Ultra-Dense Deuterium Fusion
Small Reactor with Big Potential
by Michael Abrams
The key to a future of safe, cheap, clean energy is simple:
go with nuclear, but remove the risk. That, of course, would mean
cutting out radiation. If we could render our Geiger counters
archaic and shrink the scale of our reactors and use an
easier-to-come-by source of fuel, then we’d have something truly
Such a future may be within our grasp, thanks to the work of Leif
Holmlid, a professor of atmospheric science in the Department of
Chemistry at the University of Gothenburg. For ten years now, he
has been researching ultra-dense deuterium. This potential fuel
source is made from heavy hydrogen, which happens to be found in
that plentiful stuff of our planet called water. After a while,
Holmlid realized that the distance between the atoms of the
ultra-dense stuff was rather close. “So it was quite possible to
easily start fusion in this material,” he says. Holmlid then set
about doing just that, first in the theoretical world, then in the
The result is a laser-fired fusion reactor that has already
managed to produce more energy than it takes to run. In short, the
technique involves putting deuterium in a high-pressure chamber so
the ultra-dense material forms on the surface. When zapped with a
laser for a few nanoseconds, the fusion process begins. The trick
is timing the pulses of the laser with the production of
deuterium, currently about ten times a second. “That’s the main
thing in the reactor. You don’t have to do much more,” says
The initial laser process in ultra-dense deuterium. Image: Leif
First attempts revealed that the particles coming out of the
reactor were “too fast to be coming from ordinary fusion.” Further
investigation revealed that the particles were not the typical
neutrons, but muons. Muons decay much faster than neutrons, in 2.2
microseconds compared to a neutron’s 1,000-second-long decay. That
means they can easily be absorbed by a simple wall. “There is a
risk with muons,” says Holmid, “You can’t just neglect them. But
the enclosure is much smaller than if you have neutrons.”
Another great advantage to the emission of muons is that, unlike
neutrons, they’re charged, so they can be used to directly produce
electricity. Just how, though, has not yet been determined. “That
is what we are going to investigate next,” says Holmid. The
reactor will likely use a “so-called inverted cyclotron,” a small
magnetic device that makes a charge a circle. And harvesting the
heat the reactor produces will be a mere technical matter.
With the threat of radiation reduced to nearly nothing, Holmlid’s
reactors needn’t take up massive swaths of any municipality. They
could be built small enough to power neighborhoods or even single
homes. “It doesn’t seem that it will be small enough that you can
have it in a car or a robot or something like that,” he says. “But
in a house, yes.”
The ultra-dense deuterium reactor isn’t the only one in
development using heavy hydrogen. But those add tritium, which is
not safe to handle at a large scale, says Holmid. “It is usually
believed you can measure and take care of radioactivity, but
that’s the not the case with tritium,” he says. “You can have lots
of tritium around but you cannot measure it with any instrument,
in the lab, or anywhere.”
Ultra-dense deuterium is some 100,000 times denser than water and
thought to be denser than the stuff at the sun’s core. With luck,
and a good deal more work, it too may bring us free safe light and
April 3, 2016
COLD FUSION Real, Revolutionary, and Ready
Says Leading Scandinavian Newspaper
Aftenposten, a mainstream newspaper in Norway is publishing on
Here is a ‘translation patched up with contextual English/Physics
parlance’ of the April 2, 2016, Norwegian report that features an
interview with Physicist Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen, who revealed
details of an operating experimental cold fusion device in Norway
generating 20 times more energy than required to activate it!
According to Scandinavian physicists ‘cold fusion’ happens due to
the formation of ultradense hydrogen/deuterium as described in the
widely acclaimed work and theoretical understanding by professor
Svein Olafsson (Sindre’s Phd. supervisor in Iceland) and Norway’s
Professor Svein Holmlid.
Finally a proven testable theory for cold fusion that occurs in
microscopic stars inside ordinary metals!
Is this the solution to all our energy problems? Can two guys in a
small industrial office be sitting on the solution to the climate
crisis? The ‘cold fusion’ of ultra dense hydrogen will give us
cars and aircraft with unlimited range. Heat and electricity for
houses will allow them to be unplugged from power company
networks. Or is it just wishful thinking?
In an industrial building, ‘in smoke’ meaning hidden away in
a Norwegian industrial district not academia, that no one in the
Norwegian public has heard about, lies the commercialization
R&D laboratory. There attending to the engineering
facility is PhD student Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen bent over a small
reactor of thick metal.
Even before newly funded research began, he experienced that up to
20 times as much energy coming out of the reactor as what he put
in. Was it cold fusion he witnessed? Aftenposten wrote last summer
about the research in this field, which is not accepted in science
excellent (polite) company. But now the American Physicist
Society, APS, which until this Norwegian work emerged has been
dismissive, has begun to publish works of scientists who show the
effect is real and offer a viable theoretical mechanism proven via
classical physics procedures.
Editors note: Holmlid’s elegant table top fusion reactor and
detector with schematic, can be easily and relatively
inexpensively built of ‘off-the-shelf’ high vacuum parts. A
wonderful contribution to global energy ‘crowd science’. With
Prof. Holmlid’s offer of coaching and help to those reproducing
the work this revelation of every detail will very quickly
separate the pathological skeptics and physics trolls from the
‘earnest and honest scientists’!
The closest thing to the theoretical work and testable supporting
data of Holmlid is the mythical energy announced to the world more
than 25 years ago by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons as cold
fusion (it also goes under the name LENR for Low Energy Nuclear
Reaction). Cold fusion occurs when hydrogen (in the form of
deuterium) is loaded into metals and ‘energized’ in one form or
another. Hydrogen atoms merge with each other and simultaneously
releases an enormous amount of energy that follows Einstein’s
famouse E=mC2 equation.
The energy released is far, far greater than that applied to
create the reaction(s). It’s like fire in the fireplace, really,
just that nuclear fusion, delivers a million times more energy
than any chemical process of combustion. Editors note: Imagine
your homes winters firewood supply multiplied by one million
times, enough wood to bury the city of Gothenburg for each
household contained instead in a single cup full of ‘heavy water.’
Unlike combustion cold fusion does not quickly run out of fuel. As
many other cold fusion researchers have reported in over 1000
published scientific papers Zeiner-Gundersen have run experiments
for long times where they measured an energy production that
is so high that it is impossible to completely explain it as any
known (or conceivable) chemical reaction.
This Will change all energy
“The so-called Coulomb barrier between two atom nuclei suggests
that what we see here is not possible. That I acknowledge. But I
note that it still happens. Therefore we have focused on finding
bugs in our own methods, through probably 1,000 days of tests. The
result varies, but we note still that the reaction takes place.
I’m guessing that within three years, ‘people everywhere’ will be
thinking completely differently about energy than today. Perhaps
as soon 5-10 years we will see this used in aerospace, for the
propulsion of vehicles, boats and aircraft,” says Sindre
Mohammed Bin Salman, Saudi Arabia's Deputy Crown Prince,
interviewed in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on Wednesday, March 30, 2016.
Source: Saudi Arabia's Royal Court
Editors Note: Is Cold Fusion an energy black swan? A series of
reports reveals how seriously some of the world is taking Cold
Fusion transformative technology is revealed in news from Saudi
Arabia’s Royal family and it’s rapid development of the world’s
largest sovereign wealth fund that will rapidly make trillions in
foreign investments to move the country quickly away from it’s
dependence on oil! It’s not just oil sheiks who are interested,
Bill Gates of Microsoft, reportedly the richest man on Earth has
personally visited cold fusion labs in Europe, indulging his
interest and history with ‘black swan’ tech.
A brief history
Researchers who have been pursuing cold fusion energy for decades
claims that it will be possible to create an energy that is so
enormously powerful and so cheap that we will be able to provide
enough energy to power a city like Hamar (where this lab research
is being done) for a year using the energy of cold fusion energy
that comes from a glass of water – without harmful radiation or
emission. Such energy would be so potent that it can become
immediately economically affordable to pull harmful CO2 back from
the atmosphere, or to make saltwater into freshwater. It will
simply be the solution to all our energy problems.
Up to now Cold Fusion/LENR researchers have had difficulty getting
published material in major scientific journals. They acknowledge
as well that they have lacked a credible working theory behind the
experimental results they observe in the lab. Most scientists
believe that nuclear fusion will in fact not be possible without
massive energy levels that simply can not be produced at any
laboratory table. Take for example the work of physicists at CERN.
The results that have come since last summer are still more
remarkable and carries with it a much higher degree of scientific
credibility than before. Meanwhile, the team here are the only
Norwegian physicists who will comment on the case that is based on
their new and solid scientific findings now published and most
possibly due to this new energy source.
Rydberg Matter explains the impossible chemistry
Such hydrogen matter is more dense than what is found in the core
of stars. This shows how normally separated atomic nuclei can be
squashed so closely together, in microscopically small but
atomicly huge domains, such that cold ‘micro’ fusion is easily be
made to occur and be controlled. Click to enlarge
Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen is pursuing a genuine PhD degree at the
so-called Rydberg Matter (see graphic) at the University of
Iceland. Rydbergmaterie is probably a precursor to cold fusion,
according Zeiner-Gundersen. He also believes his supervisor in
Iceland, Svein Olafsson. Olafsson is a professor of solid state
nuclear physics and has since 2014 made efforts which also
confirms cold fusion. Olafsson, who has been chairman of the
Icelandic physicist Association for several years and has also
done experiments at Isolde laboratory CERN, picks happily up the
phone when Aftenposten rings.
For me the Cold Fusion/LENR effect is an experimental reality. I
have studied some of the 500 – 1000 articles published in the
field since 1989. We can already say that we have discovered so
much enormous energy that this source within 5-10 years will
transform all energy. But it will take time before the world
understands it. You could compare it to when Wright brothers first
flew. They flew in 1903. But it was not until 1908 that they broke
through. People did not believe it before they even saw it. When
such a breakthrough occurs in the public consciousness, there will
be enormous resources to the field.
More than 400 scientists worldwide work on it but the pursuit of
cold fusion comes at a price
Until now there have been very few and far between academics like
Olafsson, who endorse cold fusion. It is taught at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT), but at the start of the course
students are warned that their choice of study might harm their
One of the reasons that Olafsson now may speak so cocksure about
that which among mainstream physicists most perceived an
impossibility, is that he is not alone anymore. For example, the
American academic physicist Robert Duncan (Texas Tech) who like
the American physicist association pointed out the need to make
independent examination of the phenomenon before the mainstream is
We are now an informal network of some 400 physicists worldwide
who work with matter and look at cold fusion as real, says
Another reason why Olafsson feels confident the research is real
is the work of Leif Holmlid. Holmlid is professor emeritus of
chemistry at the University of Gothenburg and has a long career.
He has both helped assess potential laureates for the Nobel
Committee, and has published over 200 scientific papers. Unlike
most Cold Fusion/LENR researchers, the work of both Olafsson and
Holmlid very recently published their revolutionary work on
Rdyberg Matter in the prestigious journals of the American
Physical Society, with its 50,000 members it is the largest
organization physicists in the world. There will be no more
“mainstream” than that.
Holmlid would still rather not be called a Cold Fusion/LENR
researcher or associated with the concept of cold fusion. (Perhaps
he sat in on that course at MIT.) It is a tough title to dodge as
last autumn he published startling results from his pursuit of a
new energy source in one of the journals of the American Physical
Society, AIP Advances.
Svein Olafsson characterizes Holmlid as follows, – Until now, cold
fusion research groped blindly, because we have not had any
credible theory about what’s going on. But with Holmlid work we
have a path that we can start walking. I would not be surprised if
Holmlid ends with getting the Nobel Prize for what he now found
out, says Olafsson.
Impossible according to the current laws of physics
There are several things that make disregard for cold fusion
natural among physicists in general. Fundamental physical laws
dictate namely two things: One is that any nuclear merger/fusion
process must emit radiation, and the second is that the so-called
Coulomb barrier must be exceeded to initiate fusion.
The Coulomb barrier is a force between atoms that prevents
everyday nuclear reactions by pushing reactive nuclei apart.
Traditional theory suggests that one must up the energy levels of
atoms to the equivalent of a temperature of millions of degrees to
start a process that will begin to allow nuclei to collide, merge
and release large amounts of energy through fusion.
Cold fusion researchers have for years claimed that they can
initiate a merger process with some equipment on a desk. This has
profoundly challenged the established scientific community who
have refused to accept it since it was proclaimed in 1989.
When first declared the there-to-fore prestigious American
Physical Society denounced it by calling for a show of hands at a
press conference and claiming that the show of hands proved cold
fusion could not have taken place since the scientists did not
measure sufficient neutrons. (Editors note: The ‘high
priest/inquisitors’ of APS physics conducted this ‘Kangaroo Court’
only four weeks after the news of the cold fusion energy discovery
had gone worldwide.)
That Mysterious Rydberg Micro Matter
The physicists then knew nothing about, the extreme fabric ultra
dense deuterium, which Holmlid later detected. This new cold
fusion drug is admittedly not yet perfectly experimentally fully
verified, but very close.
According Holmlid his Rydberg Matter has nevertheless a local
density which makes it weighs mind-boggling 130 tons per. liter.
If you had a milk carton with ultra dense deuterium in the
refrigerator, the carton tunnel a hole through your house
The substance is 1,000 times denser than solar core. The
quantities used in the experiments are fortunately only ultra thin
flakes and is therefore not dangerous heavy. This material
contains the secret that makes cold fusion is possible, according
I think it’s ultra dense deuterium that can explain all the
results from experiments with cold fusion, he said.
It is worth noting that virtually all Cold Fusion/LENR experiments
are using just hydrogen and deuterium, which in different ways are
packed as closely as possible into a metal and then energized.
Cold fusion tests variability now understood
In ultra dense deuterium is the core particles according Holmlid
theory become so dense that Coulomb barrier is no longer an
insurmountable obstacle. With just a little extra energy begins
nuclei to fuse and emit extremely high energy.
This theory may also explain why it is so difficult to repeat Cold
Fusion/LENR experiments with similar results. The tests can appear
to be simple to repeat, and it is published over 100 such
repetitions since 1989, but the amount of energy that comes out is
highly variable from time to time.
The reason is, according Holmlid the merger takes place in the
microscopic fracture zones within the solid metal substances
deuterium loaded in. Since it is impossible to create the interior
of a metal sample 100 percent identical from time to time, it may
become violent fluctuations in the effect of attempts to
experiments, depending on exactly how the metal is composed.
Mysterious Muon Radiation (Mischugenons?)
When Holmlid initiated the process of laser pulse on ultra dense
deuterium his work always revealed one or other form of energetic
particles (radiation) out. But what kind? The researchers looked
and looked for different types with different detectors. After
much ado, they found eventually that laser pulse of ultra dense
matter emits so-called muons, contrary to assumptions.
Olafsson is now accepted to give a talk about the experiment for
the prestigious American Physical Society in April.
One of the “problems” with both Holmlid attempts and cold fusion
research is that experiments only produce very little radiation.
It’s no wonder that physicists most do not believe that it can
proceed fusion at room temperature, because all fusion according
to the (former) ‘laws of nature’ MUST produce abundant
dangerous unmistakable radiation. Another article by Holmlid and
Olafsson found that even with no laser pulse a weak radiation
arises similar to that detected in the second laser activated cold
fusion experiments. Olafsson think that ultra dense deuterium may
have two different methods to conduct a nuclear process.
Editors note: Read more about another discovery of crazy
radiation, mischugenons, in the 1990’s described with the help of
the real Dr. Strangelove, father of the hydrogen bomb Edward
Revives research from the 50’s
The interesting thing with the discovery of muons is that this is
extremely coveted and rare particles. They can be used to conduct
so-called muon-catalyzed fusion, which was discovered already in
the ’50s. The method has never received special attention because
muons are far too costly to produce.
Now therefore Holmlid discovered a rich source of the extremely
coveted particles. The next step now is to use them to drive a
fusion reactor. This he has already signed a contract with the
so-called incubator at the University of Gothenburg to realize
The idea is to replace the dirty boiler in existing coal power
plants with a pure fusion reactor, which is also much cheaper to
operate because it almost does not need fuel. Already from the
beginning there will be more economical with such a merger than to
burn coal, thinks Holmlid. He believes that all the necessary
scientific findings are now done. The professor thinks we already,
in 2-3 years, could see a completely finished new energy
technology ready for full-scale commercialization.
Unfortunately muon catalyzed fusion ordinarily is expected to
produce much radiation. Next steps Holmlid will be to achieve muon
cold fusion, which almost will not emit radiation. The muons it
emits are so weak that they are stopped by a few centimeters of
concrete or steel. In addition muons are negatively charged
particles, effectively electrons! That means they can be used to
produce electricity directly, without using the heat to first
How about a fusion power plant in the basement?
My Cold Fusion Simple Kilowatt™ heater now in development
Editors note: Perhaps Prof. Holmlid would like our Atom-Ecology
Cold Fusion Simple Kilowatt™ heater now in development. It is no
more complex or costly than an ordinary compact flourescent light
bulb powered by a similar tiny input of electricity yet intended
to heat an entire home.
Holmlid envisions that by the public should be able to buy small
cold fusion power that will be the size of a small refrigerator.
Such home power plants could produce 15 kilowatts. This is about
what you need to keep your home with electricity. The device need
not be greater in size such than it can be placed under the hood
of an electric car instead of batteries.
The price, according Holmlid get depends on laser technology
chosen, but probably will be at some ten thousand crowns
(Norwegian currency 1 kr = 10 cents USD). Regardless of this cost
this will be quickly recovered your for someone who has a house,
which typically have 20,000 kroner in annual energy expenditure.
To cover a small country’s, like Norway, energy consumption for a
year, Holmlid estimates that there will be enough energy provided
by about 100 kg deuterium. 100 kg of deuterium costs at current
rates no more than 700,000 crowns, that’s a mere $70,000!
Not good news for a country like Norway that lives off oil. But
for the world as a whole wouldn’t something like that be an
absolutely insane transformational energy revolution.
Is this too good to be true
The big question then becomes: Is this too good to be true?
Holmlid has published the findings publicly, and the basic process
he can therefore not take a patent on anymore. He has the right,
the world is just in front of a solution to the whole problem of
climate change, which many consider to be humanity’s greatest
problem. When something sounds to be too good to be true, it is
– Ultra Dense deuterium is not experimentally proven fully and it
is so new and there are few scientific groups who have tried to
repeat your experiments?
– Unfortunately, the biggest problem in this field lack of
interest. I will help anyone who will try to replicate what I’ve
done. Unfortunately it is not so very easy. But I hope someone
tries. It would make everything much easier for me.
The findings of Holmlid and Olafsson, and also earlier findings on
cold fusion field, is increasingly seen as credible among
mainstream physicists. However not all, Physics Professor Dieter
Röhrich at the University of Bergen has seen some of Svein
Olafsson and Leif Holmlid latest publications for Aftenposten and
also had a two-hour videoconference with them to clear up any
confusion. Nevertheless, he is still very critical (verging on
being what is characterized as a pathological skeptic, naturally
so as his career is based on theories that will be up-ended as the
reality of cold fusion emerges.)
Antagonist/skeptic from big money physics Vatican
Editors Note: Antagonist/skeptic Röhrich parrots the view of big
money physics Vatican, aka CERN. He and his ilk have the most to
lose as Holmlid’s work becomes accepted.
Röhrich acknowledges that any radiation from the experiments would
be a sensational discovery, but is far from convinced.
– “Many claim that they have discovered radiation are presented in
the articles, but no irrefutable evidence presented. To measure an
unknown radiation source is complicated, and I do not see that
they have managed to do it”, he says.
– But now that the material is the accepted by the prestigious
American Physical Society and was peer-reviewed by them, the
– He retorts, “peers are not infallible, and they can not – and
should not – check everything. It does not have to be about a scam
that I mean either. Most likely, the results caused by wishful
thinking. It’s easy to get caught in their own world and not see
the mistakes you make. That is why we in CERN has several
experiments that largely does the same. A minimum is that
experiments must be so nondescript that they can be repeated. But
I do not even understand what they want to measure – muons,
electrons, gamma radiation or neutrons,” says Röhrich. He
acknowledges muon catalyzed cold fusion is possible, but notes
that the muon lifetime is so short that the technology is unlikely
to make practical application.”
Yet in the end he is not entirely dismissive to further explore
Svein Olafsson has been watching criticism from Röhrich.
“I understand actually criticism from Röhrich well. We had a good
discussion, and I agree that probably 95 percent of everything
that has been done within the cold fusion field is experimental
error. Most have only using luck managed to produce energy. But
the last 5 percent is scientifically published. Röhrich do not
know cold fusion literature and have not had time to go through
all these experiments. Therefore he shows a healthy skepticism
which I respect”, says Olafsson.
Editors note: What Holmlid’s true peers have been saying for some
years in published papers as opposed to off the cuff pontificating
“If as reported the state of ultradense deuterium exists, and if
it is sufficiently stable to exist long enough, it could become
for the release of nuclear energy as important as was the
discovery of nuclear fission by Hahn and Strassmann. It is the
purpose of this note that on purely theoretical grounds an
ultradense state of deuterium cannot be easily dismissed.” – F.
A New Norwegian Race For Heavy Water?
Svein Holmlid is a chemist and nuclear work is not his specialty.
Olafsson, who is a physicist, points out however that Holmlid is
at home because his first discovery in 2008 was done with standard
experimental methods of physical chemistry, and had nothing to do
with the exotic cold fusion/lenr.
“Holmlid experiments are structured so that any minimal sign of
radioactivity is a simple, beautiful, strong and irrefutable
evidence that reveals immediate consequences in the saga and
mystery of cold fusion. Such cold fusion is observed in over 100
published articles since 1989. But experiments where radioactivity
can be turn on and off in a controlled manner – like his, is not
possible by any known theory,” he says.
He points out that he does not claim to have resolved the matter
and found the one answer, the ‘Holy Grail’ of energy physics.
“But we claim that we have found something that requires
explanation. In order to progress, we need lots of additional
research and help from other groups. We three scientists can not
do this job alone,” emphasizes Sveinn Olafsson.
Various groups of course are arguing about this new physics
reality for a variety of reasons. Where does oil nation Norway
show up in this? It may be worth recalling that the more popular
name of ‘deuterium’ is ‘heavy water’. Are we seeing evidence of a
secret battle for or against heavy water? This begins to remind
one of the famous Norwegian role in producing heavy water during
World War II at the ultra-secret Nazi Vermork plant that was
destroyed it what historians describe as perhaps the most
important military action of World War II by the ‘Hero’s of
Let’s head back to smoke ( the industrial side of town), there’s
father Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen watching his son’s PhD degree.
M.Sc. Day Zeiner-Gundersen has even two doctorates, is chairman of
small Norse AS and sets with the money and the laboratory that
makes it possible for his son to carry out research funded by
industry. Today has followed the Cold Fusion/LENR field since
Sindres father Day Zeiner-Gundersen has even two doctorates and
has been anxiously engaged in cold fusion for many years already.
“Norse AS have seen enough that we now know that Cold Fusion/LENR
gives a real effect. But one should be very careful with quick
conclusions since possible sources of error are numerous. There is
surprisingly little LENR research in Norway, a discipline that
several players around the world are researching. Very much of the
research we are doing in this country has a little too much with a
“snuggle research.” (That’s Norwegian slang for ‘cozy
uncontroversial research.’) Maybe the petroleum crisis will get
Norway to wake up? We certainly can not continue as we have done.
At 50 years, we have people contaminated (with fossil fuel fumes)
as much as throughout human history. Future challenges in energy
must be resolved by examining several options, including the
controversial,” says Dag Zeiner-Gundersen.
Are you interested in this technology that can save the world
A major essay has just appeared in the highly touted AEON Magazine
by Huw Price, who is the Bertrand Russell Professor of Philosophy
and a fellow of Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. He
is also Academic Director of the Centre for the Study of
Existential Risk. His AEON Essay is titled, “The Cold Fusion
Horizon, Is cold fusion truly impossible, or is it just that no
respectable scientist can risk their reputation working on
it?” Prof. Price tells the story of a remarkable
demonstration just concluded in Florida where a megawatt of cold
fusion power has been used in an industrial plant for more than 1
Ultra-dense Deuterium May Be Nuclear
Fuel Of The Future
A material that is a hundred thousand times heavier than water and
more dense than the core of the Sun is being produced at a
university. The scientists working with this material are aiming
for an energy process that is both more sustainable and less
damaging to the environment than the nuclear power used today.
A material that is a hundred thousand times heavier than water and
more dense than the core of the Sun is being produced at the
University of Gothenburg. The scientists working with this
material are aiming for an energy process that is both more
sustainable and less damaging to the environment than the nuclear
power used today.
Imagine a material so heavy that a cube with sides of length 10 cm
weights 130 tonnes, a material whose density is significantly
greater than the material in the core of the Sun. Such a material
is being produced and studied by scientists in Atmospheric Science
at the Department of Chemistry, the University of Gothenburg.
Towards commercial use
So far, only microscopic amounts of the new material have been
produced. New measurements that have been published in two
scientific journals, however, have shown that the distance between
atoms in the material is much smaller than in normal matter. Leif
Holmlid, Professor in the Department of Chemistry, believes that
this is an important step on the road to commercial use of the
The material is produced from heavy hydrogen, also known as
deuterium, and is therefore known as “ultra-dense deuterium”. It
is believed that ultra-dense deuterium plays a role in the
formation of stars, and that it is probably present in giant
planets such as Jupiter.
An efficient fuel
So what can this super-heavy material be used for?
“One important justification for our research is that ultra-dense
deuterium may be a very efficient fuel in laser driven nuclear
fusion. It is possible to achieve nuclear fusion between deuterium
nuclei using high-power lasers, releasing vast amounts of energy”,
says Leif Holmlid.
The laser technology has long been tested on frozen deuterium,
known as “deuterium ice”, but results have been poor. It has
proved to be very difficult to compress the deuterium ice
sufficiently for it to attain the high temperature required to
ignite the fusion.
Energy source of the future
Ultra-dense deuterium is a million times more dense than frozen
deuterium, making it relatively easy to create a nuclear fusion
reaction using high-power pulses of laser light.
“If we can produce large quantities of ultra-dense deuterium, the
fusion process may become the energy source of the future. And it
may become available much earlier than we have thought possible”,
says Leif Holmlid.
“Further, we believe that we can design the deuterium fusion such
that it produces only helium and hydrogen as its products, both of
which are completely non-hazardous. It will not be necessary to
deal with the highly radioactive tritium that is planned for use
in other types of future fusion reactors, and this means that
laser-driven nuclear fusion as we envisage it will be both more
sustainable and less damaging to the environment than other
methods that are being developed.”
Deuterium – brief facts
Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen that is found in large
quantities in water, more than one atom per ten thousand hydrogen
atoms has a deuterium nucleus. The isotope is denoted “2H” or “D”,
and is normally known as “heavy hydrogen”. Deuterium is used in a
number of conventional nuclear reactors in the form of heavy water
(D2O), and it will probably also be used as fuel in fusion
reactors in the future.
Small-scale nuclear fusion may be a
new energy source
Fusion energy may soon be used in small-scale power stations. This
means producing environmentally friendly heating and electricity
at a low cost from fuel found in water. Both heating generators
and generators for electricity could be developed within a few
years, according to research that has primarily been conducted at
the University of Gothenburg.
Nuclear fusion is a process whereby atomic nuclei melt together
and release energy. Because of the low binding energy of the tiny
atomic nuclei, energy can be released by combining two small
nuclei with a heavier one. A collaboration between researchers at
the University of Gothenburg and the University of Iceland has
been to study a new type of nuclear fusion process. This produces
almost no neutrons but instead fast, heavy electrons (muons),
since it is based on nuclear reactions in ultra-dense heavy
"This is a considerable advantage compared to other nuclear fusion
processes which are under development at other research
facilities, since the neutrons produced by such processes can
cause dangerous flash burns," says Leif Holmlid, Professor
Emeritus at the University of Gothenburg.
No radiation The new fusion process can take place in relatively
small laser-fired fusion reactors fueled by heavy hydrogen
(deuterium). It has already been shown to produce more energy than
that needed to start it. Heavy hydrogen is found in large
quantities in ordinary water and is easy to extract. The dangerous
handling of radioactive heavy hydrogen (tritium) which would most
likely be needed for operating large-scale fusion reactors with a
magnetic enclosure in the future is therefore unnecessary.
" A considerable advantage of the fast heavy electrons produced by
the new process is that these are charged and can therefore
produce electrical energy instantly. The energy in the neutrons
which accumulate in large quantities in other types of nuclear
fusion is difficult to handle because the neutrons are not
charged. These neutrons are high-energy and very damaging to
living organisms, whereas the fast, heavy electrons are
considerably less dangerous."
Neutrons are difficult to slow down or stop and require reactor
enclosures that are several meters thick. Muons -- fast, heavy
electrons -- decay very quickly into ordinary electrons and
Research shows that far smaller and simpler fusion reactors can be
built. The next step is to create a generator that produces
instant electrical energy.
The research done in this area has been supported by GU Ventures
AB, the holding company linked to the University of Gothenburg.
The results have recently been published in three international
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 40, Issue
33, 7 September 2015, Pages 10559–10567
Spontaneous ejection of high-energy
particles from ultra-dense deuterium D(0)
Leif Holmlid, Sveinn Olafsson
High-energy particles are detected from spontaneous processes in
an ultra-dense deuterium D(0) layer. Intense distributions of such
penetrating particles are observed using energy spectroscopy and
glass converters. Laser-induced emission of neutral particles with
time-of-flight energies of 1–30 MeV u−1 was previously reported in
the same system. Both spontaneous line-spectra and a spontaneous
broad energy distribution similar to a beta-decay distribution are
observed. The broad distribution is concluded to be due to nuclear
particles, giving straight-line Kurie-like plots. It is observed
even at a distance of 3 m in air and has a total rate of 107–1010
s−1. If spontaneous nuclear fusion or other nuclear processes take
place in D(0), it may give rise to the high-energy particle
signal. Low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) and so called cold
fusion may also give rise to such particles.
Department of Chemistry
University of Gothenburg
My main research interest since some time is dense and ultra-dense
hydrogen forms. These materials are the lowest energy states of
Rydberg Matter. This is a state of matter of the same status as
liquid or solid, since it can be formed by a large number of atoms
and small molecules. For a more complete description, see
The lowest state of Rydberg Matter in excitation state n = 1 can
only be formed from hydrogen (protium and deuterium) atoms and is
designated H(1) or D(1). This is dense or metallic hydrogen, which
we have studied for a few years. The bond distance is 153 pm, or
2.9 times the Bohr radius. It has a density of approximately 0.6
kg / dm3. See for example Ref. 167 below!
A much denser state exists for deuterium, named D(-1) or d(-1). We
call it ultra-dense deuterium. This is the inverse of D(1), and
the bond distance is very small, equal to 2.3 pm. Its density is
extremely large, >130 kg / cm3. Due to the short bond distance,
D-D fusion is expected to take place easily in this material. See
Wikipedia! See also a press release and listen to a radio
interview in Swedish (10.50 min into the program). A similar but
not identical material formed from protium is called p(-1) or
A theoretical description of ultra-dense deuterium D(-1) has been
published by Friedwardt Winterberg. See these links to Journal of
Fusion Energy, and Physics Letters A. The first experiments
showing nuclear fusion in D(-1) can be found as Refs. 191 and 201
Ultra-dense deuterium was recently shown to be the first
room-temperature superfluid, see Ref. 196 below. It also shows a
Meissner effect at room temperature (Ref. 204) and is thus
probably also superconductive at room temperature.
Some recent publications:
210. P.U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Fast atoms and negative chain
cluster fragments from laser-induced Coulomb explosions in a
super-fluid film of ultra-dense deuterium D(-1)". Phys. Scripta,
209. L. Holmlid, "Method and apparatus for generating energy
through inertial confinement fusion".
208. F. Olofson and L. Holmlid, "Superfluid ultra-dense deuterium
D(-1) on polymer surfaces: structure and density changes at a
J. Appl. Phys. 111, 123502 (2012);DOI: 10.1063/1.4729078
207. F. Olofson, A. Ehn, J. Bood, L. Holmlid, "Large intensities
of MeV particles and strong charge ejections from laser-induced
fusion in ultra-dense deuterium".
39th EPS Conference & 16th Int. Congress on Plasma Physics,
Stockholm, 2012; 12-02-20, P1.105.
206. F. Olofson and L. Holmlid, "Detection of MeV particles from
ultra-dense protium p(-1): laser-initiated self-compression from
Nucl. Intr. Meth. B 278 (2012) 34-41. DOI:
205 L. Holmlid, "MeV particles from laser-initiated processes in
ultra-dense deuterium D(-1)".
Eup. Phys. J. A 48 (2012) 11. DOI: 10.1140/epja/i2012-12011-0.
204. P.U. Andersson, L. Holmlid, and S.R. Fuelling, "Search for
superconductivity in ultra-dense deuterium D(-1) at room
temperature: depletion of D(-1) at field strength > 0.05 T".
J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 25 (2012) 873-882. DOI:
203. P.U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Cluster ions DN+ ejected from
dense and ultra-dense deuterium by Coulomb explosions: fragment
rotation and D+ backscattering from ultra-dense clusters in the
Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 310 (2012) 32-43. DOI:
202. L. Holmlid, "Experimental studies of clusters of Rydberg
matter and its extreme dense forms". Invited review.
J. Cluster Sci. 23 (2012) 5-34. DOI: 10.1007/s10876-011-0417-z.
201. P.U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Fusion generated fast
particles by laser impact on ultra-dense deuterium: rapid
variation with laser intensity".
J. Fusion Energy 31 (2012) 249-256. DOI 10.1007/s10894-011-9468-2.
200. L. Holmlid, "Sub-nanometer distances and cluster shapes in
dense hydrogen and in higher levels of hydrogen Rydberg Matter by
J. Nanopart. Res. 13 (2011) 5535-5546. DOI
199. L. Holmlid, "Diffuse interstellar bands (DIB) in space:
almost all bands calculated from co-planar doubly excited He and
metal atoms embedded in Rydberg Matter".
Astrophys. Space Sci. 336 (2011) 391-412. DOI
198. L. Holmlid, "Deuterium clusters DN and mixed K-D and D-H
clusters of Rydberg Matter: high temperatures and strong coupling
to ultra-dense deuterium".
J. Cluster Sci. 23 (2012) 95-114. DOI 10.1007/s10876-011-0387-1.
197. L. Holmlid, "High-charge Coulomb explosions of clusters in
ultra-dense deuterium D(-1)".
Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 304 (2011) 51–56. doi:
196. P.U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Superfluid ultra-dense
deuterium D(-1) at room temperature".
Phys. Lett. A 375 (2011) 1344–1347.
195. L. Holmlid, "Large ion clusters HN+ of Rydberg Matter: stacks
of planar clusters H7".
Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300 (2011) 50-58.
194. P. U. Andersson, B. Lönn and L. Holmlid, "Efficient source
for the production of ultra-dense deuterium D(-1) for
laser-induced fusion (ICF)". Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82 (2011) 013503.
193. M. Trebala, W. Rozek, L. Holmlid, M. Molenda, and A.
Kotarba,"Potassium stabilization in ß-K2Fe22O34 by Cr and Ce
doping studied by field reversal method". Solid State Ionics
(2011) . doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2010.08.004.
192. L. Holmlid, "Common forms of alkali metals - new Rydberg
Matter clusters of potassium and hydrogen". J. Clust. Sci 21
(2010) 637-653. DOI: 10.1007/s10876-010-0291-0.
191. S. Badiei, P. U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Laser-driven
nuclear fusion D+D in ultra-dense deuterium: MeV particles formed
without ignition". Laser Part. Beams 28 (2010) 313-317
190. P. U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Deuteron energy of 15 MK in
a surface phase of ultra-dense deuterium without plasma formation:
temperature of the interior of the Sun". Phys. Lett. A 374 (2010)
189. S. Badiei, P. U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Production of
ultra-dense deuterium, a compact future fusion fuel". Appl. Phys.
Lett. 96 (2010) 124103. doi:10.1063/1.3371718.
188. F. Olofson, P. U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Rydberg Matter
clusters of alkali metal atoms: the link between meteoritic
matter, polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE), sporadic sodium
layers, polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs, NLCs), and ion chemistry
in the mesosphere". arXiv.org 10-02-08, astro-ph/1002.1570.
187. S. Badiei, P.U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Laser-induced
variable pulse-power TOF-MS and neutral time-of-flight studies of
ultra-dense deuterium". Phys. Scripta 81 (2010) 045601. doi:
186. P. U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Ultra-dense deuterium: a
possible nuclear fuel for inertial confinement fusion (ICF)".
Phys. Letters A 373 (2009) 3067–3070.
185. L. Holmlid, H. Hora, G. Miley and X. Yang, "Ultrahigh-density
deuterium of Rydberg matter clusters for inertial confinement
fusion targets". Laser and Particle Beams 27 (2009) 529–532.
184. A. Kotarba and L. Holmlid, "Energy-pooling transitions to
doubly excited K atoms at a promoted
iron-oxide catalyst surface: more than 30 eV available for
reaction". Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11 (2009) 4351-4359. DOI:
183. S. Badiei, P. U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "High-energy
Coulomb explosions in ultra-dense deuterium: time-of-flight mass
spectrometry with variable energy and flight length". Int. J. Mass
Spectrom. 282 (2009) 70-76. Link to abstract and paper.
182. L. Holmlid, "Nm interatomic distances in Rydberg Matter
clusters confirmed by phase-delay spectroscopy". J. Nanopart. Res.
12 (2010) 273-284. DOI 10.1007/s11051-009-9605-2.
181. L. Holmlid, "Light in condensed matter in the upper
atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized
light from Rydberg Matter". Astrobiol. 9 (2009) 535-542.
180. L. Holmlid, "Nuclear spin transitions in the kHz range in
Rydberg Matter clusters give precise values of the internal
magnetic field from orbiting Rydberg electrons". Chem. Phys. 358
179. S. Badiei, P. U. Andersson and L. Holmlid, "Fusion reactions
in high-density hydrogen: a fast route to small-scale fusion?"
Int. J. Hydr. Energy 34 (2009) 487-495. Link to abstract and
L. Holmlid, "Rydberg Matter - diary from the laboratory"
(translation of title in Swedish "Rydbergsmateria - dagbok från
labbet". Forskning och Framsteg 38:4 (2003) 14-17.
Laser experiment on ultra-dense deuterium
The initial laser process in ultra-dense deuterium
Method and apparatus for generating energy through inertial
The present invention relates to a method of generating energy by
nuclear fusion. The method comprises the steps of: bringing (100)
hydrogen in a gaseous state into contact with a hydrogen transfer
catalyst (14) configured to cause a transition of the hydrogen
from the gaseous state to an ultra-dense state; collecting (101)
the hydrogen in the ultra-dense state on a carrier (3) configured
to substantially confine the hydrogen in the ultra-dense state
within a fuel collection portion (16) of the carrier; transporting
(102) the carrier to an irradiation location (9); and subjecting
(103), at the irradiation location, the hydrogen in the
ultra-dense state to irradiation having sufficient energy to
achieve break-even in energy generation by nuclear fusion.
Field of the invention
 The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for
generating energy through inertial confinement fusion.
Background of the invention
 Fusion is one of the candidates for future large scale
generation of energy without the emission problems associated with
burning fossil fuel and the fuel disposal problem of traditional
fission nuclear power.
 Research into energy generation using fusion follows a
number of parallel tracks. Most effort is currently spent on
developing reactors for magnetic confinement fusion and inertial
confinement fusion (ICF).
 In inertial confinement fusion, a small pellet (usually
referred to as "target") containing, for example, Deuterium (D)
ice or Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) ice is irradiated with lasers to
compress and heat the target sufficiently to initiate a fusion
reaction inside the target. The target may be irradiated directly
by UV-lasers. There is also an indirect approach, where a
so-called hohlraum is irradiated with lasers so that the target is
in turn irradiated with X-ray radiation from the hohlraum.
 In current large scale research systems for ICF, a large
number of very high energy laser beams are focused on the target
in a gigantic target chamber. Because of various issues including
instabilities inside the target, considerably more energy than was
previously expected appears to be necessary to achieve so-called
ignition, making it difficult to achieve a commercially viable
inertial confinement fusion energy power plant.
 In order to address some of the problems associated with
ICF, it has been proposed to provide a target made of a denser
form of hydrogen, so-called ultra-dense hydrogen. It has been
demonstrated that ultra-dense deuterium can be formed by flowing
deuterium gas through the pores of a hydrogen transfer catalyst.
The formation of ultra-dense protium has also been reported
elsewhere. It is expected that a target made of such ultradense
hydrogen (protium, deuterium or tritium) should require
considerably less irradiated energy for ignition than the
currently used deuterium-tritium ice pellets. The formation of
ultra-dense deuterium is, for example, reported in the article
"Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1)
for laser-induced fusion (ICF)" by P. U. Andersson, B. Lönn and L.
Holmlid, Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 013503 (2011 ).
Although the results in this article provide a useful background,
further development is required to achieve laser induced fusion
using ultra-dense hydrogen targets.
 It is an object of the present invention to address the
above, and to provide for energy generation using ultra-dense
hydrogen as a target for inertial confinement fusion (ICF).
 According to a first aspect of the present invention, it is
therefore provided a method of generating energy, comprising the
steps of bringing hydrogen in a gaseous state into contact with a
hydrogen transfer catalyst configured to cause a transition of the
hydrogen from the gaseous state to an ultra-dense state;
collecting the hydrogen in the ultra-dense state on a carrier
configured to substantially confine the hydrogen in the
ultra-dense state within a fuel collection portion of the carrier;
transporting the carrier to an irradiation location; and
subjecting, at the irradiation location, the hydrogen in the
ultradense state to irradiation having sufficient energy to
 "Hydrogen" should, in the context of the present
application, be understood to include any isotope or mix of
isotopes where the nucleus has a single proton. In particular,
hydrogen includes protium, deuterium, tritium and any combination
 By hydrogen in an "ultra-dense state" should, at least in
the context of the present application, be understood hydrogen in
the form of a quantum material (quantum fluid) in which adjacent
nuclei are within one Bohr radius of each other. In other words,
the nucleus-nucleus distance in the ultra-dense state is
considerably less than 50 pm. In the following, hydrogen in the
ultradense state will be referred to as H(-1) (or D(-1) when
deuterium is specifically referred to). The terms "hydrogen in an
ultra-dense state" and "ultra-dense hydrogen" are used
synomymously throughout this application.
 A "hydrogen transfer catalyst" is any catalyst capable of
absorbing hydrogen gas molecules (H2) and dissociating these
molecules to atomic hydrogen, that is, catalyze the reaction H2 →
2H. The name hydrogen transfer catalyst implies that the so-formed
hydrogen atoms on the catalyst surface can rather easily attach to
other molecules on the surface and thus be transferred from one
molecule to another. The hydrogen transfer catalyst may further be
configured to cause a transition of the hydrogen into the
ultradense state if the hydrogen atoms are prevented from
re-forming covalent bonds. The mechanisms behind the catalytic
transition from the gaseous state to the ultra-dense state are
quite well understood, and it has been experimentally shown that
this transition can be achieved using various hydrogen transfer
catalysts, including, for example, commercially available
so-called styrene catalysts, as well as (purely) metallic
catalysts, such as Iridium and Palladium. It should be noted that
the hydrogen transfer catalyst does not necessarily have to
transition the hydrogen in the gaseous state to the ultra-dense
state directly upon contact with the hydrogen transfer catalyst.
Instead, the hydrogen in the gaseous state may first be caused to
transition to a dense state H(1), to later spontaneously
transition to the ultra-dense state H(-1). Also in this latter
case has the hydrogen transfer catalyst caused the hydrogen to
transition from the gaseous state to the ultra-dense state.
 In the dense state H(1), which is a higher-energy state
than the ultradense state, the distance between adjacent nuclei is
around 150 pm.
 That ultra-dense hydrogen has actually been formed can be
determined by irradiating the result of the catalytic reaction
with a laser and then measuring the time of flight of emitted
particles. An example of such determination will be described in
greater detail under the heading "Experimental results" further
 That the hydrogen in the ultra-dense state (the H(-1)) is
"substantially confined" within the fuel collection portion of the
carrier should be understood to mean that the concentration of
H(-1) is substantially higher within the fuel collection portion
of the carrier than outside that portion. This can readily be
determined using the above-mentioned time of flight measurement.
 The properties of ultra-dense hydrogen and methods for
causing gaseous hydrogen to transition to ultra-dense hydrogen
using different types of hydrogen transfer catalysts, as well as
methods for detecting the presence and location of ultra-dense
hydrogen, have been studied extensively by the present inventor
and others. Results of these studies have, for example, been
S. Badiei, P.U. Andersson, and L. Holmlid, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
34, 487 (2009 );
S. Badiei, P.U. Andersson, and L. Holmlid, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom.
282, 70 (2009 );
L. Holmlid, Eur. Phys. J. A 48 (2012) 11 ; and
P.U. Andersson, B. Lönn, and L. Holmlid, Review of Scientific
Instruments 82, 013503 (2011 ).
 Each of these scientific articles is hereby incorporated by
reference in its entirity.
 "Break-even" in fusion has been achieved when the particles
(ions, neutrons and photons) emitted following irradiation of the
ultra-dense hydrogen together exhibit a kinetic energy and photon
energy that is at least two times the energy of the irradiation,
i.e. when a net energy output is obtained. The requirement for
break-even is normally fulfilled when the ion kinetic energy
observed in the experiments is higher than the energy of the
irradiation, since the summed emitted photon energy and neutron
kinetic energy is expected to be larger than the total ion energy.
 The present invention is based on the realization that
energy generation above break-even can be achieved if a sufficient
amount of ultradense hydrogen can be collected and transported to
an irradiation location. Since the ultra-dense hydrogen is
superfluid, it is difficult to keep in place and transport. The
present inventor has, however, further realized that the carrier
can be configured to substantially confine the ultra-dense
hydrogen within a portion of the carrier. In this manner, a
sufficient amount of the ultra-dense hydrogen, arranged within a
limited target area, can be transported to the irradiation
location, where it can be irradiated so that fusion occurs and
highly energetic particles are emitted with sufficient kinetic
energy to achieve break-even. In particular, the ultra-dense
hydrogen can hereby be provided in a sufficiently thick layer,
such as at least 1 µm, to fulfill predicted requirements for
ignition and an energy gain of 1000 or more.
 The fuel collection portion may advantageously be a surface
portion of the carrier having different properties than a
surrounding surface portion. It should, however, be noted that
there may well be other ways in which the carrier may be
configured to substantially confine the ultra-dense hydrogen, and
that many different material combinations etc can achieve the
desired substantial confinement (that is, a substantially higher
concentration of ultradense hydrogen within the fuel collection
portion than outside the fuel collection portion).
 It should, furthermore, be noted that a substantially
higher concentration of ultra-dense hydrogen within the fuel
collection portion of the carrier than outside the fuel collection
portion can be directly and positively verified using the
time-of-flight measurement which was mentioned above and which
will be described in detail further below under the heading
 According to various embodiments of the present invention,
the step of collecting may comprise the step of allowing the
hydrogen to fall from the hydrogen transfer catalyst to the
 In these embodiments, the hydrogen in the gaseous state may
be brought into contact with the hydrogen transfer catalyst by
flowing the hydrogen in the gaseous state through a conduit having
the hydrogen transfer catalyst arranged at a catalyst site along
the conduit such that the hydrogen in the gaseous state partly
flows past the hydrogen transfer catalyst and partly is caused to
transition to the ultra-dense state at the catalyst site.
 While falling down to the fuel collection portion of the
carrier arranged below the hydrogen transfer catalyst, the
hydrogen may temporarily transition to a higher energy state, such
as the H(1)-state, but will transition back to the ultra-dense
state (H(-1)) on the fuel collection portion of the carrier.
 The hydrogen transfer catalyst may advantageously be
porous, so that the hydrogen in the gaseous state can flow through
the pores. This will provide for a large contact area between the
hydrogen gas and the hydrogen transfer catalyst. At the same time,
however, flow through the pores only will limit the attainable
flow rate and thus the rate of production of ultra-dense hydrogen.
 The present inventor has now surprisingly found that flow
through the pores of the hydrogen transfer catalyst is not
necessary for causing the transition of the hydrogen from the
gaseous state to the ultra-dense state, but that the hydrogen
transfer catalyst is capable of causing this transition at a
larger distance and more efficiently than was previously believed.
Accordingly, the hydrogen gas can be allowed to flow over a
surface of the hydrogen transfer catalyst rather than be forced to
flow through the hydrogen transfer catalyst. This has been shown
to provide for a greatly increased rate in the production of
ultra-dense hydrogen, which may contribute to achieving the layer
thickness that is expected to be beneficial for reaching ignition
and substantial energy gain.
 Thus, according to various embodiments, a cross-sectional
area of the conduit, at the catalyst site, may be greater than a
cross-sectional area of the hydrogen transfer catalyst, so that
the hydrogen in the gaseous state can flow through the conduit
without having to pass through an interior of the hydrogen
transfer catalyst. The hydrogen transfer catalyst may, for
example, be arranged so that there is a flow gap between the
hydrogen transfer catalyst and the inner wall of the conduit.
Alternatively or in combination, the hydrogen transfer catalyst
may itself be tubular, so that a conduit is formed through the
hydrogen transfer catalyst.
 As an alternative or complement to the above-described
embodiments where the ultra-dense hydrogen is allowed to fall onto
the fuel collection portion of the carrier, the carrier may
comprise hydrogen transfer catalyst material arranged at the fuel
collection portion, and hydrogen in the gaseous state may be
brought into contact with the hydrogen transfer catalyst by
flowing the hydrogen in the gaseous state past the fuel collection
portion of the carrier.
 This may further increase the conversion rate from hydrogen
gas to ultra-dense hydrogen, and/or may facilitate the design of
an apparatus for performing various embodiments of the method
according to the invention.
 To utilize the energy generated following irradiation, the
method may further comprise the step of decelerating particles
released following irradiation of the hydrogen in the ultra-dense
state, to thereby convert kinetic energy of the particles to
 According to a second aspect of the present invention,
there is provided an apparatus for generating energy, comprising:
a source of hydrogen in a gaseous state; a hydrogen transfer
catalyst arranged to be subjected to a flow of the hydrogen in the
gaseous state, the hydrogen transfer catalyst being configured to
cause a transition of the hydrogen from the gaseous state to an
ultra-dense state; a carrier for collecting the hydrogen in the
ultra-dense state, the carrier being configured to substantially
confine the hydrogen in the ultra-dense state within a fuel
collection portion of the carrier; a transportation arrangement
for transporting the carrier from a fuel deposition location to an
irradiation location; and an irradiation source arranged and
configured to provide irradiation having sufficient energy to
achieve break-even at the irradiation location.
 According to various embodiments, the fuel collection
portion of the carrier may be a surface portion that is surrounded
by a barrier surface portion of a different material than the fuel
 It has been found that different materials interact
differently with ultradense hydrogen and that some materials
promote condensation of ultradense hydrogen, while other materials
more or less prevent condensation thereon of ultra-dense hydrogen.
The present inventor has realized that this finding can be used to
provide a fuel target of ultra-dense hydrogen that has a
substantial thickness, such as at least 1 µm, which is expected to
fulfill predicted requirements for ignition and an energy gain of
1000 or more.
 The reasons why some materials can support a larger amount
of ultradense hydrogen than other materials are not yet fully
understood. It has, however, been found that when ultra-dense
hydrogen is allowed to fall from the hydrogen transfer catalyst
onto a carrier comprising a metal or metal oxide surface portion
surrounded by polymer (organic or inorganic) surface portion, the
density of ultra-dense hydrogen is substantially higher on the
metal (or metal oxide) than on the (organic or inorganic) polymer.
 It is, however, expected that several other material
combinations will provide the desired result, and it should again
be noted that a substantially higher concentration of ultra-dense
hydrogen within the fuel collection portion of the carrier than
outside the fuel collection portion can be directly and positively
verified using the time of flight measurement which was mentioned
above and which will be described in detail further below under
the heading "Experimental results".
 According to various embodiments, furthermore, the fuel
collection portion may be located in a recess in the carrier,
which is expected to further facilitate the formation and
subsequent transportation of a sufficiently thick layer of
 Regarding the transportation arrangement in various
embodiments of the apparatus according to the present invention,
it should be noted that this transportation arrangement may
utilize any way of moving the carrier from the fuel deposition
location to the irradiation location. For example, the carrier may
be transported to the irradiation location using a conveyor, or
the fuel deposition location may be situated directly above the
irradiation location and the carrier may be allowed to fall down
from the deposition location to the irradiation location.
 Further embodiments of, and effects obtained through this
second aspect of the present invention are largely analogous to
those described above for the first aspect of the invention.
Brief description of the drawings
 These and other aspects of the present invention
will now be described in more detail, with reference to the
appended drawings showing example embodiments of the invention,
Fig 1 schematically illustrates an apparatus according to
an embodiment of the present invention;
Fig 2 is a cross-section of the carrier used in the
apparatus in fig 1;
Fig 3 is a flow-chart schematically illustrating an
exemplary method of generating energy using the apparatus in fig
Fig 4 is a schematic illustration of an exemplary
measurement setup for determining the relative density of
ultra-dense hydrogen on a carrier;
Fig 5 shows a sample carrier with a metal surface portion
and an organic polymer surface portion adjacent to the metal
Fig 6 is a diagram that indicates the presence of hydrogen
in different states on the positions schematically indicated in
Fig 7 is a schematic illustration of another exemplary
measurement setup for determining the effects of subjecting the
ultra-dense hydrogen on the carrier to laser irradiation; and
Fig 8 is a diagram that indicates the particle energy
distribution resulting from irradiation of the ultra-dense
hydrogen using the measurement setup in fig 7.
Detailed description of example embodiments
 In the present detailed description, various embodiments of
an apparatus and a method for generating energy through
irradiation of ultradense hydrogen are mainly discussed with
reference to an apparatus in which hydrogen gas flows past a
hydrogen transfer catalyst arranged in a conduit and the
ultra-dense hydrogen is allowed to fall onto the carrier.
Furthermore, the carrier is described as a plastic plate with a
metalized recess, and the carrier is allowed to fall into an
irradiation chamber following deposition of the ultra-dense
hydrogen fuel. In the irradiation chamber, the ultra-dense
hydrogen fuel is irradiated using a laser beam.
 It should be noted that this by no means limits the scope
of the present invention which is equally applicable to other
configurations of the apparatus and other embodiments of the
method. For example, hydrogen transfer catalyst may be arranged on
the carrier, the carrier may be configured differently and/or be
made of different materials. For instance, the carrier may be made
of glass which is partly coated with a metal or a metal oxide.
Moreover, the carrier may be transported to the irradiation
location using a conveyor and the ultra-dense hydrogen fuel may be
irradiated using another kind of beam, such as an ion beam or an
 Fig 1 is a schematic illustration of an example embodiment
of the apparatus for generating energy according to the present
 With reference to fig 1, the energy generating apparatus 1
comprises a source (not shown) of hydrogen in a gaseous state, a
fuel source 2, a first carrier 3, a controllable holder 4 for
holding the first carrier 3 at a fuel deposition location 5, an
irradiation chamber 6 and an irradiation source, here in the form
of a laser 7 to irradiate ultra-dense hydrogen fuel deposited on a
second carrier 8 at an irradiation location 9.
 Depending on application, the source of hydrogen gas may be
a gas container or some other source of hydrogen gas. The fuel
source 2 comprises a metal conduit 11 with an inlet 12 connected
to the hydrogen gas source and an outlet 13 arranged above the
first carrier 3. Between the inlet 12 and the outlet 13, at a
catalyst site, at least one hydrogen transfer catalyst 14 is
arranged so that the hydrogen gas can flow through and around the
hydrogen transfer catalyst 14. The hydrogen transfer catalyst 14
is configured to cause a transition of the hydrogen gas to
ultra-dense hydrogen. According to various embodiments of the
present invention, the hydrogen transfer catalyst 14 may be a
commercially available styrene catalyst.
 In the exemplary embodiment schematically illustrated in
fig 1, there is a first carrier 3 at the fuel deposition location
5 and a second carrier 8 at the irradiation location 9. It should
be noted that carriers may be present simultaneously at the fuel
deposition location 5 and the irradiation location 9 as indicated
in fig 1, or only one carrier may be processed (provided with fuel
or irradiated) at a time. It would also be feasible to, for
example, provide the apparatus 1 with several fuel sources that
would sequentially feed the irradiation chamber with fuel-filled
 As is schematically indicated in fig 1, each of the first
carrier 3 and the second carrier 8 comprises a fuel collection
portion 16 surrounded by a barrier portion 17. Each of the first
carrier 3 and the second carrier 8 is configured to substantially
confine the ultra-dense hydrogen within the fuel collection
portion 16. An exemplary configuration of the carriers 3 and 8
will be described in more detail below with reference to fig 2.
 As was mentioned above, the first carrier 3 rests on a
controllable holder 4 while the first carrier 3 is at the fuel
deposition location 5. When a sufficient amount of ultra-dense
hydrogen has been deposited on the first carrier 3 (and the
irradiation chamber 6 is ready to receive a new carrier), the
holder 4 is controlled to allow the carrier 3 to fall down to the
irradiation location 9 inside the irradiation chamber 6.
 At the irradiation location 9, the ultra-dense hydrogen is
irradiated by the laser 7 and the particles emitted as a result of
the irradiation (schematically indicated by the block arrows
inside the irradiation chamber 6) are stopped by the chamber
walls. The deceleration of the particles generates heat, which can
be used to drive a conventional steam cycle generation of
electricity. Since the particular method used for converting the
kinetic energy of the particles to electrical energy is not
central to the present invention and further should be well within
the reach of one of ordinary skill in the art, this will not be
described in further detail herein.
 Turning now to fig 2, which is a schematic cross-section
view of an exemplary carrier 3, the carrier 3 comprises, as was
already touched upon above in connection with fig 1, a fuel
collection portion 16 and a barrier portion 17 surrounding the
fuel collection portion.
 As is schematically illustrated in fig 2, the fuel
collection portion 16 is arranged in a recess in the carrier 3.
The bottom of the recess is coated with a material that promotes
the formation of the ultra-dense state (H(-1 )) to a higher degree
than the material at the surface of the barrier portion 17.
 Through this selection of materials in the fuel collection
portion 16 and the barrier portion 17, respectively, ultra-dense
hydrogen will be substantially confined to the fuel collection
portion 16. By providing the fuel collection portion at the bottom
of a recess, the formation of a thick layer, such as more than 1
µm thick, is further facilitated.
 The material in the fuel collection portion 16 may, for
example, be a metal, such as steel or titanium, and the material
at the surface of the barrier portion 17 may be any organic or
inorganic polymer, such as, for example, PTFE, PMMA or PE. It
should, however, be emphasized that it is expected that many other
material combinations can provide the desired substantial
confinement of the ultra-dense hydrogen to the fuel collection
portion. For instance, it is expected that also many metal oxides
will function to retain the ultra-dense hydrogen and that the
barrier portion may, for example, be made of glass. One of
ordinary skill in the art will be able to determine, without undue
burden, if ultra-dense hydrogen is actually substantially confined
at the fuel collection portion 16 by performing the time of flight
experiment described below under the heading "Experimental
 An example embodiment of the method of generating energy
according to the present invention will now be described with
reference to the flow-chart in fig 3 and to the apparatus in fig
 In a first step 100, hydrogen gas, H2, is made to flow over
a hydrogen transfer catalyst 14 configured to cause the hydrogen
gas to transition to ultra-dense hydrogen, H(-1). The hydrogen
transfer catalyst may, for example, be a commercial so called
styrene catalyst, i.e. a type of solid catalyst used in the
chemical industry for producing styrene (for plastic production)
from ethylene benzene. This type of catalyst is made from porous
Fe-O material with several different additives, especially
potassium (K) as so called promoter. However, it has been shown
that other catalysts, such as Pt-catalysts or lr-catalysts can be
used to convert hydrogen gas to ultra-dense hydrogen. A brief
account of the current understanding of the mechanism behind the
conversion from hydrogen gas to ultra-dense hydrogen will be
provided further below under the heading "Theoretical discussion".
 In the subsequent step 101, the ultra-dense hydrogen H(-1)
is collected on the carrier 3, which is arranged at the fuel
deposition location 5.
 When a sufficient amount of ultra-dense hydrogen H(-1) has
been collected on the carrier (it is expected that a layer of at
least 1 µm should be formed at the fuel collection portion 16 of
the carrier 3), the carrier 3 is transported to the irradiation
location 9 inside the irradiation chamber 6 in step 102. As was
mentioned above, the carrier 3 may be transported from the fuel
deposition location 5 to the irradiation location 9 in various
ways. For instance, as was briefly discussed above in connection
with fig 1, the carrier 3 may be dropped into the irradiation
chamber 6. Alternatively, the carrier 3 may be carried from the
fuel deposition location 5 to the irradiation location 9 using a
conveyor, such as a conveyor belt. There should be no doubt that
one skilled in the art will understand that there are many
different ways in which the carrier can be moved from the fuel
deposition location 5 to the irradiation location 9.
 When the carrier 3 has reached the irradiation location 9,
the ultradense hydrogen H(-1) at the fuel collection portion 16 of
the carrier 3 is irradiated in step 103. The ultra-dense hydrogen
may be irradiated using, for example, a laser beam provided by the
laser 7, but other types of irradiation may be used instead of
laser irradiation. For example, the ultra-dense hydrogen may be
irradiated using one or several ion beams or X-ray beams. To reach
break-even, the irradiation should have sufficient energy. The
requirements and experimental results regarding this will be
discussed further below under the headings "Theoretical
discussion" and "Experimental results".
 The person skilled in the art realizes that the present
invention by no means is limited to the preferred embodiments
described above. On the contrary, many modifications and
variations are possible within the scope of the appended claims,
for example pressure pulsing of the hydrogen gas may be used in
the source 2 in fig 1 to deposit ultra-dense hydrogen in a more
controlled and rapid way on the carrier.
 In the claims, the word "comprising" does not exclude other
elements or steps, and the indefinite article "a" or "an" does not
exclude a plurality. The mere fact that certain measures are
recited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate
that a combination of these measured cannot be used to advantage.
General and ultra-dense hydrogen
 The main obstacle preventing the widespread use of
laser-ignited or high-energy particle-ignited nuclear fusion for
energy generation is the difficulty to contain the fusion plasma
for a long enough period so that efficient ignition and fuel
burning is possible. Various methods have been used to heat and
compress a gas target or initially frozen (hydrogen ice) target to
high pressures and temperatures. These methods have all so far
failed to reach ignition since the pressure in the plasma during
heating to the required temperature of 50-100 MK becomes too high
for confinement. The plasma becomes unstable which leads to
expansion and subsequent cooling. This prevents ignition of
 Using the so called Lawson Criterion for D-T fusion (which
is the fusion reaction that most effort in the world is directed
towards at present), the general condition for the density ρ of
the target and its radius R is
 This means that with a density of solid fuel (hydrogen ice)
of 0.2 gcm<-3>, the radius of the fuel needed is
approximately 1.5 cm. This will require an enormous power in the
laser to heat the fuel to 50 MK. The Stefan-Boltzmann law requires
a radiation flux of at least 4×10<19> W cm<-2> at this
temperature, or a laser power of >3×10<20> W for a fuel
target of 1.5 cm radius. Such a power cannot be obtained
economically. If the fuel target can be compressed a factor of
1000 to a density of 0.2 kg cm<-3>, the required size of the
target will be much smaller with a radius of 15 µm, and the laser
power is approximately 3×10<14> W, still very high but
possible for a large laser. Ultra-dense hydrogen has a density of
50-200 kg cm<-3> which means that the target radius can be
as small as 20 nm, requiring a laser power of 6×10<8> W.
With a pulse length of 5 ns as for many standard pulsed lasers,
the energy required in the pulse is 2.9 J (if radiative and other
losses are neglected). This amount of energy can be delivered by
an ordinary table-top laser.
 With a homogeneous material as ultra-dense deuterium, the
fusion process possible is D+D which has a smaller cross section
and thus a larger energy requirement for reaching ignition. The
advantages from an environmental and radioactivity point of view
are however very large for this concept, since tritium (which is
radioactive and difficult to handle safely) is not used as a fuel.
The condition for such a material becomes
which for ultra-dense deuterium means 6×10<11> W with a
target size of 700 nm. Using a pulse time of 100 ps means 60 J and
pulse time 1 ps (which decreases radiative heat losses) means 0.6
J which is possible rather easily.
 Another approach to the Lawson Criterion is more explicitly
related to the so-called confinement time. In the case of the D+D
reaction, it is cited to be n T ≥ 10<22> m<-3> s. The
bond distance in the ultra-dense deuterium is found by experiments
to be 2.3 pm, which gives a maximum density n for a well-ordered
material of 8×10<34> m<-3>. This means that the Lawson
Criterion is fulfilled for ultra-dense deuterium with a
confinement time T as short as 2×10<-13> s. This time
corresponds to thermal motion of a free atom over a distance as
small as 20 pm and the real confinement time for any reasonable
arrangement will be much longer than this.
 It has recently been calculated (see F. Winterberg,
"Ultradense Deuterium". J. Fusion Energy. 29, 317 (2010 ) and F.
Winterberg, "Ultra-dense deuterium and cold fusion claims". Phys.
Lett. A 374, 2766 (2010 )) that for ignition of D+D fusion in
ultra-dense deuterium 1.5 kJ in the laser pulse is required for
ignition due to the higher ignition temperature for pure deuterium
fusion. This would ignite 400 ng of deuterium. It was also
calculated that a gain of 1000 or an energy output of 1 MJ
requires a deuterium mass of 3 µg. It was further suggested that a
suitable shape of the fuel would be a flat disc pellet with a
thickness of >1 µm. This fuel pellet will have a very small
size, of the order of a few µm due to the extreme density of the
 The initial laser process in ultra-dense deuterium has been
demonstrated to release fast deuterons in the material, with a
temperature of 15 MK. Thus, a large amount of energy is
selectively released in the laser impact by so called Coulomb
explosions. We have also observed a process called laser-induced
self-compression which releases a large number of MeV particles
(e.g. deuterons) under suitable conditions of the laser pulse rate
and material properties. Both these effects will decrease the
energy required for ignition. We have made several studies of the
number of fast particles released in the ultra-dense deuterium and
studied also the increase in the number of particles formed during
an increase of laser power. It is shown that the number of fast
particles increases rapidly with laser power, as the sixth power
of the laser power (pulse energy). Computational studies of the
laser pulse energy required for break-even exist (see S.A. Slutz
and R.A. Vesey, "Fast ignition hot spot break-even scaling". Phys.
Plasmas 12 (2005) 062702 ). These studies yield a pulse energy
around 1 J at break-even. In our experiments, break-even is indeed
observed at 1 J pulse energy. From break-even to an energy gain of
1000, a further factor of at least 4 in laser pulse energy is
required. We conclude that the available information agrees that
useful power output from nuclear fusion in ultra-dense hydrogen
will be found at laser pulse energy of 4 J - 1 kJ. Such a pulse
energy is feasible.
 At a rate of one carrier foil per second carrying 3 µg
ultra-dense deuterium giving fusion ignition, the energy output of
a power station using this method is approximately 1 MW. This
would use 95 g of deuterium per year to produce 9 GWh, or one 5
liter gas bottle at 100 bar standard pressure. By using several
lines of target carrier production, several laser lines or a
higher repetition rate laser, the output of the power station can
be scaled relatively easily.
 The catalytic process may employ commercial so called
styrene catalysts, i.e. a type of solid catalyst used in the
chemical industry for producing styrene (for plastic production)
from ethylene benzene. This type of catalyst is made from porous
Fe-O material with several different additives, especially
potassium (K) as so called promoter. The function of this catalyst
has been studied in detail.
 The catalyst is designed to split off hydrogen atoms from
ethyl benzene so that a carbon-carbon double bond is formed, and
then to combine the hydrogen atoms so released to hydrogen
molecules which easily desorb thermally from the catalyst surface.
This reaction is reversible: if hydrogen molecules are added to
the catalyst they are dissociated to hydrogen atoms which are
adsorbed on the surface. This is a general process in hydrogen
transfer catalysts. We utilize this mechanism to produce
ultra-dense hydrogen, which requires that covalent bonds in
hydrogen molecules are not allowed to form after the adsorption of
hydrogen in the catalyst.
 The potassium promoter in the catalyst provides for a more
efficient formation of ultra-dense hydrogen. Potassium (and for
example other alkali metals) easily forms so called circular
Rydberg atoms K*. In such atoms, the valence electron is in a
nearly circular orbit around the ion core, in an orbit very
similar to a Bohr orbit. At a few hundred °C not only Rydberg
states are formed at the surface, but also small clusters of
Rydberg states KN*, in a form called Rydberg Matter (RM). This
type of cluster is probably the active form of the potassium
promoter in normal industrial use of the catalyst.
 The clusters KN* transfer part of their excitation energy
to the hydrogen atoms at the catalyst surface. This process takes
place during thermal collisions in the surface phase. This gives
formation of clusters HN* (where H indicates proton, deuteron, or
triton) in the ordinary process also giving the KN* formation,
namely cluster assembly during the desorption process. If the
hydrogen atoms could form covalent bonds, molecules H2 would
instead leave the catalyst surface and no ultra-dense material
could be formed. In the RM material, the electrons are not in s
orbitals since they always have an orbital angular momentum
greater than zero. This implies that covalent bonds cannot be
formed since the electrons on the atoms must be in s orbitals to
form the normal covalent sigma (σ) bonds in H2. The lowest energy
level for hydrogen in the form of RM is metallic (dense) hydrogen
called H(1), with a bond length of 150 picometer (pm). The
hydrogen material falls down to this level by emission of infrared
radiation. Dense hydrogen is then spontaneously converted to
ultra-dense hydrogen called H(-1) with a bond distance of 2-4 pm
depending on which particles (protons, deuterons, tritons) are
bound. This material is a quantum material (quantum fluid) which
probably involves both electron pairs (Cooper pairs) and nuclear
pairs (proton, deuteron or triton pairs, or mixed pairs). These
materials are probably both superfluid and superconductive at room
temperature, as predicted for ultra-dense deuterium and confirmed
in recent experiments.
 In the following, an exemplary experimental setup and
method for determining the density distribution of ultra-dense
hydrogen across a surface will be described. The experimental
setup and method can be used to determine, without undue burden,
if a carrier is configured to substantially confine ultra-dense
hydrogen in a fuel collection portion or not.
 The experimental setup 30 in fig 4 has been partly
described in several publications, for example in P.U. Andersson
and L. Holmlid, Phys. Lett. A 375, 1344 (2011 ) (not complete
figure) and P. U. Andersson, B Lönn and L. Holmlid, Rev. Sci.
Instrum. 82, 013503 (2011 ) (not sloping target). The experimental
setup 30 comprises a fuel source 31, a carrier sample 32, a laser
arrangement 33 and a detector 34. The fuel source 31 is arranged
above the carrier sample 32 so that ultra-dense hydrogen can fall
down onto the carrier sample 32. The laser arrangement 33, which
comprises a laser 36, a lens 37 and a beam deflector 38 is
arranged to allow irradiation of different locations on the
carrier sample 32, so that the surface of the carrier sample 32
can be scanned by the laser beam. The detector 34 is arranged to
detect neutral particles emitted from the carrier sample 32 when
the carrier sample 32 is irradiated by the laser beam.
 The base pressure in the experimental setup 30 is
<1×10<-6> mbar. The fuel source is similar as that
described above with reference to fig 1 and comprises a
cylindrical (extruded) sample of an industrial iron oxide hydrogen
transfer catalyst (not shown in fig 4) doped with K (initially at
8 wt %). It is of the styrene catalyst type Shell S-105 which is
an efficient hydrogen abstraction and transfer catalyst. The
hydrogen transfer catalyst is mounted in a metal tube which is
connected to a D2 gas feed. The metal tube is heated by an AC
current through its wall up to 400 K. Deuterium gas (> 99.8 %
D2) is admitted through the tube at a pressure up to
1×10<-5> mbar in the chamber.
 The D(-1) formed falls down to the carrier sample 32. The
D(-1) phase is at a slightly lower energy level than the higher,
dense state D(1), which means that it will be formed
 The laser 36 used was a Nd:YAG laser with an energy of
<200 mJ per each 5 ns long pulse at 10 Hz. The laser 36 was
operated at at 532 nm. The laser beam is focused at the carrier
sample 32 with an f = 400 mm spherical lens 37. The intensity in
the beam waist of (nominally) 30 µm diameter is relatively low,
≤4×10<12> W cm<-2> as calculated for a Gaussian beam.
In front of the focusing lens 37, a glass plate 38 in a precision
rotation mount is used to shift the laser beam slightly in the
horizontal direction. The total shift possible with this beam
shift construction is close to 0.7 mm, and the shift between two
consecutive measured points on the surface is close to 50 µm.
 The detector 34 is a dynode-scintillator-photomultiplier
setup, which is described in further detail in the paper S. Badiei
and L. Holmlid, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 4191 (2006 ).
The detector 34 is here located at an angle of 45° from the
incoming laser beam and measures the time-of-flight (TOF) spectra
of fast neutral or ionized particles from the Coulomb explosion
(CE) process since no accelerating voltage is employed. The fast
particles (schematically indicated by the block arrow in fig 4)
impact on a stainless steel (catcher) foil in the detector 34, and
fast ions ejected from there are drawn towards a Cu-Be dynode held
at -7.0 kV inside the detector. The total effective flight
distance for the ions from the laser focus to the catcher foil is
101 mm by direct measurement and internal calibration. The
photomultiplier (PMT) is Electron Tubes 9128B with single electron
rise time of 2.5 ns and transit time of 30 ns. Blue glass filters
in front of the PMT decrease the observed laser signal. A fast
preamplifier (Ortec VT120A, gain 200, bandwidth 10-350 MHz) is
used. The signal from the PMT is collected in a multi-channel
scaler (EG&G Ortec Turbo-MCS) with dwell time 5 ns per
channel. Each MCS spectrum consists of a sum of the signals from
300 consecutive laser shots.
 In fig 5, the carrier sample 32 used in various experiments
is shown in more detail. As can be seen in fig 5, the carrier
sample comprises a base 41 and at least one overlying material
portion 42 arranged on the base. In the experiment described
herein, the base 41 was made of PMMA and the overlying material
portion 42 was made of stainless steel. To get an indication of
the spatial distribution of ultra-dense hydrogen (in this case
D(-1)) the glass plate 38 between the lens 37 and the carrier
sample 32 was successively rotated to focus the laser beam on
different locations on the carrier sample 32. In particular, the
laser beam was gradually shifted from the overlying metal portion
42 to the base 41 as is schematically indicated in the enlarged
portion of fig 5. The focus points are indicated by letters a to
m, and these letters will also be used to label the diagrams in
 When a laser pulse passes through a material like D(1) or
D(-1), the photons may excite (displace) a few electrons so that
two ions become exposed to each other. Coloumb explosion (CE)
makes the ions move apart rapidly, in < 1 fs for D(-1). When
the CE takes place, the ions fly apart with almost all their
repulsion energy as kinetic energy release (KER) in the ionic
fragments. It is possible to determine the initial repulsion
energy between the ions by measuring the kinetic energy of the
fragments at a large distance from the actual explosion event.
Then, the distance between the ions before the CE i.e. the bond
length is found directly from the Coulomb formula as
where ε0 is the vacuum permittivity, e the unit charge and Ekín
the sum kinetic energy for the fragments (KER) from the CE. The
fraction of the KER that is observed on each fragment depends of
course on the mass ratio of the fragments. The kinetic energy is
determined most easily by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) of
the particles and converting this quantity to kinetic energy. This
requires that the mass of the particle is known or can be
inferred, which is simplified when working with only deuterium.
 Accordingly, a time-of-flight spectrum (TOF-spectrum) can
be used to determine the relation between D(-1) and D(1) at the
particular location where the laser beam is focused on the carrier
sample 32. In particular if the TOF-spectrum indicates mainly
particles having a TOF corresponding to the bond length associated
with D(-1), then the density of D(-1) is relatively high at the
location where the laser beam hits the carrier sample 32.
 Fig 6 is a diagram with a sequence of TOF-spectra
corresponding, from bottom to top in fig 6, to the focus locations
a to m indicated in the enlarged portion of fig 5.
 As can be seen in fig 6, the focus locations a to e on the
metal surface portion 42 indicate substantially more D(-1) than
the focus locations g to m on the PMMA surface portion 41. It is
also clear that the proportion of D(1) is substantially higher on
the PMMA surface portion 41 than on the metal surface portion 42.
Fig 6 thus clearly indicates that the carrier sample 32 is
configurec to substantially confine ultra-dense hydrogen (D(-1))
on the metal surface portion 42.
 The layout of the experiment is shown in Fig. 7. A Nd:YAG
laser 50 with pulse energy of <0.9 J was used, with 7 ns long
pulses at 1064 nm and 10 Hz repetition rate. The laser beam was
focused with an f = 50 mm lens 51 on the D(-1) target 52 in a
small vacuum chamber 53. The D2 gas pressure in the chamber 53 is
around 1 mbar with constant pumping. Ultra-dense hydrogen (D(-1))
is formed using a source 57 such as that described above.
 A plane 3 mm thick Al collector 54 is mounted at a distance
of 44 cm from the target 52, above an internal wire loop 55 for
observing the current ejected. It has a diameter of 80 mm and is
connected directly to a 300 MHz oscilloscope (not shown) via a
short 50 Ω coaxial cable. The impedance of the oscilloscope input
is 50 Ω. Thus 1 V signal corresponds to 20 mA of current.
 Typical signals at the collector are shown in Fig. 8. The
first negative peak 60 is due to electrons ejected from the
chamber walls by ionizing photons. To be able to reach the
collector 54 from the surrounding walls in a few ns, the electrons
need to be ejected with somewhat more than 10 eV energy. If they
instead were ejected from the target 52, they would need 10 keV
energy to reach the collector in a few ns. However, in such a case
a negative peak at the collector would be observed even with the
collector at - 24 V which is not found. It is concluded that the
negative signal peak at the collector is due to electrons released
from the structure of the vacuum chamber by ionizing photons.
 The positive signal in fig 8 is caused by fast particles
which eject electrons with a few eV from the collector. This is
concluded from experiments with +24 or -24 V at the collector. The
peaks 61, 62 in the collector signal in Fig. 8 are at 12 and 24 ns
after the electron peak 60, corresponding to approximately 7 and 2
MeV u<-1>. The secondary emission coefficients in Al for
such energetic protons are somewhat smaller than unity. The true
positive signal to the collector thus appears to be a factor of
approximately two larger than shown. The large peak 63 at 80-100
ns (at a few hundred keV energy) is due to scattered and
backscattered particles (protons) from the D(-1) layer. The slowly
varying negative signal after the peaks 61, 62 and 63 is due to
electrons which drift to the collector 54 from the target 52 with
relatively low energy.
 The collector signal shows clearly that MeV particles are
ejected from the laser target 52. The process for this is D+D
fusion and the particles ejected are protons and deuterons (from
collisions with protons). It is not expected that neutrons will be
observed in the collector signal due to the weak interaction with
the Al material. Both channels in D+D fusion are expected to
contribute to the signal thus giving both 3.02 MeV and 14.7 MeV
protons. Deuterons can obtain energies up to 1.3 MeV u<-1>
and 6.5 MeV u<-1> from linear collisions with fusion
generated protons. The MeV peaks normally observed are at 1.8 MeV
u<-1> and 9 MeV u<-1>, but they are not very sharp and
particles exist with higher energies. Thus, they correspond to the
expected initial protons energies from D+D fusion. These peaks are
removed at high deuterium pressure due to gas collisions.
 From the size of the peak induced voltage in the internal
current loop 55 in Fig. 7, the number of particles ejected can be
estimated. Using the dimensions provided above, a voltage of 15 V
as observed is found if 7×10<15> particles (1.6×10<-4>
As) fly past the loop in 5 ns, which is the approximate laser
pulse time. This signal is due to electrons released by the
initial photon pulse. Assuming that these electrons have 5 eV
energy, the total energy observed in the electrons ejected from
the target by ionizing photons is 6 mJ per laser shot. Assuming
isotropic emission from the target gives a total energy to
electrons of 0.6 J per laser shot.
 An energy consideration for the positive MeV particles is
more accurate. Since the true signal is of the order of 5 V in 50
Ω during 100 ns, the charge observed is 1×10<-8> As or
6×10<10> ions per laser shot. With a average energy of 3
MeV, this corresponds to 30 mJ energy. Assuming isotropic initial
emission and using the collector geometric viewing factor of
2.1×10<-3> gives 14.5 J per laser shot or 3×10<13>
particles per laser shot. This is considerably larger than the
laser pulse energy of 0.9 J and means that fusion is above
Heat generation above break-even from
laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium
Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense
deuterium D(0) give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral
massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can
only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the
low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for
future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a
small copper (Cu) cylinder surrounding the laser target. The
temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC
resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No
heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The
fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published
studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles H N
(0) of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm) escape with a
substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at
<1 mbar pressure) is measured and compensated for under various
conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50%
higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This
is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a
slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus
clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible.
Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured
for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of
2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the
suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at
least 20 during long periods...
The European Physical Journal A, February 2012, 48:11
from laser-initiated processes in ultra-dense
Fast particles from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense
deuterium D(−1) are studied. The time of flight shows very fast
particles, with energy above MeV. Such particles can be delayed or
prevented from reaching the detector by inserting thin or thick
metal foils in the beam to the detector. This distinguishes them
from energetic photons which pass through the foils without
delays. Due to the ultra-high density in D(−1) of 1029cm−3, the
range for 3 MeV protons in this material is only 700 pm. The fast
particles ejected and detected are thus mainly deuterons and
protons from the surface of the material. MeV particles are
expected to signify fusion processes D+D in the material. The
number of fast particles released is determined using the known
gain of the photomultiplier. The total number of fast particles
formed, assuming isotropic emission, is less than 109 per laser
pulse at < 200 mJ pulse energy and intensity 1012W cm−2. A fast
shockwave with 30keV u−1 kinetic energy is observed.
Laser and Particle Beams, Vol. 28, Issue 02, pp. 313-317
Laser-driven nuclear fusion D+D in
ultra-dense deuterium: MeV particles formed without ignition
Badiei, Shahriar; Andersson, Patrik U. ; Holmlid, Leif
Journal of Fusion Energy, June 2012, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp
Fusion Generated Fast Particles by
Laser Impact on Ultra-Dense Deuterium: Rapid Variation with
Patrik U. Andersson, Leif Holmlid
Nuclear fusion D+D processes are studied by nanosecond pulsed
laser interaction with ultra-dense deuterium. This material has a
density of 1029 cm−3 as shown in several previous publications.
Laser power is <2 W (0.2 J pulses) and laser intensity is
<1014 W cm−2 in the 5–10 μm wide beam waist. Particle detection
by time-of-flight energy analysis with plastic scintillators is
used. Metal foils in the particle flux to the detector remove slow
ions, and make it possible to convert and count particles with
energy well above 1 MeV. The variation of the signal of MeV
particles from D+D fusion is measured as a function of laser
power. At relatively weak laser-emitter interaction, the particle
signal from the laser focus varies as the square of the laser
power. This indicates collisions in the ultra-dense deuterium of
two fast deuterons released by Coulomb explosions. During
experiments with stronger laser-emitter interaction, the signal
varies approximately as the sixth power of the laser power,
indicating a plasma process. At least 2 × 106 particles are
created by each laser pulse at the maximum intensity used. Our
results indicate break-even in fusion at a laser pulse energy of 1
J with the same focusing, in approximate agreement with
theoretical results for ignition conditions in ultra-dense
deuterium. Radiation loss at high temperature will however require
higher laser energy at break-even.
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 282, no.
1-2, pp. 70-76 ( 04/2009 )
High-energy Coulomb explosions in
ultra-dense deuterium: Time-of-flight-mass spectrometry with
variable energy and flight length
Badiei, Shahriar; Andersson, Patrik U.; Holmlid,
High-density hydrogen is of great interest both as a fuel with the
highest energy content of any combustion fuel, and as a target
material for laser initiated inertial confinement fusion (ICF) [S.
Badiei, L. Holmlid, J. Fusion Energ. 27 (2008) 296]. A much denser
deuterium material named D(-1) can be observed by pulsed laser
induced Coulomb explosions giving a well-defined, high kinetic
energy release (KER). Neutral time-of-flight of the fragments from
the material shows that the Coulomb explosions have a KER of 630
eV [S. Badiei, P.U. Andersson, L. Holmlid, Int. J. Hydrogen Energ.
34 (2009) 487]. By using ion time-of-flight-mass spectrometry
(TOF-MS) with variable acceleration voltages and a few different
values of laser pulse power, we now prove the mass and charge of
the particles as well as the KER. In fact, the ions are so fast
that they must be H+, D+ or T+. By using two different flight
lengths, we prove with certainty that the spectra are due to D+
ions and not to photons or electromagnetic effects. The results
also establish the fragmentation patterns of the ultra-dense D(-1)
material in the electric field. The energy release of 630 +/- 30
eV corresponds to an interatomic distance D-D of 2.3 +/- 0.1 pm.
This material is probably an inverted metal with the deuterons
moving in the field from the stationary electrons, which gives a
predicted interatomic distance of 2.5 pm, close to the measured
value. Thus, we prove that an ultra-dense deuterium material
Laser and Particle Beams / Volume 27 / Issue 03 / September
2009, pp 529-532
Ultrahigh-density deuterium of Rydberg
matter clusters for inertial confinement fusion targets
L. Holmlida, H. Horaa, G. Mileya and X. Yanga
Clusters of condensed deuterium of densities up to 1029 cm−3 in
pores in solid oxide crystals were confirmed from time-of-flight
mass spectrometry measurements. Based on these facts, a schematic
outline and possible conclusions of expectable generalizations are
presented, which may lead to a simplification of laser driven
fusion energy including new techniques for preparation of targets
for application in experiments of the NIF type, but also for
modified fast igniter experiments using proton or electron beams
or side-on ignition of low compressed solid fusion fuel.
Physica Scripta, Volume 81, Number 4
Laser-induced variable pulse-power
TOF-MS and neutral time-of-flight studies of ultradense
Shahriar Badiei, Patrik U Andersson and Leif Holmlid
The ultradense atomic deuterium material named D(−1) is
conveniently studied by laser-induced Coulomb explosion methods. A
well-defined high kinetic energy release (KER) from this material
was first reported in Badiei et al (2009 Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 34
487) and a two-detector setup was used to prove the high KER and
the complex fragmentation patterns in Badiei et al (2009 Int. J.
Mass Spectrom. 282 70). The common KER is 630 ±30 eV, which
corresponds to an interatomic distance D–D of 2.3 ±0.1 pm. In both
ion and neutral time-of-flight (TOF) measurement, two similar
detectors at widely different flight distances prove that atomic
particles are observed. New results on neutral TOF spectra are now
reported for the material D(−1). It is shown that density changes
of D(−1) are coupled to similar changes in ordinary dense D(1),
and it is proposed that these two forms of dense deuterium are
rapidly transformed into each other. The TOF-MS signal dependence
on the intensity of the laser is studied in detail. The fast
deuteron intensity is independent of the laser power over a large
range, which suggests that D(−1) is a superfluid with long-range
efficient transport of excitation energy or particles.
Physics Letters A, Volume 374, Issue 28, 21 June 2010,
Deuteron energy of 15 MK in
ultra-dense deuterium without plasma formation: Temperature
of the interior of the Sun
Patrik U. Andersson, Leif Holmlid
Deuterons are released with kinetic energy up to 630 eV from
ultra-dense deuterium as shown previously, by Coulomb explosions
initiated by ns laser pulses at View the MathML source⩽1011 Wcm−2.
With higher laser intensity at View the MathML source<1014
Wcm−2, the initial kinetic energy now observed by TOF-MS with
variable acceleration energy is up to 1100 eV per deuteron. This
indicates ejection of one deuteron by Coulomb repulsion from two
stationary charges in the material. It proves a full kinetic
energy release of 1260 eV or a deuteron temperature of 15 MK,
similar to the temperature in the interior of the Sun. Plasma
processes are excluded by the sharp TOF peaks observed and by the
slow signal variation with laser intensity. Deuterons with even
higher energy from multiple charge repulsion are probably
detected. D + D fusion processes are expected to exist in the
ultra-dense phase without plasma formation.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 124103 (2010)
Production of ultradense deuterium: A
compact future fusion fuel
Shahriar Badiei, Patrik U. Andersson and Leif Holmlid
Ultradense deuterium as a nuclear fuel in laser-ignited inertial
confinement fusion appears to have many advantages. The density of
ultradense deuterium D(−1) is as high as 140kgcm−3 or 1029cm−3.
This means that D(−1) will be very useful as a target fuel,
circumventing the complex and unstable laser compression stage. We
show that the material is stable apart from the oscillation
between two forms, and can exist for days in the laboratory
environment. We also demonstrate that an amount of D(−1)
corresponding to tens of kilojoules is produced in each
experiment. This may be sufficient for break-even.
Physics Letters A, Volume 375, Issue 10, 7 March 2011,
Superfluid ultra-dense deuterium
D(−1)D(−1) at room temperature
Patrik U. Andersson, Leif Holmlid
Ultra-dense deuterium D(−1)D(−1) is expected to be both superfluid
and superconductive. It is deposited on surfaces below a novel
source producing a stream of D(−1)D(−1) clusters. It is studied by
laser probing and Coulomb explosions giving cluster fragments
which are observed by time-of-flight measurements. It is observed
on surfaces at a few cm height above the container below the
source, and on the outside of the container. D(−1)D(−1) is
detected above a 1 cm long vertical capillary in vacuum (fountain
effect). This suggests the existence of superfluid D(−1)D(−1)
which is the only material that may be superfluid at room
Journal of Fusion Energy, August 2010, Volume 29, Issue 4,
An attempt is made to explain the recently reported occurrence of
ultradense deuterium as an isothermal transition of Rydberg matter
into a high density phase by quantum mechanical exchange forces.
It is conjectured that the transition is made possible by the
formation of vortices in a Cooper pair electron fluid, separating
the electrons from the deuterons, with the deuterons undergoing
Bose–Einstein condensation in the core of the vortices. If such a
state of deuterium should exist at the reported density of about
130,000 g/cm3, it would greatly facility the ignition of a
thermonuclear detonation wave in pure deuterium, by placing the
deuterium in a thin disc, to be ignited by a pulsed ultrafast
laser or particle beam of modest energy.
Physics Letters A, Volume 374, Issue 27, 14 June 2010,
Ultra-dense deuterium and cold fusion
An attempt is made to explain the recently reported occurrence of
14 MeV neutron induced nuclear reactions in deuterium metal
hydrides as the manifestation of a slightly radioactive
ultra-dense form of deuterium, with a density of 130,000 g/cm3
observed by a Swedish research group through the collapse of
deuterium Rydberg matter. In accordance with this observation it
is proposed that a large number of deuterons form a “linear-atom”
supermolecule. By the Madelung transformation of the Schrödinger
equation, the linear deuterium supermolecule can be described by a
quantized line vortex. A vortex lattice made up of many such
supermolecules is possible only with deuterium, because deuterons
are bosons, and the same is true for the electrons, which by the
electron–phonon interaction in a vortex lattice form Cooper pairs.
It is conjectured that the latent heat released by the collapse
into the ultra-dense state has been misinterpreted as cold fusion.
Hot fusion though, is here possible through the fast ignition of a
thermonuclear detonation wave from a hot spot made with a 1 kJ 10
petawatt laser in a thin slice of the ultra-dense deuterium.
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Volume 304,
Issue 1, 15 June 2011, Pages 51–56doi:10.1016/j.ijms.2011.04.001
High-charge Coulomb explosions of
clusters in ultra-dense deuterium D(−1)
Laser-induced Coulomb explosions of clusters DN in ultra-dense
deuterium D(−1) show a broad spectrum of fragmentation processes.
For small clusters D3 and D4 symmetric fragmentation processes are
often observed. Experiments now show that these clusters fragment
by maximum-charge processes, like D44+ → 4D+, each fragment
leaving with 945 eV kinetic energy. This is the case even at low
laser pulse intensities of <1012 W cm−2. The facile laser field
ionization of these clusters is probably caused by their small
size. Such high-charge processes seem to be most common in the
superfluid condensed phase. A centrifugal stretching in the
clusters is observed, giving 5–8% longer D–D bonds at higher
average laser intensity, probably at J ≤ 3. Rotational excitation
of D2+ fragments is often apparent at similar J values. This
requires strong bonding between the two deuterons, predicted to be
close to 700 eV due to strong exchange interaction.
Phys. Plasmas 9, 3108 (2002)
Detailed study of nuclear fusion from
femtosecond laser-driven explosions of deuterium clusters
J. Zweiback, T. E. Cowan, J. H. Hartley, R. Howell, K. B.
Wharton, J. K. Crane, V. P. Yanovsky, G. Hays, R. A. Smith and
Recent experiments on the interaction of intense, ultrafast pulses
with large van der Waals bonded clusters have shown that these
clusters can explode with sufficient kinetic energy to drive
nuclear fusion.Irradiating deuterium clusters with a 35 fs laser
pulse, it is found that the fusionneutron yield is strongly
dependent on such factors as cluster size, laser focal geometry,
and deuterium gas jet parameters. Neutron yield is shown to be
limited by laser propagation effects as the pulse traverses the
gas plume. From the experiments it is possible to get a detailed
understanding of how the laser deposits its energy and heats the
deuterium cluster plasma. The experiments are compared with
Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2634 ( 20 March 2000 )
Nuclear Fusion Driven by Coulomb
Explosions of Large Deuterium Clusters
J. Zweiback, R. A. Smith, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, K. B.
Wharton, V. P. Yanovsky, and T. Ditmire
Recent experiments on the interaction of intense, ultrafast laser
pulses with large van der Waals bonded clusters have shown that
these clusters can explode with substantial kinetic energy. By
driving explosions in deuterium clusters with a 35 fs laser pulse,
we have accelerated ions to sufficient kinetic energy to produce
DD nuclear fusion. By diagnosing the fusion yield through
measurements of 2.45 MeV fusion neutrons, we have found that the
fusion yield from these exploding clusters varies strongly with
the cluster size, consistent with acceleration of deuterons via
Coulomb explosion forces.
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, May 2012,
Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 873-882
Search for Superconductivity in
Ultra-dense Deuterium D(−1) at Room Temperature: Depletion
of D(−1) at Field Strength >0.05 T
Patrik U. Andersson, Leif Holmlid, Stephan Fuelling
Ultra-dense deuterium D(−1) is expected to be both a superfluid
and a superconductor as shown by recent theoretical research.
Condensed D(−1) can be deposited on surfaces by a source which
produces a stream of clusters. A magnetic field strongly
influences the type of material formed. Very little of D(−1) and
of the form D(1), which is strongly coupled to D(−1), exists on
the magnet surface or within several mm from the magnet surface.
Even the formation of D(−1) on the source emitter is strongly
influenced by a magnetic field, with a critical field strength in
the range 0.03–0.07 T. Higher excitation levels D(2) and D(3)
dominate in a magnetic field. The excitation level D(2) is now
observed for the first time. The removal of D(−1) and D(1) in
strong magnetic fields is proposed to be due to a Meissner effect
in long D(−1) clusters by large-orbit electron motion. The lifting
of long D(−1) clusters above the magnet surface is slightly larger
than expected, possibly due to the coupling to D(1). The
previously reported oscillation between D(−1) and D(1) in an
electric field is proposed to be due to destruction of D(−1).