rexresearch.com


Arturo Solis HERRERA

Melanin Battery











via : keelynet.com
http://www.mexiconewsnetwork.com/news/bat-gen/

Bat-Gen

A life-changing discovery from a Mexican scientist. Imagine not having to buy batteries ever again... Just think about the amount of battery-powered gadgets we use daily in our lives, and the problem it is when we have to throw them away. Simply take a moment to think how much our planet is damaged with this process, and the number of people who use and dispose batteries every day.

Under such premise, and to address this problematic, Mexican scientist Arturo Solis Herrera was motivated to start an important research regarding this small and little lasting-power sources, which pollute the planet in large amounts.

Bat gen is the name of this ever-lasting battery. It consists of a biochemical process triggered by mixing water and melanin, which results in a substance capable of separating oxygen from hydrogen (the components of a water molecule), therefore liberating energy. The process continues as the same molecule brings together both elements turning them into water again; as a result one more energy load is triggered.

According to Solis’ research, once this process is reached, it can continue for 100 years! Moreover, there are several ways of artificially producing the melanin found in human nails, hair and retina; two of them, which he already patented, are based on vegetables and oil.

Arturo Solis is head of Investigation and Development of the Human Photosynthesis Research Center, which was founded by himself in the state of Aguascalientes, in the center region of Mexico. For twenty years, the Mexican scientist dedicated his own resources to this study, and fortunately on April 2010 the Russian government granted him the patent number 6017379. Currently he is very close to obtaining it in the United States and Europe.

For now, Bat gen can only be used to power up household appliances, but this is just the beginning, as it is planned that it can boost the engine of an electric car very soon.








PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD OF SEPARATING WATER INTO HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN,
USING MELANINS AS THE CENTRAL ELECTROLYSING ELEMENT

US8920990

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the processes or methods for obtaining alternative energy, particularly the ones known as photoelectrochemical processes, through which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are obtained by means of the separation or partition of water molecule with which we generate hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Moreover, high energy electrons are generated, and very possibly this method can be applied to the reduction of carbon dioxide, nitrate and sulphate molecules.

Because the reactions occur in both ways, our invention can also be applied to electricity generation, for our method permits to bind hydrogen and oxygen atoms forming water molecules, and collaterally generating electrical current.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

About the related art, nowadays, the known processes used up to now to separate the water molecule in hydrogen and oxygen atoms are, among others:

a).—The application of intense electrical currents.

b).—The heating of water until two thousand degrees centigrade.

c).—The separation of water molecule by solar electrochemical method: (photoelectrochemical), which integrates a semi-conductor material and a water electrolyzer in a monolithic design to produce hydrogen directly from water using light as the unique energy source. Simple in concept, the challenge was to find a material or base that could support the whole process, and up to now, the ideal or the most adequate material had not found because some materials are very expensive, some are polluting, others are inefficient; most of them decompose fast, others are damaged with water and some others require exceedingly strict work conditions; that is why cost-effectiveness has not been feasible up to now from an economical, environmental and political point of view, and others are not appropriate for large scale application, their usefulness being thus reduced to some specific and small processes

d).—Another method to separate water is by solar energy concentration (with mirrors for example), with the object to elevate water temperature until two thousand ° C. This is the required temperature used in laboratory to divide the water molecule.

e).—One further method is by using photosynthetic microbes as green algas and cianobacterium, those produce hydrogen from water as part of metabolic activities using light energy as main source. This photobiological technology is promising, but as oxygen is produced as well as hydrogen, the technology must solve the limitation that is the sensibility to oxygen in the enzymatic systems. Besides, hydrogen production from photosynthetic organisms is currently too low to be economically viable.

f).—Another method is water electrolysis, using electricity to separate the water molecule in its compounds (hydrogen and oxygen atoms). At present time, two kinds of electrolyzers are used for commercial production of hydrogen: the alkaline, and the membrane of protons interchange, but these approaches cannot compete now from an economic point of view with the hydrogen produced from natural gas. (Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Efficiency and Renewable Hydrogen fuel cells and Infrastructure Technology Program Hydrogen Production & Delivery).

A natural material that can also divide or separate the water molecule and that has been studied is chlorophyll but because its affinity with light is between 400 nm and about 700 nm the rest of the light energy is lost. That is why it is estimated that 80 percent of used energy is wasted. Moreover, its production is complex and expensive, requiring for example temperatures of -8° C. These are the reasons by which we decided to use the melanins as electrolyzing water element, because its affinity in the spectrum goes from 200 to 900 nm or more, and because of the physiological characteristics of the tissues in which melanin generally occurs. Parameters such as the oxygen concentration call the attention and that is why we decided to contrast the hypothesis that when melanin is illuminated, we would get the photolysis of the water molecules, generating thus oxygen and hydrogen atoms, besides other products such as OH, hydrogen peroxide, anion superoxide and high energy electrons, as well as support and catalyze the reverse reaction.

Before our work, the photohydrolitic and hydrosynthetic properties of melanin, the so called melanin response to electro-retinogram only had historical interest. In the early sixties, it was discovered that intense non physiological luminous stimulus applied to the pigmented ephythelium of the retina, generated potential changes throughout it. This response to melanin reflects a physicochemical response to light absorption by melanin, similar in some way to the early potential of electro-retinogram receptors generated by opsin molecules.

The literature points out that researchers have not found the clinical application to the melanin response yet. And we add that this is due to the fact that the process of said event had not been understood. Now we know that portions surrounding the molecule collect photon energy and through it the water molecule is divided, that is, they oxide it, separating hydrogen from oxygen, then the hydrogen, the carrier of energy by excellence is caught possibly by FAD and NAD for its further processing by eukaryote cell to energize one or other reaction among the many that occur every second and lead to life. But the wonder of the event is that also the structure of (primary, secondary, third, fourth) melanin permits the occurrence of the opposite reaction, i.e. the union of hydrogen and oxygen, or in other words, the reduction of oxygen, that produces water and electricity. The absorption of light by the melanin starts an ionic event that finally gives us electricity, because the sole division of water molecule is not enough; the reversibility of the reaction has to happen, i.e. the reunion of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Any range or ranges disclosed in this description are deemed to include and provide support for any sub-range within those range or ranges. Any range or ranges disclosed in this description are deemed to include and provide support for any point or points within those range or ranges.

This invention consists essentially in obtaining under normal temperature, and using natural or artificial light, as the only source of energy, the division of water molecule to obtain hydrogen and oxygen atoms as well as electrons of high energy or join hydrogen or oxygen atoms to obtain water and electric current; using as main or central electrolyzing melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives and melanin analogues: polihydroxyindole, eumelanin, feomelanin, alomelanin, neuromelanin, humic acid, fulerens, graphite, polyindolequinones, acetylene black, pyrrole black, indole black, benzene black, thiophene black, aniline black, poliquinones in hydrated form sepiomelanins, dopa black, dopamine black, adrenalin black, catechol black, 4-amine catechol black, in simple linear chain, aliphatics or aromatics; or their precursors as phenoles, aminophenols, or diphenols, indole poliphenols, ciclodopa DHI Y DHICA1, quinones, semiquinones or hydroquinones. L-tyrosine, L-dopamine, morpholin, ortho benzoquinone, dimorpholin, porphirin black, pterin black, ommochrome black, free nitrogen precursors, any of the above listed with any size or particles. (from 1 angstrom to 3 or 4 cms.). All afore mentioned the compounds, electroactive, in suspension, solution, in gel, that absorb the ultrasound in the interval of one MHz, natural or synthetic, with vegetal, animal or mineral origin; pure or mixed with organic or inorganic compounds, ions, metals, (gadolinium, iron, nickel, copper, erbium, europium, praseodymium, dysprosium, holmium, chromium or magnesium, lead selenure, and so on). Gadolinium is a very effective metal. The metal is incorporated into the melanin in ionic form or as a particle, as well as drugs or medication energizing the photo electrochemical design with light (natural or synthetic, coherent or not, monochromatic or polychromatic) with wavelength mainly between 200 and 900 nanometers, though other wavelengths and other energy types, for example, the kinetic, also are efficient in various grades, according to the rest of the conditions (pH, temperature, pressure, and so on). To this kind of designs magnetic fields from soft to significant intensity can be applied.

The events in this design may occur to a greater o lesser extent under internal or external physical or chemical stimuli.

We propound the use of melanin (as mentioned before) as the electrolyzer material of the water molecule, using light as main or sole energy source, particularly at wavelength between 200 and 900 nm for the hydrogen production systems known as photoelectrochemical methods. As aforementioned, these systems integrate a semiconducting material and a water electrolyzer inside a monolithic design to produce hydrogen atoms directly from water, using light as the main or sole source of energy, though sound, ultrasound, in an interval of one MHz, mechanical stir, magnetic fields, etc. can also be used.

Although, it is a simple concept, the challenge was to find a material that could withstand the whole process. At least two basic criteria had to be met: one was the light absorbing system or compound had to generate enough energy to start, lead and support completely the electrolysis reaction, and it had to be low cost, stable and long lasting in a water environment.

Melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin variants and analogues can meet reasonably and efficiently the above mentioned requirements and this represents a progress to solve the central problem of photoelectrochemical designs.

The shape of the container holding it in the appropriate equipment can be very varied: cubic, cylinder, spherical, polyhedral, rectangular, etc. Being one of the main requirements, to be transparent, in order to permit the light to pass through and depending on the wavelength of the illumination that is going to be used, the walls could be made of quartz, for example, so that the walls of the container do not absorb the ultraviolet radiations, or if a specific wavelength is determined, the material of which the container is made could be of a color that allow maximum transparency or absorption of the wavelength from the electromechanical spectrum which we are interested in. The walls can be made of glass or of any other polymer whose transmission characteristics of the electromagnetic radiations fit to the final needs of the photoelectrochemical design. The wavelengths that can be used to energize the design comprise from 200 nanometers to 900 nanometers.

Inside the cell, the main material, the essential solute, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin variants and analogues, mainly dissolved in water, because the basis of the design is the notable capacity of melanin to capture photons of wavelengths comprised between 200 and 900 nm, probably by the surrounding portions of the molecule, followed by the generation of high energy electrons from low energy electrons. These high energy electrons go to the centers of free radicals of the compound where they are probably captured by an element for example: a metal such as iron, copper, gadolinium, europium, etc. from where they are transferred to a primary electron acceptor from a nature that is uncertain up to now because the union is complex and comprises ionic interactions depending on the pH. This electron transfer liberates energy which is used to establish the protons gradient.

The combination of the melanin molecule with water forms what can be called a photosystem, which captures luminous energy using at least two interrelated activities: removal of electrons from water and generation of a protons gradient.

The melanin components are in very close contact among them which makes a fast transfer of energy easy. At three picoseconds of illumination, the melanin reaction centers respond transferring a photo-excited electron to the primary electron receptor. This transference of electrons generates a donator, positively charged and a receiver negatively charged. The importance of the formation of two species with opposite charges is seen when we consider the reduction capacities of these two species, because one of them is deficient in electrons and can accept electrons which makes it an oxidizing agent. By contrast, the other compound has an extra electron that can be lost easily, making it a reducing agent. This event—the formation of an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent from the light<-> takes less than billionesimal of second and is the first essential step in the photolysis.

Because they are charged in an opposite way, these compounds show an obvious mutual attraction. The separation of charges is (probably) stabilized by their movement to opposite sides of the molecule; being the negative compound the one that first gives its electron toward a quinone (Q1) and possibly then the electron is transferred to a second type of quinone (Q2), this producing a semi reduced form of the quinone molecule which can be strongly linked to the reaction center of the melanin molecule. With each transfer, the electron gets closer to the reaction center of the melanin molecule. The portion of melanin positively charged is reduced, thus preparing the reaction center for the absorption of another photon. The absorption of a second photon sends a second electron along the way. (melanin negatively charged towards the first and second quinone molecule — Q1 and Q2 -). This second molecule absorbs two electrons, and thus combines with two protons. The protons used in this reaction could derive from the same melanin molecule or from the surrounding water, causing a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions of the photosystem, what contributes to the formation of a protons gradient. In theory the reduced quinone molecule is dissociated from the reaction center of melanin, been replaced reaction by a new quinone molecule. These reactions occur at normal temperature but when you modify for example the temperature you can favor the reaction in one or other way, depending on the control of the other variables: (pH, magnetic fields, concentrations, gases, partial pressures, shape of cells, etc.) and the main objective of the process.

The separation of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms is a highly endergonic reaction due to the very stable association of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The separation of the water molecules (in hydrogen and oxygen atoms) in the laboratory requires the use of a strong electric current or high temperature of almost 2,000° C. the above (water electrolyzing) is obtain by melanin at room temperature, using only the energy obtained from light, wavelength mainly comprised between 200 and 900 nanometers, either from natural or artificial source, coherent or not, concentrated or disperse, mono or polychromatic. It is estimated that the redox potential of oxidized form of quinone is approximately +1.1 V, what is strong enough to attract the firmly united low energy electrons from the water molecule (redox potential of +0.82), separating the molecules in hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The separation of the water molecule by photopigments is named photolysis. It is believed that the formation of the oxygen molecule during the photolysis requires the simultaneous loss of four electrons from two water molecules according to the reaction:

2H2O

<img class="EMIRef" id="241089761-CUSTOM-CHARACTER-00002" />
4H<+>+O2+4e<->

A reaction center can only generate a positive charge or its oxidizing equivalent at the same time. This problem is solved hypothetically by the presence of four nitrogen atoms in the reaction center of the melanin molecule, each one of them transferring only one electron. This nitrogen concentration, adds may be four positive charges upon transferring four electrons (one each time) to the closest quinone<+> molecule.

The transfer of electrons from the nitrogens of the reaction centers to the quinine<30 >is obtained by means of the passage through a positively charged tyrosine moiety. After each electron is transferred to quinone<+>, regenerating quinone, the pigment is reoxidized (again a quinone<+>) after the absorption of another photon to the photosystem. So the accumulation of four positive charges (oxidizing equivalents) by the nitrogen atoms of the reaction center is modified by the successive absorption of four photons by the melanin photosystem. Once the four charges have been accumulated the oxygen releasing quinone complex can catalyze the 4e<-> removal from 2H2O forming an O2 molecule, and regenerating the totally reduced quantity of nitrogens in the reaction center.

The protons produced in the photolysis are released in the medium where they contribute to the protons gradient. The photosystem must be illuminated several times before the occurrence of O2 release and thus hydrogen can be measured; this indicates that the effects of the individual photo reactions must accumulate before O2 and hydrogen are released.

The quinones are considered carriers of mobile electrons. It is to be kept in mind that all electron transfers are exergonics and occur as the electrons are successively taken to carriers with an increasing affinity for the electrons (more positive redox potentials). The need of having electron moving carriers is obvious. The electrons generated by the photolysis can pass to several inorganic receivers, which are thus reduced. These ways for electrons can lead (depending on the composition of the used mix) to the eventual reduction of nitrate molecule (NO3) into ammoniac molecule (NH3) or the sulphates in sulphydrides (SH<->) reductions that change the inorganic wastes into compounds necessary for life. So the sunlight energy can be used not only to reduce the most oxidized form of a carbon atom (CO2) but also to reduce the most oxidized forms or nitrogen and sulphur.

The production of one O2 molecule requires the removal of four electrons from two molecules of water, the removal of four electrons from water requires the absorption of four photons, one for each electron.

The design of the cell is an important parameter for the optimization in obtaining the product of the reaction in which we have a particular interest, because the addition of electrons, the nature of them, the use of magnetic fields, the addition of several compounds (organic or inorganic, ions, metals, drugs or medications) to the photosystem that at the beginning was only melanin and water, plus the addition of electrolytes, plus the addition of medicines, and temperature management, the control of partial pressures of gases, the management of the electrical current generated, the application of magnetic fields, the level of pH, the material used in making the cells and the shape and disposition of its internal divisions, etc. Apart from other variables, which are able to be controlled in such a way that the final design can recover electrons, or protons, or oxygen, and the resulting compounds according to the formulation of the medium in the melanin is dissolved. Thus, the melanins, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin variants and analogues (its analogues, its synthetic or natural precursors, pure or combined with organic compounds and inorganic compounds, metals) allow a notable flexibility of the design according to the goals to reach.

The optimization of photoelectrochemical design relates to the objectives, for example: for a higher generation of protons and oxygen or generation of electricity; the largest possible area of exposition of the liquid compound to the light in an extended container, apart from other procedures such as the addition of electrons carrier compounds, melanin doping, or positive microlens to concentrate the light, etc.

The design of the container is not limited and can have a spherical, cubic, rhomboidal, polyhedric, plain concave, plain convex, biconvex, biconcave shape with microlens in a side (the side exposed to light to concentrate it) and flat on the other side cylindrical, circular cylindrical, hollow cylindrical, circular cone (straight) truncated cone, rectangular prism, oblique prism, rectangular pyramid, straight truncated pyramid, truncated spherical segment, spherical segmented, spherical sector, spherical with cylindrical perforation, sphere with conic perforations, torus (circular section ring), cylinder with slanted cut, cylindrical wedge, semi prism barrel, and combinations of them, etc, because the liquid assumes any shape, only requiring to be transparent to allow the passage of the maximum possible light, and depending of the kind of melanin used (doped or not, for example), it will be convenient to select a specific wavelength to illuminate the soluble melanin, but until this moment one of the big virtues of soluble synthetic melanin is that it absorbs the majority of the wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. But it appears to show its major absorption between 200 and 900 nanometers wavelengths. The control of the partial pressures of the gases in the interior of the cell is an important variable, and depending on the cell shape and the use given to it, these pressures can go from 0.1 mm Hg until 3 or 4 atmospheres; another variable that must be taken into account is the concentration of different substances dissolved in the liquid, where the critical concentration is mainly of melanin and can go from 0.1% to 100%, the increase could be in steps of 0.1%; other variable that can be modified is the ratio among the different components of the formula (depending on the use), because potassium can be added in a concentration from 0.1 to 10%; sodium in a concentration from 0.1 to 10%; chlorine in a concentration from 0.1 to 10%; calcium in a concentration from 0.1 to 10%; iron in a concentration from 0.1 to 8%, copper in a concentration from 0.1 to 5%, arsenic in a concentration from 0.1 to 8 or 9%, gold in a concentration 0.1 to 8 or 9%, silver in a concentration similar to gold, nickel in a concentration from 0.1 to 8%, gadolinium, europium, erbium, etc.

The final volume can range from 1 microliter to 10 or 20 liters depending on the size of the container and the available space; the temperature can fluctuate from 2 to 45° C., the frequency of change of solution can be from every 15 minutes to several months or 2 or 3 years; the formation of compartments inside the little cell, in the interior of the cell shapes ranging from small spheres (microspheres, there can be several dozens of them) to spheres the size of which could be included 3 or 4 times inside the whole design, and in the shape of the interior of the little cell cubic rhombic, polyhedral, concave plane, convex plane, biconvex, biconcave with microcells, biconvex on one side (the side exposed to light to concentrate it) and flat on the other side, cylindrical, circular cylindrical, hollow cylindrical, circular cone (straight), truncated cone, rectangular prism (straight), oblique prism, rectangular pyramid (straight), truncated pyramid, truncated spherical segment, spherical segment, spherical sector, spherical with cylindrical perforation, sphere with conic perforations, toro (circular section ring), cylinder with slanted cut, cylindrical wedge, barrel, semiprism, can be used including combinations of these, the power of the microlens can range from 0.1 to 100 diopters, the redox properties of the materials used in the formation of the compartments (iron, silver, copper, nickel, gold, platinum, gallium arsenide, silicon, gadolinium, europium, erbium, praseodymium, dysprosium, holmium, chromium, magnesium, lead selenide and alloys of them, etc).

The use or not of cathodes y anodes, their material (for example platinum, iron, silver, gold, steel, aluminum, nickel, arsenium, gadolinium, europium, erbium, praseodymium, dysprosium, holmium, chromo, magnesium; gallium), depending on the optimal characteristics to recover electrons or hydrogen, but it has to be kept in mind that in presence of metal or borium, the hydrogen works with -1; another variable is initial pH of the solution that can range from 2 or 3 to 8 or 9 units of pH, being the most used about 7, the above mentioned variables that can be handled in order to control the photoelectrolysis process depending on the needs of the project in question.

The core of any efficient photoelectrochemical designs are the melanins, i.e. melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin variants and analogues, water soluble, where they catalyze the photolysis process, without undergoing significant changes except the presence of elements such as magnesium, iron, copper, lead, and others, the resulting products of which together with the resulting products of the partial reduction of the oxygen atom (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, quinones and orthoquinones), can fast or slowly damage the effectiveness of melanin, but in the case of pure melanin, at a 10% concentration, for example, the duration of the compound is long enough to be economically convenient (years), and the synthesis of melanin is a very efficient process. Thus, from an economic and ecological point of view it is very viable, because pure melanin is fully biodegradable. Thus, the little cell only requires a periodic supply of distillated water, as well as a periodic replacement of soluble melanin, or eventually, the renewal of substances added to the design to optimize or potentiate some of the processes occurring as a result of exposing the photo-electrochemical design to the light. The ecological advantage of the final products of the reaction being water molecules, oxygen molecules or atoms, hydrogen, high energy electrons, and electrical current can be easily realized. There is little generation of greenhouse effect CO2 molecules. The transfer of electrons releases energy, which is used to establish a proton gradient.

The proton movement during the electrons transportation can be compensated by the movement of other ions, so using membrane and a solvent with adequate solutes, membrane potential can be formed from photons capture by mean of melanin.

The electrolyzing properties of melanin (among many others) can explain the light generated peak observable in the electroretinogram, because if melanin is illuminated, intracellular pH gets down, that activates the chlorine channels sensitive to pH in the basolateral cellular membrane. (The light peak is an increase of the potential that follows the FOT phase (fast oscillation trough) and forms the slowest and longest lasting component of the electroretinogram from direct current. (Kris 1958, Kolder 1959, Kikadawa 1968, Steinberg 1982).

Melanins, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, variants and analogues, oxidize the water molecule to O, O2, and H2, absorbing energy obtained by the light (photons), and reduce oxygen atom with hydrogen atoms to H2O, liberating energy (electricity, although it can “keep” the electricity, i.e. it can function as a battery or accumulator, i.e. not only generating energy but also keeping it for a while and within some limits). That is why the cell design can be adapted to the requirements.

H2 and O2 atoms are produced with light, but the generation of these elements can be increased by melanin doping (melanin, its precursors, variants, derivatives, or synthetic or natural analogues) with metals or adding organic and inorganic molecules, also modifying the electrolyte concentrations, adding drugs or controlling the characteristics of light, over the liquid containing water and melanins (melanin, its precursors, variants, derivatives, or synthetic or natural analogues), for example with a design based on microlens to condensate or selecting determinate wavelength, using coherent or disperse, monochromatic, polychromatic, continuous, discontinuous, natural, artificial, light; etc. The photoelectrochemical reactions happen in two ways, i.e. the water molecule is separated but also formed, so it can recover electric current of the design and it can also be optimized through melanin doping with different substances (drugs, metals, electrolytes, organic and inorganic molecules, and others) or by light concentration by mean of lens, among others.

The box containing the liquid can have different shapes that adapt to different needs, in the house roofs, car roofs, plants buildings, industrial processes, etc. cells connected among them, but the central component of the design is melanin (melanins, its precursors, its derivatives, its variants, its analogues, water soluble), that induces and carries out the photolysis of the water molecule, in presence of light.

The melanins, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin variants and analogues remove electrons from water and generate a gradient of protons.

The light depending reactions can also generate energy to reduce CO2 to CH2O, nitrates to ammonia and sulphates to sulphydriles.

A compound that has been reported in the literature and that has shown to induce and carry out these processes is the chlorophyll but because it absorbs light mainly in the extreme regions of the visible spectrum, it is estimated that 80% of the irradiated energy is wasted, in contrast, with our offer to use melanin, because it practically absorbs soft and hard ultraviolet electromagnetic radiations, all the visible spectrum and the far and near infrared lengths (Spicer & Goldberg 1996). It would not be surprising that it could absorb other types of energy such as kinetic energy or other wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.

EXAMPLES

We conducted small scale experiments. Once we inferred these interesting properties of melanins according the structure activity relation, we placed soluble synthetic melanin in water, forming a 1% solution in five 20 mL transparent, high density polythene flasks, at room temperature. We measured the pH before and after lighting them during 30 minutes with visible light of natural source (sun) not concentrated; measuring the pH, we obtained in average a decrease of two decimals of unit of pH (from 7.3 to 7.1), we consider it significant because melanins have buffering property per se, so the change must be larger, but is hidden by melanin intrinsic buffering property, and thus we only detected part of this pH modification, a change of pH the magnitude of which is related to the biological system, because if it were greater, it would probably severely destroy or damage the cell, but a change of this size is enough to induce biological changes that involves said extraordinary compound. To determine the biological magnitude of a decrease of 0.2 units of pH, we will mention that, in the case of blood, this reduction increases more than 10% the calcium concentration.

Besides, the total blood pH ranges from 7.38 to 7.44, the arterial blood pH ranges from 7.36 to 7.41, and the vein blood pH ranges from 7.37 to 7.45, i.e., the variations are within a very narrow margin, and thus a difference of 2 decimals of unit of pH is really significant in a biological system.

In an initial close design we estimated the liberation of hydrogen in function of electric current generation, and obtained 50 mV on average and 110 mV between each peak, corresponding to about one to two units of pH, what is equivalent to the production of 1×10<-7 >mol/liter of hydrogen per each pH unit, because the molecular weight of hydrogen indicates that a mol of it is equal to a gram of hydrogen.

On the other hand, the melanocyte, is the cell showing most affinity for calcium in the organism, showing an affinity one thousand times higher than the bone, because although the latter has a larger quantity, it is only deposited in mineral form.

It is to be noted that this change from 0.2 to 1.0 units of pH, as well as its reversion when they were placed in flasks in a dark place, was foreseen by our theoretical system, i.e. when we made the experiment we knew the result we were going to obtain, in other words, we did not make many experiments, we only made it twice or three times, resulting as we expected. The solutions of melanin used in the experiments had been prepared for at least 3 years, were not doped; and as pointed out by the theoretical system, it is a very long lasting compound, very stable in water, that does not require preservatives, or refrigeration, is not contaminated with microorganisms despite the age of the preparation, and these solutions only need to be kept in a fresh and dry place; that is why we were relatively sure that the reaction was going to happened, though we could not foresee its magnitude because the buffering capacity of melanin is not known or it is not possible to assess it exactly because the melanin formula is not fully known.

This experiment also demonstrated that melanin does not require preservatives and its electrolyzing properties are maintained despite the time (3 years after being synthesized). We are now working on improving the protocols to answer to some of the many questions that are generated through these experiments, but because of the extraordinary possibilities of industrial, medical, energetic, and laboratory applications of the electrolyzing characteristics of melanin, we decided to protect immediately its use in the photoelectrochemical processes of energy generation.

A photoelectrochemical system was built that works with natural light, the reactive cell of which contains up to 1.3% of melanin, i.e. more than 98% is water. Optionally metals or drugs can be used to increase its efficiency. The little cell has been hermetically sealed to avoid that gases generated escape. Another variable refers to the electrodes, their geometry and nature that can be conductors, semiconductors or semimetals. Each millimeter of electrolyzing material has produced 10 millivolts and microampers day and night, during years, recharges of electrolyzing material or water have not been required; it has been conducted at room temperature showing that it is an efficient, economical and versatile photolectrochemical system.

In this example, we managed to light the first light emitting diode (LED), which remains lit six months later. The cells do produce electricity and we are working on making them more efficient and scaling them up to competitive costs. Initially, we used a concentration of 1.3% melanin and 98.7% water. Later, when we increased the concentration of melanin to 4%, the generation of electricity increased exponentially. In terms of technological development, we have achieved progress I consider to be significant and which can reflect the potential of such cells.

Besides, we were able to connect up a small music player, since each cell now produces 600 mV and 200 mA, that is, a thousand times more than the 200 µA we used to achieve.

We have produced a liter and a half of melanin every three months and our cells were of 30 mL and produced 400 mV and 10 µA. However, currently, in our small laboratory, we produce about 200 liters of melanin daily.



ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS AND SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING GLUCOSE
WO2014140740

An electrochemical process and system for producing glucose and glucose precursors are described. The process and system allow for the production of glucose from carbon dioxide and water, requiring only melanin, or a precursor, derivative, analog, or variant of melanin, and electromagnetic energy, such as visible or invisible light energy.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION


[0002] The invention relates to processes and systems for producing glucose. In particular, the invention relates to the production of glucose from water, carbon dioxide, electromagnetic energy, and melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, or melanin variants.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Glucose is a simple sugar having the general chemical formula C6H1206. Glucose is a basic molecule of the food chain and is consumed by many organisms as a primary source of energy. One well studied process that results in the production of glucose is plant photosynthesis.

[0004] In general, photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy into chemical energy. More specifically, through the process of photosynthesis, plants use light energy to convert carbon dioxide (C02) and water (H20) into oxygen (02) and glucose. Another critical component to this process is the pigment known as chlorophyll. Chlorophyll initiates photosynthesis by absorbing light energy or photons. For every photon absorbed, chlorophyll loses one electron, creating a flow of electrons which subsequently generates the energy necessary to catalyze the splitting of water into hydrogen ions or protons (H<+>) and 02. The resulting proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This chemical energy is then used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.

[0005] Similar to chlorophyll, melanin is also classified as a pigment. Melanin is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, although the exact structure has not been fully elucidated. Melanin is ubiquitous in nature and methods are also known in the literature for synthesis of melanin. For many years, melanin had no biological or physiological function attributed to it, other than it being considered a simple sunscreen with a low protection factor equivalent to that of a 2% copper sulfate solution. Melanin has also been considered the darkest molecule because it is able to absorb energy of almost any wavelength, yet it did not seem to emit any energy. This was unique to melanin, and it contradicted thermodynamic laws because other compounds capable of absorbing energy, particularly pigments, emit a portion of the energy absorbed. The electronic properties of melanin have thus been the focus of attention for quite some time. However, melanin is one of the most stable compounds known to man and, for a long time, it seemed that melanin was unable to catalyze any chemical reaction.

[0006] Recently, the intrinsic property of melanin to absorb energy and utilize the absorbed energy to split and subsequently reform the water molecule was discovered. Thus, melanin absorbs all wavelengths of electromagnetic energy, including visible and invisible light energy, and dissipates this absorbed energy by means of water dissociation and its consequent reformation. A photoelectrochemical process for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen, using melanin, and analogs, precursors, derivatives, or variants of melanin is described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2011/0244345.

[0007] Without wishing to be bound by any theories, it is believed that the reaction inside melanin occurs according to the following Scheme I:

2H20 ^?2H2+ 02+ 4e (I)

Upon the absorption of electromagnetic energy such as light energy (visible or invisible), melanin catalyzes the dissociation of water into diatomic hydrogen (H2), diatomic oxygen (02), and electrons (e<">). Although the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen consumes energy, the reaction is reversible, and in the reverse process the reduction of oxygen atoms with diatomic hydrogen to reform the water molecules liberates energy.

[0008] Thus, melanin is able to transform light energy into chemical energy, analogous to the process by which plants use chlorophyll to transform light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis. Therefore, by analogy, we have designated this process "human photosynthesis." However, there are at least two important distinctions between the water splitting reaction carried out by melanin and that carried out by chlorophyll. The first is that chlorophyll cannot catalyze the reverse process of reforming the water molecule. The second is that the water splitting reaction by chlorophyll can only occur in a living cell and with visible light having a wavelength in the range of 400 nm to 700 nm. Thus, the subsequent production of glucose can also only occur inside the living cell. In contrast, melanin can split and reform the water molecule outside of a living cell using any form of electromagnetic energy, particularly with light energy (visible or invisible) having a wavelength in the range of 200 nm to 900 nm.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] It is now discovered that upon the absorption of electromagnetic energy, such as invisible or visible light energy, melanin can split and reform the water molecule, and subsequently catalyze a reaction that transforms carbon dioxide (C02) and water into glucose.

[0010] The invention relates to electrochemical processes and systems for utilizing melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, and melanin variants to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. According to embodiments of the invention, melanin can be used to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water, additionally requiring only a source of

electromagnetic energy, such as invisible or visible light energy, gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radiowaves. Unlike the ability of chlorophyll to convert light energy into chemical energy, which is subsequently used to produce glucose in living cells by the process of photosynthesis, melanin can be used to produce glucose via an

electrochemical process that can be performed outside a living cell. Thus, until now, such a process for producing glucose has not been replicated in the laboratory.

[0011] In one general aspect, the invention relates to an electrochemical process for producing glucose (C6H1206). According to embodiments of the invention, the electrochemical process comprises reacting water and carbon dioxide gas dissolved therein, in the presence of at least one melanin material and a source of electromagnetic energy. The at least one melanin material is selected from melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, and melanin variants. Because melanin is able to absorb electromagnetic energy and transform this

electromagnetic energy into usable chemical energy, an external electric current is not required for the production of glucose according to an electrochemical process of the invention. According to a preferred embodiment, an electrochemical process of the invention is a photoelectrochemical process, and the source of electromagnetic energy is photoelectric energy selected from visible and invisible light having a wavelength in the range of 200 run to 900 nm.

[0012] In another general aspect, the invention relates to an electrochemical process for producing CnH2nOnspecies, wherein n represents an integer. In a preferred embodiment, n represents 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, such that a CnH2nOnspecies produced by a process of the invention is a glucose precursor, or glucose itself. According to embodiments of the invention, the

electrochemical process comprises reacting water and carbon dioxide gas dissolved therein, in the presence of at least one melanin material and a source of electromagnetic energy, preferably photoelectric energy selected from visible and invisible light energy having a wavelength in the range of 200 nm to 900 nm. [0013] In yet another general aspect, the invention relates to systems for producing glucose and CnH2nOn species from water, carbon dioxide, melanin and a source of electromagnetic energy. According to embodiments of the invention, a system for producing glucose via an electrochemical process comprises:

(i) a reaction cell for receiving water and C02gas dissolved therein, and at least one melanin material, wherein the at least one melanin material is selected from melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, and melanin variants; and

(ii) a source of electromagnetic energy, such that the electromagnetic energy is transmitted into the reaction cell and is absorbed by the melanin material.

[0014] The system for producing glucose according to embodiments of the invention does not require any complicated operation or set-up, and thus only requires a container for receiving water and C02gas dissolved therein, and at least one melanin material, as well as a source of

electromagnetic energy to provide the at least one melanin material with sufficient amounts of energy to catalyze the splitting and reformation of the water molecule and the subsequent formation of glucose. According to a preferred embodiment, the source of electromagnetic energy transmits visible or invisible light energy having a wavelength between 200 nm and 900 nm into the reaction cell.

[0015] The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the description below. Other features and advantages will be apparent from the following detailed description and the appended claims.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0016] All patents and publications referred to herein are incorporated by reference. Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood to one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention pertains. Otherwise, certain terms used herein have the meanings as set forth in the specification.

[0017] It must be noted that as used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0018] As used herein, the term "electrolysis of water" refers to the process of splitting water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen. As used herein, "water-electrolyzing material" refers to a substance that is capable of splitting the water molecule into oxygen and hydrogen. According to embodiments of the invention, melanin materials including melanin (natural and synthetic), melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, and melanin variants are water-electrolyzing materials.

[0019] As used herein, the term "melanin material" refers to melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, and melanin variants including natural and synthetic melanin, eumelanin, pheomelanin, neuromelanin, polyhydroxyindole, eumelanin, alomelanin, humic acid, fulerens, graphite, polyindolequinones, acetylene black, pyrrole black, indole black, benzence black, thiophene black, aniline black, polyquinones in hydrated form, sepiomelanins, dopa black, dopamine black, adrenalin black, catechol black, 4-amine catechol black, in simple linear chain aliphatics or aromatics; or their precursors as phenols, aminophenols, or diphenols, indole polyphenols, quinones, semiquinones or hydroquinones, L-tyrosine, L-dopamine, morpholine, ortho-benzoquinone, dimorpholine, porphyrin black, pterin black, and ommochrome black.

[0020] According to embodiments of the invention, an electrochemical process for producing glucose comprises reacting water and C02gas dissolved therein, in the presence of at least one melanin material and a source of electromagnetic energy. Forms of electromagnetic energy suitable for use in an electrochemical process of the invention include visible and invisible light, gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radiowaves. According to a preferred embodiment, an electrochemical process according to the invention is a

photoelectrochemical process, wherein the source of electromagnetic energy is photoelectric energy selected from visible light and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared radiation) light.

[0021] According to embodiments of the invention, the at least one melanin material is selected from melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, and melanin variants. In a preferred embodiment, the at least one melanin material is selected from natural melanin and synthetic melanin.

[0022] According to embodiments of the invention, melanin can by synthesized from amino acid precursors of melanin, such as L-tyrosine. However, melanin materials can be obtained by any method known in the art in view of the present disclosure, including chemically synthesizing melanin materials and isolating melanin materials from natural sources, such as plants and animals.

[0023] According to another embodiment of the invention, an electrochemical process can be carried out in the presence of at least one melanin device. The melanin device is comprised of a substrate and at least one melanin material, such that the melanin material is held on or within the substrate. The melanin material can be dispersed throughout the substrate or adsorbed onto the substrate. Preferably, the substrate is transparent to allow for increased transmission of electromagnetic energy in the form of light energy, and therefore increased glucose production. A melanin device can comprise one type of melanin material, or more than one type of melanin material. For example, a melanin device for use in the invention can comprise melanin and eumelanin. According to another embodiment of the invention, more than one melanin device, with each device comprising a different type of melanin material can be used. For example, a first melanin device comprising melanin and a second melanin device comprising eumelanin can both be used in a process of producing glucose according to the invention.

[0024] A purpose of using a melanin device in an electrochemical process of the invention is to prevent the melanin material from dissolving in the water, diffusing through the water, or floating freely throughout the water. The melanin device ensures that the water retains its transparency and melanin is not lost during replenishment of water or C02or removal of glucose. Thus, the melanin device allows for the melanin material to remain in contact with the water without being dissolved in the water. The substrate of the melanin device can be any inert material, including, but not limited to, silica, plastic, and glass. The melanin device can be, for example, a melanin/silica plate, which can be made by combining a cementing mixture of silica with an aqueous melanin solution. Preferably, a melanin device for use in the invention is melanin mixed with silica.

[0025] According to embodiments of the invention, the melanin device can take on any size or shape, including but not limited to a rod (cylindrical), plate, sphere, or cube-shape. At least one melanin device can be used, but the number of melanin devices, or the size or shape of the melanin devices, is not limited in any way. The rate of the reaction will be controlled by the size, shape, surface area, amount of melanin material and number of melanin devices used in the reaction.

According to a preferred embodiment, the size, shape and number of melanin devices are selected based on the desired reaction rate of the electrochemical process. For example, using a larger number of melanin devices will result in a faster rate of glucose production. As another illustrative example, a larger amount of melanin material in the melanin device will result in a faster rate of glucose production.

[0026] An electrochemical process according to embodiments of the invention will be initiated when the melanin material absorbs electromagnetic energy and catalyzes the electrolysis of water into H2and 02. According to one embodiment of the invention (batch process), carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in the water only once, prior to the initiation of the photoelectrochemical process.

According to another embodiment (continuous process), the photoelectrochemical process further comprises continuously dissolving C02gas in the water to continuously replenish the C0 gas as it is consumed and converted to glucose. Any suitable method for continuously dissolving C02gas in the water can be used. For example, the C02gas can be continuously injected into the water by pipes or tubes connected to a gas pump. The pipes or tubes can be made of any material that is inert and substantially impermeable to C02gas, including but not limited to polyethylene.

[0027] According to a particular embodiment of the invention, a process for producing glucose is a photoelectrochemical process requiring a source of photoelectric energy. Preferably, the source of photoelectric energy is either visible or invisible light having a wavelength ranging from 200 nm to 900 nm. In a more preferred embodiment, the source of photoelectric energy is natural light.

[0028] According to another embodiment of the invention, the electrochemical process can be performed at room temperature (approximately 25°C), preferably at a temperature below room temperature in the range of 0°C to 25 °C, and more preferably at a temperature ranging from 2°C to 8°C. Although lower temperatures can decrease the turnover rate of splitting and reforming the water molecules, a lower temperature incubation preserves the C02gas bubbles introduced at the start of the process and eliminates the need to continuously inject C02gas into the water. Thus, using lower temperatures has the main advantage of rendering the electrochemical process technically simpler to execute.

[0029] An electrochemical process according to the invention can further comprise a step of isolating the glucose obtained from the reaction of carbon dioxide, water, and the at least one melanin material. As an illustrative example, glucose can be isolated by evaporating the aqueous reaction solution. However, glucose can be identified and measured without being isolated by, for example, spectrophotometry.

[0030] The invention also relates to an electrochemical process for producing CnH2nOnspecies, wherein n represents an integer. Preferably n is 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, such that the CnH2nOnspecies is a glucose precursor, or glucose itself. According to embodiments of the invention, an electrochemical process for producing CnH2nOnspecies can be the same as that used to produce glucose, and comprises reacting water and C02gas dissolved therein, in the presence of at least one melanin material and a source of electromagnetic energy. Preferably, the source of electromagnetic energy is photoelectric energy selected from visible light and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared radiation) light. Other embodiments of a process for producing CnH2nOnspecies according to the invention can be the same as those described for an electrochemical process for producing glucose according to the invention. Preferably, an electrochemical process for producing CnH2nOnspecies is a photoelectrochemical process.

[0031] The precise mechanism by which melanin is able use electromagnetic energy to produce glucose, glucose precursors, and other CnH2nOnspecies from C02and water in an electrochemical process according to embodiments of the invention is not yet fully understood. Without wishing to be bound by any theories, it is believed that melanin absorbs the electromagnetic energy, promoting conversion of low energy electrons to high energy electrons. The high energy electrons are transferred by mobile electron carriers within the melanin material. This electron transfer releases energy and establishes a proton gradient sufficient to initiate the splitting of water into diatomic hydrogen (H2) and diatomic oxygen (02) along with the release of four high energy electrons. Thus, melanin releases molecules of H2and 02, as well as a flow of high energy electrons in all directions, controlled by diffusion. The released hydrogen and high energy electrons have different types of energy, and it is thought that both types of energy play a role in the conversion of C02and water into glucose and other CnH2nOnspecies. Although the splitting of water into H2and 02consumes energy, the reaction is reversible and the reduction of 02with H2to reform the water molecules liberates energy. Thus, after the water molecule is split, the water molecule must be reformed in order to supply energy to the glucose production reaction that occurs from the fusion of C02and water.

[0032] Many factors will affect the rate and efficiency of an electrochemical process for producing glucose according to embodiments of the invention. These factors include, but are not limited to, the amount of energy released by splitting and reforming the water molecules, the entropy of the dissolved C02gas, the amount of dissolved C02gas, temperature, pressure, the wavelength of electromagnetic energy supplied to the reaction, and the amount of electromagnetic energy absorbed by the melanin material.

[0033] According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, an electrochemical process for producing glucose is performed under sterile conditions, meaning that there is substantially no bacteria present in the reaction. Because bacteria can consume glucose, the presence of bacteria can decrease the amount of glucose produced by an electrochemical process according to the invention. Reactions can be sterilized by any method known in the art in view of the present disclosure, including but not limited to filter sterilization and heat sterilization.

[0034] The dissociation and reformation of the water molecule to produce energy that is subsequently used to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water can by catalyzed by at least one melanin material, wherein the at least one melanin material is the only water-electrolyzing material present in the reaction. Thus, in particular embodiments of the invention, the at least one melanin material is the only water-electrolyzing material used in an electrochemical process for producing glucose. According to a preferred embodiment, melanin (synthetic or natural) is the only water electrolyzing material used in a process for producing glucose. [0035] Another aspect of the invention provides a system for producing glucose via an electrochemical process. According to embodiments of the invention, the system is comprised of a reaction cell and a source of electromagnetic energy. As used herein, the term "reaction cell" refers to any container that can receive and hold water and carbon dioxide gas dissolved therein. The reaction cell can take on any shape, and can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, plastics, glass, and any other materials that allow for the transmission of the desired wavelengths of electromagnetic energy into the reaction cell, such that the electrochemical process can occur. The material of the reaction cell is preferably transparent to allow for the transmission of visible light. The material of the reaction cell is also preferably substantially impermeable to carbon dioxide.

[0036] According to another embodiment, the reaction cell is a closed reaction cell. A closed reaction cell is sealed to prevent carbon dioxide gas from escaping the reaction cell, and can be made of any suitable material as discussed above. Preferably, the reaction cell is closed. The reaction cell receives water and C02gas dissolved therein, and at least one melanin material. The at least one melanin material is selected from melanin, melanin precursors, melanin derivatives, melanin analogs, and melanin variants, and is preferably melanin (synthetic or natural). In another embodiment of the invention, a system comprises the at least one melanin material as part of at least one melanin device, the device comprised of a substrate and a melanin material as discussed above. Preferably, the melanin device comprises melanin (natural or synthetic) and silica.

[0037] A system according to the invention is preferably sterile, and lacks the presence of any bacteria. The system, including one or more of its component parts (reaction cell, tubing, etc.) can be sterilized according to any method known in the art that eliminates or kills bacteria, such as by applying heat, chemicals, irradiation, pressure, or filtration.

[0038] According to embodiments of the invention, the energy provided by the source of electromagnetic energy to the reaction cell is transmitted through the reaction cell, such that it is absorbed by the melanin material. In a preferred embodiment, the source of electromagnetic energy provides invisible or visible light energy having a wavelength between 200 nm and 900 nm to the reaction cell.

[0039] According to another embodiment of the invention, the system can further comprise a device for continuously injecting C02gas into the reaction cell. The device can be, for example, a gas pump. The device can be connected to the reaction cell by pipes or tubes. If the reaction cell is closed, the device is preferably connected in such a way that allows for the closed reaction cell to remain sealed to prevent C02gas from escaping. Thus, using a closed reaction cell has the advantage of eliminating the need to continuously inject carbon dioxide into the reaction cell, provided that the container is sufficiently sealed to prevent the carbon dioxide gas from escaping.

[0040] According to embodiments of the invention, a system for producing glucose via an electrochemical process can also be used to produce CnH2nOnspecies. Preferably the CnH2nOnspecies is a glucose precursor, wherein n represents 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.

[0041] The electrochemical process and system for producing glucose according to embodiments of the invention, in addition to C02gas dissolved in water, requires only the presence of a melanin material and electromagnetic energy, preferably photoelectric energy, and more preferably light energy, and thus is environmentally friendly because no source of external energy, other than that present in the natural surroundings is required. Furthermore, no complex setup or maintenance is required. The only maintenance required is the replacement of the water and dissolved C02gas once C02has been consumed and transformed into glucose. Because melanin is one of the most stable molecules known to man, having a half-life estimated to be on the order of millions of years, the melanin material or melanin device can be used for decades before it needs to be replaced.

[0042] In a preferred embodiment, the at least one melanin material in the system is melanin (natural or synthetic). In another preferred embodiment, melanin is the only water-electrolyzing material present in the system.

[0043] The electrochemical process and system for producing glucose according to embodiments of the invention have at least two important applications. The first application is the production of glucose, as described above, which is a basic molecule of the food chain. The second application is related to the control of atmospheric C02. According to embodiments of the invention, the production of glucose requires the consumption of C02. Thus, the invention further provides a method for reducing atmospheric C02levels.

[0044] Carbon dioxide (C02) is the principal greenhouse gas that results from human activities, and the concentration of atmospheric C02is increasing at an accelerating rate, contributing to global warming and climate change. Although the upper safety limit for atmospheric C02has been set at 350 parts per million (ppm), atmospheric C02levels have remained above this limit since early 1988. In addition, paleo-climate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that C02levels will need to be reduced in order to preserve the planet in a state in which life on Earth has adapted to.

[0045] Furthermore, calculations by NASA researchers indicate that, despite unusually low solar activity between 2005 and 2010, Earth continued to absorb more energy than it returned to space. Thus, climate stabilization will also require a restoration of the Earth's energy balance as well as a reduction of C02levels. In other words, Earth will need to radiate as much energy to space as it absorbs from the sun in order to slow down global warming.

[0046] Therefore, new methods for controlling the level of atmospheric C02and for consuming absorbed solar energy are greatly needed. In a photoelectrochemical process according to embodiments of the invention, only light energy and at least one melanin material such as melanin (synthetic or natural), a melanin analog, or melanin precursor are required to convert C02and water into glucose. Thus, both C02and solar energy are consumed in the production of glucose by a photoelectrochemical process of the invention, which will contribute to a reduction of C02levels while simultaneously using absorbed solar energy.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : Dissociation and reformation of the water molecule catalyzed by melanin.

[0047] Two 1 liter closed containers (closed reaction cells) made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), were formed under sterile conditions each containing 1 liter of purified water. C02gas was dissolved in the water in each container at an initial pressure of 5 atm, and melanin mixed with silica was placed in one of the two containers. The containers were exposed to visible light for six weeks and incubated at a temperature of about 2°C to 8°C (35.6°F to 46.4°F).

[0048] After 5 days, deformation of the plastic packaging of the container containing melanin mixed with silica was observed. In contrast, after 6 weeks of exposure to visible light, the plastic packaging of the container that did not have any melanin mixed with silica showed no visible deformation.

[0049] The results of the experiment support the claim that melanin has the intrinsic ability to dissociate and reform the water molecule in the presence of light energy. This dissociation and reformation of the water molecule produced a vacuum, as indicated by the deformation of the plastic packaging of only the closed container that contained melanin. The energy that is produced from splitting and reforming the water molecule catalyzed by melanin can subsequently be used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.

Example 2: Production of glucose from CO2 dissolved in water, melanin and light energy.

[0050] Ten sealed, 3 liter closed containers (closed reaction cells) made of polyethylene, were formed under sterile conditions each containing 1800 mL of purified water. C02was dissolved in the water in each container under a pressure of approximately 2.20 PSI, in sufficient amounts such that numerous bubbles of C02gas were easily observed. Five of the containers served as the control group and contained no melanin device, and the other five containers served as the experimental group. For the experimental group, plates of melanin mixed with silica were placed at the bottom of each container. The melanin/silica plates were made by combining a cementing mixture of silica with an aqueous solution of melanin. The melanin used was chemically synthesized in the laboratory.

[0051] The containers of both the control and experimental groups were placed in a refrigerator and incubated at a temperature ranging between 2°C to 8°C (35.6°F to 46.4°F) for four weeks. The purpose of refrigerating the containers was to preserve the C02gas initially dissolved in the water. This eliminated the need for continuous manipulation of the containers by having to dissolve C02in the water either continuously or several times over the course of the experiment. Because the refrigerator was composed of metal walls, the source of energy supplied to the containers was mostly invisible light present within the refrigerator. The containers were kept sealed throughout the course of the experiment and the visual observance of C02gas bubbles in the control group containers throughout the four week incubation confirmed that the containers were adequately sealed.

[0052] The dissolved C02gas bubbles were observed daily. At the end of the first week, the C02bubbles in all of the control group containers were still present and showed no change from the start of the experiment. On the other hand, in all of the experimental group containers, the dissolved C02bubbles disappeared completely within a few hours. This indicated that carbon dioxide was being consumed, but only in the presence of melanin. The experiment was continued for four weeks, even though the carbon dioxide bubbles in the experimental containers had disappeared within a few hours, to determine if any other product or sediment was formed. At the end of the fourth week, the seals of each container in both the experimental and control groups were broken under sterile conditions and a 10 mL sample of water was removed from each container. It should also be noted that at the end of the fourth week, the carbon dioxide in the containers of the control group showed no change from the start of the experiment.

[0053] The 10 mL samples of water removed from each of the control group and experimental group containers were noted to be both transparent and odorless. For the experimental group, there was no sediment observed in the samples of either group, indicating that the melanin had not dispersed from the melanin/silica plates. Additional parameters, including the density, pH, and glucose concentration were measured in each sample.

[0054] The glucose concentration in each sample was determined by spectrophotometry using a standardized glucose oxidase (GOD) assay. Briefly, each sample was treated with glucose oxidase to oxidize glucose, producing gluconate and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide was then oxidatively coupled with 4-amino-antipyrene (4-AAP) and phenol in the presence of peroxidase, producing a red dye quinoeimine. The absorbance of quinoeimine at 505 nm, which is directly proportional to the concentration of glucose, was then measured and used to determine the concentration of glucose in the sample. The results are listed below in Table 1.

Table 1

<img class="EMIRef" id="224889279-imgf000014_0001" />

[0055] The results of the above experiment demonstrate that glucose can be produced from carbon dioxide and water, requiring only melanin and electromagnetic energy, such as invisible light.



USE OF MELANINS... WITH THE SIMULTANEOUS GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY
WO2008048082 / MX2008011478

The invention relates to a novel method for cooling and/or refrigerating natural and artificial processes, i.e. natural, industrial, domestic and/or automotive processes. The invention is essentially characterised by the use of melanins and the precursors, analogues and derivatives thereof in order to absorb radiation which is emitted from heat or any other source and which can be absorbed by said compounds, such that the process in question, regardless of type, is cooled and can be surrounded or have sufficient and suitable contact with the closed-geometry melanin-containing designs so as to optimise the passage of heat from one side to another. The melanin can convert said heat energy into electrical energy, water, oxygen, hydrogen and high-energy electrons, depending on the design geometry used. The by-products obtained can be varied depending on the geometry of the melanin-containing design and the position thereof in relation to the heat source. The benefits are greater with nuclear power stations since apart from reducing the temperature, providing isolation and absorbing dangerous electromagnetic radiation, electricity can also be generated. Any type of radiant energy can drive biochemical reactions inside the melanin, which produce photolysis and/or photohydrosynthesis.

The use of melanins, its precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof as refrigerants industrial, automotive processes, and home; generating electricity at the same time.

DESCRIPTION

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates, patenting a method that allows us to leverage the radiation generated by different processes (especially in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum), both in nature, industries, nuclear power plants ; and in automobiles and home. Y consists essentially, on cooling, isolating, on cooling, the emitters or sources of heat and / or radiation of any kind, natural or artificial; covering said events based photoelectrochemical cells melanins, their precursors, analogues and / or derivatives thereof in closed compartments that allow photoelectrochemical properties thereof, we generate electricity, resulting from the heat and / or irradiation of any type as efficiently absorbing said substances, and converted into electricity while a significant proportion isolated, temperature decrease, improving conditions, or tempering the differences between different interfaces of any system temperatures. The variation in the characteristics of the continent of melanins, i.e. the geometry of the cell; that is, types of electrodes, interior volume, concentration, mixing ratios, doping; nature of the continent; etc., will allow us to promote any of the known products of melanins, their precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof and which can be: water and electricity, hydrogen, oxygen, and high energy electrons. The biochemical details of such photoelectrochemical generation are described in PCT / MX2005 / 000092 patent. Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis. So our patent application processes has natural and / or artificial.

BACKGROUND

Heat generation mainly (but also of other wavelengths) is a common event in most industrial processes, refining, generation, nuclear power plants, home and automotive. Air, water is usually used, and in the case of car engines propylene glycol derivatives are used to cool and lower the temperature, so as not to get out of control, but this heat energy is used to generate electricity in any case only moves from one body to another. In the case of water cooling nuclear reactors, cooled in water, and the resulting steam is used to move a coil that generates electricity. In the case of the melanins, its precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof, directly energize electromagnetic radiation intra- and intermolecular processes that result in the generation of electricity and water, depending on the design or containing the substrate can promote the generation opt hydrogen, oxygen, and high energy electrons.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Our invention operates on the property of melanins, their precursors, analogs or derivatives thereof, discovered by us and described in detail in PCT / MX2005 / 000092 patent. to absorb electromagnetic radiation in a very efficient, possibly the entire electromagnetic spectrum, using this energy to break and join the water molecule, one of the end products of this cycle power generation .. The heat is transmitted primarily in the region Infrared electromagnetic spectrum. Melanins efficiently absorb such radiations (among many others), and according to the law of Lavoisier, will be transformed into another type of energy, which fortunately, in the case of melanins ultimately result in the generation of electricity. It has already been described in other patents of us (PCT / MX2005 / 000092) as detailed in that case the event, summarizing have to melanin, its precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof, in the presence of light (electromagnetic radiation - all electromagnético-) spectrum and water, some water molecule in 3 picoseconds, giving hydrogen and oxygen as well as high-energy electrons, but as the reverse reaction supports the same substrate (melanin) then we have to re-form water and electricity, both reactions occur in the same medium, a stable state, that is, if the variables are right is conditional; in the continuous generation of electricity, which is very useful product. The novelty of our invention is that then, heat and / or radiation of any wavelength within the electromagnetic spectrum; generated under different industrial processes, both at home or in the case of combustion engines by gasoline, diesel or the like, including nuclear, can be exploited to generate electricity. Currently, none of the methods of cooling and / or insulating these processes produces a product as useful as electricity, or at least without requiring greater combustion. Our invention is based on the colossal property of melanins, its precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof to convert electromagnetic radiation into electricity and water or, depending on the reaction equilibrium obtain hydrogen, oxygen and high energy electrons. This discovered by us, as described in PCT / MX2005 / 000092 patent.

Our invention begins with "wrap" virtually Photoelectrochemical cells based melanins, its precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof; "hot spots" or heat emitting and / or radiation of any kind capable of being absorbed by melanin; industrial plants, nuclear power plants; the roofs of the houses; and in the case of cars, engines, ie any process of natural and / or artificial; so that this wonderful substrate to absorb the heat or other energy, we will generate photolysis of water and / or photo hydro synthesis, giving oxygen, hydrogen and high-energy electrons in the first case and water and electricity the second case. It is obvious that by absorbing heat or radiant some energy, a decrease in temperature of the "hot" areas either industrial structures, nuclear reactors, houses and / or engines, either automotive or other (nuclear occurs inclusive). In the case of engines to generate electricity from the heat generated by combustion, allow us called hybrid designs that currently rely on batteries or accumulators that feed an electric motor that provides a small part of horsepower needed to move the vehicle, and the batteries or accumulators are recharged in part, by devices that generate electricity by rotation or movement and which are placed on the moving parts of the vehicle, for example on the axes; but also need to be recharged by connecting to the power of the house. The internal combustion engine moves based on burning gasoline, but under imminent oil shortage is frantically looking for ways to decrease significantly the consumption of fossil fuels; so the application of melanins for cooling internal combustion engines, with a consequent generation of hydrogen and / or electricity, depending on the design of photoelectrochemical cell used, engines allow vehicles to be smaller, much smaller than today, since melanin efficiently absorb the heat radiation (among many others), and then the electricity produced by them will recharge in varying degrees or feed entirely on batteries and accumulators for electric motors that count the vehicle, possibly with the efficiency needed to avoid recharging is necessary (batteries or accumulators) using household current. This will surely result in a significant increase in the autonomy of the vehicle and lower fuel consumption, since the engines would be smaller.

In the case of industrial plants, high consumption of electricity, common in most industrial processes could be reduced to a greater or lesser extent, thanks to optimal utilization of the detached along supply chains radiant energy (heat or some other wavelength), because in addition to cooling and hence cooling or insulating areas that emit heat or radiation of some sort, which is something very useful, we would have a product (electricity) to energize us another link in the chain, allowing us greater or lesser extent, optimize consumption electric current with the consequent reduction of costs, a lower generation of greenhouse gases, and perhaps even amazing optimizing the processes used in the manufacture of countless articles that forms the current economic activity. In the case of nuclear and / or nuclear sources (reactors) this invention represents an additional advantage, since the melanin has ability to absorb electromagnetic radiation of high speed, so apart from insulation shield radioactive coolant and also generate electricity. Needless to detail here, the many economic policies advantages, ecological, environmental, legal; etc; resulting from a lower power consumption and better use of industrial processes, and already installed and widely used engines. Furthermore, depending on the characteristics of the photoelectrochemical cell based melanin, or their precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof; We can obtain hydrogen, oxygen, high-energy electrons or water and electricity. All depending on the geometry of the designs of the "envelope" shaped base fotoelectroquírnicas melanin cells. This application for cooling and / or absorb heat radiation or some other form within the electro-magnetic, capable of being absorbed by melanin, its precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof, spectrum can be applied to any process of natural origin and / or artificial. Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis. So our patent application processes has natural and / or artificial.

Definitions

Melanins: For purposes of this patent, we define as meianinas, their analogs, their precursors or their derivatives to the following compounds, among IOS include, without being exclusive: polihidroxiindol, eumelanin Ia, Ia pheomelanin Ia allomelanin, Ia neuromelanine, humic-black-black pyrrole benzene acid, fullerenes, graphite, the poliindolquinonas, the acetylene black (acetylene-black), the (pyrrole-black), indole-black (indoie-black), the ( biack benzene), the black thiophene (thiophene-biack), Ia aniline-black (aniiine-black), the poiiquinonas in hydrated form, the sepiomelaninas, Ia dopa black (dopa-black), black Ia dopamine (dopamine-black) Ia black epinephrine (adrenalin-black), black catecoi Ia (catechol-black), ia 4aminocatecolnegra (4 amine catechol-biack), (in single linear chain, or aromatic aiifáiicos.) and / or its precursors like phenols, aminophenols, or .difenoles, indol-polyphenols, ciclodopa, DHI and DHICA, quinones, semiquinones or hydroquinones, L-tyrosine, L-dopamine, morpholine orto benzoquinone, ortho-benzoquinone dimorphoüno, morfolincatecol, ortobenzoquinona, porphirin-black, PIERIN-biack, ommochrome -black, free nitrogen precursors, any of ios mentioned above with any size of particle (from 1 Angstrom to 3 or 4 cm), all the abovementioned compounds, electroactive, in suspension, solution, in gel, that absorb the ultrasound in the MHz range from one natural or synthetic, of vegetal origin, animal or mineral; pure or mixed with organic or inorganic compounds, ions, metals, drugs and other

Photolysis: for purposes of this patent, we define photolysis as the chemical reaction in Ia which, by means of the light and a suitable substrate disuelio in water, Togra from or unfold the water molecule itself or adjacent, obtaining hydrogen and oxygen and high energy electrons, but may also be obtained, depending on the conditions surrounding the event, chemical forms relating eg OH (hydroxyl), superoxide anion, and other . Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis .. As our patent application processes has natural and / or artificial.

Light: For purposes of this patent, define light as spectrum including electromagnetic radiation between 400 and 700 nanometers, i.e., the visible spectrum, but melanin captures radiation outside these limits, which are designated as Ia unseen portion of electromagnetic spectrum, depending on the experimental conditions and / or environmental.
1
Electromagnetic Radiation: For purposes of this patent, defined as electromagnetic radiation ia whole spectrum, including visible and invisible spectrum (from 10 6 to 10 cm ~ 12 cm length wave). Since both can energize Ia fotoeiecírolisis, ie Ia and Ia fotohidrosíntesis photolysis efficiency variable, depending on the experimental conditions and / or environmental. Any type of radiant (any wavelength within the electromagnetic spectrum) can drive energy in biochemical reactions leading to melanin photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis. So our patent application processes has natural and / or artificial.

Electrical movement of electrons is, for purposes of our patent, the joining of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen, Io also gives us water. Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis.

Photoelecectricity : For purposes of this patent, we define fotoelectrolizaníe the chemical reaction and / or biochemical leading to Ia partition and / or splitting of the water molecule, which allows us to obtain atoms and / or molecules of hydrogen and oxygen, using as source the solar light energy. It is sometimes used as a synonym for photolysis. Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis.

Photohydrosynthesis: For purposes of this patent, define the meaning of this word, as that catalyzes the chemical reaction and / or sustained and / or support the meianinas, analogs, and derivatives and precursors consisting of the union or combination of atoms hydrogen and oxygen resulting giving us water and electricity. Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis. So our patent application processes has natural and / or artificial.

Photolytic: for purposes of this patent, we define photolytic as the event on the photolysis of water effected by means of the melanins, its analogs, its precursors or derivatives, chemical and / or biochemical reactions that are powered by Ia light and / or electromagnetic radiation. Of course in the presence of water. Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis.

Industrial processes: Anyone design either structural or otherwise generate radiation and / or heat, and therefore is likely to be cooled or cooled by our method.

We cooled: We refer to the temperature decrease, not necessarily water freezing occurs.

Cooling: It also refers to the decrease in temperature, generally to extracting heat from one or more parts of a system, either in homes, industrial, nuclear combustion engine or some kind of source, resulting in benefit of the process itself. Applicable to process natural and / or artificial.

Insulation: we used to refer to the fact that isolates, or tempers particularly thermal differences between two or more interfaces, although in the case of nuclear emitters (eg plants) also included in the description dangerous electromagnetic radiation generated by these nuclear and also absorb varying degrees in melanins, its precursors, analogs and derivatives. We also include artificial radioactive sources of natural and / or.

Heat sources: Anywhere, structure, liquid, gas; training, natural or artificial origin with modifications or elevations in temperature significantly. Any material, any structure, any issuer of radiant energy, not only in the infrared region, but throughout the electromagnetic spectrum that is capable of being absorbed by melanin, its precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof; and which can result in an increase in the temperature difference between two or more interfaces. Including nuclear. Any type of radiant energy can promote biochemical reactions in melanin involving photolysis and / or fotohidrosíntesis. So our patent application processes has natural and / or artificial.

EXAMPLES

1.- use us three Erlenmeyer flasks, where, in the first bottle we put ei water, 500 mL, in a common second antifreeze ei (polietiiengiicol) 500 mL; and the third melanin. The we exposed to the radiation of a microwave oven for 1, 2, 3, and 5 minutes. And the compound with lowest the temperature was increased melanin in all cases.

2. Three Erlenmeyer flasks of 500 ml, put 250 mL of double distilled water, and warmed in a microwave oven hasia 80 0 C, then were filled with double distilled water, 250 mL at 22 0 C, with polietüenglicol 250 mL at 22 0 C, and 250 mL of melanin 10%, at 22 ° C, the mixture decreased more was Ia of melanin.

3. In closed vessels, placed 5 empty 5 with electrodes 5 melanin alone five with electrodes and melanin. All ios containers with a capacity of 50 mL. Radiographs are taken Ia IES purpose of exposing to X-rays, and observe whether they were radiopaque. The result was that containers with melamine alone with metal solos, and those with metals and melanin were radiopaque. Alone containers were completely transparent to X-rays

4. In all the above examples was also measured the generation, but these results the reserve for a patent concerning particular characteristics of the geometry of the cell based photoelectrochemical melanins, their precursors, analogs and derivatives thereof, a procedure that will begin shortly.



METHOD FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF SOLUBLE MELANIN FROM PRECURSOR AMINO ACIDS.
WO2007142502 / MX2008011476

A method for the synthesis of soluble melanin, in which there is no requirement for enzymes, preservatives, accelerators, stabilizers or anything similar. This method makes it possible to convert 100% of the precursors used, without the formation of pollutants that will subsequently have to be separated out. The end product can be used immediately since it is biologically active and free from undesirable pollutants or toxic materials. The purity obtained makes it possible for the melanin to be used immediately in compounds designed for human use, for cosmetic use, for industrial use and for electronic designs. It requires no preservatives, it is highly stable and it is highly uniform.



THE USE OF MELANINS... IN THE TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER.
MX2008011475

The aim of the present protocol is to protect intellectual property priority concerning the use of melanins, analogues thereof, precursors thereof or derivatives thereof in the treatment of primary water and/or wastewater, since, owing to the extraordinary properties of said compounds, it is possible to improve significant variables relating to the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the water. These include: oxygenation, acidity, the presence of metals/heavy metals, the presence of pesticides and the presence of radioactive compounds. The structure/activity relationship of the melanins makes it possible to monitor a wide range of uses and therefore, as the cost of the melanins goes down by virtue of the increase in demand and greater synthesis capacity in respect thereof, and as the price of water is continuing to rise as hitherto, there will come a time when they may reasonably be used in accordance with the cost/benefit relationship of the method.



EFFECTS OF THE PHOTOELECTROLYSING PROPERTY OF MELANINES
MX2008011474

The present invention is based on methods for obtaining and using solar radiant energy by unicellular or pluricellular organisms, eukaryotes or prokaryotes, both in vivo and in vitro, with the purpose of energizing one or some multiple biochemical reactions that, as a whole, conform the life process, commonly known as photo electro chemical reactions, in order to obtain or generate hydrogen and oxygen atoms, mainly by water molecules separation or break, with high energy electrons being additionally generated or, inversely, the generation of an electron flow (electricity) resulting from hydrogen and oxygen binding for forming water. The present invention claims pharmaceutical compositions for manufacturing medicines including an effective amount of a compound affecting directly or indirectly the photochemical activity of melanines in either sense (water photolysis or photosynthesis), which are present in biological systems, with therapeutic or prophylactic purposes.



http://file.scirp.org/Html/7-2400067_7404.htm
Neuroscience & Medicine, Vol.2 No.3(2011), Article ID:7404,
DOI:10.4236/nm.2011.23029

The Unexpected Capability of Melanin to Split the Water Molecule and the Alzheimer’s Disease

Maria del Carmen Arias-Esparza, Ruth Isabel Solís Arias, Paola Eugenia Solís Arias, Martha Patricia Solís Arias, Arturo Solís-Herrera

Human Photosynthesis Study Center, Research, Development and Innovation Department, Aguascalientes, Mexico.
Email: comagua2000@yahoo.com, comagua2000@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

We began a study about the three main causes of blindness in 1990, because their incidence and prevalence have not changed in the last forty years. Twelve years later we concluded that the main source of energy for the human retina is water, not ATP. And this is also true for the entire human body. Water is the main source of energy. The amazing capability of eukaryotic cells to break or dissociate the water molecule was unsuspected to us because it takes 2000°C degrees to dissociate water in a laboratory environment, and until today, it was believed that only plants were capable of accomplishing this. Photosynthesis occurs in humans as it does in plants. The water that we drink every day is not just to wash away detritus and toxins; it is not just a cleaner, nor a simple solvent. When our body dissociates the water molecule, cells are able to get their energy from Hydrogen (Hydrogen is the energy carrier that Nature uses the most). Water is our main source of energy. If our body couldn’t acquire energy from water, we would need to eat between 50 - 170 kg (110 - 374 lbs) daily. In any system, when a generalized failure occurs, we must suspect energy first. Parkinson and Alzheimer’s Disease are examples of a generalized failure. That explains why it is not uncommon that patients improve dramatically with pharmacological stimulation of the human photosynthesis process. Recall that the brain needs energy not only to grow or to perform its functions, but also to preserve its form and shape. The best energy for human cells is Hydrogen.

1. Introduction

Many molecular changes have been detected in Alzheimer’s disease, but the overarching theme that emerges from the data is that an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the aging brain results in oxidative and inflammatory impairment, like the damage that occurs in other tissues, such as the eye, skin, liver, etc., which in turn leads to energy failure and synaptic dysfunction1. However, in light of our new knowledge and discoveries, we can say that glucose is not a source of energy, rather, it is just a source of biomass, therefore, the energy failure happens first, and alterations to the biomass, happen secondly.

Cerebral plaques laden with ß-amyloid peptide (Aß) and dystrophic neurites in neocortical terminal fields, as well as prominent neurofibrillary tangles in medial tem poral-lobe structures, are important pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease, however, they are not specific. Loss of neurons and white matter, congophilic (amyloid) angiopathy, inflammation, and oxidative damage are also present, but are not pathognomonic of AD. Aß peptides are natural products of metabolism consisting of 36 to 43 amino acids. Therefore it seems that the sequence of normal metabolism does occur but with alterations difficult to assign to the relationship activity-structure of the molecules themselves, because their presence is normal at certain levels.

An imbalance between production and clearance, and aggregation of peptides, causes Aß to accumulate, and this imbalance more than the final excess of byproducts, may be the initiating factor in Alzheimer’s disease. From our point of view, the imbalance is a result of the low levels of energy available. On the other hand, Aß spontaneously self-aggregates into multiple coexisting physical forms, a common behavior in many molecules in Nature.

2. Amyloid ß

2.1. Alzheimer’s Disease Is an Energy, and Not a Biomass Troble In brain-slice preparations, dimers and trimers of Aß are toxic to synapses [1]. The severity of the cognitive defect in Alzheimer’s disease correlates with levels of oligomers in the brain, not the total Aß burden [2]. Neuronal activation rapidly increases Aß secretion at the synapse, a process tied to the normal release of vesicles containing neurotransmitters. Physiologic levels of synaptic Aß may dampen excitatory transmission and prevent neuronal hyperactivity [3]. Therefore, molecular changes described in the literature concerning AD are based in compounds that are not strange to the tissue, the main difference between normal and ill tissue is the amount present, we could say; in general terms, the changes in biomass composition observed in the brain of patients with AD are not really significant, therefore Alzheimer’s Disease is not a biomass problem, it is an energy problem.

Increased oxidative stress, the impaired protein-folding function of the endoplasmic reticulum, and deficient proteasome-mediated and autophagic-mediated clearance of damaged proteins—all of which are also associated with aging—accelerate the accumulation of amyloid and tau proteins in Alzheimer’s disease [4]. Therefore, a generalized failure of the cell is evident, and in any system, with a similar behavior, we must think of energy first.

2.2. Energy and Eukaryotic Cell

The main source of energy of the eukaryotic cell is water, not ATP. The profound misconception that food, glucose or ATP are the main source of energy has its basis in the lack of knowledge of the hitherto unknown capacity of melanin to split the water molecule [5]. Until today, the fact that human tissues have the capability to take hydrogen from water—the energy carrier by excellence in the whole Universe—arising from the splitting of water, as plants do, was totally unknown before our work.

It was unthinkable that an expensive chemical reaction, from the energetic point of view, such as water dissociation, that requires 2000°C in the laboratory to take place, might occur at room temperature in our body. The sole possibility seemed berserk. However, our studies researching the three main causes of blindness allowed us to detect the hitherto unknown fact that melanin is the “human chlorophyll”. This amazing compound absorbs photonic energy and transforms it into chemical energy.

3. The Cycle of Solís-Herrer

An exhaustively review of melanin is out of the scope of this work, therefore we will write only about the main characteristics of the process. We refer the interested reader to the works of Dr. Paul Meredith and Dr. Dadachova [6].

The reaction in chlorophyll is as follows:

2H2O 2H2 + O2

where as in melanin, the reaction is:

2H2O 2H2 + O2

Notice that the reaction in melanin occurs in both directions.

This apparently slight difference between the two is the hallmark of mammal and human life. It is not about dissociating ad infinitum, because hydrogen and the energy that it carries are the basic fuel of the cell. Eukaryotic cells use hydrogen in many ways, starting with the fact that hydrogen is without a doubt the best-known antioxidant. Hydrogen could even reduce oxygen itself and form that strange substance that we call water. Therefore, the main product of the chemical reaction is hydrogen, the energy carrier by excellence in Nature; oxygen is toxic at any level.

Furthermore, melanin could increase oxygen concentration in some tissues, by means of water dissociation, up to 97% but not more, because at that point the reaction changes direction and begins to reform water, and produces simultaneously with the liquid an orderly flux of electrons that could be registered with appropriate instruments as an undulant direct current.

3.1. Mitochondria, the Power House of the Eukaryotic Cell

In many diseases without a defined or specific anatomic or histological substrate, such as Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative processes of unknown etiology, it’s very likely that the ground alteration is a chronic shortage more than an acute shortage of the supply and thereafter availability of hydrogen from the water dissociation process. The main and consistent findings should be mitochondrial alterations, because hydrogen is the precise compound that drives ATP synthase, and when hydrogen supply is not adequate, then the main function of ATP synthase (synthesis of ATP) is impaired. Pioneering biochemical studies have long forged the concept that the mitochondria are the energy powerhouse of the cell. These studies, combined with the unique evolutionary origin of the mitochondria, led the way to decades of research focusing on the organelle as an essential, yet independent, functional component of the cell [7]. However, mitochondria are organelles that function within an integrated reticulum that is continually remodeled by both fusion and fission events; therefore like any other cell component they require energy. So, where is this energy for the mitochondria coming from?

3.2. The Answer

Water dissociation is the answer. We could infer that the way the human photosystem releases energy is completely adequate with many diverse goals. The energy spreads out continuously and symmetrically in all directions through the cytoplasm, night and day. Furthermore, water splitting is not the source of energy for the mitochondria alone, rather every organelle inside any eukaryotic cell needs energy to stay in good function, shape and therefore performance (Figure 1).

In regards to the relationship between water dissociation and ATP formation we have that the hydrogen released by the Human Photosynthesis process it is not solely or exclusively used by the Mitochondria in the Oxidative Phosphorilation process, a set of biochemical reactions not yet well understood. In fact, one of these main reactions, known as Mitchell’s Chemo-osmotic Theory, remains a theory decades away from being postulated. Rather, the cell uses hydrogen in many metabolic pathways. To cite an example, hydrogen is, without doubt, the best antioxidant.

The heterogeneity of pathways that could initiate and drive Alzheimer’s disease has shown that there is no single linear chain of events, therefore it is a generalized failure, so we must think of a failure in energy first, an impaired water splitting process, and not suspect ATP, blood or glucose metabolic pathway. To complicate matters, some changes are not pathologic but reactionary or protective.

3.3. The Brain

Anatomically, the brain is a good example to sustain our finding that the main source of energy is water, not ATP, blood or glucose.

3.4. Aging-Related Process and Human Photosynthesis

It remains possible that many of these mechanisms, including the amyloid hypothesis, are minor or wrong, and that some critical aging-related process is the disease trigger (Ref. [1]). Human Photosynthesis could explain this aging-related process, because the capability of the human body begins to decline in the mid-twenties. We lose our capacity to perform the photosynthesis function at its peak during adulthood (which is less than that of embryonic period) at an approximate rate of 10% with each decade of life after the mid-twenties, and when we reach our fifties it goes into free fall.

The potential risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, general anesthesia, promotes tau insolubility and Aß oligomerization [9,10], and that is congruent with our findings because the water dissociation capacity in the human body is very sensitive to agents with an elevated

Figure 1. Convolutions of the cerebral cortex have been traditionally explained as a solution to adapt the greatest amount of neuronal tissue in a limited bone-confined intracranial-space. However, from the point of view of our new knowledge, the real goal is to keep every inch, every corner of neuronal tissue in contact with the water of the ventricles and subarachnoid space. The main source of energy is the water of the CSF in the ventricles and subarachnoid space, not the blood vessels [8].

apparent distribution volume, such as anesthesia agents and antidepressants.

The axonal-transport deficits are an internal derangement that is probably an effect rather than a cause of Alzheimer’s Disease; therefore it is not hard to believe that it could be normalized with an adequate level of human photosynthesis, or water splitting process, because the first requirement of any process in our body is energy, undoubtedly.

The fact that Glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes are considered to be risk factors for dementia [11] is consistent with our new knowledge that glucose is only the main source of biomass, but the usual order of events are alterations in energy first, and then biomass disorders in second place.

Iron poisons melanin itself, so elevated levels of this divalent transition metal are linked with neuro-degeneration in several ways [12].

The higher serum glucose levels that are common in normal aging directly damage hippocampal structures [13], probably because greater amount of water than normal is required by the eukaryotic cell to move the glucose molecule, lessening the availability of water to produce energy by means of dissociation of the water molecule.

Something similar happens in the imbalanced expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins and receptors for advanced glycation end products, proposed by the neurovascular uncoupling hypothesis [14].

4. Oxidative Stress

Dysfunctional mitochondria release oxidizing free radicals, and in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease patients and in the normal aging brain, they cause considerable oxidative stress [15]. However, mitochondria cannot be dysfunctional if energy levels are adequate, because after billions of years of evolution these organelles know very well what they have to do. Experimental models show that markers of oxidative damage precede pathological changes [16]. Aß, a potent generator of reactive oxygen species [17] and reactive nitrogen species [18], is a prime initiator of this damage, but the best antioxidant, without question, is the diatomic hydrogen, the main product of the water dissociation process performed by the Human Photosystem, composed by Light/Melanin/Water, arranged in order of abundance in Nature.

We can demonstrate that energy from water is a very important source of hydrogen. The amount of food that we ingest every day (about 700 g) cannot satisfy our daily requirements of ATP (11000 calories a minute). And devices such as this photo-electrochemical self-renewable cell, which can light up LEDs during years, day and night, have demonstrated the flux of electrons. (Figure 2)

Therapeutic Results

In our clinic we have treated with extraordinary results several patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (Figure 3 and 4), as well as patients with many other diseases by enhancing the Human Photosynthesis process. Because Human Photosynthesis is the chemical reaction that fully explains the origin of life, all biochemical processes, tissues, organs and systems that comprise the human body have been created after it and are owing to the energy transduced by the Human Photosystem. The basis of the treatment is the enhancement of the water splitting process with pharmacological agents developed by our team. As we increase the available energy in the cells, and because it is released symmetrically in all directions, all intracellular organelles, even the nucleus, as well as biochemical compounds present in the cytoplasm and nucleosol, that require energy to be transformed, activated, or modified benefit in many ways in order to perform their function adequately.

5. Conclusions

The discovery that glucose is a source of biomass, and not a source of energy, is groundbreaking knowledge. Therefore Alzheimer’s Disease is an energy problem, not a biomass problem. Any biochemical reaction requires energy as a first step. Thereafter all changes in atoms, molecules, cells or tissues also need energy to continue with all the different subset of reactions, therefore, en

Figure 2. The image shows an LED arrangement energized with a device that we have developed to demonstrate the biological event in the test tube [19].

Figure 3. Shows an Alzheimer’s Disease patient on the first examination, notice the aggressive look on her face.

Figure 4. Same patient five weeks after starting treatment using Human Photosynthesis enhancer.

Energy is constantly needed. In other words, energy is required at the begining, during and after the reaction, i.e. at all times.

In AD the chronic low levels of water dissociation mean a chronic shortage of energy that will be manifested several ways along the path of evolution of the disease. Histological findings are in accordance with a generalized more than a punctual failure, and in any system with this type of alteration we must think of energy first.

REFERENCES

I. Klyubin, V. Betts, A. T. Welzel, et al., “Amyloid Beta Protein Dimer-Containing Human CSF Disrupts Synaptic Plasticity: Prevention by Systemic Passive Immunization,” The Journal of Neuroscience, 2008, Vol. 28, No. 16, pp. 4231-4237. doi:/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5161-07.2008
   
L. F. Lue, Y. M. Kuo, A. E. Roher, et al., “Soluble Amyloid Beta Peptide Concentration as a Predictor of Synaptic Change in Alzheimer’s Disease,” The American Journal of Pathology, Vol. 155, No. 3, 1999, pp. 853-62. doi:/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65184-X

F. Kamenetz, T. Tomita, H. Hsieh, et al., “APP Processing and Synaptic Function,” Neuron, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2003, pp. 925-937. doi:/10.1016/S0896-6273(03)00124-7

J. Carter and C. F. Lippa, “Beta-Amyloid, Neuronal Death and Alzheimer’s Disease,” Current Molecular Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 6, December 2001, pp. 733-737. doi:/10.2174/1566524013363177

A. Solís-Herrera, M. de C. Arias-Esparza, R. I. SolísArias, P. E. Solís-Arias and M. P. Solís-Arias, “The Unexpected Capacity of Melanin to Dissociate the Water Molecule Fills the Gap Between the Life Before and After ATP,” Biomedical Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2010, pp. 224-226.

E. Dadachova, R. A. Bryan and O. C. Howell, “The Radioprotective Properties of Fungal Melanin Are a Function of Its Chemical Composition, Stable Radical Presence and Spatial Arrangement,” Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2008, pp. 192-199.

M. P. SolísArias, “The Unexpected Capacity of Melanin to Dissociaolecule Fills the Gap between the Life before and after ATP,” Biomedical Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2010, pp. 224-226.

A. Solís-Herrera, Ma del C. Arias-Esparza, et al., “The Pharmacologic Intensification of the Water Dissociation (Human Photosynthesis) and Its Effect over Tissues Affected by Bloodshed of Diverse Etiology,” International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 332-338. doi:/10.4236/ijcm.2011.23058

E. Planel, A. Bretteville, L. Liu, et al., “Acceleration and Persistence of Neurofibrillary Pathology in a Mouse Model of Tauopathy Following Anesthesia,” The FASEB Journal, Vol. 23, No. 8, 2009, pp. 2595-2604. doi:/10.1096/fj.08-122424

Z. Xie, D. J. Culley, Y. Dong, et al., “The Common Inhalation Anesthetic Isoflurane Induces Caspase Activation and Increases Amyloid Beta-Protein Level in Vivo,” Annals of Neurology, Vol. 64, No. 6, 2008, pp. 618-267. doi:/10.1002/ana.21548

Z. Arvanitakis, R. S. Wilson, J. L. Bienias, D. A. Evans and D. A. Bennett, “Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Decline in Cognitive Function,” Archives of Neurology, Vol. 61, No. 5, 2004, pp. 661-666. doi:/10.1001/archneur.61.5.661

M. A. Lovell, J. D. Robertson, W. J. Teesdale, J. L. Campbell, W. R. Markesbery, “Copper, Iron and Zinc in Alzheimer’s Disease Senile Plaques,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Vol. 158, No. 1, 1998, pp. 47-52. doi:/10.1016/S0022-510X(98)00092-6

W. Wu, A. M. Brickman, J. Luchsinger, et al., “The Brain in the Age of Old: The Hippocampal Formation Is Targeted Differentially by Diseases of Late Life,” Annals of Neurology, Vol. 64, No. 6, 2008, pp. 698-706. doi:/10.1002/ana.21557

R. Deane and B. V. Zlokovic, “Role of the Blood-Brain Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease,” Current Alzheimer Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007, pp. 191-197. doi:/10.2174/156720507780362245

P. F. Good, P. Werner, A. Hsu, C. W. Olanow and D. P. Perl, “Evidence of Neuronal Oxidative Damage in Alzheimer’s Disease,” The American Journal of Pathology, Vol. 149, No. 1, 1996, pp. 21-28.

A. Nunomura, G. Perry, G. Aliev, et al., “Oxidative Damage Is the Earliest Event in Alzheimer Disease,” Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, Vol. 60, No. 7, 2001, pp. 59-67.

K. Hensley, J. M. Carney, M. P. Mattson, et al., “A Model for Beta-Amyloid Aggregation and Neurotoxicity Based on Free Radical Generation by the Peptide: Relevance to Alzheimer Disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Vol. 91, No. 8, 1994, pp. 3270-3274. doi:/10.1073/pnas.91.8.3270

C. K. Combs, J. C. Karlo, S. C. Kao and G. E. Landreth, “Beta-Amy-Loid Stimulation of Microglia And Monocytes Results in TNFalpha-Dependent Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Neuronal Apoptosis,” The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2001, pp. 1179-1188.

A. Solis-Herrera, M. E.Lara and L. E. Rendón, “The Photoelectrochemical Properties of Melanin,” Nature Precedings, 2007. hdl:10101/npre.2007.1312.1

NOTES

1 Querfurth, Henry W.M.D., Ph.D., LaFerla, Frank M. Ph.D. Alzheimer’s Disease, Mechanisms of Disease. n engl j med 362;4 nejm.org January 28, 2010.



http://biologia.dgenp.unam.mx/inicio/colegio-eeya/actividades/ciclo-escolar-2010-2011-1/encuentro-2011/melanina-fuente-de-energia-limpia

REFERENCES
 
Arturo Solís,  María E. Lara  y Luis Rendón E. (2007). Photoelectrochemical properties of melanin. Nature Precedings.1312:1-9
 
http://www.slideshare.net/Z3TA69/fotosintesis-humana-y-mexico

Arturo Solís Herrera (2009). Melanina  la  clorofila  humana,  su  papel en  el origen  de la  vida y  la posibilidad de que sea  la  tan  buscada materia obscura (darkmatter) en el universo. editorial   Mundi  Comunicaciones, S.A.  de  C.V. México,  D.F. 103pag.

http://uupn.upn.mx//index.php/noticias-educativas/noticias-educativas-2010/75-hidrocalido/20528-mesa-puesta-para-discutir-sobre-foto

http://energiaadebate.com/melanina-la-clorofila-humana/http://energiaadebate.com/melanina-la-clorofila-humana/http://energiaadebate.com/melanina-la-clorofila-humana/

http://www.heraldoags.//local/9539-alumbran-el-centro-varias-lamparas-leds-.html

http://www.hidrocalidodigital.com/local/articulo.php?id=17712

http://www.hidrocalidodigital.com/local/articulo.php?id=18591

http://www.uaa.mx/phpnews/news.php?action=fullnews&id=1503

http://comunidad.ingenet.com.mx/ingaplicada/2011/03/02/bat-gen-bateria-infinita/

http://www..com/local/inauguran-iluminacion-publica-a-base-de-melanina-humana/

http://site.humanphotosynthesis.com/

http://hypatia.morelos.gob.mx/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=498

http://www.researchgate.net/publicliterature.PublicLiteratureDetails.requestFulltext.html?pubid=36789147&fulltextRequested=1&account_firstname=&account_lastname=&account_email=

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2009/0134007.html

http://www.iibce.edu.uy/LEM/MIMOL/lineasdeinvestigacion1.htm

http://www.acmor.org.mx/descargas/oct2907_melanina.pdf

http://www.francia.org.co/spip.php?article84

Dadachova E, Bryan RA, Huang X, Moadel T, Schweitzer AD, et al. (2007) Ionizing Radiation Changes the Electronic Properties of Melanin and Enhances the Growth of Melanized Fungi. PLoS ONE 2(5): e457.

Plonka, P. y Grabacka M. (2006). Melanin synthesis in microorganisms, biotechnological and medical aspects.  Acta Biochim Pol. 53 (3):429-443.

 Piñero, S., Rivera, J., Romero, D., Cevallos, M., Martínez, A., Bolívar, F. y Gosset, G. (2006). Tyrosinase from  Rhizobium etli is envolved in nodulation efficiency and simbiosis-associated stress resistance. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. En prensa.

Lagunas-Muñoz, V., Cabrera-Valladares, N., Bolívar, F., Gosset, G. y Martínez, F. (2006). Optimum melanin production using recombinant Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 101 (5): 1002-1008.

Cabrera-Valladares, N., Martínez, A.,Piñero, S., Lagunas-Muñoz, V., Tinoco, R., de Anda, R., Vázquez-Duhalt, R., Bolívar, F. y Gosset, G. (2006). Expression of the melA gene from Rhizobium etli CFN42 in  Escherichia coli  and characterization of the encoded tyrosinase. Enzyme Microb Tech. 38:772-779.




Your Support Maintains this Service --

BUY

The Rex Research Civilization Kit

... It's Your Best Bet & Investment in Sustainable Humanity on Earth ...
Ensure & Enhance Your Survival & Genome Transmission ...
Everything @ rexresearch.com on a Data DVD !

ORDER PAGE

Rex Research, POB 19250, Jean, NV 89019 USA