Philipp M. KANAREV
Water Plasma Electrolysis
P. M. Kanarev: Water is the Main Power Carrier of Future Engineering
P. M. Kanarev: Expert Resolution on Scientific Investigation Results
Links to Articles & Books Online at Innoplaza.net
Instructions for Building Kanarev Electrolysis Cell
Jeanne Manning: Russian Discoveries (excerpt)
P. M. Kanarev: Low Current Electrolysis of Water
P. M. Kanarev: Low Current Process of Water Electrolysis
Patents by Kanarev
Mail: Ph. M. Kanarev --- The Kuban State Agrarian University, Department of Theoretical Mechanics --- 13, Kalinin Street, 350044 Krasnodar, Russia
Prof. Philipp M. Kanarev
Kanarev Water Plasma Electrolysis Cell in Operation
WATER IS THE MAIN POWER CARRIER OF FUTURE POWER ENGINEERING
Ph. M. Kanarev
The problems of power engineering are well known. The power carriers, which are used nowadays, are not only exhaustible, but they cause a considerable damage to environment. Nearly 40 years ago it was announced that controlled thermonuclear fusion could be the future inexhaustible energy source. More than 25 billion dollars have been spent for the investigation of this source, but there is no positive result. This state can be explained by a considerable lag of theoretical investigations from the possibilities of industry to implement any installation in order to check an intuitive idea being formulated. As a result, the main attention has been paid to an experiment, not to a theory.
As there was no acceptable theoretical description of the planned process of thermonuclear fusion control, a positive result could be obtained only by chance. Theoretical prognostication of this result was impossible due to the absence of any notion concerning the models: the electron, the proton, the atom of hydrogen and the ions of chemical elements, which form plasma. Orthodox physics did not even set itself such task.
In the meantime theoretical physics and theoretical chemistry were at a standstill. They were developed by those who managed to overcome a stereotype of the existing theoretical notions. As a result, the models of the photon, the electron, the atom of hydrogen, the atoms of the ions and the molecules of other chemical elements took place. The analysis of them of the behavior demonstrated the impossibility to control plasma in a current carrying space, which is the main technological element of the well known installations "Takomak". If it was known earlier, the expenses for the above-mentioned investigations could be reduced at least by an order of magnitude.
Twelve years ago Fleischmann and Pons, the American electrochemists, obtained additional energy during electrolysis of heavy water. They announced at once that cold nuclear fusion is the source of this energy. Hundreds of experiments were carried out in various countries in order to check this fact. The positive result was registered, but its reproducibility proved to be low. The reason of appearance of additional energy remained unclear.
In 1995, we began our investigations of the water electrolysis process in order to obtain additional energy. It has been determined that there are such modes of plasma electrolysis of water when up to 100% of additional thermal energy takes place, but a thousandfold increase of energy, which was announced by the Americans, was not confirmed. The calculations have shown that an increase of thermal energy by 100% with the unstable reproducibility of such a result has no prospects for industrial implementation. At least 300% increase of thermal energy is necessary, but such result cannot be obtained still.
But if we take into consideration energy of hydrogen and oxygen, which are released from water together with additional thermal energy, it will be possible to get more than 300% of additional energy.
Modern industrial installations require 4 kWh for production of 1 cubic meter of hydrogen from water. When this hydrogen is burnt, 3.6 kWh of energy is released. If the energy expenses for production of hydrogen from water are reduced by twofold or threefold, it becomes a competitive energy carrier. If it is possible to reduce these expenses of hydrogen tenfold, it will become the cheapest energy carrier. In this case, coal, oil and natural gas fail to compete with it.
Our investigations have shown that there are some plasma electrolytic devices and modes of their operation, which reduce energy expenses for obtaining one cubic meter of hydrogen up to 0.40 kWh. In this case, more than 1000% of additional energy is obtained. A laboratory device with such indices was made one year ago.
Modern fuel elements use potential possibilities of hydrogen by 0.6%. There is every reason to believe that the fuel element will improve this index at least by an order of magnitude if it operates together with the plasma electrolytic reactor. There are great reserves in the discovered direction of the energy problem solution.
The transition from a laboratory installation to the industrial one requires additional investigations with the use of rather expensive spectrometers, gas analyzers, electronic sets for simultaneous registration of more than 10 induces of the plasma electrolytic process. As hydrogen is an explosive gas, it is impossible to ignore the investigation stage for making the laboratory installation the industrial one. During the scale operation, dangerous radiations can take place, which accompany the transmutation process of the chemical element nuclei.
Five patents have been received for the investigation results; three positive decisions concerning the issue of the patents and three claims are in the process of consideration. Three editions of the book "Water as a New Source of Energy" are available with the detailed theoretical description of plasma electrolysis of water and the quantitative calculations of the experimental results.
The author of these elaborations was invited to deliver a lecture concerning this problem at the European congress on "New Hydrogen Technologies and Space Drives", which took place on June 23-24 in Weinfelden near Zürich.
As the author has kept walking along the corridors of the Russian power without success for five years in order to get financing, the last hope remains – to find a foreign investor. The author is busy with this problem as it is clear that a delay in financing is equal to a loss of priority in this topical field of investigations, which solves two global problems of the mankind: the energy problem and the environmental problem.
EXPERT RESOLUTION ON SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION RESULTS
of Professor Philipp M. Kanarev, head of the Chair of Theoretical Mechanics of the Kuban State Agrarian University
1. ESSENCE OF RESULTS OF THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS
The results of theoretical investigations of Professor Ph.M. Kanarev are based on a new axiomatics of exact sciences formulated and presented by him. Due to this fact, some of his scientific results do not match a number of acknowledged modern physical and chemical theories, with the special theory of relativity by A. Einstein and the theory of orbital movement of the electrons in the atoms, in particular. It is natural, because the above-mentioned theories have been worked out without taking into consideration the actual existing fact of space - matter - time unity, which is axiomatic, and due to this fact it should be taken into consideration when any mathematical theory is worked out. But it has not taken place, because prior to Ph.M. Kanarev nobody has given an axiomatic significance to the actually existing basic fact of space - matter - time unity.
Minkovsky was the first to pay attention to space - time unity. But he neglected the fact that not only space and time are inseparable, but matter is inseparable with space and time. Ph.M. Kanarev paid attention to this fact and formulated an axiom of space - matter - time unity. When he did it, his axiom began to play the role of a criterion when checking a bond of mathematical models of various theories with reality at once.
The analysis of Lorentz’s transformations within the framework of the axiom of space - matter - time unity carried out by the author has demonstrated groundlessness of the universally recognized interpretation of these transformations and lack of the consequences of these transformations, which are a foundation of the special theory of relativity of A. Einstein.
Having formulated the axiom of space - matter - time unity, Ph.M. Kanarev has given interesting patterns of its implementation in the solution of serious problems of modern physics. In particular, it concerns the analysis of correctness of substantiation of Lorentz’s transformations as an initial base of the principle of relativity of A. Einstein. He has shown discrepancy of such mathematical transformations to the actual events of the physical nature.
In his scientific works, Ph.M. Kanarev has demonstrated not once that the axiom of space - matter - time unity introduced by him does not allow false notions concerning the essence of the phenomena.
The axiom of space - matter - time unity has allowed the author to find electromagnetic models of the photon and the electron from the existing mathematical models of classical physics. These results are undoubtedly new as far as the depth of validity and connection with the experimental factors are concerned.
A discovery of the law, which governs the permanency of Planck’s constant, plays an important role on the scientific investigations of Ph.M. Kanarev. Planck constant has been known for one hundred years, and the reason of the permanency of this constant has been unknown for one hundred years. It is Professor Ph.M. Kanarev who has proved that the law of conservation of angular momentum governs the permanency of Planck constant.
Dimensional method, which is well known in science, has led Ph.M. Kanarev to a conclusion that Max Planck constant, which has dimensionality of angular momentum, is vector quantity. It follows from this that the photon and the electron have a form of rotating rings. Deep analysis of the existing mathematical models, which describe behaviour of the photon and the electron, has allowed Ph.M. Kanarev to discover their electromagnetic structures and to explain successfully their numerous discrepant features, which have remained incomprehensible from the point of view of modern physical theories.
Thus, the axiom of space - matter - time unity is in the foundation of exact sciences in spite of the author. The scientific community has not paid attention to this fundamental fact, which puts Ph.M. Kanarev among the scientists, who have opened the fundamental law of the nature.
Since the date of the discovery of the fact that the molecules consist of atoms till present time, neither physics, nor chemists have not been in the know of the mechanism of the formation of the atoms and the molecules. The electron is considered to form the orbital movement in the atom, but the way, in which it connects the atoms in the molecules, remains unknown. The thing has become clear after Ph.M. Kanarev has discovered the law of formation of the spectra of the atoms and the ions. It has turned out that there is no orbital component of the energy of the electron in the mathematical model of this law. A conclusion has been made at once that there is no orbital movement of the electron in the atom. And it has turned out here that the law of preservation of angular momentum governs the process of the formation of the atoms and the molecules. One can make a conclusion that the electrons precessing on the nuclei of the atoms connect them into molecules by means of their unlike magnetic poles.
To my mind, on the basis of the concept of Ph.M. Kanarev it is easy to explain the origin, structure and features of Rydberg’s atoms and Rydberg’s substance, which has been discovered recently by the scientists of the Goetheborg University (Sweden).
The new principle of the connection of the atoms in the molecules together with the law of the formation of the spectra of the atoms and ions have allowed the author to build the models of the atoms and the molecules of the first chemical elements, including the molecules of water, and to analyze in detail the processes of its fusion and dissociation. The contradictions of the modern theory of water electrolysis have been discovered at once, which have been not only eliminated with the help of his new theoretical results, but the author has determined that the fusion of the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen, not the cold nuclear fusion, is the source of additional energy during some modes of water electrolysis.
The new theory of water electrolysis has allowed the author to calculate quantity of heat energy. The results of these theoretical investigations have been confirmed experimentally not only by the author and an independent commission, but by the scientists of USA and Japan.
Ph.M. Kanarev has corrected a mistake made by Schwartzschild in deriving the formula for the calculation of the gravitation radius of the black hole and has worked out the new theory for the calculation of this radius as well as the theory of the contortion of the track of the movement of the photon by a gravitation field of the planets and the stars. This new theory is a significant contribution into astrophysics, and it will cause a revision of the existing astronomical notions.
It is clear that the new theory has formulated many new questions. Here are some of them, which demand great attention and investigation.
Why does the photon loose no energy when moving in the space?
How does a complicated electromagnetic structure of the photon generate constant velocity of its movement?
How is it possible to explain the multi-photon effect and a number of other last discoveries of physics on the basis of the new models of the electron and the photon?
Why is the toroidal structure of the electron stable?
Why do the changes of the energy state of the electron in the atom take place in the form of a jump? Why are they connected with integral numbers?
What fact stipulates discreteness of energy spectrum of the atoms and the ions?
Why do electron ionozation energies of the second electrons and the next electrons beginning from the nuclei of the atoms fail to be equal to their binding energies, which correspond to the first energy levels?
How is it possible to sum up the proof of the increase of mass of the electron during the increase of its velocity for other variants of its interaction with electric field?
How is it possible to substantiate the angular anisotropies of the electrons in the atoms and the atoms in the molecules?
2. NOVELTY OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS
The following significant results of the investigations carried out by Ph.M. Kanarev are the new ones: the axiom of space - matter - time unity; the proof of the vector’s properties of Planck constant and the cause of its constant; the law of the formation of the spectra of the atoms and the ions; the electromagnetic models of the photon and the electron; the model of the hydrogen atom, the principles of the formation of the atom and the molecules; the theory of water electrolysis; the deduction of the mathematical model of the law of irradiation of an absolutely black body from the laws of classical physics; the results of the experiments connected with obtaining additional energy during usual and plasma electrolysis of water; technical devices for obtaining heat energy, hydrogen and oxygen during plasma electrolysis of water; mathematical models for the calculation of the gravitational radius of the black hole and the contortion of the track of the movement of the photons by the gravitation fields of the stars and the planets.
3. VALUE FOR SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
A new axiom is new foundation for exact sciences. That’s why the axiom of space - matter - time unity will play the same role in science as the Euclidean axioms play now.
The law of the formation of the spectra of the atoms and ions will allow the physicists and chemists to regard the principle of the formation of the atom and the molecules from another point of view. In spite of the author’s will, this law together with vector properties of Planck constant will serve as a foundation for further development of theoretical chemistry.
The method of the construction of the structures of the nuclei, the atoms and the molecules is an original one. It promises the new principles of the investigations of the features of the nature, which are developed on the basis of vector features of Planck constant, not only for the physicists, but the chemists as well.
The new theory of water electrolysis opens its potential possibilities for the generation of additional heat energy, significantly reduces energy expenses for production of hydrogen from water and makes the main source of energy in future power industry.
The new technical devices for heat energy as well as energy containing gases (hydrogen and oxygen) from water will be the prototypes of the future industrial power installations. Five patents have already been obtained for these devices. The use of water as a source of energy will solve many environmental problems in the scale of the planet.
Ph.M. Kanarev has published more than 180 scientific papers, including 15 brochures, three educational guides and 14 books. Some of his scientific papers and books have been published abroad. The American Internet journal Journal of Theoretics (http://www.journaloftheoretics.com) has already accepted his five papers on physics to be published in the year of 2002. Now Ph.M. Kanarev writes the book “Classical quantum physics”, in which he is going to generalize the results of his theoretical and experimental investigations.
This year Ph.M. Kanarev has got the invitations to the scientific seminars, conferences, symposia and congresses to USA, England, Germany, Switzerland and Russia. In June, 2001, he read lecture “Water as a Source of Energy” in Switzerland at the European congress “New Hydrogen Technologies and Space Drives” ( http://Weinfelden.innoplaza.net ).
It is from the above-mentioned facts that a number of the new scientific results and ideas of the author will be included into the future guides on physics, mechanics, chemistry, astronomy, philosophy and other sciences and will be developed in the scientific works of other scientists.
Kanarev Electrolysis Cell
Articles by Kanarev
(Free Zipped Word Downloads from Innoplaza.net)
The Beginning of Theoretical Physics --- Experimenters have put a set of 205 questions which demand the answer for understanding of results of experiments before theorists. (94 kb)
Appeal to Physicists and Chemists-Theorists --- "Dear physicists and chemists - theorists, I must apologize that the unity axiom has already sent the large part of your theoretical proceedings and the proceedings of your predecessors to a section of history of science as the ones, which do not reflect a reality. The unity axiom executes its judicial functions, and each theorist should know them." (27 kb)
Perpetuum Mobile, Instead of The Machine of Time --- Article in the newspaper "Krasnodar" 5 (457), January 27, 2006, translated into English (38 kb).
The Main Problems of Hydrogen Power Engineering --- "The largest reduction reserve of power consumption for water electrolysis is in the photosynthesis process. Annually during this process, water evolves hundred million cubic metres of hydrogen, the atoms of which are used as the connecting links in organic molecule construction. For implementation of this process, all living organisms have their own energy sources. What if this process is modeled in a technical device?" (7 kb).
The Fundametal Sciences on the Way to Unity --- "The main merit of the unity axiom is in the fact that it has opened a direct way to a discovery of very mysterious electromagnetic structures of the photons, the electrons, the nuclei, the atoms and the molecules." (28 kb).
Pulse Power --- "Energy efficiency of the cell is implemented only in the case when energy source, which is similar to magnetic inductor, is used." (124 kb).
The Law of Electric Circuit --- Average power in each section of electric circuit is equal to a product of average voltage, which is applied across this section, by average value of current. (69 kb).
On the Way to Pulse Power Engineering --- "Vital parts of all living organisms consume electric power by pulses. It is the most saving way of the use of electric power." (202 kb).
The Fifth & Sixth Lectures By The Unity Axiom: Physical Meaning Of Heat, Temperature, Relic Radiation, Photoeffect And Compton's Effect --- Conclusions: 1. Energy of the originated photon cannot be increased; it is decreased only; 2. In the Compton effect, behaviour of the photon does not obey the energy conservation law. (494 kb).
The Fifth Lecture by Unity Axiom: Physical Meaning of Heat, Temperature, Relic Radiation and Photoeffect --- "A new analysis of relic radiation shows that hydrogen atom production process by the Universe stars, not a mystical "Big bang", is its source. It has been disclosed that the equation suggested by A. Einstein for the interpretation of photo effect is a mathematical model of the law of formation of the atom and ion spectra discovered in 1993". (337 kb).
The Fourth Lecture of the Unity Axiom: Evolution of Atomic Theories --- "Now one can affirm that the idea of the orbital motion of the electrons in the atoms is on its way to history of science, and it is substituted by an idea concerning linear interaction of the electrons with the atomic nuclei. It describes reality more precise and carries much more information for profound understanding of an arrangement of the micro world." (277 kb).
The Third Lecture by The Unity Axiom: What do Maxwell's Equations Describe? (477 kb).
The Second Lecture of the Unity Axiom: Niels Bohr's Errors. (74 kb).
The First Lecture of the Unity Axiom: Beginning of Fundamental Errors. (60 kb).
Errors of the Nobel Committee --- Kanarev's story about the Authoritative Inquisitor and the beautiful lady named Unity Axiom. (HTML).
Report to Unselfish Investor of My Scientific Investigations --- Kanarev's letter to his Japanese friend. (39 kb).
Physical Meaning of Temperature (192 kb).
New Intertpretation of Relic Radiation --- "The Universe radiation being called relic radiation is produced by the monoatomic hydrogen, which appears in the entrails of the stars of the Universe. Relic radiation has nothing to do with the so-called 'Big bang'." (124 kb).
Analysis of Fundamental Contradictions --- "Electric energy is converted by the cell of the water electric generator of heat into heat energy with the energy efficiency index of more than 50. The law of conservation of energy does not operate." (266 kb).
New Fundamental Constant --- Explained by Prof. Ph. M. Kanarev, localizes photon in space.: The lower and upper limits of photon radius; The maximal wavelength of relic radiation corresponds to the maximal possible wavelength of the photon and the minimal wavelength corresponds to the gamma range. A hypothesis divides the electromagnetic radiation scale by two classes: the photon class and the wave class. (238 kb).
Protocol N 1 of Control Testing of the Cell of Water Electric Generator of Heat --- "The law of conservation of energy is not fulfilled" (107 kb).
Global Energy Sources --- "Conversion of electric energy into thermal energy with energy efficiency index of more than 100 folds has been found." "...assumption that low-current water electrolysis is similar to its electrolysis, which takes place during photosynthesis." (173 kb)
Procedure Analysis of Measurement of Electric Power Consumed by the Water Electric Generator of Heat ---- An article for experimenters wanting to repeat the 'Kanarev Effect'.
Low Current Electrolysis of Water --- "Energy efficiency index of the low current electrolysis should be refined, but in any case it will be greater than 10, that’s why there is every reason to think that a way to production of inexpensive hydrogen..."
Cell of the Thin Plasmaelectric Generator of Heat --- "Simplicity and 100% reproducibility of the experiments being described open a prospect for quick commercialization of the water electric generator of heat... The main task of the experiment was to check the hypothesis: "Electrodynamic influence on the water molecules gives the possibility to reduce energy expenses on destruction of their chemical bonds significantly; further fusion of these molecules increases considerably the output of additional energy in the form of heat... In order to solve this task, special experiments were carried out connected with electrodynamic destruction of chemical bonds of water molecules with electric pulses of various frequencies.
Plasmaelectric Generator Cell
Generators of Global (Clean) Energy --- "... sell cavitation heating equipment with energy performance index up to 150%. Official science looks awry at this activity, because such results conflict with one of the main laws of physics: law of conservation of energy. But market profit is stronger than this law."
Water Electric Generator of Heat
Prospects of Quantum Mechanics
Low Current Proces of Water Electrolysis
The Law of Formation of the Spectra of the Atoms and the Ions
Prospects of Hydrogen Energetics
The New Interpretation of Photoeffect
Electrons in Atoms
The Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum and The Law of the Radiation of the Perfect Blackbody is the Law of Classical Physics
The Gravitational Radius of a Black Hole; (PDF)
Modelling the Photon and Analyzing Its Electromagnetic and Physical Nature; Journal of Theoretics. (PDF)
Cold Fusion by Plasma Electrolysis of Water --- Ph.M. Kanarev & Tadahiko Mizuno ( Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan ); It has been disclosed that transmutation of the atomic nuclei of alkaline metals and the atomic nuclei of the cathode material takes place during plasma electrolysis of water.
Energy Balance of Fusion Processes of the Ozone Molecule --- It has been disclosed that new physical chemistry of the micro world facilitates the description of the ozone molecule fusion processes within the framework of the law of conservation of energy.
Energy Balance of Fusion Processes of Molecules of Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Water --- A cause of additional energy appearance during covalent bond formation in the fusion processes of the molecules of oxygen and water has been disclosed, and the source of this energy has been established.
On-Line Books in English
( Free Zip Word File Downloads from Innoplaza.net )
The Foundations of Physchemistry of Micro World (7th Edition) --- Quant1-5 (682 kb) http://guns.connect.fi/innoplaza/energy/story/Kanarev/book/Quant1-5.zip;
Quant6-7: (393 kb);
Quant8-9 (298 kb);
Quant10-11 (721 kb);
Quant12-13 (489 kb);
Quant14 (2.4 Mb);
Quant15-18 (1.4 Mb);
Quant19-20 (48 kb).
Translated from Russian by A.I. Kostina (Pages: 340; Figures: 107; Tables: 48; physical and chemical equations: 315)
The new axiomatics of natural sciences is given in the book; on its basis, quantum physics and quantum chemistry have been returned to the classical way of development. The first steps are made on this way, which have led to discovery of the structure of the photon, the electron, and the principle of the formation of the atomic nuclei, the atoms and the molecules.
The Planck's Law of radiation of perfect blackbody is given on the basis of classical concepts, and the connection of quantum phenomena with the laws of classical physics is proved.
The application of the new theoretical results to the solution of practical energy tasks on the basis of plasma electrolysis of water is shown. Due to this electrolysis, additional heat energy generated as well as hydrogen and oxygen are the energy containing gases. Cold Nuclear transmutation of the atomic nuclei of alkaline metals and the atomic nuclei of the cathode material takes place during plasma electrolysis of water.
The book is intended for physicists, chemists and other specialists who are seeking the new directions for understanding the foundations of the microworld and the new energy sources.
Book Lectures by the Unity Axiom --- (0.9 Mb).
Kanarev's new printed book "The Resurrection of Exact Science" can be ordered from
Instructions for Building Kanarev Electrolysis Cell
"The following was received by email from Prof. Kanarev" [ to Sterling Allen ( May 6, 2006 ) ]: ---
"If you wish to reproduce quickly my experiment on lowcurrent electrolysis of water I am ready to consult you. Cost of videofilm and the information necessary for manufacturing of labo-ratory model electrolyser, its start in work and reception of necessary results - $2000.
"If you agree, transfer on my account in the beginning $1000 and I send to you videofilm by duration one minute. If after viewing film you decide will make and to test laboratory model electrolyser after transfer still $1000 I send to you parameters of cells and other information. After manufacturing model and the beginning of tests I shall give you recommendations on structure of a solution and modes of start electrolyser. The duration of the video is one minute.
"Videofilm: Low Current Electrolysis of Water
"The text on a course of film in Russian. A reference point after time shown by a video-camera. The duration of Video is one minits.
"The beginning: "Water --- a new energy source"
"9-57 --- Pay attention, on the right two light wires go from the power supply to a cell. Now they will be switched - off, and process of an output of gases will proceed.
"10-18 --- Has passed twenty minutes from the moment of switching-off of the power supply, but the output of gases proceeds.
"10-31 --- The power supply is included
"The additional information: At a continuous feed electrolysis the power consumption on reception of hydrogen from water makes 1,5-2,0 Wh/liter. If a feed periodically to disconnect, it is possible to reduce a power consumption by reception of hydrogen up to 0,5-1,0 Wh/liter and is more significant. After switching-off of the power supply process of an output of gases proceeds some hours.
"Dr. Philipp Kanarev, chairman of Kuban State Agrarian University’s Department of Theoretical Mechanics, Krasnodar, Russia, developed a method of water plasma electrolysis that he sees as the best way to get cheap hydrogen from water. He tells why his 1987 report on it didn’t reach news media nor the open literature about patents. Since his device was developed “at the enterprise of the military industrial complex”, his certificate of invention was stamped “for service use only” and its content was not published openly.
"At that time, the focus was on purifying and disinfecting water with the help of the plasma in his reactor. Two years later Drs. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announced they had excess energy output during a type of electrolysis. This renewed research efforts behind the former Iron Curtain as well as in the West. In 1996 one of Kanarev’s co-authors on the 1987 certificate published results on the excess energy output from the plasma process. The next year they applied for a patent. Then a full group of Russian scientists tested the device and documented its output. Technical people can read more about Kanarev’s theory in his books, such as Crisis of Theoretical Physics. Results of the plasma-electrolytic experiments were predicted by the theory."