-- Overunity Disclosure by Graham Gunderson
-- Solid state electric generator
-- Apparatus for generating electricity utilizing
nondestructive interference of energy
/www.magneticpowerinc.com -- Solid State Electrical Generator
-- Spiral Transformer – related to Graham’s patent
-- Photos & Interview
-- Graham Gunderson's Transformer
-- Image of Gunderson's Transformer
Review Board -- Chava Energy’s ZPE GENERATOR Fraud
Overunity Disclosure by Graham Gunderson
"A REAL OVERUNITY TRANSFORMER DEMONSTRATED TO AN AUDIENCE AND
DETAILS ON HOW TO REPLICATE IT! ALSO, REVEALING KEYS TO FLOYD
SWEET'S VTA'S BARIUM FERRITE MAGNETS - CONCEPTS OF CONDITIONING
THEM TO SELF-RESONATE AT SPECIFIC FREQUENCIES."
REVEALED: A simple overunity transformer that is easy for the
average builder to demonstrate and rare information shared about
Barium Ferrite magnets that you won't easily find anywhere else.
Solid state electric generator
A solid-state electrical generator including at least one
permanent magnet, magnetically coupled to a ferromagnetic core
provided with at least one hole penetrating its volume; the
hole(s) and magnet(s) being placed such that the hole(s)
penetrating the ferromagnetic core's volume intercept flux from
the permanent magnet(s) coupled into the ferromagnetic core. A
first wire coil is wound around the ferromagnetic core for the
purpose of moving the coupled permanent magnet flux within the
ferromagnetic core. A second wire is routed through the hole(s)
penetrating the volume of the ferromagnetic core, for the purpose
of intercepting this moving magnetic flux, thereby inducing an
output electromotive force.; A changing voltage applied to the
first wire coil causes coupled permanent magnet flux to move
within the core relative to the hole(s) penetrating the core
volume, thus inducing electromotive force along wire(s) passing
through the hole(s) in the ferromagnetic core. The mechanical
action of an electrical generator is thereby synthesized without
use of moving parts.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates to a method and device for generating
electrical power using solid state means.
2. Description of the Related Art
It has long been known that moving a magnetic field across a wire
will generate an electromotive force (EMF), or voltage, along the
wire. When this wire is connected in an electrical closed circuit,
in order to perform work, an electric current is driven through
this closed circuit by the induced electromotive force.
It has also long been known that this resulting electric current
causes the closed circuit to become encircled with a secondary,
induced magnetic field, whose polarity opposes the primary
magnetic field that first induced the EMF. This magnetic
opposition creates mutual repulsion as a moving magnet moves
toward such a closed circuit and attraction as that moving magnet
then moves away from the closed circuit. Both these actions tend
to slow, or “drag” the progress of the moving magnet generating
the EMF, causing the electric generator to act as a magnetic
brake, in direct proportion to the amount of electric current
Gas engines, hydroelectric dams and steam-fed turbines have
historically been used to overcome this magnetic braking action
occurring within mechanical electric generators. A large amount of
mechanical power is ultimately required to produce a large amount
of electrical power, since the magnetic braking interaction
resulting from induced electrical current is generally
proportional to the amount of power being generated.
There has been a long felt need for a generator which reduces this
well-known magnetic braking interaction, while nevertheless
generating useful electric power. When the magnetic fields within
a generator are caused to move and interact efficiently electric
power can be supplied with far greater economy. Improving power
generating and conversion efficiencies also increases the power
capability of a device thereby, inter alia, providing a mechanism
to reduce the size and weight of the generating device. Smaller
and higher power density devices are particularly useful in
applications such as aviation, automotive, and portable
electronics including hand held devices.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It has long been known that the source of the magnetism within a
permanent magnet is a spinning electric current within
ferromagnetic atoms of certain elements, persisting indefinitely
in accord with well-defined quantum rules. This atomic current
encircles each atom, thereby causing each atom to emit a magnetic
field, as a miniature electromagnet.
This atomic current does not exist in magnets alone. It also
exists in ordinary metallic iron, and in any element or metallic
alloy that can be “magnetized”, that is, exhibits ferromagnetism.
All ferromagnetic atoms and “magnetic metals” contain such quantum
In specific ferromagnetic materials, the orientation axis of each
atomic electromagnet is flexible. The orientation of magnetic flux
within, as well as external to the material, easily pivots. Such
materials are referred to as magnetically “soft”, due to this
Permanent magnet materials are magnetically “hard”. The
orientation axis of each atomic electromagnet is fixed in place
within a rigid crystal structure. The total magnetic field
produced by these atoms cannot easily move. This constraint
permanently aligns the field of ordinary magnets, hence the name
The axis of circular current flow in one ferromagnetic atom can
direct the axis of magnetism within another ferromagnetic atom,
through a process known as spin exchange. This gives a soft
magnetic material, like raw iron, the useful ability to aim,
focus, and redirect the magnetic field emitted from a magnetically
hard permanent magnet.
In the present invention, a permanent magnet's rigid field is sent
into a magnetically flexible, “soft” magnetic material. The
permanent magnet's apparent location, observed from points within
the magnetically soft material, will effectively move, vibrate,
and appear to shift position when the magnetization of the soft
magnetic material is modulated by ancillary means (much like the
sun, viewed while underwater, appears to move when the water is
agitated). By this mechanism, the motion required for generation
of electricity can be synthesized within a soft ferromagnetic
material, without requiring physical movement or an applied
The present invention is believed to synthesize virtual motion of
magnets and their magnetic fields thereby providing highly
efficient energy conversion. The present invention describes an
electrical generator wherein magnetic braking phenomena, known as
expressions of Lenz's Law, do not oppose the means by which the
magnetic field energy is caused to move. This synthesized magnetic
motion is aided by forces generated in accordance with Lenz's Law,
in order to aid the synthesized magnetic motion, instead of
physical “magnetic braking”. Because of this novel magnetic
interaction, the solid-state static generator of the present
invention provides a highly efficient energy conversion apparatus.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
So that the above-recited features of the present invention can be
understood in detail, a more particular description of the
invention, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to
various embodiments, some of which are illustrated in the appended
drawings. It is to be noted, however, that the appended drawings
illustrate only typical embodiments of this invention and are
therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the
invention may admit to other equally effective embodiments.
FIG. 1 is an exploded view of the generator of this invention.
FIG. 2 is a top plan cross sectional view of the generator of this
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional elevation showing the magnetic action
occurring within the generator of FIGS. 1 and 2.
FIG. 4 is a schematic circuit diagram, illustrating one method of
electrically operating the generator of this invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1 depicts a partially exploded view of an embodiment of an
electric generator of this invention. The parts have been
numbered, with the numbering convention applied to FIGS. 1, 2, and
Numeral 1 represents a permanent magnet with its North pole
pointing inward toward the soft ferromagnetic core of the device.
Similarly, numeral 2 indicates permanent magnets of preferably the
same shape and composition, with their South poles aimed inward
toward the opposite side, or opposite surface of the device. The
letters “S” and “N” denote these respective magnetic poles in the
drawing. Other magnetic polarities and configurations may be used
with success; the pattern shown merely illustrative of one
efficient mode of adding magnets to the core.
The magnets may be formed of any polarized magnetic material. In
order of descending effectiveness, the most desirable
permanent-magnet materials are Neodymium-Iron-Boron (NIB) magnets,
Samarium Cobalt magnets, AlNiCo alloy magnets, or “ceramic”
strontium-, barium- or lead-ferrite magnets. A primary factor
determining permanent magnet material composition is the magnetic
flux strength of the particular material type. In an embodiment of
the invention, these magnets may also be substituted with one or
more electromagnets producing the required magnetic flux. In
another embodiment of the invention, a superimposed DC current
bias can be applied to the output wire to generate the required
magnetic flux, in substitution of, or in conjunction with said
Numeral 3 indicates the magnetic core. This core is a critical
member of the generator, determining the characteristics of output
power capacity, optimal magnet type, electrical impedance, and
operating frequency range. This core may be any shape, composed of
any ferromagnetic substance, formed by any process (sintering,
casting, adhesive bonding, tape winding, etc). A wide spectrum of
geometries, materials, and processes are known in the art of
magnetic cores. Effective common materials include, but are not
limited to, amorphous metal alloys (such as that sold under the
trademark designation “Metglas” by Metglas Inc., Conway S.C.),
nanocrystalline alloys, manganese and zinc ferrites as well as
ferrites of any suitable element including any combination of
magnetically “hard” and “soft” ferrites, powdered metals and
ferromagnetic alloys, laminations of cobalt and/or iron, and
silicon-iron “electrical steel”. This invention successfully
utilizes any ferromagnetic material, while functioning as claimed.
In an embodiment of the invention, and for the purpose of
illustration, a circular “toroid” core is illustrated. In an
embodiment of the invention, the composition may be bonded iron
powder, commonly available from many manufacturers.
Regardless of core type, the core is prepared with holes, through
which wires may pass, which have been drilled or formed to
penetrate the core's ferromagnetic volume. The toroidal core 3
shown includes radial holes pointing toward a common center. If,
for example stiff wire rods were to be inserted through each of
these holes, these wires would meet at the center point of the
core, producing an appearance similar to a spoke wheel. If a
square or rectangular core (not illustrated) is used instead,
these holes are preferably oriented parallel to the core's flat
sides, causing stiff rods passed through the holes to form a
square grid pattern, as the rods cross each other in the interior
“window” area framed by the core. While in other embodiments of
the invention, these holes may take any possible orientation or
patterns of orientation within the scope of the present generator,
a simple row of radial holes is illustrated herein as one example.
Numeral 4 depicts a wire or bundle of wires, i.e. output wire 4,
that pick-up and carry the generator's output power. Typically
this wire is composed of insulated copper, though other output
mediums such as aluminum, iron, dielectric material, polymers, and
semiconducting materials may be substituted. It may be seen in
FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 that wire 4, which serves as an output medium,
passes alternately through neighboring holes formed in core 3. The
path taken by wire 4 undulates, passing in an opposite direction
through each adjacent hole. If an even number of holes is used,
the wire will emerge on the same side of the core it first entered
on, once all holes are filled. The resulting pair of trailing
leads may be twisted together or similarly terminated, forming the
output terminals of the generator shown at Numeral 5. Output wire
4 may also make multiple passes through each hole in the core.
Though the winding pattern is not necessarily undulatory; this
basic form is shown by way of example. Many effective connection
styles exist; this illustration shows the simplest. All successful
connection methods pass wire 4 at some point through the holes in
Numeral 6 in FIGS. 1, 2, and 3 points to a partial illustration of
the input winding, or inductive coil used to shift the permanent
magnets' fields within the core. Typically, this wire coil
encircles the core, wrapping around it. For the toroidal core
presented, input coil 6 resembles the outer windings of a typical
toroidal inductor, a common electrical component. For the sake of
clarity, only a few turns of coil 6 are shown in each of drawing
FIGS. 1, 2, and 3. In practice, this coil may cover the entire
core, or specific sections of the core, including or not including
the magnets, while remaining within scope of the present
FIG. 2 shows the same representative generator of FIG. 1, looking
transparently “down” through it from above, so the relative
positions of the core holes (dotted lines), the path of the output
wire, and magnet positions (as shaded areas) are made clear.
The generator shown uses a core with 8 radially drilled holes. The
spacing between these illustrative holes is equal. As shown, each
hole is displaced 45 degrees from the next. All holes' centers lay
along a common plane; this imaginary plane is centered half-way
along the core's vertical thickness. Cores of any shape and size
may include as few as two, or as many as hundreds of holes, and a
similar number of magnets. Other variations exist, such as
generators with multiple rows of holes, zigzag and diagonal
patterns, or output wire 4 molded directly into the core material.
In any case, the basic magnetic interaction shown in FIG. 3 occurs
for each hole in the core, as detailed below.
FIG. 3 shows the same design, viewed broadside. The curvature of
the core has been flattened to the page for the purpose of
illustration. The magnets are represented schematically,
protruding from core top and bottom, with arrows indicating the
direction of magnetic flux—arrow heads pointing north, tails
In practice, the free, unattached polar ends of the generator's
magnets may be left as-is, in open air, or provided with a common
ferromagnetic path linking unused North and South poles together,
as a magnetic “ground”. This common return path is typically made
of steel, iron or similar material, taking the form of a ferrous
enclosure housing the device. It may serve the additional purpose
of a protecting chassis. The magnetic return may also be another
ferromagnetic core in repetition of the present invention, forming
a stack or layered series of generators, sharing common magnets
between generator cores. Any such additions are without direct
bearing on the functional principle of the generator itself, and
have therefore been omitted from these illustrations.
Two example flux diagrams are given in FIG. 3. Each example is
shown in a space between schematically depicted partial input
coils 6. A positive or negative polarity marker indicates the
direction of input current, applied through the input coil. This
applied current produces “modulating” magnetic flux, which is used
to synthesize motion of the permanent magnets, and is shown as a
double-tailed horizontal arrow (a) along the core 3. Each example
shows this double-tailed arrow (a) pointing to the right or the
left depending on the polarity of applied current.
In either case, vertical flux entering the core (b, 3) from the
external permanent magnets (1, 2) is swept along, within the core,
by the direction of the double-tailed arrow representing the input
coil's magnetic flux (a). These curved arrows (b) in the space
between the magnets and holes can be seen to shift or bend
(a->b), as if they were streams or jets of air subject to a
changing wind (a).
The resulting sweeping motion of the permanent magnets' fields
causes their flux (b) to brush back and forth over the holes and
wire 4 passing through these holes. Just as in a mechanical
generator, when magnetic flux brushes or “cuts” sideways across a
conductor in this way, EMF or voltage is induced. By connecting an
electrical load across the ends of this wire conductor (Numeral 5,
in FIGS. 1, 2) a current is allowed to flow through the load in a
closed circuit, delivering electrical power able to perform work.
Input of an alternating current across the input coil 6 generates
an alternating magnetic field (a) causing the fields of permanent
magnets 1, and 2 to shift (b) within the core 3, inducing
electrical power through a load (attached to terminals 5), as if
the fixed magnets (1,2) themselves were physically moving.
However, no mechanical motion is present.
In a mechanical generator, induced current powering an electrical
load returns back through output wire 4 creating a secondary
induced magnetic field, exerting forces which substantially oppose
the original magnetic field inducing the original EMF. Since load
currents induce their own, secondary magnetic fields opposing the
original act of induction in this way, the source of the original
induction requires additional energy to restore itself and
continue generating electricity. In mechanical generators, the
energy-inducing motion of the generator's magnetic fields is being
physically actuated, requiring a strong prime mover (such as a
steam turbine) to restore the EMF-generating magnetic fields'
motion, against the braking effect of the output-induced magnetic
fields (the induced field (c), and the inducing field (b)),
destructively in mutual opposition. It is this inductive
opposition which ultimately must be overcome by physical force,
which is commonly produced by consumption of other energy
The generator of the present invention makes use of the induced,
secondary magnetic field in such a way as to not cause opposition,
resulting in efficient magnetic field motion. Because the magnetic
fields do not act to destroy one another in mutual opposition, the
present invention is a highly efficient energy conversion
The present generator's induced magnetic field, resulting from
electric current flowing through the load and returning through
output wire 4, is that of a closed loop encircling each hole in
the core admitting the output conductor or conductive medium (4,
c). The present generator's induced magnetic fields create
magnetic flux in the form of closed loops within the ferromagnetic
core. The magnetic field “encircles” each hole in the core
carrying output wire 4, similar to the threads of a screw
“encircling” the shaft of the screw.
Within this generator, the magnetic field from output medium or
wire 4 immediately encircles each hole formed in the core (c)
carrying this medium or wire 4. Since wire 4 may take an opposing
direction through each neighboring hole, the direction of the
resulting magnetic field will likewise be opposite. The directions
of arrows (b) and (c) are, at each hole, opposing, headed in
opposite directions, since (b) is the inducing flux and (c) is the
induced flux, each opposing one another while generating
However, this magnetic opposition is effectively directed against
the permanent magnets that are injecting their flux into the core,
but not the source of the alternating magnetic input field 6. In
the present solid state generator, induced output flux (4, c) is
directed to oppose the permanent magnets (1, 2) not the input flux
source (6, a) that is synthesizing the virtual motion of those
magnets (1, 2) by its magnetizing action on core 3.
The present generator employs magnets as the source of motive
pressure driving the generator, since they are the entity being
opposed or “pushed against” by the opposing reaction induced by
output current which is powering a load. Experiments show that
high-quality permanent magnets can be magnetically “pushed
against” in this way for very long periods of time, before
becoming demagnetized or “spent”.
FIG. 3 illustrates inducing representative flux arrows (b)
directed oppositely against induced representative flux (c). In
materials typically used to form core 3, fields flowing in
mutually opposite directions tend to cancel each other, just as
positive and negative numbers of equal magnitude sum to zero.
On the remaining side of each hole, opposite the permanent magnet,
no mutual opposition takes place. Induced flux (c) caused by the
generator load currents remains present; however, inducing flux
from the permanent magnets (b) is not present since no magnet is
present, on this side, to source the necessary flux. This leaves
the induced flux (c) encircling the hole, as well as input flux
(a) from the input coils 6, continuing its path along the core, on
either side of each hole.
On the side of each core hole where a magnet is present, action
(b) and reaction (c) magnetic flux substantially cancel and
annihilate, being oppositely directed within the core. On the
other side of each hole, where no magnet is present, input flux
(a) and reaction flux (c) share a common direction. Magnetic flux
thereby adds together in these zones, where induced magnetic flux
(c) aids the input flux (a). This is the reverse of typical
generator action, where induced flux (c) is typically opposing the
“input” flux originating the induction.
Since the magnetic interaction herein is a combination of magnetic
flux opposition and magnetic flux acceleration, there is no longer
an overall magnetic braking, or total opposition effect. The
braking and opposition is counterbalanced by a simultaneous
magnetic acceleration within the core. Since mechanical motion is
absent, the equivalent electrical effect ranges from idling, or
absence of opposition, to a strengthening and overall acceleration
of the electrical input signal (within coils 6). Proper selection
of the permanent magnet (1, 2) material and flux density, core 3
material magnetic characteristics, core hole pattern and spacing,
and output medium connection technique create embodiments wherein
the present generator will display an absence of electrical
loading at the input and/or an overall amplification of the input
signal. This ultimately causes less input energy to be required in
order to work the generator. Therefore, as increasing amounts of
energy are withdrawn from the generator as output power performing
useful work, decreasing amounts of energy are generally required
to operate it. This process endures, working against the permanent
magnets (1, 2) until they are demagnetized.
In an embodiment of this invention, FIG. 4 illustrates a typical
operating circuit employing the generator of this invention. A
square-wave input signal, furnished by appropriate transistorized
switching means, is applied at the input terminals (S), to the
primary (a) of a step-down transformer 11. The secondary winding
(b) of the input transformer may be a single turn, in series with
a capacitor 12 and the generator 13 input coil (c), forming a
series resonant circuit. The frequency of the applied square wave
(S) must either match, or be an integral sub-harmonic of the
resonant frequency of this 3-element
transformer-capacitor-inductor input circuit.
Generator 13 output winding (d) is connected to resistive load L
through switch 14. When switch 14 is closed, generated power is
dissipated at L, which is any resistive load, for example, an
incandescent lamp or resistive heater.
Once input resonance is achieved, and the square wave input
frequency applied at S is such that the combined reactive
impedance of total inductance (b+c) is equal in magnitude to the
opposing reactive impedance of capacitance 12, the electrical
phases of current through, and voltage across, generator 13 input
coil (c) will flow 90 degrees apart in resonant quadrature. Power
drawn from the square wave input-energy source applying power to S
will now be at a minimum.
In this condition, the resonant energy present at the generator
input may be measured by connecting a voltage probe across the
test points (v), situated across the generator input coil,
together with a current probe around point (i), situated in series
with the generator input coil (c). The instantaneous vector
product of these two measurements indicates the energy circulating
at the generator's input, ultimately shifting the permanent
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that a square (or
other) wave may be applied directly to the generator input
terminals (c) without use of other components. Use of a resonant
circuit, particularly with inclusion of a capacitor 12 as
suggested, facilitates recirculation of energy within the input
circuit, generally producing efficient excitation as loads are
Apparatus for generating electricity
utilizing nondestructive interference of energy
A ferromagnetic material having non-zero magnetoelasticity, and/or
nonzero magnetostriction is driven with vibratory mechanical
energy at a frequency producing at least one resonant vibratory
mode, by coupling a source of vibratory energy to the
ferromagnetic structure. The ferromagnetic material threads at
least one conductive wire or wire coil, and couples to at least
one source of magnetic induction, and provides an electrical power
output driven by the magnetic induction. The origin of vibratory
energy and the site or sites of magnetic induction are situated at
distinct locations, separated by a specific distance not less than
[1/8] the fundamental acoustic wavelength. Various combinations of
acoustic wavelength, ferromagnetic material type, and source of
vibration produce independent transfer coefficients between
acoustic and electromagnetic energy which are either positive,
zero, or negative.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Magnetoelasticity is defined as the sensitivity of a ferromagnetic
material's magnetic characteristics to mechanical stress. Stress
exerted on the ferromagnetic material produces a corresponding
mechanical strain within the material. A ferromagnetic material
having nonzero magnetoelastic coefficient is herein referred to as
a magnetoelastic material. When a magnetoelastic material is
subjected to alternating mechanical pressures, an alternation of
its magnetic properties is correspondingly produced. When a
magnetoelastic material subject to mechanical stress carries
nonzero magnetic flux, the magnetic flux correspondingly changes
with pressure applied to the ferromagnetic material. A changing
magnetic flux is able to induce electrical signals and power by
the mechanism of electromagnetic induction.
Magnetostriction is defined as a ferromagnetic material's ability
to produce mechanical stress and strain causing changes in shape
or volume, in a manner that corresponds to the magnetic
polarization of the ferromagnetic material. A ferromagnetic
material having non-zero magnetostriction is herein referred to as
a magnetostrictive material. When a magnetostrictive material
carries alternating magnetic flux, its internal stresses and
physical dimensions vary corresponding to the magnetic field. All
ferromagnetic materials have some degree of magnetostriction, and
some degree of magnetoelasticity.
Vibration or alternating pressure within a medium is acoustic
energy. Magnetoelastic materials are able to convert acoustic
energy into magnetic energy. Conversely, magnetostrictive
materials are able to convert magnetic energy into acoustic
energy. Electromagnetic induction is able to exchange electrical
energy with magnetic energy. The combination of electromagnetic
induction, and magnetostriction and/or magnetoelasticity, provides
a bridge between electrical and acoustic energy.
Ferromagnetic materials are often both magnetoelastic and
magnetostrictive. However, some magnetic materials exhibit
magnetostriction and magnetoelasticity which are not equal in
Ferro-magnetic materials consist of magnetic dipoles which can be
polarized magnetically. A complimentary class of ferro-electric
materials consists of electric dipoles which can be polarized
electrically. Piezoelectric materials contain ferroelectric
dipoles capable of permanent polarization. Piezoelectric materials
are generally well known as materials able to convert electrical
energy to acoustic energy.
DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART
A small body of prior art exists exploiting the above
relationships between material types. Due to the complimentary
properties of electric charge and magnetic flux, physical
vibratory interaction between magnetostrictive materials and
electrostrictive or piezoelectric materials produces likewise
complimentary energy relationships which presently are regarded as
novel. Among the well-known family of reactive electrical
components such as inductors, capacitors and transformers, a
lesser-known component called the gyrator is produced by
mechanically interfacing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric
materials within the same component. Energy exchange between the
magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials produces a circuit
component with unique properties among the more familiar reactive
components, as detailed in the teachings of Viehland et al, US
2006/0279171, as a representative example of the art. Hybrid
energy converters bearing similarity to magnetic or piezoelectric
transformers are constructed by similar means, as illustrated
again by Viehland et al, US 2005/0194863.
Several prior art devices exist which incorporate magnetostrictive
and piezoelectric materials in intimate, physically coupled
contact such that vibration of one material translates to
vibration of the other; thus of their assembly as a whole.
However, the immediate, co-located physical contact between
different materials in these devices demands both vibrate and
respond as a single entity, where the timing of the vibrations in
each material are generally simultaneous. The present invention
represents a novel departure from this approach.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a method and
device for generating and transferring electrical power using a
acoustic or vibratory means, in combination with an
electromagnetic coupling means, capable of providing highly
efficient energy transfer, thereby substantially obviating one or
more of the problems due to the limitations and disadvantages of
the related art.
The present invention is a energy generating apparatus essentially
comprising an energy transfer and multiplier element being
constructed of a ferromagnetic substance possessing
magnetostrictive characteristics, magnetoelastic characteristics,
or both; and having a natural resonance, due to a physical
structure whose dimensions are directly proportional to the
wavelength of the resonance frequency, an electromagnetic coupling
element comprising a winding of at least one turn of conductive
wire encircling the energy transfer and multiplier element, a
magnetic field induced along the linear dimension of the energy
transfer and multiplier element, and a exciter means capable of
inducing an acoustic wave within the energy transfer and
multiplier element, such as a piezoelectric device or linear
motor. When energized by the exciter element, a current is
generated in the coupling element.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and
constitute a part of this specification illustrate embodiments of
the invention and, together with the description, serve to explain
the features, advantages, and principles of the invention.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 illustrates propagation of mechanical wave energy between
atoms constituting an elastic solid, such as the ferromagnetic
material utilized in the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an illustration of the nodal and anti-nodal points in a
linear section of resonating material in longitudinal resonance at
FIG. 3 is an example of magnetic flux distribution within the
ferromagnetic material of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a depiction of acoustic energy reflection and
interference at fundamental longitudinal resonance.
FIG. 5 is a diagram of nondestructive wave interference between
acoustic energy and magnetostrictive force, as an extension of
FIG. 6 shows mutual magnetic opposition between plural inductive
take-off points, for purposes of increasing the energy-density of
the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a detailed illustration of the present invention.
FIG. 8 is a detailed illustration of the present invention
incorporating a piezoelectric element as the source of acoustic
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Description of the Physics of the Invention:
Vibratory energy, as acoustic energy within a solid material,
propagates at a speed that is generally unique to that material.
Ferromagnetic solids have an acoustic velocity, or speed of sound,
in the range of 5000 meters/second. Acoustic energy applied at a
given point propagates outward very slowly, relative to
electromagnetic energy such as light, whose speed in vacuum is
standardized at 299,792,458 meters/second. Acoustic energy in
ferromagnetic solids propagates at about 0.0016% the speed at
which electromagnetic energy propagates in free space.
Owing to this relatively slow propagation velocity, acoustic waves
traveling through solids experience substantial phase shifts over
relatively small distances, relative to frequency. A 125 kHz
acoustic wave propagating through a ferromagnetic solid having
5000 m/s acoustic velocity experiences a 90 degree phase shift
over a distance of 1 cm. An electromagnetic wave of 125 kHz
propagating through free space only achieves a 90 degree phase
shift at a distance of 600 meters. Due to the substantial delays
incurred by slow acoustic propagation velocity in ferromagnetic
solids, a source of coherent acoustic wave energy in the
sub-megahertz band may be exerting a compressive stress at a
specific instant, while the acoustic pressure a few centimeters
away is tensile, nil, or of intermediate value. Because acoustic
waves can translate to electrical energy by the means disclosed
herein, thereby determining the phase of the electrical waves, and
because the phase of electrical waves determines the type and
content of the electrical energy, acoustical phase-shifting
produces electro-acoustic power transformations novel among prior
Magnetic materials including iron, nickel, silicon iron and other
iron alloys, amorphous metal (such as Metglas, Metglas Inc.,
Conway, S.C.), nanocrystalline alloys (such as Finemet, Hitachi
Metals Inc., Tokyo, Japan); magnetic ferrites (such as Re—Fe2O4
where Re=Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, Li; and Re—Fe12O19 where Re=La, Ba, Sr,
Pb) and the mineral hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) exhibit
magnetoelasticity. The magnetic properties of each material are,
to various extents, dependent on stress applied to the material.
Generally, compressive stress will decrease the magnetic
susceptibility to polarization, and decrease the saturation
magnetization, while increasing the coercive force of the material
along the stress axis; while tensile stress produces the opposite
changes, increasing the magnetic susceptibility and saturation
magnetization, and decreasing the coercive force along the stress
A cylindrical rod of solid material with an axial length greater
than its diameter will support longitudinal acoustic resonance
along its cylindrical axis. When an acoustic or vibratory impulse
is applied at the proximate rod end, acoustic energy propagates
down the rod axis at the acoustic velocity of the rod material.
Upon reaching the distal end of the rod, the acoustic energy is
reflected, retracing its course toward the proximate rod end. The
round-trip duration of acoustic wave travel down the rod axis and
back is the acoustic reflection period. The reciprocal of the
acoustic reflection period is the rod's fundamental longitudinal
acoustic resonant frequency. This frequency is defined
V is the acoustic velocity of a material in meters/second,
L is the acoustic length of the material in meters; and,
F is the fundamental resonant frequency in Hertz.
The factor of 2 in the above formula accounts for the reflection
of the acoustic wave, which travels distance L, reflects off the
boundary at the end of length L, then retraces its path, traveling
distance L a second time before returning to its point of origin,
thus completing one resonant wave cycle.
In this resonant condition, the rod material functions as a tuned
waveguide, or longitudinal resonator, for acoustic energy. When
axial vibratory energy is applied to the rod at the rod's
fundamental axial resonant frequency, or integer multiples of this
resonant frequency, standing acoustic waves are produced along the
rod axis. A standing longitudinal acoustic wave in a rod consists
of neighboring regions of a) maximum axially reciprocating
displacement of the rod material at the vibratory frequency,
termed antinodes, and b) regions of axially-directed alternating
stress within the rod material, also at the vibratory frequency,
termed nodal points. At the rod's fundamental half-wave
longitudinal resonant frequency, wave antinodes appear at the ends
of the rod, while a nodal point is at the center of the rod.
When the rod is mechanically driven at frequencies which are
integer multiples of this fundamental axial resonant frequency,
the number of nodal points and antinodes increases, as illustrated
in FIG. 2. Where more than one anti-node exists, each anti-node
will exhibit axial displacement of direction opposite to the
closest adjacent antinodes. Where more than one nodal point
exists, each nodal point will contain axial stress that is
opposite the sign of axial stress in the closest adjacent nodal
When a rod such as illustrated is formed of a solid,
magnetoelastically active ferromagnetic material, the oscillating
stress at the nodal point or points produces an oscillating change
in the magnetic properties of the rod in the nodal regions, via
the magnetoelastic activity of the rod material.
At least one permanent magnet, electromagnet, or other source of
magnetic flux, termed “bias magnet”, may be provided which
magnetically biases the rod along its length, or portions of its
length. The ferromagnetic rod becomes magnetically polarized along
its axis, in response to the magnetic field applied to it by the
bias magnet. Resonant longitudinal vibration along the rod axis
produces at least one nodal point along this axis. The alternating
stress at a nodal point produces a corresponding cyclic variation
of the magnetic coercive force and magnetic susceptibility via the
magnetoelastic effect. The periodically changing magnetic
properties vary the degree of effective magnetic polarization
within the rod, thereby producing a time-varying magnetic field.
This time-varying magnetic field will induce electrical current by
means well known in the art, most simply by winding a coil of
conductive wire encircling the rod at its nodal point or points.
The time varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force, or
EMF, in the electrical conductor, such as wire or wire coil, wound
around the rod at or near the nodal point or points. When an
electrical circuit including this wire coil is closed, electrical
current will flow. This circuit may include an electrical load of
any type, such that the device disclosed herein functions as an
electrical generator, powering that load. At least three novel
situations appear in this utilization, departing significantly
from prior generator art, and which also depart significantly from
the prior teachings in works utilizing energy exchange between
magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials, as typified in the
related art listed above. These novel interactions further
exemplify the novelty of the disclosed invention.
[A]: Lenz Field Addition. A changing magnetic field induces
electrical current. Any current thus induced produces a secondary,
induced magnetic field. This secondary magnetic field acts to
oppose the first, causative magnetic field, such that the primary
and secondary magnetic fields are of opposite sign, and exhibit
opposing changes with respect to time. The secondary magnetic
field will tend to cancel the primary magnetic field. This
tendency is known as Lenz's Law, an electromagnetic rule governing
induction of electrical currents by a changing magnetic field. In
the disclosed invention, the changing magnetic field produced at a
nodal point within a magnetoelastically active material induces
electrical current in a coil of conductive wire wound around it;
this coil of conductive wire then produces a secondary magnetic
field due to passage of induced current within it, which tends to
oppose the primary changing magnetic field produced
magnetoelastically. This mutually opposing interaction limits the
electrical power generated by a single nodal point.
Harmonic resonance causes multiple nodal points to exist, as
illustrated in FIG. 2. When more than one nodal point exists, each
nodal point will contain mechanical stress of a sign opposite to
stresses within the nearest adjacent nodal point or nodes. Since
the mechanical stress in neighboring nodes is opposite, the
magnetoelastic changes produced by the stresses are also opposite.
Therefore the changing magnetic fields produced at the nodal
points change oppositely to one another, and the current induced
within individual wire coils wound around respectively individual
nodal points is of mutually opposite sign. For example, a rod of
magnetoelastic material acoustically excited at a frequency
creating two nodal points will induce oppositely-directed currents
in the two wire coils, one wound around each nodal point, as
schematically depicted in FIG. 6.
Harmonic resonance produces a structural mechanism enforcing
additional magnetic opposition among the oppositely directed
currents flowing in neighboring co-located wire coils, apparent as
additional magnetic opposition between the two or more wire coils
neighboring each other along the same magnetic path. The further
magnetic opposition between neighboring coils having opposing
induced currents thereby adds to the total amount of magnetic
opposition present at each nodal point and wire coil, and in the
apparatus as a whole. Because electric power is generated via
magnetic opposition, this additional magnetic opposition increases
the total electrical energy delivered by each coil, hence the
total electrical energy delivered by the device as a whole. In
addition, the proximity of counter-flowing currents in neighboring
coils tends to decrease the self-inductance of each wire coil,
allowing greater amounts of electrical current to flow from the
device and power an electrical load.
Since operation at different acoustic frequencies results in a
different number of nodal points, the above situation may include,
and benefit from practically any number of nodal points and
related wire coils. The scope of this invention includes at least
one “bias magnet” producing magnetic polarization of the
magnetoelastically active ferromagnetic material undergoing
acoustic vibration, but is not limited to a single bias magnet;
numerous combinations of nodal structure, bias magnet structure,
and magnetoelastic material structure exist, which will be
exemplified by illustration below, but whose description is not
intended to limit the number of combinations achievable within the
scope of the invention.
[B]. Magnetostrictive Positive Feedback. In the present invention,
acoustic waves produce time-varying mechanical stress in a
magnetoelastic material which is magnetically polarized. A
time-varying magnetic field is thus produced, which induces
electric current in wire coils or other means of receiving an
electromotive force, located near the nodal wave points within the
ferromagnetic material. These induced currents produce opposing
magnetic reaction, to which the ferromagnetic material is also
exposed. Many magnetoelastic materials also exhibit
magnetostrictive action, whereby a changing magnetic field is able
to produce further stress, sourcing additional acoustic energy, in
the ferromagnetic material in addition to the acoustic energy
already present. In a ferromagnetic material having nonzero
magnetostriction, the time-varying reaction magnetic field
produced by induced current produces its own time-varying stress
wave in the material, creating a second acoustic wave component
proportional to the load current, and whose origin is nearest the
wire coil carrying this current.
Thus the ferromagnetic material itself may be acoustically
actuated by piezoelectric, electromagnet, or other means of
vibratory activity, producing acoustic resonance in the
ferromagnetic material; while the magnetic material itself may
itself produce a second set of acoustic waves owing to its
magnetostrictive action under the influence of induced current.
The source of originating vibratory activity, such as a
piezoelectric material, and the additional source of vibratory
stress energy due to magnetostriction and induced current do not
share an identical location. Typically, within the scope of this
invention, these two sites will be separated by at least 1⁄8 of an
acoustic wavelength, and more preferably 1⁄4 of an acoustic
Due to this physical separation, propagation of acoustic waves
from both sources includes time delays which shift the phase of
the acoustic energy. The extent of this propagation delay
determines the relative phase angle of the acoustic energy at
different points along the resonator structure considered as an
acoustic transmission line. At some points, due to the wave delay
and phase shift, the acoustic energy from all sources adds
constructively, producing a net acoustic wave of greater intensity
than any source considered alone. At other points the sum acoustic
energy may be small and tend toward zero, where acoustic waves
produce destructive interference. The locations where acoustic
energy adds or annihilates depend on the resonator geometry,
relative spacing between the sources of acoustic wave energy, the
phase of magnetically induced current relative to the phase of
incident acoustic waves, and fine frequency tuning of the applied
vibratory or acoustic energy. Judicious adjustment of these
factors causes acoustic energy to accumulate where it is most
desired, for the purpose of generating electrical power.
Constructive wave interference exemplary of this definition is
illustrated in FIG. 5. A bar of ferromagnetic material is
provided, having nonzero magnetoelastic and magnetostrictive
activity. One end of this bar is provided with a source of
vibratory energy, which in FIG. 5 is a wafer of piezoelectric
ceramic. An alternating-current voltage signal is applied between
the pole electrodes of the piezoelectric ceramic, at a frequency
producing a fundamental standing wave within the ferromagnetic
bar. Acoustic energy originates at the end of the bar to which the
piezoelectric ceramic is attached, and which propagates outward
along the bar axis away from the piezoelectric ceramic.
At resonance, a nodal point appears in the center of the
ferromagnetic bar. A bias magnet structure is provided for
magnetically polarizing the ferromagnetic bar, as well as a wire
coil shown for purposes of inducing electrical power from the
changing magnetic flux which results. When an electrical circuit
containing this wire coil is closed, allowing electrical current
to flow, the resulting reaction magnetic field acts
magnetostrictively within the ferromagnetic bar, producing a
secondary acoustic wave originating from the nodal point in the
center of the bar. This secondary acoustic wave originating from
magnetostrictive action propagates to both ends of the bar
including the end with the piezoelectric ceramic attached.
The acoustic distance between the piezoelectric vibration source
and the nodal point in the center of the ferromagnetic bar is
approximately 1⁄4 of an acoustic wavelength, at the fundamental
resonance frequency of the bar. Therefore the phase of an acoustic
wave traveling this distance is delayed by 90 degrees. The
vibration source exerts a forward-thrusting acoustic wavefront
which propagates along the axis of the bar. Upon reaching the
nodal point the wave has been phase shifted 90 degrees with
respect to the source due to propagation delay. The nodal point
produces a time varying magnetic field by the means described
above. This time varying magnetic field is opposed by the reaction
magnetic field arising from induced current flowing in the wire
coil; this magnetic opposition creates an additional 180 degree
phase shift between action and reaction. The reaction magnetic
field acts on the ferromagnetic bar's magnetostriction, producing
a secondary source of acoustic energy originating from the coil's
location at the nodal point, and propagating axially outward. The
reaction wave which propagates back toward the vibration source
must travel another 1⁄4 acoustic wavelength, incurring an
additional 90 degree phase delay, before returning to the site of
the original vibration source and exerting its force.
When the sum of the above phase delays is taken, the total delay
is 360 degrees, and is mathematically equivalent to zero degrees
of total phase delay. Damping or opposition to the mechanical
vibration would be approximated as a reaction wave shifted 180
degrees with respect to the source wave, or inverted with respect
to the source wave, thus opposing the source and destructively
interfering with the source. Since the total phase delay of the
reaction wave in this example is 360 or 0 degrees of phase,
destructive interference is replaced by constructive interference.
Thus the piezoelectric ceramic, illustrated here as the
originating source for mechanical vibration, experiences secondary
mechanical reaction forces augmenting its own forces, rather than
opposing these forces, when induced current is allowed to flow
through the nodal-point wire coil of FIG. 5 in a closed circuit.
[C]: Harmonic Addition: The representative piezoelectric ceramic
wafer of FIG. 5 may be provided with harmonic energy, or connected
to a source of time-varying voltage which includes a harmonic
series. An electrical “square wave”, commonly known in the art,
may be applied to the piezoelectric ceramic, thereby applying
harmonic energy to the piezoelectric ceramic with a Fourier
frequency spectrum including a fundamental frequency, plus
odd-order higher harmonics of decreasing amplitude that are
phase-locked to its fundamental frequency. The mechanical
oscillation of the ferromagnetic bar will thus be a superposition
of the odd-numbered states illustrated in FIG. 2, present
simultaneously, and by various degrees, as determined by the
relative intensity of the odd-order harmonic series present in the
square wave signal electrically applied.
In this condition, the ferromagnetic bar will exhibit a
multiplicity of nodal points, each with a specific amplitude and
harmonic content. Major nodal points also exist, which include
energy at all harmonics including the fundamental. FIG. 2
illustrates how, in this condition, the nodal point in the center
of the ferromagnetic bar will become a major nodal point, since
this central node is common to all odd-numbered harmonic vibratory
Therefore, current induced in a wire coil placed around this
central major node will include energy at several frequencies,
which are summed into a single current wave rich in harmonic
energy. At a particular frequency of the applied wave, the nodal
point for each harmonic mode physically overlaps the others
exactly, and their instantaneous amplitudes add together,
producing a peak current in the wire coil in significant excess of
the average current. Electrical power may be given as
P is power, in Watts,
I is current, in Amperes; and,
R is resistance, in Ohms.
The high-amplitude peaks in the current developed under harmonic
excitation produce electrical power as the square of their
instantaneous value. The instantaneous electrical power developed
in this manner is the square of the sum of the energy induced by
each acoustic frequency.
The above three functions are exemplary as novelties of the
invention disclosed herein. It will be understood these conditions
arise due to magnetoelastic induction in a ferromagnetic material
whose physical shape, including rods, is generally amenable to
mechanical resonance; wherein the location of the source of
vibratory energy initiating that resonance, and the locations
where reduction of that resonance to electrical energy occur, are
physically separated by a specific and non-zero fraction of the
fundamental acoustic wavelength not less than 1⁄8 of the acoustic
Such novel conditions tend to arise regardless of the
ferromagnetic resonator's physical configuration, the exact
material type of the resonator, or the particular technology
utilized in generation of the originating vibratory energy.
Examples of sources of originating vibratory energy include, but
are not limited to, piezoelectric materials or electrostrictive
materials, including their utilization within Langevin-style
bolted transducers; electrostatic actuators, magnetostrictive
materials, percussive combustion, rotary vibration induced by
cams, pendulums, rotary hammers, or eccentric weights; vibrating
strings or membranes, or electromagnetic actuators including
linear motors, buzzers, or vibrators incorporating any of the
following: inductive wire coils, permanent magnets, and
ferromagnetic materials including magnetostrictive materials.
A related field known as power harvesting incorporates
magnetostrictive and/or magnetoelastic materials and physical
vibrations with the object of reducing ambient, often byproduct,
vibrations to electrical energy. Power harvesting techniques are
typically utilized aboard moving vehicles or engines, or in
micro-power applications within personal or structural devices.
The present invention differs significantly from the class of
power harvesting devices, recognizing the following distinctions.
1) Power harvesting generators utilize ambient mechanical
vibrations of arbitrary frequency; either utilizing such
variegated, ambient or random vibratory energy in bulk, or by
using it to drive an internal resonance at a particular frequency;
the source of vibratory energy is often of unknown or non-specific
frequency or amplitude, and is located external to the device. The
present invention locates the source of vibratory energy within
the device as an integral facet of its structure, with the aim of
securing coherent mechanical resonance within the source of
acoustic vibration and within the ferromagnetic material to be
vibrated. In the present invention, ambient vibrations of external
origin are not utilized, and the device has no connection to its
external environment for physically conveying such vibration.
2) Power harvesting techniques incorporate a free weight,
back-weight, or other moving mass in conjunction with the active
ferromagnetic material such that vibratory energy is passed from
an external source and through the active material, en route to
disturb the inertia of the moving mass and thereby induce
mechanical stress within the intervening ferromagnetic material
utilized as a generator. In the present invention, vibratory
mechanical energy resonates within the elasticity and the inertia
of the active ferromagnetic material itself; no free weights are
3) Power harvesting devices typically utilize mechanical
vibrations in the low-audible, or sub-audible, frequency range
between about 10 Hz and 1,000 Hz; the typical target frequencies
of interest fall within 20 Hz-200 Hz. Typical sources of vibration
include engine noise, or the periodic motion of shoes,
wristwatches or pocket devices. The present invention utilizes a
frequency range that is generally above 1,000 Hz, with most
preferred embodiments establishing mechanical resonance at
frequencies of 5,000 Hz and above, up to acoustic frequencies of 5
MHz and beyond. An exception may be made for very large devices,
of acoustic length sufficient to establish fundamental resonance
at international power frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz. Regardless of
preferred operating frequency, the aforementioned distinctions
establish a clear boundary between the novel aspects of this
invention including its own vibratory source, and the prior art
harvesting mechanical power from external, ambient vibrations.
4) Power harvesting depends on ambient vibrations over which the
power harvesting generator has no control. A power harvesting
generator does not actively control the frequency, the amplitude,
or the presence or absence of incoming vibrations, and is subject
to them as a passive entity. The present invention typically
includes self-contained means of controlling the amplitude,
wave-shape, phase and frequency of its vibratory source, via a
feedback circuit, microprocessor control, or via self-resonance
between the magnetoelastic induction and the originating vibratory
energy source connected by a mutual circuit. The present invention
does not present a passive load to externally occurring
vibrations, but generates acoustic energy internally, intended for
internal use, by preferably incorporating a self-contained
mechanism of controlling and/or modulating its internal vibratory
Because the present invention utilizes a definite and specific
frequency, or harmonically related set of frequencies, its
physical structure may necessitate acoustic waveguide sections,
acoustic horns or focusing devices, acoustic tuning stubs, or
acoustic-impedance matching networks required to efficiently
sustain acoustic resonance. These elements of design are acoustic
sections dimensioned to specific acoustic lengths, generally as
integer multiples of 1⁄4 the acoustic wavelength of the
fundamental acoustic wave or its higher harmonics. Such acoustic
sections produce acoustical impedance matching between the
vibratory source and ferromagnetic material within the device.
These impedance matching sections are the acoustic equivalents of
electromagnetic impedance matching networks common to the arts of
electrical power transmission, radio wave antennas, and radio
transmitters and receivers.
DETAILS OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of the process of wave
propagation in elastic media. Since no physical material is
infinitely rigid, all physical materials are to some degree
elastic, or deformable under stress. The relationship between
applied stress and resulting deformation or strain may be modeled
by a lattice of masses connected by elastic springs. Both inertial
and elastic restoring forces act upon each mass and connecting
elastic spring. When stress and strain vary with time, acoustic
wavefronts propagate through the elastic mass as illustrated by
this model, wherein the vibration or oscillatory motion of the
masses represents the acoustic wave.
A mass on a spring has a single resonant frequency determined by
its spring constant K and its mass M. The spring constant is the
restoring force of a spring per unit of length. Within the elastic
limit of any material, there is a linear relationship between the
displacement of a mass and the force attempting to restore the
mass to its equilibrium position. This linear dependency is
described by Hooke's Law:
F is the force,
K is the spring constant; and,
X is the amount of particle displacement.
Forces applied to a mass are equal to the magnitude of the mass,
times the acceleration applied. From Newton's Second Law,
F is the force,
M is the mass; and,
A is the acceleration.
The force F, as common to both equations above, represents the
nature of the equilibrium between acceleration A and displacement
X in an elastic material. With the applied and restoring forces F
in the above formulae, taken as equal,
Where the displacement of the mass, on the left hand side of the
equality, and the restoring force of the spring on the right hand
side of the equality, are in opposition.
The mass M, and spring constant K, are constants for physical
materials at a constant temperature. The acceleration A and
resulting displacement X are the variable quantities describing
the mechanical energy. From the above equation, these two
variables A and X are directly proportional. The time for
displacement of a mass and its return to a position of mechanical
equilibrium are independent of applied force.
Mechanical energy in the form of acoustic waves propagates at
different speeds in different materials. The mass of the atomic
particles and the spring constants are specific to material
composition and, to a lesser extent, by factors such as
temperature. The mass of the particles is related to the density
of the material, and the spring constant is related to the elastic
constants of a material. The general relationship between the
velocity of mechanical waves in a solid and its density and
elastic constants is given by the following equation:
V is the velocity of longitudinal mechanical waves in the
C is the elastic constant for longitudinal stress,
P is the material density, and
sqrt denotes a square root function.
In the representative physical model of FIG. 1, circular objects
100, 101, 102, 103, represent solid masses having negligible
elasticity and significant inertia. Elastic springs 110, 111, 112
signify the coupling between masses, having the complimentary
properties of negligible inertia, and significant elasticity. The
masses are taken to represent atomic nucleus masses or other
inertially significant units, such as molecules, in a physical
substance. The elastic springs are taken as the electronic or
atomic-level bonds between these inertial masses. For solids,
these elastic bonds are atomic electron shell bonds such as
Labels T1-1, at top, through T2-3, at bottom represent progressive
instants of time during which the ongoing state of longitudinal
wave propagation is analyzed. At time T1-1, the system of masses
and their elastic connections is at rest, where non-equilibrium
mechanical energy is not present in kinetic, or potential, form.
At instant T1-2, an accelerating force 120 is applied to mass 100
causing longitudinal displacement and acceleration of the mass
100, as indicated by the rightward diagram arrow within mass 100.
Accelerating force 120 thereby places the system of FIG. 1 in a
non-equilibrium state. The resulting displacement of mass 100
elastically compresses spring 110, causing it to contract as
illustrated. At this instant T1-2, laterally adjacent mass 101 has
not moved, owing to its inertia. The kinetic energy of
acceleration 120 is converted first to kinetic energy of mass 100,
and subsequently into potential energy as elastic compression in
spring 110. The complete transfer of kinetic energy of mass 100 to
potential energy in elastic spring 110 causes mass 100 to come to
rest, after accelerating force 120 is withdrawn. At this time, the
kinetic energy of acceleration 120 has been stored as potential
energy, or tension, in elastic spring 110.
At the time where the potential energy of tension in spring 110
reaches a maximum, the kinetic energy of mass 100 approaches zero,
or rest, while the kinetic energy of rightward adjacent mass 101
begins its rise from zero, into motion.
At subsequent instant T1-3, the potential energy of compression in
spring 110 is converted back to kinetic energy of acceleration of
the next mass 101, causing rising acceleration of mass 101 as
previous mass 100 approaches a state of rest. The kinetic energy
of mass 100 has been transferred to the kinetic energy of next
mass 101, through connecting elastic spring 110. The transfer of
kinetic energy between adjacent masses has required conversion of
this kinetic energy into potential energy and back again, a
process which occurs over a finite period of time, or a delay
between the displacements of mass 100 and 101. This delay in the
transfer of kinetic energy between adjacent masses is commonly
known as the acoustic velocity, or speed of sound, in the
material, as illustrated by the equations above.
At subsequent instant T1-3, the above process repeats at a new
location, between mass 101 (containing rightward diagram arrow
indicating its state of motion) coming to rest by progressively
compressing elastic spring 111, whose ensuing relaxation initiates
acceleration of mass 102.
Subsequent instant T1-4 repeats this process further, now between
mass 102, elastic spring 112, and into final mass 103.
Subsequent instant T1-5 illustrates the limit of longitudinal
acoustic wave propagation in the right-hand direction of FIG. 1.
At this time, the kinetic accelerating force originally applied to
first mass 100 at time T1-2 has propagated to final mass 103,
indicated by the rightward diagram arrow within mass 103. At this
instant, the state of the model is similar to the initial state
T1-1, with the exceptions of mass 103 retaining kinetic energy,
and transposition of the model, assumed to be free in space, to
the right due to the initial rightward acceleration 120 having
propagated through the model. Without any further elastic spring
to the right, mass 103 continues in rightward motion.
Instant T1-6 illustrates the continuation of rightward
longitudinal displacement of final rightward mass 103. This
continued motion ultimately expands elastic spring 112, causing a
conversion of kinetic energy from mass 103 into potential energy
in the form of tension within elastic spring 112.
In the preceding instants T1-2 through T1-4 the potential energy
within elastic springs in the propagation model was compressive,
while the direction of wave propagation was to the right hand
side. In subsequent instants T1-6 through T1-8, the potential
energy within successive elastic springs in the propagation model
is tensile, while the direction of wave return, or reflection, is
toward the left hand side of FIG. 1. The sign of the potential
energy sequentially stored in elastic springs 112, 111, 110, and
the direction of mechanical wave propagation resulting from
sequential restoration of kinetic energy of masses 103, 102, 101,
100, have each reversed. The transfer between kinetic energy of
the masses and potential energy in the elastic springs is
identical to the process described above, with the vector of wave
propagation and the sign of elastic potential energy now being
Instant T1-7 illustrates the reflective propagation due to the
restoration of tensile potential energy stored in elastic spring
112, into acceleration of mass 102. The kinetic energy of
rightmost mass 103 has been absorbed by elastic spring 112 and
transferred to kinetic energy on mass 102 via elastic spring 112.
Instant T1-8 illustrates propagation of the above sequence to
interaction between mass 101, converting its kinetic energy to
potential energy of tension in spring 110, whose relaxation will
initiate acceleration of leftward mass 100.
Instant T2-1 depicts the acceleration of mass 100 due to
relaxation of tensile force in spring 110. At this instant, the
state of the model is once again similar to the initial state
T1-1, this time with the exceptions of mass 100 retaining kinetic
energy, and further transposition of the model, assumed to be free
in space, to the right due to the initially applied rightward
acceleration 120 having continued to propagate throughout the
model. Without any further elastic spring to the left, mass 100
continues in rightward motion.
Instant T2-2 illustrates the continuation of rightward
longitudinal displacement of the leftmost mass 100, ultimately
compressing elastic spring 110. At this instant T2-2, the action
in the model is completely identical to the originating instant
T1-2, with the single exception that the initial kinetic
acceleration 120 has never been dissipated or relieved, and
reappears in the model as if applied for a second time. The
initial energy of acceleration 102 has been propagated by the
model, and continues to propagate as the above processes
indefinitely repeat. Since this model is assumed to act in free
space, the net action is an inchworm motion successively toward
the right. Final absorption of the original kinetic energy 120
requires intervention beyond the scope of this model.
In actual mechanical resonators to be described below, the above
action occurs between atoms constituting the resonator material
and the elastic electron-shell bonds between these atoms. These
physical resonators are assumed fixed in space, being supported by
means attaching them to some fixed reference frame, such as an
enclosure within an electronic device. The accelerating force 120
is a periodocally alternating force, both rightward and leftward;
thus net motion of the resonator in any direction is restrained
and in balance. The above process of propagation and reflection,
with the reversal in sign of the forces in springs between
compressive and tensile, remain as illustrated.
It should be noted that the states T1-2 and T2-2 are effectively
identical, but separated in time by a specific interval.
Intermediary states (denoted by the number after the hyphen, such
as -2, etc) cumulate as full propagation cycles as denoted by the
transition of the major number, such as T1-T2. The cycle time
between states T1-T2, which can likewise be stated as the cycle
time between matching states T1-2 and T2-2, T1-3 and T2-3 etc., is
the time per full cycle of the resonating structure. The
reciprocal of this amount defines the resonant frequency at which
this repetition occurs:
F is frequency, in Hertz or cycles-per-second, and
P is the period, in seconds per cycle.
The velocity of mechanical wave propagation in the figurative
material may be defined equivalently to its first definition by
dividing twice the mean length of the material, by the cycle
repetition period. From FIG. 1, the mean length of the material is
the length at rest illustrated by T1-1:
V is the velocity of longitudinal mechanical waves in the model or
material, in meters per second;
P is the cycle period, in seconds per full cycle,
L is the mean length of the model or physical material in which
the mechanical wave propagates, in meters; and,
the factor of 2 represents the total propagation of the wave
during a full cycle, along length L and returning back along same
length L a second time to restore its initial state, thereby
completing a full cycle.
FIG. 2 depicts the results of resonant mechanical wave
interference in macroscopic samples of elastic material driven
into longitudinal resonance at successive integer harmonic
frequencies. It may be noted, from examining FIG. 1 that the
length of the model as a whole elongates and contracts at rhythmic
intervals related to the resonant frequency. FIG. 1 illustrates
this behavior in response to a single acceleration event 120.
Under repetitive acceleration, or application of force 120 in
alternating longitudinal directions at an interval identical to
the cycle time, driven resonance is established which rhythmically
expands and contracts the model, or the elastic material. FIG. 4
depicts the relevant wave mechanics in expanded detail, in
preparation for description of a fundamental novelty of the
In FIG. 2, a physical elastic material 200 undergoing resonant
longitudinal expansion and contraction is driven into mechanical
resonance by a repetitive alternating longitudinal force,
illustrated as physical acceleration source 201. Acceleration
source 201 may be any source of rhythmically alternating kinetic
acceleration, including an electromagnetic motor, piezoelectric
element, or incident pressure wave.
The resonant frequency of elastic material 200 may be determined
by its mechanical wave velocity (or acoustic velocity) divided by
twice the physical length:
F is the fundamental resonant frequency in Hertz or
V is the acoustic velocity of the resonator material, in meters
L is the physical length of the resonator material, in meters;
the factor of 2 represents the completion of a full resonant cycle
by wave propagation along length L, and subsequent reflection
along length L retuning to the initial state.
This defines the fundamental resonant frequency of the structure.
Since the full acoustic wave must travel along length L twice in a
full cycle, physical resonator length L may be taken as equal to
half of the acoustic wavelength. Therefore, the structure of a
standing acoustic wave in the resonating material at this
fundamental frequency takes the form one half of an acoustic wave.
A longitudinally propagating acoustic wave, as depicted in FIG. 1
consists of two distinct components: firstly the longitudinal
displacement of material and secondly the longitudinal elastic
stress among the material's interatomic forces. The cyclic
repetition of a resonant acoustic wave creates cyclical
displacements and cyclical elastic stresses, both of which
oscillate or vary at finite amplitude between positive and
negative signs, at the frequency of oscillation. Since a single
frequency without harmonic overtones is a sinusoidal wave, the
above illustrated cyclical oscillations of longitudinal
displacement and elastic stress are taken to alternate
The acoustic wave in the resonator structure produces maxima of
either quantity, located one quarter wavelength apart. An
identical phenomenon is well known for electromagnetic waves
within resonators and waveguides, wherein the maxima of electric
and magnetic fields are located one quarter wavelength apart.
Longitudinal acoustic waves in acoustic resonators obey the same
generality, as a feature central to the disclosed invention.
In FIG. 2, condition 1F illustrates the structure of the standing
wave at the fundamental resonant frequency, corresponding to
one-half an acoustic wave distributed along the resonator length
200. Acceleration source 201 is, in this case, producing
sinusoidally alternating physical acceleration at the fundamental
resonant frequency of the resonator 200, as defined by the above
In this condition, the acoustic wave structure along the
resonator's length is one-half of a full wave, or two
quarter-wavelengths. The maxima of longitudinal displacement and
the maxima of longitudinal elastic stress are spaced one quarter
wavelength apart. The maxima of longitudinal displacement, termed
antinodes, are marked by diagram arrows at positions A. Maxima of
longitudinal elastic stress, termed nodes or nodal points, are
marked by diagram arrows at positions N. As illustrated in FIG. 1,
the locations of peak displacement lay at the ends of the
resonator model, placing the antinodes in FIG. 2: F1 at both ends
of the resonator, and the nodal point of maximal elastic stress at
the center of the resonator, one quarter wavelength from each end,
In diagram F1, the two antinodal points are marked A+ and A−,
respectively. Nodal point A+ indicates the longitudinal
displacement is in-phase, or acting with, the sinusoidal
acceleration introduced to the resonator by acceleration source
201. Nodal point A−, one half-wavelength distant, is 180 degrees
out of phase, or opposite in sign with respect to the former.
Being of oppositely signed longitudinal displacement, this more
distant antinodal point is labeled A−. Since antinodal points A+
and A− signify opposing longitudinal displacement, the total
instantaneous length of resonator 200 is oscillating, the
resonator 200 becoming physically longer and shorter at
fundamental resonant frequency F. This alternation of length
produces alternating compression and tension in the material of
resonator 200, whose maxima of elastic stress is any nodal point
N. The single nodal point in diagram F1 is given the sign N+,
signifying the convention that compressive (positive) elastic
stress is taken as being in-phase with the phase of acceleration
source 201, while a negative, tensile elastic stress, or N−, is
180 degrees out of phase with 201, having equal intensity while
opposite in sign.
Since elastic stress N is the direct product of displacement A;
stress N and displacement A are in phase, each quantity reaching
maximal or zero values simultaneously. A+ is taken as longitudinal
displacement in phase with the displacement of longitudinal
acceleration source 201 while displacement A− is out of phase, or
opposite in direction; stress N+ is taken as compressive elastic
stress in phase with acceleration source 201 while opposite stress
N− is an opposing tensile elastic stress, in phase with
acceleration source 201, this condition being identical to
compressive elastic stress that is 180 degrees out of phase with
acceleration source 201.
As previously noted, the phenomenon of magnetoelasticity is the
relationship between elastic stress in a ferromagnetic material
and a change in the ferromagnetic material's magnetic properties,
a useful feature for generating electrical power. Therefore, at
nodal point N where the intensity of alternating elastic stress
reaches a maximum, an alternation of ferromagnetic properties in
resonator 200 has also reached a maximum, if resonator 200 is
constructed of ferromagnetic material having nonzero
magnetoelasticity. Therefore, a magnetic condition conducive for
the magnetoelastic generation of electrical power is present at
each nodal point N.
Resonator 200 will also support standing acoustic waves, producing
longitudinal mechanical resonance, at harmonics or overtones of
this fundamental frequency. Mathematically this is equivalent to
multiplying frequency F in the above equation by integers greater
2F depicts the behavior of the identical resonator system,
resonating at the second harmonic or resonant frequency F
multiplied by 2 (2F). In this case a total of 4 quarter
wavelengths are spaced along the length of resonator 200. The
structure of the acoustic energy along the length of resonator 200
is a full acoustic wave. As previously described, the transit of
this acoustic wave down the length of resonator 200 and reflecting
back along this same length to source 201 occupies two full wave
cycles, at the frequency 2F, producing a singe full wave along the
length of resonator 200.
Antinodal points again exist at each end of resonator 200. A
positive in-phase antinode is present at the location of
acceleration source 201. One quarter-wavelength distant, a
positive, or compressive-in-phase nodal point N+ is present. One
further quarter wavelength along the length of resonator 200, an
antinodal point of opposite sign A− is present, indicating an
opposing longitudinal displacement occurs here. A further quarter
wave distant from acceleration source 201, a negative or
tensile-in-phase nodal point N− exists, followed by a final
antinodal point A+ that is in-phase with acceleration source 201.
It may be noted that each antinodal point A takes a sign opposing
its immediately neighboring antinodal points A, and each nodal
point N is of a sign opposing its immediately neighboring nodal
This situation is further repeated for integer harmonics 3F
through 6F, inclusive. Each of these diagrams of FIG. 2 represent
longitudinal acoustic resonance at the fundamental resonant
frequency F multiplied by the number of the diagram. Diagram F6
depicts the acoustic wave structure for resonance at six times the
fundamental frequency, or overtone 6F. This overtone, or harmonic
frequency, can be any integer number. If the harmonic overtone is
taken as variable X, harmonic resonance occurs at X times F. The
number of antinodes for a straight longitudinal acoustic resonator
is always X+1 while the number of nodal points is always X.
In diagram F6, six nodal points N exist with adjacently opposing
polarities. At each successive nodal point N, magnetic conditions
conducive for the magnetoelastic generation of electrical power
exist. Since the polarities of elastic stresses N are opposite at
each successive nodal point, the magnetoelastically induced
changes in ferromagnetic properties are likewise opposite in sign
at each successive nodal point N. The number of locations N which
are conducive for magnetoelastic generation of electrical power is
equal to the harmonic overtone number X, and increase as X
In practice material characteristics set a limit to the maximum
number of X, while theoretically there is no limit to the overtone
at which resonance will occur.
FIG. 3 depicts the resonator structure shown in FIG. 2 with a
magnetic bias applied. Acoustic resonator structure 200 is given
as a ferromagnetic material, which can be magnetically polarized
and is therefore able to conduct magnetic flux. Flux sources 300
and 301 illustrate pole pieces of an external magnet, or magnetic
flux source, which may be a permanent magnet or electromagnet. Any
such source of magnetic flux will produce at least one North
magnetic pole, illustrated by North-polarized pole piece 300, and
at least one South magnetic pole, illustrated by South-polarized
pole piece 301. The material of pole pieces 300 and 301 may be a
common ferromagnetic material such as iron, suitably connected to
a permanent magnet or electromagnet, or a common permanent magnet
material such as neodymium-iron-boron, Alnico, or a ceramic
ferrite such as strontium ferrite, or ceramic ferrites well known
in the art.
Magnetic flux emerging from the ends of pole pieces 300 and 301
enters the ferromagnetic material of acoustic resonator 200 and
this flux is carried along the length of resonator 200 toward the
pole of opposite polarity. By convention, magnetic flux is
considered to travel from North to South poles, as indicated by
the simple arrows following diagrammatic magnetic flux lines 302,
indicating the flux and its course through resonator 200 made of a
ferromagnetic material. It may be seen that, in such a condition,
the magnetic polarization is substantially uniform along the
length of resonator 200, particularly at its center.
If acceleration source 201 produces longitudinal acoustic
resonance in resonator 200 as shown in FIG. 2: F1, resulting nodal
point N+ will be situated at the center of resonator 200 where
uniform magnetization now exists. Nodal point N+ will produce a
time-varying elastic stress within the ferromagnetic material of
acoustic resonator 200. If the ferromagnetic material of resonator
200 exhibits nonzero magnetoelasticity, the time-varying elastic
stress N+ produces a time-varying alternation in the ferromagnetic
properties of resonator 200. Resonator 200 is carrying a magnetic
flux 302 along its length at the location of the acoustic node N+.
This magnetic flux causes generally magnetic polarization of the
ferromagnetic material of resonator 200. The specific degree of
this polarization is dependent on the magnetic intensity of flux
sources 300 and 301, as well as the instantaneous magnetic
properties of ferromagnetic material 200, which now vary with time
due to nonzero magnetoelasticity and time-varying elastic stress
at nodal point N+.
Therefore, a time-varying magnetic flux will be present at nodal
points N which may coexist in FIG. 3, due to the sinusoidally
alternating acceleration of acceleration source 201. When the
frequency of this acceleration at 201 is equal to an integer
harmonic of the resonant acoustic frequency of resonator 200, as
generally illustrated in FIG. 2, all resulting nodal points N
produce a time-varying magnetic flux proportional to the product
of the intensity and sign of bias flux 302, and the intensity and
sign of elastic stress |N|. As is well known in the art of
electrical generators, a time-varying magnetic flux is able to
induce EMF and electric power, in electrical conductors suitably
exposed to the time-varying magnetic flux. Typical electrical
generators, well known in the art, produce such time-varying
magnetic flux by moving flux sources, or pole pieces, such as 300
and 301 past electrical conductors suitably arranged. The present
invention discloses means by which a time-varying magnetic flux is
produced not by motion of magnetic sources or pole pieces, but
instead by time-varying elastic stress within ferromagnetic
materials polarized by a source of bias magnetic flux.
Additionally, the ferromagnetic material of acoustic resonator 200
may be a permanent magnetic material, which produces magnetic flux
internally, and in which case pole pieces 300 and 301 are not
necessary, the source of bias magnetic flux being internal to the
material of resonator 200 rather than external to it.
FIG. 4 illustrates the wave mechanics outlined in FIG. 2: F1 in
timeline detail, in further preparation for understanding a
fundamental novelty of the disclosed invention.
Time instant T1 depicts acceleration source 201 at its peak
acceleration in the rightward direction, indicated by the
rightward arrow within the pictorial volume of acceleration source
201. This peak accelerating force propagates as a mechanical
acoustic wave into acoustic resonator 200. The propagating
momentum 400 is schematically depicted as a force accelerating
toward the right hand side, by concentric hemicircles extending
toward the right; while the propagation of this rightward force
also toward the right is indicated by the diagram arrow pointing
rightward. Two components exist: the direction of momentum in the
acoustic wave (represented by the direction of the concentric
circles, illustrating the wavefront) and, the direction of
propagation of the momentum itself, indicated by the diagram
arrow, representing the direction of wavefront travel. At time
instant T1 the acoustic wave carrying rightward momentum
propagates toward the right, its location at the left hand end of
At instant T2, a time equal to one quarter the resonant acoustic
period (see FIG. 2: F1) has elapsed, and the emitted wavefront has
propagated halfway down resonator 200. As this time instant is a
quarter cycle after the peak rightward accelerative force of
acceleration source 201, acceleration source at this instant one
quarter-cycle later has reached zero, indicated by the dash line
within the volume of acceleration source 201. While acceleration
source 201 is at this time producing zero acceleration, the peak
rightward-bearing acceleration has propagated as a wavefront along
half the length of resonator 200.
Instant T3 illustrates conditions one further quarter-cycle later.
Acceleration source 201 has now reached its peak leftward
acceleration, denoted by the leftward arrow within the pictorial
volume of 201. The resulting acoustic wave 410 is schematically
represented by concentric hemicircles pointing leftward, while the
direction of propagation of this energy is rightward, as indicated
by the diagram arrow in the wavefront symbol at 410. At this same
time, the original wavefront 400 has reached the end of resonator
200 and is reflected backward, taking the new designation 401 to
reflect the change. As FIG. 1 illustrates, the reflection of this
wave energy continues as a rightward momentum indicated by the
direction of concentric hemicircles in wavefront symbol 401, but
with the reversed direction of wavefront propagation, now
indicated by a leftward arrow within wavefront symbol 401.
Therefore, reflected original wavefront 401, produced at time
instant T1, and subsequent wavefront 410, produced at time instant
T3, are now propagating toward each other as time progresses.
At instant T4, wavefronts 401 and 410 have propagated toward one
another and mutually approach at the center of resonator 200. The
direction of wave propagation in each wavefront is opposite,
causing their approach. As the wavefronts approach, the rightward
momentum of T1's wavefront 401, on the right hand side, and the
leftward momentum of T3's wavefront 410, on the left hand side,
produce by their mutual action an elastic tensile stress at the
center of resonator 200. This corresponds to the nodal point N+ in
FIG. 2: F1, of which wavefront propagation diagram FIG. 4 is a
more detailed model. In FIG. 1: F1, point N+, indicating the nodal
region of maximal elastic stress corresponds to the center point
of resonator 200 at FIG. 4: T4 where the wavefront energy produces
the nodal point.
Instant T5 indicates wavefront activity one quarter cycle further
in time. Acceleration source 201 has now reached its positive peak
acceleration, as in instant T1, the difference between T1 and T5
being four units, representing four quarter-cycles, which are
equal to one full cycle in time. At instant T5,
leftward-propagating wavefront 401 has continued leftward,
reaching the left end of resonator 200, and reflects at this end,
the direction of wavefront propagation now becomes rightward. At
this same instant T5, the peak rightward acceleration 201
strengthens the rightward momentum already present in wavefront
401 at the same location. The resulting wavefront of increased
intensity takes the new designation 402, to reflect these changes:
the reflection of the incoming wave energy 401 and an increase in
total momentum carried by the wavefront due to further
acceleration from acceleration source 201, in the same direction
as the original momentum in prior wavefront 401. Meanwhile,
wavefront 410 has reflected at the rightmost end of resonator 200,
reversing direction of propagation, carrying the leftward momentum
in this wavefront also leftward. The reversed direction of
propagation of wavefront 410 is indicated by the successive
designation of this wavefront 411, now in a leftward propagating
Instant T6 is conceptually equivalent to time instant T4, the
difference between T4 and T6 being two units, or two quarter
cycles, equal to one half cycle. T6 represents the activity at T4
in the opposite polarity, producing a nodal point again at the
center of resonator 200 and with the opposite, now compressive,
elastic stress at this nodal point. This compressive stress is due
to the rightward momentum in wavefront 402, approaching from left,
with the leftward momentum of wavefront 411, approaching from the
right. This produces a nodal point at the center of resonator 200
which is one-half cycle, or 180 degrees of the wave, later, thus
being of opposite sign but equal intensity.
T7 illustrates the wavefront activity one quarter cycle subsequent
to T6, where wavefront 411 has reflected at the left end of
resonator 200 with further increase in intensity from the leftward
acceleration of acceleration source 201, and taking successive
designation as wavefront 412 to reflect the increase in total
momentum of this wavefront, and the reversal of propagation
direction due to reflection. Wavefront 402 has likewise reflected
at the right hand end of resonator 200, its reversal in direction
due to reflection giving it the successive designation 403. As the
unit difference between T7 and T3 is also four units, or four
quarter cycles equaling one full cycle or 360 degrees of the wave,
the illustrated activity at T7 may be taken as equal to the action
at instant T3 and progress further onward to T4, etc., progressing
onward by quarter cycles to T7 and repeating indefinitely. The
momentum of the two counter-propagating wavefronts 400+n and 410+n
continues (where n represents successive continuation of the
process illustrated), until the increasing momentum in each
wavefront reaches equilibrium against practical acoustic losses
and the finite accelerating force, or finite mechanical
compliance, of a practical acceleration source 201.
FIG. 5 schematically illustrates a fundamental novelty of the
disclosed invention, originally described above under “Summary of
the Invention”, section [B]: Magnetostrictive Positive Feedback.
The schematic illustration of this activity in FIG. 5 may be taken
as an extension of the wave mechanics described in FIG. 1: F1, as
illustrated diagrammatically in FIG. 4.
FIG. 5: T1 begins at the same point illustrated in FIG. 4: T3,
where original propagating wavefront 400 has reflected at the
rightmost end of resonator 200 becoming wavefront 401 with
reversed propagation direction, and where subsequent wavefront 410
has been established also. As in FIG. 4: T3, FIG. 5: T1 depicts
the same instant where these two counter-propagating wavefronts
are both present and propagating toward each other, to meet at the
center of resonator 200.
As shown in FIG. 3, a bias magnetic flux is provided along the
length of resonator 200 which is made of a ferromagnetic material
having, for purposes of discussion, both a positive
magnetoelasticicity, and positive magnetostriction, such as
Metglas alloy 2605SA1 or 2605SC (Metglas Inc., Conway, S.C.).
Since ferromagnetic resonator 200 material exhibits positive
magnetoelasticity, compressive stress in the material produces a
decrease in magnetic susceptibility while tensile stress produces
an increase in magnetic susceptibility. Since ferromagnetic
resonator 200 material exhibits positive magnetostriction, the
material expands with increasing magnetic fields; increasing flux
densities produce elongation of the material in the direction of
the magnetic flux.
The magnetic bias shown in FIG. 3 is again present, due to flux
sources or pole-pieces 300 and 301, but with the illustrative
magnetic polarization lines omitted from the present diagram for
At instant T2A, acoustic wavefronts 401 and 410 have reached the
center of resonator 200, producing a nodal point of tensile
elastic stress. This tensile stress increases the magnetic
susceptibility of the ferromagnetic material of resonator 200,
causing the flux density at the nodal point to increase via
magnetoelastically increased magnetic susceptibility. A single
turn of conductive material, such as copper, is shown wrapped in a
loop enclosing this nodal point. 500 and 501 indicate this
conductive single turn, cut in cross section, where 500 indicates
the upper portion of the loop and 501 indicates its lower portion
in the viewing plane. The changing magnetic field creates an
electric field 510 indicated by the diagram arrow between 500 and
501 in diagram T2A. Thus, the action of acoustic waves in
ferromagnetic resonator 200 have resulted in the production of an
electric field 510 in conductive loop 500-501 due to the bias
magnetic flux within the ferromagnetic material being modulated by
magnetoelastic sensitivity to stresses resulting from resonant
When an electrical current 511 is allowed to flow through
conductive loop 500-501, the direction of the electric current
flows in a direction opposing and neutralizing the causative
electric field indicated in diagram T2A, as depicted by the
diagram arrow of current flow 511. A flow of electric current
always generates a magnetic field. Since the current 511 flows in
a direction which tends to neutralize the electric field 510
generated by the changing magnetic flux, the current flow 511 also
generates a magnetic field which tends to oppose and neutralize
the originally changing magnetic field, opposing its change. This
activity is commonly referred to in the art as Lenz's Law.
The original change in magnetic field at instant T2A is an
increase in magnetic flux due to tensile stress at the nodal
point, increasing the magnetic susceptibility of the ferromagnetic
material of resonator 200. Induced current flow 511 will act to
oppose this increase in magnetic flux represented by induced
electric field 510; therefore the magnetic field generated by the
induced current 511 flowing within conductive loop 500-501 will
attempt to create a field decreasing the total magnetic flux, at
least partially canceling the original increase. This induced
magnetic field also acts on the ferromagnetic material of
resonator 200, which has positive magnetostriction. Since positive
magnetostriction implies an elongation of the material with
increasing flux density, the induced current is decreasing the
flux density to restore equilibrium and therefore produces a
contraction of, and thus a compressive reaction force within, the
ferromagnetic material of resonator 200.
While the “A” in T2A stands for “action” at time T2, the “R” in
T2R represents a depiction of the opposing reaction forces at this
identical time instant T2. Whereas incoming acoustic wavefronts
401 and 410 create tensile stress at the nodal point in T4A, the
new acoustic wavefronts 420 and 421 indicate the compressive
reaction stress caused by magnetic induction acting on a
magnetostrictive material in T2R.
Incoming acoustic wavefronts 401 and 410 in action diagram T2A
contain diagram arrows indicating a mutually inbound propagation
direction, where both wavefronts are converging at the nodal point
at the center of resonator 200. Wavefronts 401 and 410 are
approaching the central nodal point at instant T2A, having
traveled inward from the ends of resonator 200.
In reaction diagram T2R, reaction wavefronts 420 and 421 share a
mutual origin at the nodal point, where ferromagnetic
magnetostriction has newly created these wavefronts due to
magnetic induction, as Lenz's Law acting on a magnetostrictive
material. Therefore the reaction wavefronts 420 and 421 each have
propagation-direction arrows indicating outbound propagation from
the nodal point at the center of resonator 200, toward respective
ends of resonator 200.
Since reaction wavefronts 420 and 421 constitute acoustic pressure
opposite to that of incoming acoustic wavefronts 401 and 410, the
phase of the reaction wavefronts may be considered to be 180
degrees out of phase, or opposite of, the phase of the incoming
wavefronts 401 and 410. The reaction wavefronts constitute
additional acoustic energy which is 180 degrees out of phase with
the original acoustic energy.
The nodal point where this reaction occurs is one-quarter acoustic
wavelength distant from the acceleration source 201 driving the
interaction. Thus, the phase of the wave activity at the nodal
point is already shifted 90 degrees, or one-quarter cycle, behind
the phase of the sinusoidally varying acceleration of source 201.
The wave energy at the nodal point lags by 90 degrees of a cycle,
and the reaction wavefronts produced by current flow in conductive
coil 500-501 constitute an additional 180 degree phase shift,
since the reaction wavefronts constitute opposition to incoming
wavefronts. Therefore, the net phase of the reaction wavefronts
emerging from the nodal point lags a total of 270 degrees, or
three-quarters of a cycle, behind the phase of acceleration source
201. It should be remembered that the wavefronts in this
description are not single events, but indicate the peaks of a
sinusoidal wave in all cases.
Reaction wavefront 421 propagates leftward after its creation,
toward acceleration source 201, over a distance equal to
one-quarter the acoustic wavelength. Due to the finite acoustic
propagation velocity, reaction wavefront 421 is delayed a further
90 degrees, or one-quarter cycle, by the time it reaches the
leftmost end of resonator 200 and attached acceleration source
201. Upon arrival, the additional 90 degree phase shift adds to
the previous shift, or cycle delay, of 270 degrees, producing a
total phase shift of 360 degrees, or one full cycle, which is
mathematically equal to a phase shift of 0 degrees, or no phase
shift at all.
Therefore, reaction wavefront 421 arrives at the acceleration
source 201 with a phase that is identical to the phase of the
acceleration source 201. Whereas a 180 degree phase shift would
constitute opposition of the acceleration, or destructive wave
interference, a 360 degree or 0 degree phase shift constitutes
addition to the acceleration, or constructive wave interference.
Although destructive wave interference occurs at the nodal point
due to the nature of magnetic opposition expressed in Lenz's Law,
having translated to mechanical opposition via the properties of
magnetoelasticity and magnetostriction, the additional phase delay
of 90 degrees for acoustic wavefronts incoming and outbound from
the nodal region constitutes an additional total phase shift of
180 degrees, the sum being 360 degrees, one full cycle, therefore
zero phase difference between action and reaction at the site of
acceleration source 201. The in-phase nature of action and
reaction constitute constructive wave interference and addition of
forces, rather than destructive wave interference or opposition of
Therefore, when current is allowed to flow through conductive
single turn 500-501, additional wavefront energy is ultimately
present at acceleration source 201, aiding the acceleration and
longitudinal displacement at the leftmost end of resonator 200
where acceleration source 201 is located. Since the accelerating
force is now being aided, or has a secondary wavefront present
which is in-phase with the phase of the acceleration itself, the
resonant wave in resonator 200 may be maintained with less
acceleration input from source 201 than was necessary before
current was allowed to flow in conductive loop 500-501.
In practice, conductive loop 500-501 will have many turns of
conductive metal wire, such as copper wire, functioning as a
generator coil supplying electrical energy to a device requiring a
power source. To the extent which electrical current flows in this
closed circuit, acceleration source 201 will be aided by the
actions described above, thereby requiring less energy to produce
said acceleration as a source, since some of the accelerating
activity is now self-produced by the inventive process hereby
At this same instant T3, complimentary reaction wavefront 420 has
propagated to the rightmost end of resonator 200, reflecting at
this rightmost end with successive designation 430 indicating the
A further quarter-cycle later, at instant T4A, the conditions
described above for instant T2A are again present, but with
reversed momentum. At instant T4A, the incoming acoustic energy
produces compressive stress at the nodal point. The resonator
material defined in this illustration has positive
magnetoelasticity, such that compressive stress causes a decrease
in magnetic susceptibility, thereby causing a decrease in total
magnetic bias polarization, or a decreasing magnetic flux.
The reaction T4R indicates the opposition to this set of
conditions. The decreasing magnetic flux in T4A is opposed by
magnetic induction, or current flow in conductive turn 500-501,
causing a secondary magnetic field which opposes the change in
magnetic flux, or a secondary induced magnetic flux which tends to
cause an increase in total magnetic flux, by attempting to oppose
the magnetoelastically generated decrease. The action of
attempting to increase the total magnetic flux will elongate the
ferromagnetic material of resonator 200, since the
magnetostriction is positive. This elongation is indicated by the
reaction wavefronts 440 and 441, whose outward-going momentum is
consistent with elongation of the material.
As illustrated beforehand by time instant T3, the time instant T5
which is one-quarter cycle subsequent to instants T4, depicts
propagation of reaction wavefront 440 back toward acceleration
source 201, again with an additional 90 degree or quarter-cycle
delay due to the finite acoustic propagation velocity during this
time. At instant T5, the leftward momentum of wavefront 440 has
reached acceleration source 201 which is now in its peak of
leftward acceleration; the two accelerations once again assist
each other mutually. The reflection of this acoustic wavefront at
the leftward boundary of resonator 200 reverses the propagation
direction of wavefront 440 causing the wavefront to take the
successive designation 450 in diagram T5.
Meanwhile at time instant T5, complimentary reaction acoustic
wavefront, generated by magnetostrictive activity, has reached the
rightmost end of resonator 200 and reflects, reversing propagation
direction, and taking the successive designation 451. Time instant
T5 is effectively identical to time instant T1, as the difference
between T1 and T5 is 4 units, or 4 quarter-cycles, or a full
cycle. The cycle thus repeats with T1 being equal to T5, and so
Each time a nodal point is created, at instants T2 or T4, reaction
forces are produced which create reaction acoustic wavefronts in
the magnetostrictive material of resonator 200. Owing to the
finite propagation velocity of the acoustic energy, the arrival of
all such reaction wavefronts at acceleration source 201
consistently results in wave energy that is substantially in-phase
with the acceleration source itself, effectively providing an
independent source of mechanical acceleration or acoustic wave
energy identical to that produced by acceleration source 201 which
provides such energy by external means. When conductive turn
500-501 is allowed to support a current flow in a closed circuit,
this second source of acoustic energy is caused to exist.
This self-reinforcing magneto-acoustic wave interaction is
strongly dependent on the phase of the electrical current allowed
to flow through conductive turn, or turns 500-501. The phase of
electrical current flow may be adjusted by connecting a capacitor
in series or in parallel with conductive turn(s) 500-501,
producing capacitive reactive impedance which cancels or offsets
the inductive impedance of conductive turn or turns 500-501. By
use of appropriate tuning, where necessary, the phase of induced
electrical current may be adjusted to produce the constructive
interference of acoustic energy described above.
This constructive wave interference is also dependent on the
magnetoelastic properties of the magnetic material constituting
resonator 200. In the above description, both magnetoelasticity
and magnetostriction are positive in sign. Certain elements such
as Nickel, or alloys such as samarium ferrite (SmFe2) exhibit
negative magnetostriction but also exhibit negative
magnetoelasticity. In either case, the sign of magnetoelastic and
magnetostrictive action are identical, and the wave interaction
described above will continue to occur. If the sign of
magnetoelastic and magnetostrictive properties were opposite, the
above interaction could not occur, but materials having oppositely
signed magnetostriction and magnetoelasticity are not presently
thought to exist.
The above illustration concerns operation at the fundamental
resonant frequency F1 described and depicted in FIG. 2. It may be
understood the same overall reaction continues to manifest at
higher harmonic overtones, although illustration and description
of this activity becomes increasingly complex. The essential
mechanics of such interaction are given by the above discussion,
and apply to operation at higher harmonic overtones shown in FIG.
FIG. 6 illustrates an additional benefit gained by operating the
disclosed invention at F2, the second harmonic overtone, or twice
the fundamental resonant frequency. The conditions illustrated in
FIG. 5 continue to apply, such that the acoustic wave interference
may become constructively self-reinforcing. FIG. 6 constitutes an
illustration of the summary description given above in “Summary of
the Invention”, section [A]: Lenz Field Addition.
As shown in FIG. 2: F2, operation at a second harmonic overtone
creates dual nodal points in resonator 200, both of which are
spaced one-quarter acoustic wavelength from respective ends of
resonator 200, while being one-half acoustic wavelength distant
from each other, within the resonator. The polarity of elastic
stress at each nodal point is opposite the other: while nodal
point N+ in FIG. 2: F2 may be at a particular instant produce
compressive stress, the opposite nodal point N− will exhibit a
complimentarily tensile stress.
In a material having positive magnetoelasticity and a bias flux
from flux sources or pole pieces 300 and 301, these dual nodal
points cause opposing changes in magnetic flux density at their
respective locations. Nodal point N+ may produce compressive
stress, reducing the total flux density local to this node, while
complimentary nodal point N− will, at the same time produce
tensile stress, increasing the total flux density local to this
complimentary, opposing node. It may be recognized the same
opposition will occur in ferromagnetic materials having negative
magnetoelasticity, although the relationship between the sign of
stress and the sign of flux density change will reverse.
Since the two nodal points produce opposing changes in the
magnetic flux local to each node, magnetically induced electric
fields 510 and 512 will likewise oppose. Since there are two nodal
points, two conductive turns 500-501 and 502-503 are provided,
again shown in cross section, each carrying diagrammatical arrows
indicating the opposing current flow within either conductive
Since the secondary reaction magnetic field produced by current
flow in a conductive turn has a magnetic polarity determined by
the direction of current flow, the reaction magnetic field from
each conductive turn, 500-501 and 502-503, oppose and mutually
annihilate, over the length of ferromagnetic resonator 200. The
material of resonator 200 immediately within the bore of the
conductive turns continues to respond to the flux produced by the
conductive turn wrapped around its immediate vicinity. If such
material has magnetostriction equal to the sign of its
magnetoelasticity, the constructive wave interference depicted in
FIG. 5 remains present.
The electrical power available from the disclosed invention may be
limited by the inductive reactance of conductive turns,
particularly when the turns are multiple, as in a generator in
accordance with the invention being reduced to practice, or
designed to generate high voltages necessitating many conductive
turns wound in place of a single turn. The resulting electrical
inductance can upset the phase relationships necessary to produce
constructive wave interference, as well as limiting the total
current deliverable by the conductive turns, to an electrical
When two or more conductive turns are wound around opposing nodal
points, the opposing currents in each tend to cancel the inductive
reactance of each conductive turn and their total inductive
reactance within the generator as a whole. The cancellation of
inductive reactance results in a greater power available from the
Furthermore, the mutually opposing current flows may be recognized
as identical to those which occur in a single-phase power
transformer of conventional design, where current in a secondary
coil that is powering an electrical load opposes the direction of,
and thereby increases the current flow within, the primary coil
initiating the magnetic activity of the transformer. Each mutually
opposing current flow 511 and 513, depicted in FIG. 6 acts as a
transformer primary to the opposite conductive turn, causing the
total electrical power generated in each conductive turn to
increase when both turns are conducting induced currents. By this
mechanism, an electrical load drawing an increasing amount of
electrical energy from induced current flow in conductive turn
500-501, for example, causes an automatic increase in the
electrical power delivered simultaneously by conductive turn
502-503. This mutually-reinforcing magnetic interaction, due to
the destructive interference of Lenz's Law magnetic opposition, is
produced additionally to the mutually reinforcing acoustic wave
interference previously described in the sections above, further
increasing the electrical power generated by the invention
The mechanism by which this occurs is illustrated by long diagram
arrows 313 and 323 which represent the direction of reaction
magnetic flux from each conductive turn, conducting the induced
electrical current. The opposing current flows create magnetic
fields which also oppose, as shown by the opposite directions of
magnetic field vector arrows 313 and 323. These fields tend to
annihilate to zero net magnetic flux at location 330, neutralizing
any net magnetic reaction flux along the total length of resonator
200, thereby reducing the parasitic inductive reactance to small
value. The reaction magnetic field 313, for example due to current
flow in conductive turn 500-501, acts as a generator field to the
conductive turn 502-503, while the reaction magnetic field 323 due
to current flow in conductive turn 502-503 acts as a magnetic
field generating additional electric current in conductive turn
500-501. The reaction magnetic field in each conductive turn
causes a generating action in the other conductive turn.
The wave interaction simultaneously utilizing more than one
harmonic overtone, described at “Summary of the Invention”,
section [C]: Harmonic Addition, may be applied to the interactions
illustrated in either FIG. 5 or FIG. 6. Whereas the illustrations
as shown rely on a single frequency and single set of nodal stress
points, for the sake of a simple illustration, a combination of
harmonic overtone frequencies may also be used, which result in
nodal points superimposed at the various locations shown in FIG. 2
for each harmonic overtone that is simultaneously present. By such
means the total electrical power generated by the disclosed
invention may be substantially increased. This method requires
that the energy in each overtone produce constructive wave
interference or simultaneous addition of wave peaks, at each nodal
point rather than subtraction of peaks as is typical of
destructive wave interference. Constructive harmonic interference
is achieved when the phase of each overtone frequency is aligned
such that the peaks of each harmonic wave simultaneously coincide
with the like-sign peaks of all other harmonics simultaneously
present in the expanded series.
For purposes of example, the single-node fundamental resonance
utilized in FIG. 4 or FIG. 5 may be expanded to a harmonic series
including harmonic overtones 1, 3, 5, and odd higher integers as
is practical; it will be seen that the combination of odd
overtones in this case results in a central node as the sum of all
overtones, with the addition of minor nodal points at positions to
the right and left of center. This view is created by
superimposing the nodal structures of F1, F3, and F5 of FIG. 2 in
a single common resonator 200, depicting the wave structure that
results when these harmonics are simultaneously present. When the
relative phase of each harmonic is appropriately aligned, wave
peaks of all harmonic overtones will occur synchronously with the
lowest harmonic overtone, causing addition of the total wave
energy present at the peaks of the lowest overtone, creating a
substantial increase of available generated electricity as
described in the Summary section [C], above.
In a likewise manner, the dual node topology shown by FIG. 6 may
be harmonically expanded to include overtone frequency multiples
2, 4, 6, and higher even-order integer multiples as is practical;
it will be seen the combination of even overtones by superposition
results in two major nodes, whose position is defined by the
lowest harmonic overtone, and which contain energy across the
entire harmonic series. Minor nodal points may exist which do not
include the total harmonic energy; these minor nodes may also be
enclosed by conductive turns in order to contribute to the total
output of the disclosed invention as a generator, or provide
additional electrical outputs. Such minor nodes may also be left
free without negatively impacting operation of the invention.
There is no theoretical limit on this expansion of the harmonic
series, which may include very high order overtones that are
substantial multiples of the fundamental resonant frequency. In
practice, extremely high frequency overtones are often undesirable
as they contribute successively less energy to the generated
electrical output, and the extent of the harmonic series to be
used in practice is determined by the point of diminishing
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF AN EMBODIMENT
FIG. 7 shows an embodiment designed to harvest power from a source
710 of vibratory energy. Ferrite rod 700 is coupled to the
vibratory energy source 710 at one end, the other end being
unconstrained except for support. The length of the rod is trimmed
to resonate at the vibratory frequency or a harmonic multiple
thereof; alternately, the driven frequency of vibratory energy
source 710 is adjusted to match the resonant frequency of the rod
700. If resonating at the fundamental frequency, a standing
pressure wave will develop within the rod, creating a node, or
maximum of pressure at the center. If resonance is at a harmonic
multiple of the fundamental frequency, two or more nodal points
will develop having maximum pressure.
Bridging this nodal point is a permanent magnet or array of
magnets 701, shown here for clarity as a single U-shaped magnet
having North and South poles. Lines of magnetic flux 702 are shown
completing the magnetic circuit axially through ferrite rod 700.
An electrical conductor, such as the coil of wire 720, is wound
around the core centered at the nodal point and connected to
electrical load 730, shown here as a resistor.
Through magnetoelastic action the magnetic flux in the rod is
modulated by the pressure variation and results in an induced
current in coil 720 through Faraday's Law. The resulting EMF at
the coil terminals is converted to current through load resistor
730 according to Ohm's Law and results in the delivery of power in
the form of heat. Resistor 730 may be replaced with any electronic
or electric circuit, including rectifiers, power converters, and
Coil 720 must be sized so that its inductance, together with the
load resistance, does not present excessive electrical impedance
to the induced power at the vibratory frequency. The inductance of
the coil may be compensated for by a capacitance 731 sufficient to
resonate the coil at the vibratory frequency. The strength of the
magnetic field must be adjusted to produce maximum response
through the magnetoelastic effect.
FIG. 8 shows the magnetoelastic generator of FIG. 7 resonating at
the second harmonic of the fundamental longitudinal resonant
frequency, thereby producing two nodal points having opposing
acoustic pressure. The rod is coupled to a piezoelectric element
810 capable of developing pressure at its faces 813a and 813b
under control of an alternating electric field between electrode
plates 814a and 814b, driven from external oscillator and driver
circuit 815. Acoustic horn 811 is trimmed to one quarter the
vibratory wavelength and produces maximum displacement at the
vibratory frequency at the driven end of the rod 800, in response
to the alternating pressure developed by piezoelectric element
810. Piezoelectric element 810 is terminated with a back mass 812
whose density and acoustic length have been chosen to develop
maximal longitudinal displacement at the junction between horn 811
and rod 800 while maximizing electrical efficiency of
piezoelectric element 810 at the operating frequency.
Ferrite rod 800 is driven to acoustic resonance at the second
harmonic of its fundamental resonant frequency by acoustic horn
811, resulting in acoustic wave 816 within the rod having two
nodal points. Each nodal point exhibits instantaneous acoustic
pressure opposite the other nodal point. Bias magnet 801 produces
magnetic flux 802 extending axially through both nodal points
developed within rod 800. Since both nodal points within the rod
develop oppositely signed instantaneous acoustic pressure, the
electromotive force developed via the magnetoelastic effect at
each nodal point is oppositely directed. Coils 820 and 821 are
wound oppositely and connected in electrical series, such that
their developed electromotive forces add. The sum electromotive
force of coils 820 and 821 develops electrical current and power
in resistive load 830. The reactive impedance of coils 820 and 821
is reduced by their mutually opposite inductive polarities, and is
further corrected to unity power factor by capacitor 831, such
that maximum electrical power is developed across resistive load
Solid State Electrical Generator
[ Application for the above patent ]
July 27, 2006
Hello, for those of you being a few years already in the free
energy scene and being
on my old Yahoogroups list, you probably remember Graham
who did a lot of research in strange coils setups and who claimed
invented a dragless generator..
..it is no a mechanical generator, but a solid state overunity
It seems it is required that all 3 fields,
input coil field , Permanent magnet field and output coil
field must be in 90 degrees orthogonal relationship to each other,
so 2 of them can cancel out, which is the output coil field with
permanent magnet field, so the input coil?s
field is not much affected and thus no drag is put onto the input
Is this correct ?
It is pretty complicated to grasp.
Reply #2 on: July 28, 2006
Comment: It appears to me that the magnets are on top of the
ring and also in attract on the bottom of the ring. (Flux
flowing vertically through the ring from Permanent magnet to
Permanent magnet). Then the coil that weaves in and out
horizontally through the center of the ring between flux flow
points collects the magnetic flux change caused by the input 'push
coil' of the other vertically wound coil around the ring.
The collector coil receives the "pushed/deflected" magnetic flux,
causing an induced current in the horizontal looped winding for
output. Apparently more power is able to be collected in the
output coil than is expended in the excite 'push' coil. It
also appears that one can stack these devices, making better use
of the magnet
Reply #4 on: July 28, 2006
I think, as the counter field from the output current will stay
inside the core, the permanent magnets from Graham's patent will
not demagnetize as the field will never
go to the level of -Hc which would be required to weaken the
So I guess this is a very safe unit which will not demagnetize the
magnets in our live-time.
I think this is the smartest design of a solid state free energy
device I have seen so far and indeed I always trusted Graham to be
a genuine inventor with all his very clever
ideas and smart thinking and experiments.
He also had a real mechanical dragless generator already a few
years back, which was a mechanical design, but had too many losses
in the gears he was using, he told me at this time..
Reply #6 on: July 28, 2006
Read this page describing the patent posted above by hartiberlin:
Mark Goldes says " Following construction of a successful
prototype, a U.S. patent application was filed covering this
advanced electrical generator."
To me that means that the device indeed works, and if the device
does indeed work, then this is IT.
My ONLY QUESTION for Mark Goldes would be:
The patent states that the magnets can become demagnetized, was
this a necessary addition for trying to get the Patent office to
pass the Patent, or do the magnets really become demagnetized?
If the magnets become demagnetized, how long, or, how much energy
could be used from a given setup before the magnets lost thier
It would be interesting to see output figures per module (to know
how many modules are needed to produce a given amount of power)
and approx. cost per module. Also Tao's question about
magnet life would be nice to know the answer to.
Reply #9 on: July 29, 2006
Quote from: tao on July 28, 2006
I'd say the easiest way would be to buy a nice toroidal
transformer core and drill holes in it.
Place the proper amount of NdFeb magnets on the core above the
Wind the output wire(magnet wire) through the holes and wind the
input wire(magnet wire) around the whole unit, magnets and all(as
the patent suggests).
Power the thing with a series resonant circuit like the patent
suggests and power a load indefinitely...
Yes, Tao, this is the same, what I also just thought, how to do
it. The question is, how big in diameter the holes should be
maximum and if it is better to have many output coil windings
going through the holes with very small diameter wire or just
lower turns with bigger diameter wire, so if it is much better to
go for more output voltage or more output current.
Normally you get the maximum output power out of a power supply or
device, if you use the same load resistance as the inner
resistance of the device, so if you want to get 100 Watts out, you
would also heat the output windings with 100 Watts too, if the
impedances match !
So this is why normally you don?t match the inner resistance with
the load resistance,
so less output power is drawn but then also the wasted inner
resistance power is also much less.
But for the input coils I would use very big diameter wire and
only use about 10 to 100 Windings or so, to have a very low ohmic
resistance and also low inductance, so the frequency could be put
into the Khz range.
If you use a higher frequency you will also get more voltage and
thus more power out.
Thus with a matched capacitance at the resonance frequency of the
input LC circuit you would need very low input power and due to
low ohmic resistance of the coil would
have low ohmic losses at the resonance frequency for the input
The question I still have, is, if it is better to
1. use many holes in short distances and thus have more voltage at
lower turn windingsnumbers and use only smaller sized magnets
ontop and onbottom of the core
2. have less holes in the core with bigger hole diameters and have
thus more winding-turn-numbers through them for higher output
voltage and have less and bigger magnets on them ?
What is better, 1. or 2. ?
Reply #12 on: July 29, 2006
As with most patents (applications) you don't have to give away
the secret and it appears from reading the application that they
do not. Why is this so different from the MEG? Special core
material, yes they say soft iron, but I doubt its what you get at
the scrap yard. The timing appears to be critical, you will not be
able to just throw it together and get power, you will have to
work out the math so it works as proposed.
My question is, was it on purpose that they did not indicate that
the loop can be closed? They do say that Lenz did not apply, but
so why not go all the way and say once it starts is self powers?
Did not see mention in the application.
Additionally they are saying in the app that they are covering all
forms (shapes) and methods, would this not if granted stop any one
else from using perm magnets in a device?
Reply #13 on: July 30, 2006, 07:15:37 AM »
About a month ago I won on Ebay three current transformers.
Stated that they had 800:5 current ratio. I thought that
they were a toroidal transformer with 800 turns primary and 5
turns secondary. I opened one up and was disappointed that
all they were was a ferrite core about 4 inches ID and only one
coil about 18 guage wound around the core. This explained
why there were only two leads instead of 4.
I was disappointed and said to myself "well there goes $20 for
something I will probably never use."
And now comes this thread and these ferrite cores and wire are
exactly what I need to build this device!
I don't know what a ferrite core with a diameter of 4 to 5 inches
would normally cost, but I got three of these current transformers
for $20. There might be others available?
Does anyone know how to drill a hole through a ferrite core?
They are probably very brittle and fragile?
I am thinking of getting diamond drills and starting with small
Reply #15 on: July 31, 2006, 02:02:31 PM »
I opened one up and was disappointed that all they were was a
ferrite core about 4 inches ID and only one coil about 18 guage
wound around the core. This explained why there were only
two leads instead of 4.
Don't throw 'em away yet!
Current transformers require the primary to be looped through the
hole in the core. If yours is 800:5, you take your primary
wire and loop it through the hole 5 times. You can
effectively get different ratios by changing the number of times
you loop your primary through the coil.
Note that to put one turn on the primary, you must stick the wire
through the hole two times. If you put the wire through only
once you don't have a complete "turn" on the primary. You
must have one loop through the device to have one turn. So,
to get 5 turns you have to go through the hole 6 times with the
I have only ever seen this type of transformer used to sense motor
current in large ac motors. The motor lead is directly wound
through the device to form the primary.
Reply #17 on: October 08, 2006, 05:53:22 AM »
This my first post here at Overunity.com, I have been developing a
version of the Gunderson solid state generator for personal
research purposes. I'm very excited about this generator,
and yes Tao, I feel that THIS IS IT! too.
I have built a linear 'proof of principal' of the Gunderon
generator. Consisting of a linear silicon steel laminate core
containing 5 magnets and 2 input coils the output wire is a single
pass of insulated braided copper wire. The magnets are 7mm x 3mm
neo's I had. The core is a stack of 21 11mm laminates from a 12v
4amp charger transfromer and the input coils are wound from the
primary windings of that same tranformer. I only ha to drill 3
holes in the laminates since they already had one at each end. I
used cyanoacrylate glue and a vice to make the stack, solid.
The purple and green wires are for input. Only the two
copper coils nearest the center of the device are hooked up, I
wound all 4 input coils then I realised that the 2 outer ones
would heat up because they were just pushing against the end
magnets which are unable to shift there flux because they
lack a "balancing magnet" because this is a linear device
not a ring . Sure enough when I powered it up the outer
coils got hot quite quickly while the inner two remained cool. So
I disconnected them. The use of 5 magnets is nessesary to allow
the device to have a functioning middle section with magnets that
have their flux divided equally in two.
I have meassured 184mV RMS from the output of this device when
excited with .6v AC 50Hz. Small output I know. However I could
make consistant voltage spikes of 3 to 4v when I rapidly connected
and desconnected the input power and occasionally higher spikes in
the 14v range. Despite what may seem like a tiny output I am
encoaraged. I made these measurments on a quality digital
ossciloscope at a freinds house using only a AC/AC transformer at
50Hz to excite the input coils.
Since then I have used a small audio amp to power the coils.
Connected to the soundcard on my PC and a tone generator to
generate a square wave at different frequencies. Unfortunatly my
multimeter is not accurate enough to get a reading. But I have had
a alot of fun testing the resonant frequencies of the device. I am
able to feel the magnetic field occilations by holding a magnet
near the device. Or sticking a laminate to the magnets to get a
audiable feedback of the vibation. The qualitative sence of
vibration strength of the magnet I was holding seemed to peak
around 200hz, at least on the level I could feel. Then there were
overtones at heaps of frequences up to over 64 0000Hz that seemed
to peak the vibration and or sound output. All I can do without
proper equipment is make qualitative observations and work on
My linear proof of principal device has many inheirent flaws, Yet
I am seeing an output. I used magnets that are far too small
based on the ratios I could determine from the patent diagrams and
the silicon steel laminates that make up the core seem to block
the field so much that the flux is barely noticeable when I place
an iron nail in the holes that carry the output wire. Also the
linear configuration means that only the middle 3 holes and
magnets are functioning as they would in the toroidal device as
the magnets at the ends have no balance magnet and thus
their flux dose not so easily shift.
The vibrating magnetic field that can be felt when one holds a
magnet near the operating device is very large for such small
input coils. In fact, if the input coils are excited without the
magnets in place. The field that can be felt by holding a magnet
near them is miniscule. Demonstrating to me that this
configeration is very efficient for shifting a large perminant
magnet flux with small input.
I think that a critial aspect of this design is in the way that
the magnets are posistioned relative to each other. Each magnets
flux is equally divided between 2 other magnets on the other side
of the core, so that the 2 rings of magnets are effectivly
balancing against each other and only a small nudge from the input
field makes one flux path FAR MORE favorable so the flux is
effectivly on a see saw that can be actuated with a small input.
Given this reasoning the Torroidal configeration is nessesary to
allow all magnets to be balanced.
Hartiberlin; my inital feeling and answer to your earlier question
is number 2 One big hole for output, diameter of 1/3 the
height of the core. but with an output wire that makes many passes
around the core untill the hole is filled. I am not skilled in
transformer coil calculations. Perhaps someone can help. I want to
make input coils of 4 to 8 Ohms so that they can be driven through
an audio amp for inital testing untill the resonant circuit can be
implemented. I figure that multiple passes or turns in the output
coil will improve power out as more copper and or turns is
present to collect EMF. The permiabilty of the core seeems to be a
major factor. I belive the patent talks about resin bonded iron
cores because the core needs to be less dense then solid iron to
allow the magnetic flux to extend into the output coil holes and
not be effectivlly shielded.
I intend to build a actual torroidal device with 25mm neo cubes
and an epoxy resin/iron powder core. With 8 ohm input coils to be
excited with an audio amp with sound frequencies from a tone
generator on my PC.
I have some questions, perhaps someone can help.
1 I want the input coils to be efficient at
creating a magnetic field. I want them to be 8 Ohms and operate at
power levels from a 50 watt RMS audio amp at full volume. What
thickness and length of wire should I use.
2 Is it true that a coil with fewer turns will
be able to operate at a faster frequency then a coil with more
turns? / if so why?
3 Where can I get Iron powder in Australia. I
have purchased Iron Oxide powder for coloring concrete, it is very
magnetic, am I correct that ferrite cores are made from iron
4 Dose ferrite saturate at 20 000 gauss? / or dose
saturation relate to mass of material ect.
Thanks very much in advance, I'm so glad I have found this forum.
Good work Overyunity.com
Reply #18 on: October 09, 2006
Please be aware that this device will not be Over Unity unless a
key factor is present. Since we are filing a Continuation in
Part on the pending patent application, I cannot reveal it.
It will not be Over Unity with ferrites.
It requires a very special component. That is all I can say
about these issues until the patent process is further along.
A working device was constructed prior to filing the patent
application. It far exceeded unity.
More than two dozen prototypes are part of our present laboratory
The published photographs are of a different invention.
Reply #21 on: January 19, 2007
Here is my prototype of Gunderson's device.
Many magnets shapes and sizes have been tested.
One outpout loop or several turns change nothing.
Frequency input from 1Khz to 100Khz.
Power supply 12V
Input coil up to 12v square, sinus.
No usable power to output coil. Only EMF kicks.
Does anyone have an idea to make it functionnal?
Reply #22 on: January 25, 2007, 09:48:46 PM »
Congratulations to Marcel for his excellent and obviously time
consuming attempt at replication. The key as I see it is having a
resonant circuit at the input, and keeping its frequency to say,50
to 100 hertz. higher frequencies would demand a fancy core
composition. Instead of trying to match the frequency of the
square wave generator to that of the resonant cicuit, why not
build an oscillator with a feedback coil wound on the core over
the input winding. My computor skills are limited so I cant do a
diagram . Circuit is as follows. Use a 9 volt battery. Use a npn
transistor eg a BFY51. Connect battery to a pos and neg rail.
Emitter to neg rail. Connect a potential devider accross pos and
neg rails,say a10k and a 1k resistor, with the 10k to the pos
rail. wher the 2 resistors join, connect one end of the feedback
coil.[2to5 turn] the other end of this coil goes to transistor
base. connect the input coil of the input transformer [ see US
patent application number 20060163971] between the transistor
collector and the pos rail . connect the output side of
transformer via a cap [10mfd?] to the input coil of the device.
Use a frequency counter if available to check output frequency at
device input coil. If its too high, increase value of cap . If it
wont oscillate, try reversing ends of feedback coil. Well worth
trying ifyou have come this far. Why can we not have more details,
Overtone? We cant steel your invention now, and everyone
incluiding you would benefit by its duplication.
Reply #23 on: January 25, 2007
user Neptune is right, you must use resonance to couple the most
power out of it and into it.
What kind of core are you using ?
If it is just iron you should stay below 100 Hz because of eddy
If it is ferrite, it could be, that it just does not work with
It probably also depends a lot of the core material !
Please keep us updated and try to use at the input an LC circuit
in resonance, so you need less input power.
The L is the driver coil for your device and the C must be added
to get the right resonance for a frequency below 100 Hz.
Reply #26 on: January 26, 2007
Just guessing here, but I would think that it would be important
in this design to not magnetically saturate the core of the ring
by using too many or too strong of a type of magnet. Perhaps
weaker ceramic magnets would be useful towards leaving some
room for a rotating magnetic field to possibly have an
effect. Limited amount of output power might be an issue
too, due to core saturation/magnetic strength issues within the
toroid core? As I recall, wasn't it reported that this
device worked with gain at low power levels?
Reply #27 on: January 26, 2007
You guys seem to forget that the "open ends" of the magnets will
"dive directly down" into the core. Which you do not want. So you
need to close loop them back to a opposit polarity. See the crappy
drawings I made. Also I think that there is only one imput coil
needed not one for every magnet. The output coil though needs to
be many more turns.
Maybe It's of use to some.
Reply #28 on: January 26, 2007
Yes, I agree with that, the magnetic circuit needs to be closed to
allow more flux to flow into the core.
Although if you look at my simulations, even a weak magnet may
suffice without closing the circuit.
Another suggestion is to put the holes through where the centre of
the input coils are. This is where the flux density is at
its greatest and lowest.
Or have two holes, one either side of the magnet and use two
Check the output windings have not shorted out on the sharp
corners of the core holes.
You may need to countersink the holes slightly and paint some
varnish on the metal around the hole to protect the copper wire
enamel from being damaged.
Reply #29 on: January 26, 2007
Hi there Rob, Nice femm simulations you have. Altough I must point
out that simulations are so rough that they only act as generals
idea's of what the flux will do in reality. This has been said
before. But it's true. Other thing is, when you are drilling the
holes too near the imput coil's field, and so plan to put the
output coils there you are in a sence going to power the output
coils dicectly with the imput coils and have not much more than a
regular transformer. And so the imput draw will increase
accordingly with the output load. Coupling between input and
output must be minimal. Imput coil should only act as a mean to
push or pull the field of the magnets to a certain direction. And
so the magnets will do the 'cutting of the coils'
Reply #30 on: January 26, 2007
Yes point taken, OK that just leaves putting two holes either side
of the magnet, to pick up on that "sweet spot".
The input coils would need to be wound as many layers in a smaller
area too, as drawn in the simulation.
One more point, are you doing a push-pull on each pair of coils,
so at any one time, one coil is energized and one is not?
I am not sure if it mentions how to pulse the input windings in
the patent but this would seem the logical way of switching the
You can use a TL494 IC and a couple of mosfets to perform this,
and if you really want to get a nice clean square pulse use a
power mosfet driver IC between the TL494 and mosfets like the
Reply #31 on: January 26, 2007
Hello again. Whilst I respect other peoples opinions, I disagree
with Kingrs, About filling the holes with iron filings, or using
iron wire. The patent states that the flux flows around the holes
like the thread flowing around a bolt. Overtone says this device
will not be overunity with a ferrite core. This is puzzling
because the patent is for a GENERATOR. If it is not overunity, it
becomes an inverter, converter, or transformer. Yet the patent
actually calls for a ferite core!
Also, why use a square wave input. If you apply a square wave to a
tuned or resonant circuit, the net result is a sine wave .
Sometimes I feel that patents are not worth the paper they are
written on. The patent has little or nothing to say about input
/output ratios. If this device has any merit , we are now reduced
to "wait and see " just like the 10 million other ideas. Sadly,
wishing doesnt make it so. Sorry, feeling cynical tonight,
Reply #32 on: January 26, 2007
The iron filings was just an idea to try. I saw on page 2 another
replication that look promising using a linear example. Good proof
I think generator windings are an odd thing, the flux does not
really cut through them as such, its almost as if it has its own
inverse field that reaches out into core and pulls in electrical
But I stand by my square pulses, I have seen what odd shaped
traces you get as output without a clean drive into the mosfet.
You need to start off with square waves and then allow the
inductor to turn it into a nice curve.
If you think you can get a sine wave out of a mosfet then be my
Its not efficient,i.e.wasted volts drop across the device to get
the curve and serves no purpose.
Reply #33 on: January 26, 2007
The core material is highly likely a crystalline type core
material like metglass suitable for high frequency and high
permeability. Laminates have a permeability that might be
suitable, but don't handle high frequencies (above 300hz or so)
very well. So ferrite is good for the high frequencies but than
again the permeability is lowww. Metglass takes the bests from
both. High permeability and (very)high frequency. But you guessed
it, very expensive. Maybe soma alloy is suitable. But expensive
also because they probably have to custom make it for you.
Patents when fully open are actually quite handy. They are a
worldwide free to get instruction Manuel. Unless they hide
stuff.... But still patents give us many ideas to work on.
Power conversion and generation is a curious thing if you think of
it. Lots of time magnetism does not really 'cut' any wire and
still it generates of transforms good power. Look at the attached
picture. Here you see a toroid transformer and a 3phase
transformer. These are proven devices. And keep in mind that
the flux will stay 99% inside the core material, never comes out
to cut the wires of the secondary (?output?) coil. And of course
the works like 80% efficient. How? The flux never ?comes
out? of the core material. So there are many devices where the
flux does not really 'cut' the coils and yet work?
Reply #39 on: January 28, 2007
I posted back last October that the application has been
superseded. A new patent application will cover factors we
discovered are necessary for this invention to exceed unity.
Cores that will work are, as some have suggested, expensive. They
must have little known characteristics. They must be processed
using very costly equipment. This invention cannot exceed unity
Therefore, sad to say, it is extremely likely that any attempt to
build the device by individuals is almost certain to fail. (Error
posted previously in this line is now corrected.)
To repeat, the first prototype worked and exceeded unity.
Commercial variations are under development.
For reasons of international patent law, such as Taiwan and South
Korea, where publication instantly negates patentability, we will
not reveal the critical additional information until the second
patent application is published.
Chairman & CEO
Magnetic Power Inc.
Reply #40 on: January 28, 2007
I meant to say that given what we have learned since the original
patent application was filed, any attempt to build this device, by
an individual, is extremely unlikely to succeed!
Should have had more coffee before previewing my earlier post :).
Reply #42 on: January 28, 2007
Could be the inventors are getting twitchy about people
replicating their baby?
I have just done the simulation again in Femm to check my comments
I made previous to you and it looks like I gave you the wrong info
or not all the info.
The coils can indeed be connected in series, but the pulse does
need to be AC.
To achieve this requires a "H" bridge of mosfets to allow the coil
supply to be AC.
This will give the greatest flux change.
Saying that though, to simplify things you can do as I suggested
before and use a push-pull DC pulse applied to the two sets of
coils to the right and left of each magnet.
I think what Mark is trying to say is that the balance of current,
magnet choice and core material are all critical to this working
at over unity.
From my simulations, it can be seen that only a very tiny current
and voltage is required to get the field to switch (20mA @ 0.5V)
and anything greater will saturate the core.
Using a magnet too powerful for the core material, will yes,
saturate the core.
Also try using ceramic 5 or ceramic 8 magnets to start with.
I suspect Neo magnets are too powerful for the core material.
The good thing is that Mark's company will be buying off the shelf
cores just like you and I.Ã‚Â Metglass make them, we use
Reply #44 on: February 10, 2007
Hard as it may be for folks here to believe, I hardly ever see
this forum. We are extremely busy.
Sorry. No technical information will be released except in patent
If all goes well, we will provide potential licensees with
pre-manufacturing prototypes later this year.
We have no control over the time it takes them to gear up for
There are also parts required which are not presently mass
produced as they have no existing market. That factor is also one
over which we have no control and it may well slow up production,
although I would think small quantities of self-powered generators
might be in the market by the end of this year.
Since development is still much slower than it might be with
additional funding, all estimates are subject to change. Adequate
funds might be en-route. If, and when, they arrive we will be able
to accelerate development.
At this point it is all engineering...
Reply #47 on: December 01, 2007
If they are indeed real & independently verifiable, MPI's
claimed developments are exciting.
But I do wonder if MPI's patent application is valid, since in my
understanding to get a patent one must disclose sufficient
information to enable one skilled in the relevant art to practice
(i.e., make) the invention, but it appears that a lot of skilled
engineers on this forum have been unable to reproduce the device
and/or are uncertain how to do so based on the patent.
A patent is a type of quid pro quo: the inventor discloses
to the public how to make the invention in return for the
government's grant to the inventor of a time-limited monopoly on
the invention. In the U.S., unless the inventor satisfies
his part of the bargain by meeting numerous statutory (i.e.,
legal) requirements, the patent won't issue or will be
revoked on challenge:
"In order for a patent to be valid, the requirements of 35 USC
section 112 of written description, enablement, and best mode have
to be met. . . . The written description requires that the
inventors show full 'possession' of their inventions by describing
them in words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that
fully set forth the claimed invention. . . . To satisfy the
enablement requirement, the description also has to teach how to
make and use the invention without undue experimentation."
((Biotechnology Law Report, October, 2003, p. 473-74.) So,
if skilled artisans can't create follow the MPI patent to create a
working MPI device, I wonder if the inventor has satisfied the
written description and enablement requirments? (That's a
question for an attorney to answer.)
In short, the MPI patent application must claim that the device
does something. The question is: given the amount of
apparently unsuccessful experimentation documented by those
posting in this forum who have apparently tried but failed to
create the device disclosed in the MPI patent, is the MPI patent
valid.? As one noted author said, "there's the rub!"
Reply #48 on: February 20, 2008
The core is a special type of Metglas. The holes MUST be drilled
electrically and the core then reprocessed by the manufacturer.
This first Patent Application on this invention will be followed
by a second in the future. As shown, even when done correctly, it
will only go to 99% efficiency. To exceed unity (the first
prototype had an output more than 100 times the input at an
extremely low power level < 1 watt) other, not yet disclosed,
information is necessary.
Seeking a solution to the complexity of manufacturing this design
happily led to the breakthrough family of generators that we now
call GENIE (Generating Electricity by Nondestructive
Interference of Energy). GENIE is now patent pending. It so far
appears much easier to manufacture various GENIE designs and
therefore the design in the published Patent Application is on
Sorry, beyond what appears on our website: magneticpowerinc.com [
defunct ]no further details or information can be made available,
except to qualified parties who sign a NonDisclosure Agreement.
Spiral Transformer – related to Graham’s
Here is a recent video interview with Graham Gunderson reviewing
what he will be sharing at the 2015 Energy Science &
He will be presenting on a special transformer he designed that is
overunity and you’ll get to learn enough of the details to be able
to replicate it!
Graham Gunderson is a brilliant, long time researcher and
developer in the “overunity” field. One of his jobs as a funded
researcher was to verify free energy claims by many different
inventors. Graham is listed as the inventor on multiple patented
inventions and by doing a simple search online, you will find that
he has possibly researched Floyd Sweet’s Vacuum Triode Amplifier
(VTA) more than anyone else in this field with the exception of
maybe John Bedini and only a couple others.
Graham Gunderson's Transformer
He had a table full of equipment, most of it being testing and
measuring equipment. The actual core is the miniscule picture
above. It was not as flashy as Bedini's toys, but his focus was on
measuring and understanding the concepts at work.
COP of 1.03 if I remember correctly (and it did fluctuate over the
course of presentation). Not enough to self-run by any means, but
it was intended to prove the concept
Source is plain sinewave signal fed through an amplifier.
The top and bottom coils are input, with the center coil being
Cores are generic ferrites, and there is a small airgap between
I believe the coils were in attraction but with a 45-90deg phase
At least the source is in resonance to conserve and recycle energy
I am not sure on circuit, but I do know there is a phase delay
between the two coils. This phase delay causes a magnetic field
along the center gap that teeter-totters back and forth. The
pickup coil harvests energy off this flux flipping and everything
is spit out to carefully calibrated scopes and probes.
It's not fancy and not even a self-runner, but Graham wanted to
build a Wright Bros aircraft to show the principles of flight
instead of building a 747 that nobody would understand.
The core part as far as I understand, is that he's using phase to
rotate flux along the gap under resonance and harnessing power
from this virtual rotation rather than regular transformer
Image of Gunderson Transformer
Couple more bits to add : It was driven by 1 AC amplifier
plugged into a function gen... Probably tuned capacitance to
maintain resonance and minimize input.
From the presentation was there an indication that the effect is
frequency dependent or specifically what frequency is being used
here? kHz, MHz?
He actually talked more about concepts than the actual device and
numbers. That said, kHz range, I don't think more than 1mhz.
Wherever ferrite starts getting lossy, it was definitely below
Ballpark, somewhere between 20-200khz.
I wish I had taken a clip of the FEMM model he showed.. There
wasn't any magic, or at least anything that didn't conform to
normal models. It showed a model of the resonant transformer where
the fields would resonate, and interact so at a certain period
they would form these fast rotating pinches that would reach far
off to each side.
If I'm understanding was correct, his output coil is getting
energy from this second-order interaction rather than one coil
simply charging another.
Quote: Also, did he mention the B-H magnetization curve shape as
being a factor? Magnetization and hysteresis were mentioned, not
exactly sure how it fits in his setup. We'll have to ask him.
I don't think any of us is going to have much luck duplicating
this exact device (trying to match his hardware and measuring
equipment). Even if we did, it's only COP 1.03. If we can
understand these nonlinear one-way interactions, then maybe we'll
be in the right ballpark.
Physics Review Board
Chava Energy’s ZPE GENERATOR Fraud
Chava Energy’s ZPE GENERATOR fraud consists of soliciting and
obtaining investments and grants in a blatantly fraudulent manner,
making use in particular of the elaborate set of false pretenses,
false statements, false claims and empty promises to be found in
Chava Energy’s “Zero Point Energy Generator” fraudcraft, involving
their so-called “MagGen” concepts.
Chava Energy for five years referred to two devices proposed by
Graham Gunderson as “MagGen” magnetic generators, falsely and
fraudulently claiming that they would provide electric power by
“tapping Zero Point Energy,” and that Chava Energy would create
“MagGen” prototypes “to provide power for automobiles” “within
To avoid confusion, we will refer to the first “MagGen” as
Gunderson-20060163971, and the second “MagGen” as
Chava Energy’s First And Second “MagGen” ZPE Generator Fraudcraft
Let’s look at some excerpts from the pack of fraudcraft Chava
Energy previously posted on their website regarding the “MagGen”
devices, until its very recent removal:
“Our MagGen™ magnetic generators convert abundant, ambient and
renewable energy sources that exist everywhere in the universe.
Power Units can be small and lightweight, and made from non-toxic
“MagGen™: The Chava Magnetic Generator (MagGen™) breakthroughs
offer several alternate routes to tapping the energy of quantum
noise (Zero Point Energy) via the magnetic spin moment.”
“Chava has two U.S. Patents patents aimed at commercialization
under the trademark of MagGen™. Patents #7,830,065 and #8,093,869
cover solid-state (no moving parts) magnetic generators. An early
prototype produced an output, at a very low power level, of more
than 100 times the input.
“The first patent titled ‘Solid State Electric Generator,’ was
issued Nov 9,2010. The second titled ‘Apparatus for Generating
Electricity…’ issued January 10,2012. Several prototypes of more
advanced devices have been built and an additional, very broad,
patent application has also been filed. All power generation
modules can be combined, in a manner similar to solar cells, to
provide larger amounts of power. We expect to file an additional
thirty (30) patents over the next three (3) years for various
magnetic power device designs.”
“Chava expects, within three years, of creating prototype Chava
Energy™ conversion systems to provide power for automobiles.”
“Several prototypes of more advanced devices have been built and
thirty (30) additional patents are expected to be filed over the
next thirty-six (36) months for various families of magnetic power
“RESIDENTIAL GENERATORS for off-grid customers will be an early
market product. Today, generators are typically powered by
gasoline. In the aftermath of disasters such as hurricanes,
tornadoes, and typhoons, power is often unavailable; such early
devices, without requiring fuel, will make a crucial difference.
Mobile power generators will be a key resource for government
emergency agencies and rural communities.
“Chava expects, within three years, of creating prototype Chava
Energy™ conversion systems to provide power for automobiles. This
eliminates the need for large batteries and for electrical
recharging stations. That goal may be reached faster if our
engineering development teams work on a 24/7 basis. The conversion
systems will open a path to mass production of entirely new
varieties of automotive power plants. Other industries will follow
soon after the key markets of residential and automotive power.“
In fact, neither of the two patents referenced above involve
devices that could ever “tap Zero Point Energy” at all. Neither of
the patents even mention Zero Point Energy. Neither of the patents
describe devices that ever serve as useful “energy conversions
systems” as claimed by Chava. As in every case of pretense by
Chava, Chava has merely repeated the same empty claims year after
year, without ever producing or presenting any device or any
evidence of development.
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