rexresearch.com


Alexander I. KOLDOMASOV

[ KOLDAMASOV ]

Over-Unity Generator



http://oregonenergydigest.blogspot.com
Saturday, January 27, 2007

Conferences Reveal Energy Discoveries from Former Soviet Union

(Excerpt)

A.I. Koldomasov's device piezo-electrically vibrates a mix of waters through a special dielectric material to produce heat energy in more abundance than the energy which powers the oscillator.

The device is reported to put out 40 kilowatts of heat energy with only two kilowatts of electrical input. Last year Dr. Josef Gruber described a visit to the research institute where Koldomasov is managing engineer.

Koldomasov discovered the new energy source while observing cavitation-implosions in water such as found in "water hammer" in pipes. Gruber showed a photograph of the small device, filled with pure water mixed with only one per cent deuterium (heavy water).

Although there are no spark plugs or similar equipment, electrical discharge could be seen. Energy comes out in the form of both heat and electrical current.

Depending on kind and location of the magnets, DC or AC (electricity) may be observed. Gruber said testing revealed 2000 per cent excess energy.


http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/DolanTJnotesfromt.pdf

Notes from the 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Sciences

( November 27 – December 2, 2005, Yokohama )

T. J. Dolan

Steve Krivit (New Energy Times) and Vladimir Vysotskii (Kiev) told of experiments by A. Koldomasov (Russia), Hyunik Yang (Hy-En Research Co.) and others involving flow of high-
pressure machine oil or water through a small orifice ( 1 mm). There are experiments Korea and in Edmonton, Canada, and theoretical work in Russia. Krivitt showed a videotape of the
Canadian device in action. In boron-doped oil at 30 atm the color is tawny; at over 40 atm, it is white; at over 60 atm it is clear, with a blue plasma jet downstream of the orifice. At 70-80 atm
there is a bright blue beam 6 mm in diameter, and at over 90 atm a green glow appears upstream of the orifice. Hard x-rays were observed from the luminous region. The researchers claim that
excess heat is generated from fusion reactions (possibly protons plus boron-11) during collapse of cavitation bubbles, and they detected He-4 emission lines from the cavitating fluid.




RU2232210

[ Complete Patent: PDF Format ]

ELECTRIC POWER INSTALLATION FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

7-10-2004

Inventor: GNEDENKO V G (RU); GORJACHEV I V (RU); KOLDOMASOV A I (RU); KHAJUNIK JANG (KR)
Classification: - international: C25B1/02; G21C1/00; C25B1/00; G21C1/00; (IPC1-7): C25B1/02; G21C1/00
Abstract --- FIELD: production of hydrogen and oxygen. ^ SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to electric power installations. The installation intended for production of hydrogen and oxygen, and also for production of the energy emitted at fusion reactions going in a reactor. The installation contains: a dielectric resistant to cavitational emission housing for intake and gating of the dielectric medium in the form of a mixture of light water and heavy water, an insert mounted in the housing and made out of a dielectric material susceptible to cavitation emission and provided at least with two holes allowing an exit through them of the dielectric medium. The installation is supplied with a impulsator, a pump to deliver the working dielectric medium under pressure, a deflecting system of charged particles and, at least, two branch-pipes electrically isolated from each other and linked with vessels for hydrogen and oxygen collection. At that at exit of the insert in the housing there is a narrowing in the form of Laval's nozzles, behind it along the stream run on the housing there is a deflecting system mounted, behind which the branch-pipes are located. The deflecting system may be electrostatic or magnetic. The invention ensures expansion of functionalities of the installation. ^ EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of functionalities of the installation.


A.I. Koldomasov. Nuclear Fusion in Electrical Charge Field. Fundamental problems of natural science and engineering. Volume 1. St.-Petersburg, 2000. 167 pages


http://blake.montclair.edu/~kowalskil/cf/216koldamasov.html

Too Good to be True?

Ludwik Kowalski
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043
(5/5/05)

One of the most important achievements of the 19th century physics was the discovery that a well defined amount of mechanical work is needed to generate one unit of heat -- not less and not more. Joule demonstrated this in a well known paddle wheel experiment. Water was forced to flow through small holes in the paddles of a rotating wheel and the amount of heat was measured calorimetrically. But, at a recent conference, a Russian scientist, A.I. Koldamasov (1), described an exception from this rule. He claims to have a device in which the heat to work ratio is twenty times larger than what would be allowed according to Joule’s equivalence rule.

His device, named reactor, is similar to Joule’s paddle wheel. But water, free of ions (resistivity 1011 ohm/m), is forced to flow through holes (diameters 1-2 mm) drilled in a plate made from the dielectric material (rather than from a metal). After reviewing basic concepts of thermonuclear physics Koldamasov writes: “On the basis of the above theoretical ideas, a nuclear reactor producing energy of nuclear fusion reactions was designed and tested (see Fig. 1). The reactor operation is stable and well controllable. It gives 20 units of useful power per unit of supplied power. Furthermore, it is possible to obtain power both in the form of heat and directly electric energy, omitting steam water cycle. According to the consumer’s needs, the electric energy can be of both direct and alternating current. [Russian patent reference is given.] . . .

The working fluid is fed by a gear pump under the pressure of 5 to 7 MPa; the channel is 25-30 cm long, and the orifice diameter is 1-2 mm. By changing the electric motor rotation rate, we change the frequency of flow pulsation's and reach the resonance frequency of the orifice, which causes intensive cavitation. Under the action of this cavitation, the plate material emits electrons from the input edge, which are carried away by the flow, and at the output edge a high-density positive charge is formed (see Fig. 6). The charge is annular, its density is practically uniform, and it constitutes a medium temperature plasma ~10000 K with the density ~104 J/cm3. If heavy water possessing the same dielectric properties as the working fluid is added to the outflowing medium, then nuclear fusion reactions arise in the zone of influence of the charge.”

What kind instruments were used to demonstrate occurrence of nuclear reactions? I was not able to find the answer to this question in the Koldamasov’s paper. Here is how this paper ends: “The number of deuterium atoms collisions, and hence the magnitude of the released energy, depends on heavy water concentration in the working fluid. In our experiments we used a mixture with the ratio 1:100 (1 part of heavy water per 100 parts of light water). The continuous operation time was up to 100 hours. The experiments are entirely reproducible.” Who is Koldamasov? Where were his experiments performed? Who are his coworkers? How much of “excess energy” was generated in 100 hours? Not knowing how to answer such questions I turned to the Internet.

The first item that came up, after typing “Koldamasov” indicates that reproducible results were first reported by the author seven years ago. Here is the extract from what was delivered by Google: “Six authors who stated 100% reproducibility of the effects detected are Bazhutov, Kanarev, Karabut, Savvatimova, Notoya, and Koldamasov.”
And here is another earlier reference (2). On Hideo Kozima's website:

http://web.pdx.edu/~pdx00210/News/CFRLEngNews/CFRLEN35.htm

I see a list of papers read at the 9th Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation of Chemical Elements (September/October, 2001). It contains references (3) and (4). The session at which these papers were presented was chaired by A. B. Karabut, the author of what I described in item 13. The device is said to generate twenty times more electric energy that is needed to run its motor. Why is it not manufactured and used all over? I suspect that the 100% reproducibility claim was found to be highly exaggerated. Somebody probably tried and failed to produce a commercially successful gadget.

References:

1) A.I. Koldamasov at “Russian Conference on Cold Fusion and Ball Lightning,” Sochi, Russia, 2002.

2) A. I. Koldamasov. Nuclear Fusion in Electrical Charge Field. Fundamental problems of natural science and engineering. Volume 1. St.-Petersburg, 2000. 167 pages.”

3) Koldamasov A.I. “Principles of Work of New Type Nuclear Reactor.”

4) Baranov D.S. “Investigation of the Radiation Effects in the Koldamasov Cell.”

ADDENDUM:

While searching on the Internet I found a useful compilation about “who is who” in Russian cold fusion research. The authors are I.V. Goryachev, and Y.N. Bazhutov; the title is “ Organization, current status and main results of Russian research in cold fusion and transmutation of chemical elements.” It shows that the author of the last reference, a Ph.D. physicist, is from the Research Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. His specialty is listed as experimental “ investigations of the methods of initiating nuclear reactions in deuterated dielectric liquid under the conditions of cavitation.” The name Koldamasov does not appear in the downloaded document: <GoryachevIorganizati.pdf>

Appended on 5/22/05:

1) On 5/13/05, after finding the sentence quoted below (at the website of CNW -- Group Canada NewsWire), I sent an e-mail message to Dr. Yang, the Chairman & Founder of the Hy-En Group of companies:

Dear Dr. Hyunik Yang:

Browsing the Internet (before going to the MIT cold fusion colloquium next Friday) I found this description of your commercial activities:

". . . The three main applications derived from "Cold Fusion" are massive production of low cost hydrogen and heat energy for commercial and industrial applications steam or hot water and electric power. . . ."

Please provide a reference (or references) about the method used to obtain electric power via cold fusion. Thanks in advance,
Ludwik Kowalski

2) The above message was not answered. During the MIT colloquium I heard that Koldamasov died and that his invention is going to be used by a company whose name is iESiUSA (Innovative Energy Syatems Inc.). Materials on the company’s website <WWW.iesiusa.com> do not refer to cold fusion. But they are worth quoting.

a) “Innovative Energy Solution Inc. is a leader in developing reliable next generation, clean energy technologies. iESi owns several patents related to its proprietary hydrogen generation, heat generating and waste heat recovery technologies.”

b) “The new clean energy plant will enable Norwood Foundry to generate six times (12 MW) more electricity than it consumes (2 MW) at its foundry located in Nisku, Alberta, Canada.” That is indeed extraordinary - consuming electric energy at the rate of 2 MW and generating it at the rate of 12 MW, presumably at the same time. This would be a giant perpetual motion machine. Recall that Koldamasov's device had the output/input ratio of twenty, not six. But even a factor of two would be extraordinary.

c) “The revenue to be generated through the joint venture project is expected to exceed $6 million annually. Under the joint venture, iESi is responsible for the implementation of its revolutionary clean energy technologies, while Norwood [the old existing foundry] will finance the project. . . . The plant is slated to be fully operational by the third quarter of 2005. . . .iESi owns several patents related to its proprietary hydrogen generation, heat generating and waste heat recovery technologies. Headquartered in Las Vegas, Nevada, iESi also has offices in Canada, Europe and South Korea.” I hope that my retirement savings are not invested in iESi.

d) Innovative Energy Solutions Inc. (iESi) today announced that it raised $3 million in its first round of financing. The investor group consists of more than 300 individuals from Canada, Europe and the United States. iESi will use the investment to accelerate product development, push market penetration and establish manufacturing facilities in Alabama. ‘The success of our initial funding is encouraging to iESi as we focus on executing our business endeavors and growing the company. The first round closed with an oversubscription of 200,000 shares, which demonstrates a substantial interest in our energy generating technologies and what they can do for a fuel-based economy,; said Ron Foster, chairman, iESi. iESi will open its second round of financing on July 29, 2004, by offering 500,000 shares at $4 apiece. Established in 2003, iESi’s mission is to offer clean, viable solutions to traditional energy sources, and reduce the world’s dependence on oil from the Middle East. iESi is organized into three broad divisions to maximize return on its intellectual capital and intellectual property.”

Too good to be true? Yes, I think so. But the company website provides many claims that are worth discussing with students. Physics teachers should take advantage of this. Something is not right in this business of promoting nonexistent technologies. In unit #224 I referred to a colloquium presentation of Robert Rines, the patent counselor at MIT. At one point he asked a question; “what harm can possibly result from granting a patent whose validity cannot be established at sufficiently high level of certainty?” He was referring to patents in the area of cold fusion. Nobody, he said, will be stupid enough to invest in things that are still uncertain. I now tend to disagree. A granted patent gives some kind of legitimacy to unjustified commercial claims. Patents can be viewed as instruments of protection of citizens. Yes, I know that such instruments are not very effective. But they are better than nothing. Citizens should also be economically protected by other legal means.

Addendum (5/25/05):

Here is the content of a document, dated as 5/23/05, that I found on the Internet. It provides background information about promoters of cold fusion technology.

EDMONTON, Alberta, May 23 /PRNewswire/ -- Innovative Energy Solutions, Inc. (iESi) today announced the arrival of the Company's co-founder and Chief Technical Officer, Hyunik Yang, Ph.D. and Dr. Nahm Cho in Sherwood Park, Alberta, just southeast of Edmonton. The recent relocation of Dr. Yang and Dr. Cho should expedite the efforts that are already well underway on the Direct Electrical Power, Heat and Hydrogen Generation units and allow the Company's team of scientists to advance the impressive work they accomplished for iESi while in South Korea.

"Much of iESi's proprietary intellectual property is based on the research in the field of quantum energy generation authored by Dr. Yang," said Patrick Cochrane, CEO, iESi. "Drs. Yang and Cho and our team of scientists are continually conducting research to enhance iESi's technological offerings and we look forward to their continued presence in Edmonton."

"Dr. Cho and I are pleased to finally be here in Canada. We're eager about working closely together with our scientific and management teams to implement such a worthy offering that will allow the world to go from dependence on energy providers to energy self-sufficiency," said Dr. Hyunik Yang, Chief Technical Officer, iESi.

As concern grows for the world's natural resources, energy efficiency is gaining worldwide attention. iESi is poised to be the leader in the development of innovative energy solutions through its safe and patented plasma processes which included Direct Electrical Power Generation, low-cost Hydrogen Generation and low-cost Heat Generation, all three of which were developed by Dr. Yang.

In his career, Dr. Yang has also held positions as professor at Hanyang University and as senior research engineer at Hyundai Electronics. Dr. Yang has designed several new inventions in the field of quantum energy and cold fusion. Dr. Yang received his Engineering B.S. from Hanyang University in South Korea, and completed his Engineering M.S., Ph.D. and post-doctoral work at Columbia University in New York. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Society of Automobile Engineers, Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, Russian Academy of Natural Science, Korean CAD/CAM Society and the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers. Since 1997, Dr. Yang has been listed in the Who's Who in the World, and in the Who's Who in Science and Engineering since 1998.

Dr. Cho also held positions as professor at Hanyang University. Dr. Cho is the author of four patents in South Korea and is an expert in the field of Nuclear Transmutation and Fusion. Dr. Cho received his Precision Mechanical Engineering B.S. and M.S. from Hanyang University in South Korea, and completed his Ph.D at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. He is a member of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Japan Society of Precision Engineers, Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, Korean Society of Precision Mechanical Engineers, Korean Society of Manufacturing Engineers and the Micro Biochip Center.

About iESi --- Innovative Energy Solution Inc. (iESi) is a leader in developing next generation clean energy technologies. iESi owns several patents related to hydrogen generating technology, heat generating technology and waste heat recovery. The Company's Corporate Offices are in Las Vegas and iESi also has offices in Canada, the United Kingdom and Europe. For more information please visit: http://www.iesiusa.com


http://blake.montclair.edu/~kowalskil/cf/230baranov.html

Two Russian Papers

Ludwik Kowalski

Department of Mathematical Sciences
Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043
(6/20/05)

1) Please be aware that my unit #229 now has two added sections, at the end. They were not there when the unit was posted, several days ago.

2) It seems to me that we really need a forum for discussion, among cold fusion researchers. Unfortunately, the discussion list of ISCMNS, promised at ICCF11, did not materialize. And what happened to the online journal promised one year earlier? Let me make Éa suggestion. I have an idle discussion list at the university server; it can become a forum we need. To be a participant simply send me a private message whose subject line should say: “Discussion of CF.” The first line (in the body of the message) should show your name (first, then last) followed by the e-mail address. The next line (or lines) should say why you consider yourself to be a cold fusion researcher. Participation in at least one of the ICCF* conference, for example, is a sufficient reason, as far as I am concerned. My e-mail address is <kowalskil@mail.montclair.edu>. The list will be activated as soon as the number of participants exceeds 20. Please, send this invitation to serious CF researchers you know; not everybody will see it here. Cut this paragraph and paste it into messages you sent.

3) Today I received two Russian papers from ? one of the readers. They seem to be related to the device invented by Koldamasov and Yang. (see units #216, #226 and #229). These papers prompted me to start this unit. I will try to translate them and make some comments. The copies of pages mailed to me do not identify the place of publication. But the sender wrote that the papers were “published in 2001, following the 2000 Sochi conference.”

Paper 1: "Studying of thermal and radiation effects in Koldamasov’s cell”, by D.S. Baranov.

Paper 2: "An experimental setup based on Koldamasov’s cell". by A.P. Andreev, D.S. Baranov, A.K. Molodov, A.K. Pokrovski and N.N Sikavatkin.

The authors of these papers are from Moscow ( Scientific Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Science, and MRTI (?)).

Translation of sections from Paper #2 ---

Abstract: A temperature increase of short duration ø was observed in Koldamasov’s cell when heavy water was locally added to the working fluid. The temperature did not changed when ordinary water was added, under analogous conditions. Adding lithium chloride to water resulted in registration of radiation in the scintillation detector.

This study was undertaken to reproduce previously reported results (1,2) and to enlarge the scope of a more recent investigation (3). The central element of that installation, the Koldamasov cell, was made from the transparent organic glass. Bright glowing discharge (plasmoid) was observed in front of the opening in the insertion when cavitation was taking place. The insertion changes the cross section, available to the fluid, by two orders of magnitude. Pressures in cell were changed in the range of 10-40 atmospheres at the frequency of ~1000 Hz.

The working fluid was oil whose temperature was ~33 C. At that temperature the viscosity of heavy water exceeds the viscosity of ordinary water by ~20%. This, however, could not lead to a significant increase of friction (resulting from addition of heavy water) because the viscosity of oil is ~20 times higher than that of water. Sensitive calorimeters were used to measure difference in temperatures between the input and output of the cell. The electrical diagram is shown in Figure 1. It is essentially a Wheatstone bridge in which R1 and R2 are thermistors. Medical injectors were used to introduce heavy or ordinary water at the entrance of the pump. The injected volume was one cubic centimeter and the time of each injection was ~10 seconds. The time was sufficiently long to mix the injected water with ~ 1000 cubic centimeters of oil.

In the first experiment heavy water was injected first and ordinary water was injected later. In the second experiment ordinary water was injected before heavy water. Figure 2 shows that difference ?s in temperature occurred after injections of heavy water only. [In that figure changes in difference of temperatures are expressed in volts but the bridge was calibrated]. According to calibrations, changes shown in Figure 2 were the same as from the injection of one cubic centimeter of water at 100C. Trying to optimize generation of excess heat one observed cases in which no excess heat was generated and cases when changes in temperatures were sufficiently high to melt ftoroploast insertions. Destruction of the insertion was observed three times, but only when oil was mixed with several cubic centimeters of heavy water. Insertions were never destroyed when oil contained no heavy water (even at much higher temperatures and pressures).

Radiation emitted by the cell was measured by using a 5 cm by 5 cm cylindrical NaI detector. The detector was ~8 cm from the insertion. Radiation entering the detector had to pass through an aluminum foil of 0.5 mm, 5 cm of organ ?ic glass and a 5 mm layer of ftoroplast. [In other words it consists of gamma rays.] The setup was calibrated by using the annihilation line (511 keV) and a sodium line of 1460 keV. The multichannel analyzer spectra are shown in Figure 3. . . . [The background does not change significantly when the motor of the pump is turned on to off. A significant above-the-background component appears (in the gamma ray energies up to 250 keV) after 0.8 cubic centimeters of the water solution of lithium chloride, concentration 4 N, is injected into oil. The conclusion is:] Radiation measurements and temperature effects due to heavy water are with Koldamasov’s findings and show that nuclear processes do take place in the cell.

[I am certain that scientists who prepared the last week demonstration in Emonson did not miss an opportunity to show, using a widely available detector, that gamma rays are indeed emitted from their setup. The setup generating excess heat at the ra Ëte of 10 MW must be much larger than the setup used by Baranov. When will the results of the last week demonstration be announced?]

References:

1. A. I. Koldamasov “Nuclear fusion in the field of electrical discharge;” 1995 Sochi conference report.
2. A.I. Koldamasov “Nuclear reactor;” Patent of Russian Federation #2152083
3. A.P. Andreev et al. (see paper 3 below).

Translation of sections from Paper #1 ---

Abstract: A compact experimental setup, analogous to that described by Koldamasov (1,2), was built. It shows that stable glowing discharge (plasmoid) is produced in the liquid under the influence of cavitation. [Does this mean that what was called “cavitational emission,” in unit #229, stands for sonoluminescence?]

According to (1,2) a new approach approach is possible to generate thermonuclear energy. An independent confirmation of this could lead to a broad investigation of that approach. Direct c onfirmation of Koldamasov’ work is difficult because the working fluid in his device was pure (double distillation) dielectric water. The reason is simple; the dielectric properties of pure water change drastically after it passes through the cell. Changed water must be purified before it can be reused.

In this investigation we tried to use a different working fluid -- organic oil. Dielectric properties of oil are more favorable but that substance is about 20 times more viscous than water. We were able to find conditions under which bright glow discharge (plasmoid) is formed in oil. The diagram of the setup is shown in Figure 1. [I shows a loop in which oil is forced to circulate under pulsating pressure. Numerous technical details (pump rpm, pressures, frequen Ocies, etc. are provided. A set of three dots in the part of the article that I decided not to translate. Set of three dots below stand for was not translated] . . . The central element of that installation, the Koldamasov cell, was made from the transparent organic glass. It has a dielectric insertion with a narrow opening (cross section being 100 times smaller that in the tube through which the oil is supplied to the cell). Stable glowing discharge was observed at the entrance of insertions made from organic glass, ftoroplast and polysterol. It was observed when the insertion was made from vinoplast. Ftoroplast turned out to be the most effective when the pressure was ~30 atm. Appearance of plasmoid must be due to cavitation. . . . Characteristic speed of the fluid through the insertion opening (radius 0.5 mm) was 50 m/s. . . . ~

The total volume of working fluid was ~6 liters. It is remarkable that oil was not spoiled during its prolonged (`10 hours) circulation through the loop. An attempt to use less fluid liquid, a mixture oil and kerosine, also resulted in formation of plasmoid. But the pump deteriorated rapidly when that fluid was used. The setup is sufficiently compact to be used in practical applications.

References:

1. A. I. Koldamasov “Nuclear fusion in the field of electrical discharge;” 1995 Sochi conference report.
2. A.I. Koldamasov “Nuclear reactor;” Patent of Russian Federation #2152083


http://www.newenergytimes.com/Library/2005KrivitS-ICCF12-Paper.pdf

INTRODUCTION TO A NEW METHOD TO INITIATE COLD FUSION / CONDENSED MATTER NUCLEAR REACTIONS

STEVEN B. KRIVIT

Editor, New Energy Times
11664 National Blvd. Suite 142
Los Angeles, CA 90064

ABSTRACT --- This is an introduction to the hydraulic-electrostatic cold fusion method that was first demonstrated to a small public group on June 6, 2005, in Edmonton, Canada. Observation of devices that appear to be 100 percent repeatable and of practical, commercial magnitude was seen.

1.1. Introduction

This work was demonstrated by a group managed by Hyunik Yang, professor ofmechanical engineering at Hanyang University, Korea. Other members of this research team are Alexandr Koldamasov (ret.) of the Russian National Research Institute of Atomic Engineering, Andrei Desyatov, deputy director of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency at the Keldysh Research Center in Moscow, Alla Kornilova, physics professor and director at Moscow State University, Vladimir Vysotskii, physics professor at Kiev Shevchencko University, and Nahm Cho, professor of mechanical engineering at Hanyang University, Korea.

A second group of Russians is associated with this research. They are Evgeny Pavlovich Velikhov, president of Kurchatov Research Institute, Gerasimovich Gnedenko, director of Kurchatov Research Institute, and Vital’evich Goryachev, associate director of Kurchatov Research Institute. Gnedenko and Goryachev are the assignees of a related Russian patent, No. RU2232210.

1.2. Brief Review of Current Progress in Cold Fusion

At the 16-year mark in cold fusion's evolution, progress toward a new source of energy has been consistent but slow. The current limitations are clearly evident. Weak reactions have been relatively easy to reproduce; however, few strong reactions have been reported.

Many researchers can demonstrate excess energy in the realm of 10 percent with very high repeatability, though only in the milliwatt range. [1]

Strong reactions, achievement of higher power levels, have been difficult to obtain. The largest energy gain reported so far has been 2,500 percent by the Energetics Technology group from Israel.[2] Reports from other researchers show power in the tens of watts; however, these experiments are rare and difficult to repeat.

1.3. Brief Review of Previous Fusion Cavitation Research

The idea of using cavitation, the creation of rapidly expanding and collapsing cavities in fluids (bubbles), has been studied for many years by fusion researchers.

Roger Stringham of First Gate Energies started using acoustic drivers to induce cavitation in 1989. As is typical with cold fusion experiments, his research uses palladium and deuterium as the main components as well as the acoustic driver. As expected from cold fusion, his experiments do not produce significant levels of neutrons, the signature of a hot fusion reaction. Stringham has reported excess energy, in the form of heat, of 40 watts.[3]

Rusi Taleyarkhan, a nuclear engineering and science professor with Purdue University, and colleagues published papers in Science [4] and Physical Review E[5] describing another
variation of acoustic cavitation, technically known as acoustic inertial confinement fusion. As is typical with hot fusion, Taleyarkhan's method does not use any host metal. His experiment runs in a room-temperature environment, and the bulk of the test liquid in the cells is at temperatures ranging from 0C to 15C. The fusion reactions take place in deuterium-bearing bubbles during the time span when sonoluminescence light flashes come - implosion conditions associated with high temperatures, plasmas and high pressures.

The main components of the system are a resonant acoustic test reactor filled with deuterium-bearing fluid (acetone is one such fluid), the acoustic driver system and a nuclear particle-based bubble nucleation source.

Significant levels of neutron emissions, commensurate with the expected branching ratios of hot fusion, are reported with this method. No excess energy is reported so far with this method.

1.4. Mechanical Cavitation Using Hydraulic and Electrostatic Effects

The new cavitation method uses high hydraulic pressures, high velocities and electrostatic effects. Two configurations are known. The first pumps machine oil in a fully enclosed recirculating system. 2,000 percent excess energy, in the form of heat, is reported by Koldamasov.[6] The second configuration uses a partially enclosed recirculating system, and products of heat, steam, hydrogen and helium were reported to New Energy Times by Yang, though no data has been presented.

Figure 1. Photograph of Hydraulic-Electrostatic Cold Fusion Cell Using Machine Oil

1.5. Unique Characteristics of the Hydraulic-Electrostatic Cold Fusion Method This method differs markedly from both previous cold and hot fusion cavitation experiments. It differs from cold fusion work in that no host metal, such as palladium, is required. No deuterium gas or heavy water is required, and no electrochemistry is involved. The lack of electrochemistry requirements is a significant advance toward a commercial application, because electrochemistry is generally a very complicated, difficult-to-control environment.

The basic components of this method besides the cell, pictured above, are a pump motor used to recirculate the fluid and a heat exchanger to capture the heat energy.

Data has not been presented on the energy gain of the recent work; however, three cold fusion experts, electrochemist Martin Fleischmann (co-discoverer of cold fusion, and retired from the University of Southhampton), electrochemist Michael McKubre (SRI International), and physicist Peter Hagelstein have reported to New Energy Times that they have a high, though not absolute, level of confidence that the method is, in fact, exhibiting a positive energy balance.

In multiple demonstrations starting on June 6, 2005, Fleischmann, McKubre, Hagelstein and Krivit observed operators turn the device on and off at will, on demand. Observers noted that operators could increase or decrease the input to the machine, and in turn, the observers watched the machine respond directly with a correlated heat energy production, as displayed on the control console.

Tadahiko Mizuno, a nuclear engineer with Hokkaido University, visited another laboratory in Korea on Sept. 27, 2005, and witnessed a similar device, though the available instrumentation was insufficient for him to verify the claims of neutron emissions. The qualitative characteristics of this method appear to be 100 percent repeatable, sustainable over a period of minutes to hours, and controllable.

1.6. Why Is This Cold Fusion?

Three dominant characteristics support the recognition of this method as a form of cold fusion. First, it apparently generates excess energy from hydrogen-based materials such as water or oil. Second, the reactions occur in a room-temperature laboratory environment. And third, based on reports from the Yang group, the branching ratios appear to follow those known of cold fusion experiments. Helium production is reported as the dominant byproduct, with relatively low levels of neutron and gamma emission.

1.7. Conclusion

Confidently confirming the validity of the claimed excess heat and nuclear products in this work is difficult because sparse data has been presented by the researchers. People privileged with more in-depth knowledge have been constrained by nondisclosure agreements. Reports of independent audits have been mentioned to New Energy Times, yet such audits have not been made available to New Energy Times; the reason given is that the audits are the private property of the commercial and investment parties who have paid for them.

The claims are, needless to say, startling, profound and possibly auspicious. However, further attention to this research will require more detailed data. New Energy Times will seek the cooperation of Yang's research team to perform an audit and encourage additional disclosures by the researchers at the next ICCF conference.

Acknowledgments

This project was made possible by a grant from the New Energy Foundation. The author wishes to thank Peter Gluck and Cindy Goldstein for their editorial assistance.

New Energy Times is a project of New Energy Institute Inc. and encourages new energy research, reports on claims of new technology, seeks independent validation of such claims, and works to encourage valid applications of that research to useful forms of energy.

References

1. S.B. Krivit and N. Winocur, "The Rebirth of Cold Fusion: Real Science, Real Hope, Real Energy," Pacific Oaks Press, Los Angeles, USA, p. 172 (2005)

2. A. El Boher, et al., "Excess Heat In Electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies," Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France (2004)

3. R. Stringham, "1.6 MHz Sonofusion Device," Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Marseilles, France (2004)

4. R. P. Taleyarkhan et al., "Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation," Science, Vol. 295 (2002)

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http://newenergytimes.com/Library/2005VysotskiiV-ObservationAndInvestigation.pdf

OBSERVATION AND INVESTIGATION OF NUCLEAR FUSION AND SELF-INDUCED ELECTRIC DISCHARGES IN TURBULENT LIQUIDS

ALEXANDR I. KOLDAMASOV, et al.

[ PDF ]

The problems of stimulating and optimizing nuclear fusion using cavitation phenomena in different liquids are studied and discussed. The process of formation and mechanisms of excitation of directed laser-like beams in the volume of cavitating machine oil are studied. One of the analysed mechanisms of beam excitation is connected with stimulated nuclear reactions.

1. Introduction

The aim of this report is to present some preliminary results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the processes and phenomena connected with optimal fusion reactions in turbulent liquid targets...


http://www.springerlink.com/index/M755567V27415325.pdf

Cavitation and Thermonuclear Fusion. Estimates of the parameters and a possible method of obtaining positive energy balance
Journal Doklady Physics Volume 48, Number 1 / January, 2003
ISSN 1028-3358 (Print) 1562-6903 (Online)


http://www.iccf12.org/abstract_file/Thu-23.pdf

Observation and Investigation of He4 Fusion and Self-Induced Electric Discharges in Turbulent Distilled Light Water

A.I.Koldamasov, H. Yang, et al.

He4 production has been observed in an experimental setup which induces turbulence and cavitation in a flowing light-water solution containing B11. The assumed nuclear reaction, one of the most promising and ecologically benign, results from the absorption of a proton by the B11 nucleus, and yields three He4 nuclei: P + B11 -> 3He4.

In this reaction, a substantial amount of energy (8.7 MeV) is released without the emission of neutrons or hard radiation, and the reaction products are non-radioactive.

Production of He4 was detected by observing the spectral emissions from a stationary luminous region of turbulent cavitating fluid immediately downstream from a flow-controlling orifice channel. He4 emission lines identified in the spectra were emitted with intensities indicating concentrations of helium substantially above background. These emissions were only observed when using B11 solutions in the experimental setup, and after careful parametric optimization of the system. Additionally, a high rate of self-induced electrical discharges was observed traversing the luminous region and extending downstream for several centimeters. The effect of these discharges on helium production is currently under study.

Initial calorimetric measurements indicate a significant evolution of thermal energy along with the production of helium, as expected from the mass deficit of the reaction products. Some runs have also been carried out using the same experimental apparatus, but substituting machine oil for the boron solution. With the system optimized for the use of oil, directed beams of hard x-rays were
observed leaving the luminous region. The x-ray spectra resembled the emissions from heavy elements, possibly those present as contaminants in the oil. The beam directions appeared to be correlated with asymmetrical features of the luminous region.

Further studies, possible models and other theoretical considerations are discussed.




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