rexresearch.com


Michael KOHNEN

Litrospheres ( Self-Luminous Microspheres )


http://www.glopaint.com

MPK CO.
602 West Clayton Avenue
Clayton, WI 54004-9101 USA

Phone: 715-948-2100
email: nightsport@juno.com (mailto:nightsport@juno.com?subject=Litroenergy_featured_at_PESWiki)


http://PESWiki.com

Litrospheres

MPK Co produces glow-in-the-dark paint. Safety is one of their first intended applications of the new continuously fluorescing Litrospheres™.

GlowPaint glow-in-the-dark paint company, MPK Co., has come up with self-luminous micro particles called Litrospheres which they say are inexpensive, non-toxic, and will stay on for 12+ years (half-life point) continuously -- without having to be plugged into any power source. The Litrospheres are not effected by heat or cold, and are 5,000-pound crush resistant. They can be injection molded or added to paint. The fill rate of Litroenergy micro particles in plastic injection molding material or paint is about 20%. The constant light gives off no UV rays, and can be designed to emit almost any color of light desired. The company seeks to mass produce this mateiral and supply OEMs. This has potential to save billions in energy costs world-wide. Litroenergy™ surpasses all known available lighting options for cost/durability/reliability and safety." --- Steve Stark, MPK Co.

"The uses are unlimited as the imagination; however we predict the safety aspects to be the front runner in application (light safety tape, lighted life rafts/flotation equipment, light safety markings/equipment, etc.). Supplemental light source will be second as the material is bright and one can read by it, if you have some Litroenergy lighting you will not need to always turn on a light source that requires electricity. The use of Litroenergy in toys, sports/camping equipment, bikes and novelty uses will be close in applications."

LitroEnergy - New Light Source Material
(http://www.createthefuturecontest.com/pages/view/entriesdetail.html?entryID=567) --- submitted to NASA Tech Briefs


http://digg.com/environment/Continuous_Light_Doesn_t_Need_to_be_Plugged_In

Continuous Light Doesn't Need to be Plugged In

GlowPaint glow-in-the-dark paint company, MPK Co., has come up with self-luminous micro particles called Litrospheres which they say are inexpensive, non-toxic, and will stay on for 12+ years (half-life point) continuously --- without having to be plugged into any power source. (Digg; Dec. 9, 2007)

Clean Energy Free Lighting - New Light Source Discovered (http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Clean_Energy_Free_Lighting_-_New_Light_Source_Discovered) - (WikiNews; Dec.
7, 2007)



LitroEnergy Power Cells Produce Continuous Output

by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems

By combining a non-stop luminescing technology that has a 20-year duration (12-year half-life), with thin film photovoltaics in a layered arrangement, MPK Co. has devised a portable, continuous generator that could change the planet.

Imagine a laptop or cell phone battery that never has to be recharged. Imagine an electric vehicle that can drive non-stop with no need to recharge. Imagine a generator in your garage that requires no fuel, essentially no maintenance, and provides enough power for all your electrical needs.

Such a day may not be far away with the advent of a marriage of two energy technologies. Simply join solar thin film technology that turns photons into electrons together with the luminescent microspheres by MPK Co. to produces continuous photons, and you have continuous electricity generation.

Well…, not exactly “continuous”, because the LitroSphere™ photon output rate very gradually diminishes over time, but we’re talking over many years, like 20, rather than hours. But unlike batteries, there is no “off” switch for these betavoltatic devices. They just generate electricity at a fixed rate, and they keep on going, and going, and going, and going – without any waste byproduct.

The cell-phone battery and electric vehicle capability may be a ways off yet, but some of the portable applications that can handle a little more size and weight will be available first.

You’ve heard of thin film solar. Konarka, a leader in that industry, for example, just announced this week that they are now in mass production of their low-cost, printed rolls of solar sheets at a rate of 1 gigawatt of simultaneous output capacity per year – the same capacity as one nuclear power plant, and at a price that is in the same ballpark.

What about MPK? Perhaps not yet a household word, but they certainly are not unknowns. Last year their luminescent microspheres technology won first place in NASA’s “Future Design” contest. The microspheres can be embedded in transparent paint to create essentially a permanent-lighting paint. MPK has subsequently developed Litroenergy sheets that create on-going light. Their light emitting micro particles and/or sheets are not affected by heat or cold and will produce consistent/constant light while also being extremely durable.

Now, with this concept of joining their Litroenergy sheets with solar thin film sheets, MPK may win the NASA contest again this year. Posting this idea for the first time last Friday (the contest deadline) on the NASA contest website, they have already risen in the top tier among 766 contestants this year.

The combining these two technologies – the thin-film solar and the LitroSpheres™ – would entail very thin, repeated layers of each so that a large number of stacked sets would comprise a significant power density. They call these versatile hybrid species, Litroenergy Power Cells, which can be scaled from micro applications to large utilities.

How long will the wait be until we see this on the market? According to Steve Stark, Director of Marketing for MPK, product could be rolling out of manufacturing plants in as little as three months from now, depending on financing. The technology and players are already in place, and the independent testing of this combination will be completed in a few weeks. The results from MPK’s in-house testing have been very encouraging. “There is a lot going on behind the scenes that I can not disclose at this time, but it is huge” said Stark.

MPK has been able to gain the cooperation of both major government and corporate interests, which they are not yet ready to disclose publicly, but which speaks highly of their persistence and accomplishment. (Steve filled me in on some of the details.)  It is "definitely worth doing", said one of the government experts who has actually tested another version of the concept.

The match of the wavelength of the LitroSphere™ luminescence, and the solar cell collection is close to optimal – something that could be improved in future versions, but which is already more than adequate for efficient pairing.

The Litroenergy technology is based on a combination of an advanced phosphorus and tritium, hence the 12-year half-life. Tritium is the most harmless of the various radioactive elements, and is ubiquitous in nature, in the air we breathe and the water we drink. Tritium is quite benign. Only in recent years has it no longer been considered perfectly safe. The MPK packaging of tritium into microspheres that have a 5,000-pound crush resistance, makes this technology safe. In the case of release into the air, it essentially is released as hydrogen. The minute, "soft" radioactive emissions from the tritium do not penetrate through the walls of the microsphere encapsulation. MPK is having the Litroenergy Power Cells tested for classification as non-toxic and non-radioactive.

Taking the gradual diminishment over time, the power output will need to be engineered in such a way that it is overbuilt for the devices it is powering so that it matches the desired lifespan of the device.  In many applications, an accompanying battery may be designed into the system to serve as a reservoir of the continuous trickle charge output of the Litroenergy Power Cell, while the device may only be used transiently. How the excess energy is dispersed during the first portion of the device lifetime can be engineered appropriately.


United States Patent Application   20070200074

Long Life Self-Luminous Microspheres

Michael P. KOHNEN
( August 30, 2007 )

Abstract --- This invention relates to a means for more efficiently and more safely providing self-luminous lighting devices for use in signs, markers, indicators and the like. The present invention provides self luminosity by means of a plurality of glass or polymer microspheres containing both a light-emitting phosphor and a radioactive gas. The "soft" emission of electrons from the beta emitting gas cannot penetrate the glass or polymer wall of the microspheres, thereby constituting no radiation hazard. A further advantage of the present invention is that the plurality of individual containment microspheres minimizes the escape of radioactive gas in the event of any physical damage to an assembly of such microspheres. A still further advantage of the invention is that the radioactive gas completely surrounds the phosphor particles, thus causing light emission from one hundred percent of the surface of the particles.

U.S. Current Class:  250/462.1; 40/542; 428/402; 428/690
U.S. Class at Publication:  250/462.1; 428/690; 428/402; 40/542
Intern'l Class:  F21K 2/00 20060101 F21K002/00; B32B 9/00 20060101 B32B009/00; B32B 1/00 20060101 B32B001/00

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0004]1. Field of the Invention

[0005]The present invention relates to a long life illumination source and, more particularly, to a self-contained, long life illumination source and, most particularly, to long life, self-luminous microspheres for such use.

[0006]2. Background Information

[0007]Self-luminous signs and indicators have been in use since early in the twentieth century and have experienced numerous improvements over the intervening years. The early uses of self-luminosity employed radium as the activator for a phosphor; however, radium constituted a health hazard from its "hard" radiation and was abandoned. In more recent times a number of radio isotopes have been developed and produced, which serve to activate phosphors to luminescence. Depending upon the choice of isotope, one may obtain alpha, beta or gamma radiation and it has been found that alpha and gamma radiation are hazardous to health, leaving the beta radiators as the safe type for self-luminescence devices. By definition, the beta radiators emit electrons which are relatively heavy particles and exhibit less velocity. This type of radiation will not penetrate a thin glass wall, such as is employed in the present invention. However, beta radiation is effective in causing phosphors to luminesce. Among the beta radiating isotopes, we have selected tritium as the activator for the present device. Tritium exhibits a half-life of 12.5 years, which is quite adequate for the purpose intended. Other isotopes might be used; however, some have small amounts of "hard" radiation and exhibit differing half-lives, such as:

[0008]Promethium.sup.147, having a half-life of 2.7 years, Thallium.sup.204, having a half-life of 3.6 years and Krypton.sup.85, having a half-life of 10.0 years. However, Krypton.sup.85 yields approximately 0.5% of its radiation in the form of gamma rays, which are hazardous to living organisms.

[0009]Others have made various forms of self-luminous devices; however, these have suffered from lack of efficiency for any of the following causes:

[0010](a) Light being obstructed by the phosphor and the radioactive substance being chemically combined to become a solid.

[0011](b) Light being obstructed or attenuated by having to pass through a layer of phosphor to become visible.

[0012](c) Light being limited by only one side of the phosphor particles being exposed to the radiation.

[0013]A further problem with some of the previous devices has been that the phosphor was combined with a binder to allow a film coating on the inside of a glass envelope which contained the radioactive gas. In this instance, not only did the film attenuate the light, but the binder deteriorated with time due to its exposure to the radiation.

[0014]Some individuals have made self-luminous paints, wherein the radioactive gas was converted to a solid by chemical combination with a transparent polymer, which was then deposited on phosphor crystals. In this instance, exposure to its own radiation resulted in the tritiated polymer losing gas and the tritiated gas compounds readily diffuse through the polymer, thus resulting in a radiation hazard, as well as to degrade the transparency of the polymer.

[0015]Work in the area of self-luminous signs has been done by such companies as American Atomics, Inc., Self Powered Lighting, Inc. and by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). See U.S. Pat. No. 4,383,382 of Self Powered Lighting, Inc. In addition, the 3M company has done considerable work with self-lumination; however, their means involve the hazard and light attenuation problems described above.

[0016]NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has done work with the confinement of atomic waste materials in glass envelopes and in a manner similar to that described herein. However, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory employed a standard method of forming glass spheres, and they were not concerned with self-luminescence. No phosphors were involved with their work.

[0017]A recent invention, disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,677,008 by Webb, provides a safe and efficient self-luminous microspheres and a process for making the same. The self-luminous microspheres disclosed are of limited utility because the phosphor particles were inefficient at producing illumination from the tritium radiation and are subject to degradation, particularly on exposure to ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet light degradation of the phosphor particles, disclosed by Webb, prevents applications in which the self-luminous microspheres are located outdoors.

[0018]Applicant has devised an improved and more efficient self-luminous microspheres that overcome many of the shortcomings of those disclosed in the above-mentioned patents.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0019]The invention obviates the problems described in the foregoing approaches to self-luminosity by confining the radioactive material within a glass walled sphere, along with the light-emitting phosphor in such manner that the emitted light does not have to pass through any light attenuating medium.

[0020]Though numerous radioactive gases might be employed, tritium gas was chosen as the activator for the light-emitting phosphor. Tritium is a "soft" beta emitter, and the radiation does not penetrate the glass wall of the envelope. The clear borosilicate glass microsphere offers no appreciable attenuation of the emitted light.

[0021]The formation of glass microspheres is a well-known art and is widely used in providing strong, light-weight fillers for epoxies and the like. Also well known is the art of filling such microspheres with a gas, since the gas pressure is fundamental to the formation of the hollow spheres.

[0022]The present invention employs light-emitting phosphor particles that embody high efficiency in converting tritium radiation into visible light. The phosphor particles also are highly resistant to degradation by ultraviolet light, thus enabling applications where the microspheres are exposed to sunlight.

[0023]The phosphor particles, according to the preferred embodiment of the invention, have the general formula: MO.(n-x){aAl.sub.2O.sub.3.sup..alpha.+(1-a)Al.sub.2O.sub.3.sup..gamma.}.x- B.sub.2O.sub.3: R, where M is any alkaline earth metal preferably selected from among Sr, Ca and Ba, and R is a rare earth element selected from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mn and Bi. Most preferably, the phosphor particles of the present invention contain strontium aluminate borate.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0024] FIG. 1 illustrates an apparatus used in the process of forming the gas filled microspheres of the present invention.

[0025] FIG. 2 shows an envelope containing phosphor particles and radioactive gas in full section.

[0026] FIG. 3 illustrates an alternative apparatus used in the process of forming the gas filled microspheres of the present invention.

[0027] FIG. 4 shows a detailed view of the outlet of the apparatus of FIG. 3 where the gas filled microspheres are formed.

DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

Nomenclature

[0028]1 Crucible
[0029]2 Molten Glass or Polymer
[0030]3 Gas Inlet
[0031]4 Tritium Gas
[0032]5 Feed Chamber for Phosphor Particles
[0033]6 Capillary Tube
[0034]8 Outlet of Funnel
[0035]9 Phosphor Particles
[0036]10 Funnel
[0037]11 First Tube
[0038]12 Second Tube
[0039]13 Venturi Section
[0040]14 Chamber
[0041]15 Phosphor Particles and Tritium Gas Mixture
[0042]16 Beta Particle Radiation
[0043]100 Microsphere Production System
[0044]101 Gas Filled Microsphere
[0045]102 Container for Tritium
[0046]104 Tritium Gas
[0047]106 Outlet Valve
[0048]108 Transfer Conduit
[0049]109 Phosphor Particles
[0050]110 Capillary Tube
[0051]111 Outlet End of Capillary Tube
[0052]112 Inlet Line
[0053]114 Reservoir Container for Phosphor Particles
[0054]120 Heated Container
[0055]122 Molten Glass or Polymer
[0056]124 Outlet Nozzle Section
[0057]126 Central Bore of Nozzle Section
[0058]128 Bottom End of Central Bore
[0059]130 Cooling Gas Atmosphere
[0060]132 Collection Chamber
[0061]134 Outlet Conduit of Collection Chamber
[0062]140 Tritium Recycle Containers

Construction

[0063]In the present invention, the standard method of forming gas filled microspheres is modified to employ tritium gas and to employ the pressure of the gas to insert the light-emitting phosphor particles into each microsphere. The process for this insertion is best illustrated by referring to FIG. 1, where a crucible 1 containing molten glass or polymer 2 is necked down to form a funnel 10 at its bottom. Concentric within the funnel 10, and of a smaller diameter, is a capillary tube 6 extending upward from the plane of the end of the funnel 10 to a chamber 14. A gas inlet 3 conducts a gas at a suitable pressure (P1) to regulate the flow of molten glass or polymer through the annular area 8 between the funnel 10 and the capillary tube 6. The tritium gas 4 is fed under pressure (P2) to a venturi section 13, where a first tube 11 feeds a relatively high pressure to a chamber 5 containing particles of phosphor 9.

[0064]A second tube 12 is located beyond the venturi section 13 at a relatively low pressure area and extends downward into the upper portion of chamber 5 which contains the stock of phosphor particles 9. The pressure differential between the two tubes 11 and 12 results in a relative vacuum in the chamber 14, causing the phosphor particles 9 to rise into the chamber 14 where the flow of the tritium gas 4 sweeps them into the capillary tube 6, forming a mixture of phosphor particles and tritium gas 15, which forms the filler for the gas microspheres being formed at 8. The completed, filled microsphere 4, 2, 9 are shown as they separate from the annular area at the bottom of the equipment. FIG. 1 is schematic only and does not represent the actual proportions of the components of the system. The pressure of the tritium gas 4 may be pulsed to aid in forming the microspheres. The microsphere 2 must be fabricated from a material transparent to visible light, such as glass or polymer, in order for the light emitted by the phosphor particles 9 to traverse the gas tight microsphere envelope 2 containing the tritium gas 4 and phosphor particles 9.

[0065]The phosphor particles 9, according to the preferred embodiment of the invention, have the general formula: MO.(n-x){aAl.sub.2O.sub.3.sup..alpha.+(1-a)Al.sub.2O.sub.3.sup..gamma.}.x- B.sub.2O.sub.3: R, where M is any alkaline earth metal preferably selected from among Sr, Ca and Ba, and R is a rare earth element selected from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Mn and Bi. These phosphor particles are available from Qinglong Hao, 45 Yili, Zhujiafedn, Fengtai District, Beijing 100074, China. The preparation of this class of phosphor particles 9 is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,885,488, and the contents of this reference is incorporated herein. Most preferably, the phosphor particles 9 of the present invention contain strontium aluminate borate.

[0066]Referring to FIG. 2, it will be noted that the radioactive gas 4 surrounds the phosphor particles 9 within the glass or polymer envelope 2, thus exposing the light-emitting phosphor 9 to radiation 16 from all sides, thus increasing the efficiency of light generation. FIG. 2 shows the phosphor particles 9 in a somewhat ideal dispersal. However, even when more closely packed, the 100% exposure of the phosphor particles 9 to the radiation 16 remains valid.

[0067]Referring now to FIG.3, an alternative microsphere production system 100, used in the process of forming the gas filled microspheres 101 of the present invention, is illustrated. The production system 100 includes tritium gas 104 confined within a container 102, having an outlet valve 106 connected to a transfer conduit 108 for routing the tritium gas 104 to a capillary tube 110, that passes through a heated container 120. The outlet valve 106 serves to regulate the flow of phosphor particles 109 through the capillary tube 110. The transfer conduit 108 includes an inlet line 112 supplied with phosphor particles 109 from a reservoir container 114. As the phosphor particles 109 enter the transfer conduit 108, the tritium gas 104 carries phosphor particles 109 through the transfer conduit 108 and into the capillary tube 110.

[0068]A reservoir of molten glass or polymer 122 is maintained within the heated container 120. The heated container 120 includes an outlet nozzle section 124, illustrated in detail in FIG. 4. The outlet nozzle section 124 includes a central bore 126, with the capillary tube 110 concentrically positioned within the central bore 126. The outlet end 111 of the capillary tube 110 is positioned at the bottom end 128 of the central bore 126 of the outlet nozzle section 124. As small bubbles of the mixture of tritium gas 104 and phosphor particles 109 emerge from the outlet end 111 of the capillary tube 110, the molten glass or polymer 122 forms a gas tight envelope or microsphere 101 to encapsulate the mixture. The resulting microspheres 101 fall through a cooling gas atmosphere 130 contained within a collection container 132 and collect at the bottom of the collection container 132. Any microspheres 101 that do not seal properly results in tritium gas 104 contaminating the cooling gas atmosphere 130 within the collection chamber 132. The resulting cooling gas atmosphere 130 is routed through an outlet conduit 134 and through several tritium recycle containers 140, where the tritium 104 is collected for recycling to the head of the microsphere production system 100. Preferably, the polymer 122 selected for the gas tight envelope or microsphere 101 is resistant to degradation by beta radiation from the tritium gas 104 contained therein.

[0069]A plurality of the microspheres 101 of FIG. 2 may be disposed on a surface to form signs, markers, indicators and the like, useful for outdoor applications. A plurality of the microspheres 101 of FIG. 2 may be disposed in a transparent binder to form a luminous paint, also useful for outdoor applications. As mentioned above, the phosphor particles 9 or 109 of the present invention are highly resistant to degradation by ultraviolet light, thus enabling applications where the microspheres 101 are exposed to sunlight.

[0070]The microspheres 101 of the present invention provide many advantages in comparison to prior known self-luminous devices. The continuous excitation of the phosphor particles 9 or 109 by the radioactive decay of tritium gas 4 or 104 provides visible light continuously for the life of the microsphere 101. The extended production of usable light, without the need for additional energy to recharge the phosphor particles 9 or 109, results in an extremely, economical light source. The exceptional stability of the phosphor particles 9 or 109 to ultraviolet light degradation allows continuous usage of the microspheres 101 in any location, indoors or out, as well as under water.

[0071]Additionally, the exceptional features of the microspheres 101 of the present invention allow a device containing the microspheres 101 to replace conventional lighting devices requiring a source of electrical energy. Consequently, with wide spread usage of the present invention, electrical power usage can be greatly reduced. This, in turn, results in decreased green house emissions from power plant combustion of fossil fuels, thereby assisting in combating global warming.

[0072]While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.


LitroEnergy Power Cells Produce Continuous Output

by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems

By combining a non-stop luminescing technology that has a 20-year duration (12-year half-life), with thin film photovoltaics in a layered arrangement, MPK Co. has devised a portable, continuous generator that could change the planet.

Imagine a laptop or cell phone battery that never has to be recharged. Imagine an electric vehicle that can drive non-stop with no need to recharge. Imagine a generator in your garage that requires no fuel, essentially no maintenance, and provides enough power for all your electrical needs.

Such a day may not be far away with the advent of a marriage of two energy technologies. Simply join solar thin film technology that turns photons into electrons together with the luminescent microspheres by MPK Co. to produces continuous photons, and you have continuous electricity generation.

Well…, not exactly “continuous”, because the LitroSphere™ photon output rate very gradually diminishes over time, but we’re talking over many years, like 20, rather than hours. But unlike batteries, there is no “off” switch for these betavoltatic devices. They just generate electricity at a fixed rate, and they keep on going, and going, and going, and going – without any waste byproduct.

The cell-phone battery and electric vehicle capability may be a ways off yet, but some of the portable applications that can handle a little more size and weight will be available first.

You’ve heard of thin film solar. Konarka, a leader in that industry, for example, just announced this week that they are now in mass production of their low-cost, printed rolls of solar sheets at a rate of 1 gigawatt of simultaneous output capacity per year – the same capacity as one nuclear power plant, and at a price that is in the same ballpark.

What about MPK? Perhaps not yet a household word, but they certainly are not unknowns. Last year their luminescent microspheres technology won first place in NASA’s “Future Design” contest. The microspheres can be embedded in transparent paint to create essentially a permanent-lighting paint. MPK has subsequently developed Litroenergy sheets that create on-going light. Their light emitting micro particles and/or sheets are not affected by heat or cold and will produce consistent/constant light while also being extremely durable.

Now, with this concept of joining their Litroenergy sheets with solar thin film sheets, MPK may win the NASA contest again this year. Posting this idea for the first time last Friday (the contest deadline) on the NASA contest website, they have already risen in the top tier among 766 contestants this year.

The combining these two technologies – the thin-film solar and the LitroSpheres™ – would entail very thin, repeated layers of each so that a large number of stacked sets would comprise a significant power density. They call these versatile hybrid species, Litroenergy Power Cells, which can be scaled from micro applications to large utilities.

How long will the wait be until we see this on the market? According to Steve Stark, Director of Marketing for MPK, product could be rolling out of manufacturing plants in as little as three months from now, depending on financing. The technology and players are already in place, and the independent testing of this combination will be completed in a few weeks. The results from MPK’s in-house testing have been very encouraging. “There is a lot going on behind the scenes that I can not disclose at this time, but it is huge” said Stark.

MPK has been able to gain the cooperation of both major government and corporate interests, which they are not yet ready to disclose publicly, but which speaks highly of their persistence and accomplishment. (Steve filled me in on some of the details.)  It is "definitely worth doing", said one of the government experts who has actually tested another version of the concept.

The match of the wavelength of the LitroSphere™ luminescence, and the solar cell collection is close to optimal – something that could be improved in future versions, but which is already more than adequate for efficient pairing.

The Litroenergy technology is based on a combination of an advanced phosphorus and tritium, hence the 12-year half-life. Tritium is the most harmless of the various radioactive elements, and is ubiquitous in nature, in the air we breathe and the water we drink. Tritium is quite benign. Only in recent years has it no longer been considered perfectly safe. The MPK packaging of tritium into microspheres that have a 5,000-pound crush resistance, makes this technology safe. In the case of release into the air, it essentially is released as hydrogen. The minute, "soft" radioactive emissions from the tritium do not penetrate through the walls of the microsphere encapsulation. MPK is having the Litroenergy Power Cells tested for classification as non-toxic and non-radioactive.

Taking the gradual diminishment over time, the power output will need to be engineered in such a way that it is overbuilt for the devices it is powering so that it matches the desired lifespan of the device.  In many applications, an accompanying battery may be designed into the system to serve as a reservoir of the continuous trickle charge output of the Litroenergy Power Cell, while the device may only be used transiently. How the excess energy is dispersed during the first portion of the device lifetime can be engineered appropriately.


http://www.peswiki.com

LitroEnergy Power Cells Produce Continuous Output

by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems News

magine a laptop or cell phone battery that never has to be recharged. Imagine an electric vehicle that can drive non-stop with no need to recharge. Imagine a generator in your garage that requires no fuel, essentially no maintenance, and provides enough power for all your electrical needs.

Such a day may not be far away with the advent of a marriage of two energy technologies. Simply join solar thin film technology that turns photons into electrons together with the luminescent microspheres by MPK Co. to produces continuous photons, and you have continuous electricity generation.

Well…, not exactly “continuous”, because the LitroSphere™ photon output rate very gradually diminishes over time, but we’re talking over many years, like 20, rather than hours. But unlike batteries, there is no “off” switch for these betavoltatic devices. They just generate electricity at a fixed rate, and they keep on going, and going, and going, and going – without any waste byproduct.

The cell-phone battery and electric vehicle capability may be a ways off yet, but some of the portable applications that can handle a little more size and weight will be available first.

You’ve heard of thin film solar. Konarka, a leader in that industry, for example, just announced this week that they are now in mass production of their low-cost, printed rolls of solar sheets at a rate of 1 gigawatt of simultaneous output capacity per year – the same capacity as one nuclear power plant, and at a price that is in the same ballpark.

What about MPK? Perhaps not yet a household word, but they certainly are not unknowns. Last year their luminescent microspheres technology won first place in NASA’s “Future Design” contest. The microspheres can be embedded in transparent paint to create essentially a permanent-lighting paint. MPK has subsequently developed Litroenergy sheets that create on-going light. Their light emitting micro particles and/or sheets are not affected by heat or cold and will produce consistent/constant light while also being extremely durable.

Now, with this concept of joining their Litroenergy sheets with solar thin film sheets, MPK may win the NASA contest again this year. Posting this idea for the first time last Friday (the contest deadline) on the NASA contest website, they have already risen in the top tier among 766 contestants this year.

The combining these two technologies – the thin-film solar and the LitroSpheres™ – would entail very thin, repeated layers of each so that a large number of stacked sets would comprise a significant power density. They call these versatile hybrid species, Litroenergy Power Cells, which can be scaled from micro applications to large utilities.

How long will the wait be until we see this on the market? According to Steve Stark, Director of Marketing for MPK, product could be rolling out of manufacturing plants in as little as three months from now, depending on financing. The technology and players are already in place, and the independent testing of this combination will be completed in a few weeks. The results from MPK’s in-house testing have been very encouraging. “There is a lot going on behind the scenes that I can not disclose at this time, but it is huge” said Stark.

MPK has been able to gain the cooperation of both major government and corporate interests, which they are not yet ready to disclose publicly, but which speaks highly of their persistence and accomplishment. (Steve filled me in on some of the details.)  It is "definitely worth doing", said one of the government experts who has actually tested another version of the concept.

The match of the wavelength of the LitroSphere™ luminescence, and the solar cell collection is close to optimal – something that could be improved in future versions, but which is already more than adequate for efficient pairing.

The Litroenergy technology is based on a combination of an advanced phosphorus and tritium, hence the 12-year half-life. Tritium is the most harmless of the various radioactive elements, and is ubiquitous in nature, in the air we breathe and the water we drink. Tritium is quite benign. Only in recent years has it no longer been considered perfectly safe. The MPK packaging of tritium into microspheres that have a 5,000-pound crush resistance, makes this technology safe. In the case of release into the air, it essentially is released as hydrogen. The minute, "soft" radioactive emissions from the tritium do not penetrate through the walls of the microsphere encapsulation. MPK is having the Litroenergy Power Cells tested for classification as non-toxic and non-radioactive.

Taking the gradual diminishment over time, the power output will need to be engineered in such a way that it is overbuilt for the devices it is powering so that it matches the desired lifespan of the device.  In many applications, an accompanying battery may be designed into the system to serve as a reservoir of the continuous trickle charge output of the Litroenergy Power Cell, while the device may only be used transiently. How the excess energy is dispersed during the first portion of the device lifetime can be engineered appropriately.




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