52[deg.]   52[deg.]   54[deg.]   53[deg.]   52[deg.]
Total power (VA)   21.2  129.5   222.8  1552  2707.8  4530.2  5957.5  7087.3
True power (W)   15.7   94.7   160.3   956  1668.1  2664.5  3587.6  4366
Power sec/prim   61.1   91.4   75.4   96.9   91.2   96.9   99.4   94.8

A load may be connected to coil 2 to draw power from the system. The load may also be connected via a tertiary coil inductively coupled to the secondary coil. The load may be a resistor, a rectifier or storage capacitor powering a DC load.

A graphic representation of the test system is shown in FIG. 5. The pyramidal antenna/waveguide, placed on an insulating base, is coupled to the surrounding electromagnetic environment and serves as an antenna/waveguide for the concentration of atmospheric and telluric electromagnetic oscillations at resonance frequency. As the flow of electric energy is always balanced [6], two vortices may cross the pyramidal antenna: one from the direction of the ground concentrating into its apex, and another one from its apex propagating into the atmosphere (FIG. 1). The atmospheric electric vortex possibly acts as an ionic antenna pulling in EM radiations from a large atmospheric domain. In FIG. 5, the antenna/waveguide 10 is attached to a coil 12. To drive the system, a RF generator 14 is connected to a signal amplifier 16. The signal amplifier 16 is also connected to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) 18 through a sinewave generator 20 and a frequency counter 22. Outputs from the sinewave generator 20 and frequency counter 22 are also connected to a first current amplifier 24. The output from the antenna/waveguide 10 and coil 12 are also connected to a second current amplifier 26. The sinewave generator 20, frequency counter 22, first current amplifier 24, and second current amplifier 26 are connected to a digital oscilloscope 28. Outputs from the antenna/waveguide 10 and coil 12 are also connected to the digital oscilloscope 28. A laptop computer 30 controls the sinewave generator 20 and frequency counter 22.

The pyramid's apex is attached to a coil of high turn number (FIGS. 2 & 4). This secondary coil wound on a nonconductive coil form serves as a step-up transformer, and forms a resonant circuit with the pyramid that acts as a quasi-capacitive series element. The secondary coil is activated by a signal from an RF generator via a primary coil of a few turn numbers inductively coupled to coil 2. The measurement points are also indicated, displaying the positions of voltage and current probes. The data are captured by a digital oscilloscope and recorded on a laptop computer.

Discussion

This invention demonstrates a novel approach to harvest Earth's electric energy. The masses of Earth and its atmosphere represent a coupled resonant system that is continually electrified by solar radiation. We have found that a pyramidal antenna designed based on the ratios of phi and pi is optimal for the capture of atmospheric electrostatic discharge (ESD) impulses [3-5]. Atmospheric ESD is a product of solar radiation and is a wide bandwidth phenomenon. The pyramid as a wideband, non-resonant antenna is uniquely adapted to harvest the energy of atmospheric ESD.

This invention also points out an additional energizing mechanism at work during the operation of the pyramid electric generator. The observation is derived from our theory on energy, matter and space [1,2] as well as that of Russell [6,7]. Both Russell and we observed that spiral motion is a fundamental action of matter and that the vortex is the mechanism of power multiplication in Nature. A vortex concentrates power into its apex where the highest velocity of motion, the highest pressure and the highest electric potential resides [1,2,6,7]. As electricity propagates along a pulsating phi-based spiral [6,7], a phi-based antenna/waveguide is suitable to focus its energy into the apex of a vortex inside the antenna. A phi-based pyramid is optimal for this purpose.

As atomic bodies can oscillate in a very wide frequency range [1,2,6-8], a pyramidal antenna/waveguide coupled to an oscillator that is tuned to a suitable frequency can focus the "electric noise" from Earth's atomic oscillators into the apex of the pyramid at a high voltage. Russell observed that energy moves towards the higher potential during its generative cycle [7]; therefore, it is essential that the pyramidal antenna be at a high potential. Our data corroborated this assumption.
To select a suitable frequency range, one can begin with the observation that all material manifestations are tonal [8], and that acoustic frequencies are always generated during the oscillations of atomic bodies even though they remain inaudible most of the time. Acoustic waves are also electric [8] and therefore Earth's enormous mass and its atmosphere represent a coupled resonant system that offer a vast source of power.

For practical reasons on our small pyramid, we have chosen a frequency above the audio range but below the radio frequency spectrum; our antenna was made to radiate at the target wavelength. The wavelength of the 50-120 kHz range is 6 km to 25 km, thus allowing energy to be harvested over a large atmospheric domain. As electrical energy propagates in a vortex [6,7], the emitted electric vortex (ionic antenna) over the pyramidal antenna/waveguide increases its "size" and enables it to funnel the same frequency atmospheric electromagnetic radiations back into the antenna. Thus, the pyramid electric generator captures at the selected frequency the energy emitted by Earth's atomic oscillators.

The presence of an electric (ionic) vortex was demonstrated by radar testing of the space over a 44 m tall fiberglass pyramid located near Moscow [12]. The Russians found that the large ionized column of air over the area of the vertical axis of the pyramid had a width of about 500 m and reached an altitude of 2 km. It is remarkable that this effect was induced by a nonconductive pyramid surface demonstrating a significant degree of atmospheric ionization even under fair weather conditions. Thus, a suitably sized large or an electrically activated small pyramid should open a low impedance path to higher elevations of relatively conductive atmospheric domains.

In conclusion, the total power that can be extracted from Earth's atomic oscillators must be extremely large, likely far exceeding current global electric generation capacity. In our experiment, we obtained over 7000 VA power at about 20 kV p-p pyramid voltage using a 6 feet base length pyramid. This power is nearly 100 times greater than the power necessary to drive the pyramid to the required operating voltage. By constructing the pyramid generator from dedicated high voltage components and using higher drive voltages, a significant increase in power output is envisioned. The power extraction will also be enhanced by further optimization of the designs of both the pyramid and the coil system.

The power output will also increase by employing larger pyramid structures and coils. As voltage is the primary factor in attracting power into the system, the necessary voltage can be provided by the vertical atmospheric potential on a tall pyramid. Since the atmospheric vertical potential gradient could go as high as 1200 V/m near Earth's surface under fair weather conditions [13], a pyramid height of 80-150 m seems sufficient to provide the apex voltage for a self-sustaining power generator. As the pyramid scales up volumetrically, a power generator pyramid of the size range of the GPG could likely have an output in the hundreds to thousands of megawatts range. Groups of several pyramid electric generators could be placed within specific geographical areas, thus combining their energy harvesting capacity.

References

The following references are specifically applicable to the Example and are incorporated herein by reference; these references are referenced in the Example by the reference numbers assigned to them.

[1] Grandics, P. 2002, "The genesis of electromagnetic and gravitational forces." J. New Energy, 6, (3) 33-45.

[2] Grandics, P. 2007, "The genesis of fundamental forces acting at a distance and some practical derivations." Infinite Energy, 12, (71) 13-24.

[3] Grandics, P. 2000, "A method to capture atmospheric electrostatic energy", in Proceedings of IEJ-ESA Joint Symposium on Electrostatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 355-361.

[4] Grandics, P. 2006, "A DC to RF converter for the capture of atmospheric electrostatic energy", in Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Societe Francaise D'Electrostatique, SFE 2006, Grenoble, France pp. 279-284.

[5] Grandics, P. 2007, "Pyramidal Electric Transducer: A DC to RF Converter for the Capture of Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy." Infinite Energy, 13, (73) 20-27.

[6] Russell, W. 1947, in The Secret of Light, 3rd ed. University of Science and Philosophy, Waynesboro, Va., pp. 218-288.

[7] Russell, W. 1957, in Atomic Suicide? 2nd ed. University of Science and Philosophy, Waynesboro, Va., pp. 129-153.

[8] Russell, W. 1926, in The Universal One, University of Science and Philosophy, Waynesboro, Va., pp. 247-249.

[9] Nishida, K., Kobayashi, N. and Fukao, Y. 2000, "Resonant oscillations between the solid earth and the atmosphere", Science 287, (5461), 2244-2246.

[10] Tanimoto, T., Um, J., Nishida, K., and Kobayashi, N. 1998, "Earth's continuous oscillations observed on seismically quiet days", Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1553-1556.

[11] Tanimoto, T. 2001, "Continuous free oscillations: Atmosphere-solid earth coupling". Ann. Rev. Earth Planet Sci. 29, 563-584.

[12] http://www.pyramidoflife.com/eng/tests_experiments.html.

[13] Marshall, T. C., Rust, W. D., Stolzenburg, M., Roeder, W. P., and Kriebel, P. R. 1999, "A study of enhanced fair-weather electric fields occurring soon after sunrise". J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24,455-24, 469.

ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a new method of tapping Earth's electric energy and providing usable power that can be fed into a power grid or supplied by stand-alone power generators. It does so without the need for mechanical energy or the consumption of fossil fuel or the long-term risks associated with power generated by nuclear fission, including the risk of diversion of fissionable material to terrorist aims or the risk posed by the required long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. Devices according to the present invention can operate virtually continuously with little to no maintenance.

With respect to ranges of values, the invention encompasses each intervening value between the upper and lower limits of the range to at least a tenth of the lower limit's unit, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Moreover, the invention encompasses any other stated intervening values and ranges including either or both of the upper and lower limits of the range, unless specifically excluded from the stated range.

Unless defined otherwise, the meanings of all technical and scientific terms used herein are those commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. One of ordinary skill in the art will also appreciate that any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can also be used to practice or test this invention.

The publications and patents discussed herein are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention. Further the dates of publication provided may be different from the actual publication dates which may need to be independently confirmed.

All the publications cited are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties, including all published patents, patent applications, and literature references, as well as those publications that have been incorporated in those published documents. However, to the extent that any publication incorporated herein by reference refers to information to be published, applicants do not admit that any such information published after the filing date of this application is to be considered prior art.

As used in this specification and in the appended claims, the singular forms include the plural forms. For example the terms "a," "an," and "the" include plural references unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. Additionally, the term "at least" preceding a series of elements is to be understood as referring to every element in the series. The inventions illustratively described herein can suitably be practiced in the absence of any element or elements, limitation or limitations, not specifically disclosed herein. Thus, for example, the terms "comprising," "including," "containing," etc. shall be read expansively and without limitation. Additionally, the terms and expressions employed herein have been used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the future shown and described or any portion thereof, and it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed. Thus, it should be understood that although the present invention has been specifically disclosed by preferred embodiments and optional features, modification and variation of the inventions herein disclosed can be resorted to by those skilled in the art, and that such modifications and variations are considered to be within the scope of the inventions disclosed herein. The inventions have been described broadly and generically herein. Each of the narrower species and subgeneric groupings falling within the scope of the generic disclosure also form part of these inventions. This includes the generic description of each invention with a proviso or negative limitation removing any subject matter from the genus, regardless of whether or not the excised materials specifically resided therein. In addition, where features or aspects of an invention are described in terms of the Markush group, those schooled in the art will recognize that the invention is also thereby described in terms of any individual member or subgroup of members of the Markush group. It is also to be understood that the above description is intended to be illustrative and not restrictive. Many embodiments will be apparent to those of in the art upon reviewing the above description. The scope of the invention should therefore, be determined not with reference to the above description, but should instead be determined with reference to the appended claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. Those skilled in the art will recognize, or will be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.




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