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Kudzu / Puerarin : Medical Applications



Dear Mr America : The invasive plant kudzu has valuable medicinal properties ( esp. bone regeneration, neural & cardiovascular protection, alcoholism, &c  ) and industrial uses ( feed, paper, &c. ). You can't conquer it, so learn to use it.








http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1063458407000751
doi:10.1016/j.joca.2007.02.009
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage,Volume 15, Issue 8, August 2007, Pages 894–899

Effect of puerarin on bone formation

R. Wong, Ph.D., , B. Rabie, Ph.D.
Summary

Objective

Puerarin is one of the major phytoestrogens isolated from Pueraria lobata, a Chinese medicine known as Gegen. Our laboratory compared the amount of new bone produced by puerarin in collagen matrix (carrier) to that produced by the collagen matrix alone.
Method

Eighteen bone defects, 5 mm by 10 mm were created in the parietal bone of nine New Zealand White rabbits. In the experimental group, six defects were grafted with puerarin solution mixed with collagen matrix. In the control groups, six defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone (active control) and six were left empty (passive control). Animals were killed on day 14 and the defects were dissected and prepared for histological assessment. Serial sections were cut across each defect. No new bone was formed in the passive control group. Quantitative analysis of new bone formation was made on 100 sections (10 sections in each defect, in five defects randomly selected in each of the experimental group and active control group) using image analysis.
Results

A total of 554% more new bone was present in defects grafted with puerarin in collagen matrix than those grafted with the collagen matrix alone.

Conclusion

Puerarin in collagen matrix has the effect of increasing new bone formation locally and can be used for bone grafting or for bone induction often required in surgery…

Puerarin (Fig. 1), 4H-1-benzopyran-4-one,8-β-d-glueopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl), C12H20C9, is one of the major phytoestrogens isolated from the root of a wild leguminous creeper, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi. This is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine known as Gegen and has been demonstrated to have effects on decreasing loss in bone density in ovariectomized mice. It also has other important uses on treatment of fever, liver diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In China, P. lobata is also used as a health supplement for reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. There are wide application of P. lobata in clinical prescriptions and dietary supplements.





http://cancerbooksource.com/defeat-cancer-book/excerpts/estrogen-herbs-homeopathy/

Balancing the hormones with Herbs & Homeopathic Remedies

EXCERPTED FROM Dr. Mumby’s Chapter: Chemicals in the environment create hormonal imbalances in the body which then stimulate cancer development. This makes chemical clean-up around the home and workplace important. Hormonal imbalances are a stumbling block to healing from cancer.

The medical community knows that a large number of cancers are hormonally-influenced, but I don’t like the hormone-blocking drugs that are commonly prescribed to people with these types of cancer; aromatase-inhibitors, and others, like Tamoxifen, because the science behind them isn’t very good. One of the most effective estrogen-blocking herbs is called puerarin, which is from Thailand. It’s sometimes jokingly referred to as HRT (Herbal Remedy from Thailand). It blocks natural estrogenic activity, and is three times more powerful than soy isoflavones.  Breast cancer is unknown in the region of Thailand where puerarin grows, and studies from universities all around the world have demonstrated the powerful estrogenic properties of this herb. It functions by attaching to estrogen receptors on cancer cells, so that these receptors are blocked from receiving natural estrogen, but it doesn’t have estrogenic effects upon the body. This herb has more solid science behind it than any other that I know of and can be used in lieu of hormone-blocking drugs in people with hormonally-influenced cancers.

One of the problems that men with prostate cancer face is estrogen excess. As part of men’s aging process, testosterone gets increasingly metabolized into dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which isn’t actually testosterone, but a type of estrogen, the effects of which can be blocked with puerarin. I know men who take this herb as a prophylaxis to block the effects of male estrogen in their bodies.

Looking at and addressing other hormone imbalances in the body with homeopathic and other remedies is likewise important. There’s a strong association between thyroid insufficiency and cancer. Thyroid insufficiency impacts the immune system, and I would prescribe supplements, such as homeopathic thyroid extracts, which stimulate the thyroid gland, to my patients with this condition.

Similarly, people with cancer also suffer from adrenal exhaustion, which also impacts the immune system. Their adrenal glands can’t cope with stress, but these glands play an important role in healing the body from cancer, so restoring them is important. I found homeopathic remedies such as phosphoric acid, argentum nitricum, and gelsemium, (just to name a few) to be useful for supporting weak adrenals.

Finally, pancreatic shock ranks high on the list of triggering factors for any disease, including cancer, so I would commonly prescribe my patients homeopathic pancreatic formulas for this problem, as well.  I would also attempt to discover what disease processes were impacting their pancreases. Sometimes I would find old diseases, such as scarlet fever, that were still exerting an influence, like a shadow, over their organs. I would then prescribe them homeopathic remedies to remove that influence.

[End Excerpt]



http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-750-kudzu.aspx?activeingredientid=750&activeingredientname=kudzu

KUDZU Overview Information

Kudzu is a vine. Under the right growing conditions, it spreads easily, covering virtually everything that doesn’t move out of its path. Kudzu was introduced in North America in 1876 in the southeastern U.S. to prevent soil erosion. But kudzu spread quickly and overtook farms and buildings, leading some to call to kudzu "the vine that ate the South.”

Kudzu’s root, flower, and leaf are used to make medicine. It has been used in Chinese medicine since at least 200 BC. As early as 600 AD, it was used to treat alcoholism.

Today, kudzu is used to treat alcoholism and to reduce symptoms of alcohol hangover, including headache, upset stomach, dizziness, and vomiting. Kudzu is also used for heart and circulatory problems, including high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and chest pain; for upper respiratory problems including sinus infections, the common cold, hay fever, flu, and swine flu; and for skin problems, including allergic skin rash, itchiness, and psoriasis.

Some people use kudzu for menopause symptoms, muscle pain, measles, dysentery, stomach pain (gastritis), fever, diarrhea, thirst, neck stiffness, and to promote sweating. Other oral uses include treatment of polio myelitis, encephalitis, migraine, deafness, diabetes, and traumatic injuries.

Health providers in China sometimes give puerarin, a chemical in kudzu, intravenously (by IV) to treat stroke due to a blood clot.

How does it work?

There is information that suggests kudzu contains ingredients that counteract alcohol. It might also have effects like estrogen. Chemicals in kudzu might also increase blood circulation in the heart and brain.



  



http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/nd/PrintVersion.aspx?id=750&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

KUDZU

Also Known As:

Bidarikand, Daidzein, Fen Ke, Fenge, Gange, Ge Gen, Indian Kudzu, Isoflavones, Japanese Arrowroot, Kakkon, Kwaao Khruea, Mealy Kudzu, Pueraria, Radix Puerariae, Red Indian Kudzu, Thai Kudzu Root Extract, Vidarikand, Vigne Kudzu, White Indian Kudzu, Yege.
CAUTION: See separate listings for Arrowroot, Arum, Cassava, Wahoo, and Zedoary.

Scientific Name:

Pueraria montana var. lobata, synonyms Pueraria lobata, Pueraria thunbergiana, Pueraria pseudohirsuta, Dolichos lobatus, Dolichos hirsutus, Neustanthus chinensis, Pachyrhizus thunbergianus, Pueraria hirsuta, Pueraria lobata var. chinensis; Pueraria montana var. thomsonii, synonym Pueraria thomsonii; Pueraria candollei, synonym Pueraria mirifica; Pueraria tuberosa, synonym Hedysarum tuberosum.

Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae.

People Use This For:

Orally, kudzu is used for alcohol hangover, such as headache, upset stomach, dizziness, and vomiting, and for alcoholism and drunkenness. Kudzu is also used orally for menopause, myalgia, measles, dysentery, gastritis, fever, diarrhea, thirst, allergic rhinitis, cold, flu (influenza), swine flu, neck stiffness, and as a diaphoretic. Other oral uses include polio myelitis, encephalitis, hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, migraine, deafness, diabetes, traumatic injuries, sinusitis, urticaria, pruritus, and psoriasis.
Intravenously, the kudzu constituent puerarin is used for ischemic stroke.

Safety:

POSSIBLY SAFE ...when used orally and appropriately. Kudzu appears to be safe for up to 4 months (10386, 11386). However, short-term, frequent use of kudzu root extract has been linked to liver injury in one report (88777). ...when used intravenously and appropriately. The kudzu constituent puerarin has been safely used in studies lasting 7-20 days (13277, 13279, 13287, 15025); however, puerarin has been linked to reports of some serious side effects such as intravascular hemolysis (13298).

PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: Insufficient reliable information available; avoid using.
Effectiveness:
      
INSUFFICIENT RELIABLE EVIDENCE to RATE

Alcoholism. Preliminary research suggests that heavy drinkers who take kudzu extract for 7 days consume less beer when given an opportunity to drink (13085). However, kudzu does not seem to decrease the craving for alcohol (10386, 13085, 57948). Kudzu extract also does not seem to improve sobriety in chronic alcoholics (10386).

Angina. Preliminary clinical research suggests that oral and intravenous forms of the kudzu derivative, puerarin, might improve signs and symptoms of unstable angina (13277, 13279, 13287, 15025). Some evidence suggests that using intravenous puerarin in combination with conventional treatment might be more effective than conventional treatment alone (15025). However, studies on puerarin are generally of poor quality and might not be reliable. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.

Angioplasty. Clinical research suggests that administering 200 mL of a daily intravenous injection of a kudzu constituent, called puerarin, beginning one week before and continuing until one day prior to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), seems to significantly reduce the occurrence of angina episodes during PTCA compared to placebo (57889). Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.

Coronary heart disease. Clinical research suggests that administering a kudzu constituent, called puerarin, 500 mg intravenously once daily for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional therapy, decreases fasting plasma insulin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared to conventional therapy alone in patients with coronary heart disease who have high LDL cholesterol and fasting plasma insulin levels and low HDL cholesterol at baseline (57873). Conventional therapy consisted of metoprolol succinate 25 mg twice daily, sustained-release isosorbide acetate 60 mg daily, and enteric-coated aspirin 100 mg daily. Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.

Diabetes. Taking a specific kudzu constituent, called puerarin, may reduce blood sugar in patients with diabetes. Clinical research suggests that taking oral puerarin 750 mg daily, in addition to rosiglitazone (Avandia) 4 mg daily, for 12 weeks significantly reduces blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared to baseline in patients with type 2 diabetes (57951). However, intravenous infusion of puerarin 400 mg daily does not appear to have a significant effect on blood sugar (57857).

Diabetic nephropathy. Taking a specific kudzu constituent, called puerarin, seems to improve kidney function in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Preliminary clinical research suggests that taking puerarin 750 mg daily, in addition to rosiglitazone (Avandia) 4 mg daily, for 12 weeks significantly improves laboratory measurements of kidney function including serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urinary albumin compared to baseline in patients with diabetic nephropathy (57951).

Diabetic retinopathy. Administering a specific kudzu constituent, called puerarin, does not appear to improve visual acuity in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Clinical research suggests that administering an intravenous infusion of puerarin 400 mg daily for 3 weeks does not improve visual acuity and retinal hemorrhaging compared to baseline in patients with diabetic retinopathy (57857). Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.

Exercise performance. Taking a combination supplement containing kudzu isoflavones may help improve exercise performance. One small clinical study suggests that taking capsules containing soybean peptides, taurine, kudzu isoflavone, and ginseng saponin for 15 days can significantly increase exercise time to exhaustion compared to placebo in men (57945).

Heart failure. Taking a specific kudzu constituent, called puerarin, may improve some, but not all, aspects of heart function in patients with chronic heart failure. Clinical research suggests that taking puerarin 400 mg/day orally for 10 days, in addition to conventional treatment, improves left ventricular ejection fraction compared to conventional treatment alone in patients with chronic heart failure (57864).

Ischemic stroke. An intravenous form of the kudzu constituent, called puerarin, has been used in China to treat patients with ischemic stroke. In one study, 98 patients were randomized to routine therapy alone or routine therapy plus puerarin 200 mg intravenously once daily for 15 days, starting within 10 days of stroke onset. There was no significant difference in death rates or patients' degree of dependency at 6 months. Other studies have reported some benefit but are of poor quality (16400). However, in other clinical research, puerarin alone or in combination with aspirin seems to improve neurologic function scores after 14 days of treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke (57934).

Low back pain. Administering injections of a specific kudzu constituent, called puerarin, seems to help with low back pain in some patients. In one clinical study, patients with lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse who were treated with injections of puerarin plus acupuncture had improved pain scores from baseline and compared to treatement with acupuncture alone (57931). Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.

Menopausal symptoms. Preliminary clinical research suggests that kudzu taken up to 100 mg orally can improve vasomotor symptom scores in perimenopausal women (57890, 57926). Other clinical research suggests that taking kudzu 20-50 mg daily for 24 weeks can significantly improve vaginal dryness and pH from baseline in perimenopausal women (57924). However, some clinical evidence shows that taking up to 100 mg of kudzu daily does not affect menopausal changes after 3-6 months of use, including lipid profiles, blood pressure, sex hormone levels, or menopausal symptoms (11386, 57927, 57929, 57942). However, kudzu may have a positive effect on cognitive function and may improve bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women (11386, 57929). Also, in one clinical study, taking kudzu 20-50 mg daily for 24 weeks significantly decreased a specific biomarker of bone turnover, called bone alkaline phosphatase, compared to placebo in postmenopausal women (57929).

Myocardial infarction (MI). Administering a constituent of kudzu, called puerarin, as adjunct treatment to conventional therapy may help some MI patients (57906, 57917). In one clinical study, administering injections of puerarin 500 mg daily for 2 weeks significantly reduced infarct size compared to the beginning of treatment in post-MI patients (57917). Puerarin injection products are not available in North America.

Weight loss. Clinical research suggests that taking a kudzu extract 300 mg daily for 12 weeks significantly reduces visceral fat and body mass index (BMI) compared to placebo in obese patients. However, doses of 200 mg do not seem to be as effective (57954).
More evidence is needed to rate kudzu for these uses.

Mechanism of Action:

The applicable parts of kudzu are the root, flower, and leaf. Kudzu contains isoflavone constituents including daidzin, daidzein, puerarin, genistin, and genistein (11711, 13295).

Kudzu extracts or individual isoflavones such as daidzin consistently suppress voluntary alcohol intake in rodent models of alcoholism (1523, 1524, 13289, 13290). Kudzu extract, daidzein, and daidzin decrease alcohol consumption and shorten alcohol-induced sleep in alcohol-craving animals. Preclinical research suggests kudzu causes later and lower peak blood alcohol levels and a flattened dose response curve (13297). Kudzu might decrease peak blood alcohol levels due to delayed gastric emptying, exposing alcohol to a longer time for first-pass metabolism in the stomach (1523, 1524). Slowed gastric emptying might prolong the effects of alcohol. Other research suggests kudzu might have antioxidant effects and speed up the metabolism of toxic alcohol metabolites (13294). Preliminary research suggests the kudzu constituent puerarin might lessen feelings of anxiety associated with alcohol withdrawal (13293).

Research in animal models of stroke suggests an ethanolic extract of kudzu root can increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain, which might improve post-stroke depression (15498).

Isoflavone constituents have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity, similar to selective estrogen receptor modulators (11386, 13295). These phytoestrogens might have additive or synergistic effects with each other (13295).

Kudzu might also have effects on the cardiovascular system. Preliminary research suggests kudzu has a protective effect against myocardial ischemia (13282). Puerarin seems to reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and diminish myocardial oxygen consumption (13279). Puerarin also might have vasorelaxant properties, possibly by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors (13283). There is also some evidence that puerarin might decrease plasma renin and angiotensin II activity, and platelet aggregation (13278, 13280, 13291). The kudzu constituent daidzein might also have antiarrhythmic properties (13284).

In ischemic stroke, puerarin might reduce ischemic reperfusion injury by dilating cerebral vessels to improve circulation, reducing platelet aggregation, inhibiting free radical production, and increasing superoxide dismutase activity (16400).

Kudzu or its constituents might have hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and antioxidant activity (13285, 13286, 13288, 13292). Kudzu also might have antipyretic effects, possibly through the effect of puerarin on serotonin receptors (13281, 13282).

Preliminary research also suggests that kudzu and puerarin both inhibit and induce cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. However, it is unclear which CYP isoenzymes are affected and to what degree (13288).

Adverse Reactions:

Orally, no side effects have been reported in clinical studies. There is one case report of allergic reaction following use of a combination herbal product containing kudzu (Kakkonto) involving a maculopapular eruption starting on the thighs and spreading over the entire body (13111).

Intravenously, the kudzu derivative, puerarin, has been associated with itching and nausea (16400). It has also caused intravascular hemolysis (13298).

Interactions with Herbs & Supplements:

ANTICOAGULANT/ANTIPLATELET HERBS AND SUPPLEMENTS: Theoretically, concomitant use of kudzu with herbs that might affect platelet aggregation might increase the risk of bleeding in some people (13278, 13291). These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, poplar, red clover, turmeric, and others.

HEPATOTOXIC HERBS AND SUPPLEMENTS: There is some concern that kudzu can adversely affect the liver (88777). Theoretically, concomitant use with other potentially hepatotoxic herbs and supplements might increase the risk of developing liver damage. Some of these products include androstenedione, chaparral, comfrey, DHEA, germander, niacin, pennyroyal oil, red yeast, and others.

HERBS AND SUPPLEMENTS WITH HYPOGLYCEMIC POTENTIAL: Theoretically, kudzu might lower blood glucose levels (13285, 13292, 57868, 57951), and have additive effects when used with other herbs and supplements that also lower glucose levels. This might increase the risk of hypoglycemia in some patients. Some herbs and supplements with hypoglycemic effects include alpha-lipoic acid, bitter melon, cassia cinnamon, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.

HERBS WITH ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY: Theoretically, kudzu might have additive or antagonistic effects with other herbs that have estrogenic activity (11386, 57874, 57877). These herbs include alfalfa, black cohosh, chasteberry, flaxseed, hops, ipriflavone, licorice, red clover, and soy.

Interactions with Drugs:
      
ANTICOAGULANT/ANTIPLATELET DRUGS

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Severity = High • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D

Kudzu isoflavones are reported to have antiplatelet activity (13278, 13291). Theoretically, kudzu might increase the risk of bleeding when used concomitantly with other drugs that have antiplatelet or anticoagulant effects. Antiplatelet agents include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dipyridamole (Persantine), ticlopidine (Ticlid), and others. Anticoagulant agents include heparin and warfarin (Coumadin).

ANTIDIABETES DRUGS

Interaction Rating = Minor Be watchful with this combination.

Severity = Moderate • Occurrence = Unlikely • Level of Evidence = D

Kudzu might lower blood glucose levels and have additive effects in patients treated with antidiabetic agents (13285, 13292, 57868, 57951). The dose of diabetes medications might need to be adjusted. Some antidiabetes drugs include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.

CONTRACEPTIVE DRUGS

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Severity = High • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = B
Theoretically, kudzu might competitively inhibit the effects of oral contraceptives (11386, 57874, 57877).

ESTROGENS

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Severity = Moderate • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = B
Theoretically, kudzu might competitively inhibit the effects of estrogen therapy (11386, 57874, 57877).

HEPATOTOXIC DRUGS

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Severity = High • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D

There is some concern that kudzu can adversely affect the liver (88777). Theoretically, concomitant use with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs might increase the risk of developing liver damage. Some of these drugs include acarbose (Precose, Prandase), amiodarone (Cordarone), atorvastatin (Lipitor), azathioprine (Imuran), carbamazepine (Tegretol), cerivastatin (Baycol), diclofenac (Voltaren), felbamate (Felbatol), fenofibrate (Tricor), fluvastatin (Lescol), gemfibrozil (Lopid), isoniazid, itraconazole, (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), leflunomide (Arava), lovastatin (Mevacor), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), nevirapine (Viramune), niacin, nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin), pioglitazone (Actos), pravastatin (Pravachol), pyrazinamide, rifampin (Rifadin), ritonavir (Norvir), rosiglitazone (Avandia), simvastatin (Zocor), tacrine (Cognex), tamoxifen, terbinafine (Lamisil), valproic acid, and zileuton (Zyflo).

METHOTREXATE (MTX, Rheumatrex)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Severity = High • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = D
Preclinical research suggests that kudzu extract greatly reduces the elimination and increases the toxicity of methotrexate. Kudzu might inhibit organic anion transporters (OATs) that are responsible for hepatobiliary and renal excretion of anions, similar to the interaction between methotrexate and NSAIDs (13296).

TAMOXIFEN (Nolvadex)

Interaction Rating = Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Severity = High • Occurrence = Possible • Level of Evidence = B
Theoretically, kudzu might interfere with tamoxifen because of its potential estrogenic effects. Tell patients taking tamoxifen to avoid kudzu (11386).

Interactions with Foods:

None known.

Interactions with Lab Tests:

LIVER FUNCTION TESTS: There is some concern that kudzu can significantly increase liver function tests, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (88777).

Interactions with Diseases or Conditions:

BLEEDING DISORDERS: Kudzu isoflavones are reported to have antiplatelet activity (13278, 13291). Theoretically, kudzu might interfere with anticoagulant therapies.

CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITIONS: Theoretically, kudzu might interfere with cardiovascular treatments. Kudzu extracts have vasodilatory, hypotensive, and antiarrhythmic effects in animals (13280, 13283, 13284, 57910).

DIABETES: Theoretically, kudzu might interfere with blood glucose control requiring dosing adjustment of diabetes drug therapy. Kudzu constituents have hypoglycemic activity in animals (13285, 13292, 57868, 57951).

HORMONE SENSITIVE CANCERS/CONDITIONS: Kudzu might have estrogenic effects (11386, 57874, 57877). Women with hormone sensitive conditions should avoid kudzu. Some of these conditions include breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, and uterine fibroids.

LIVER DISEASE: There is some concern that kudzu can adversely affect the liver (88777). Theoretically, kudzu might exacerbate liver diseases such as hepatitis in patients with a history of liver disease. Tell patients with active or past liver disease to avoid kudzu.

SURGERY: Kudzu might affect blood glucose levels (13285, 13292, 57868, 57951). Theoretically, kudzu might interfere with blood glucose control during and after surgical procedures. Tell patients to discontinue kudzu at least 2 weeks before elective surgical procedures.

Dosage/Administration:

ORAL: For alcoholism, kudzu root extract 1.2 grams twice daily has been used (10386). A specific kudzu extract (NPI-031, Natural Pharmacia Int.) in a dose of 500 mg three times daily has also been used. This extract is standardized to contain 19% puerarin, 4% daidzin, and 2% daidzein (13085).

For menopausal symptoms, kudzu powder containing 100 mg isoflavones dissolved in water once daily has been used for 3 months (11386).

INTRAVENOUS: For ischemic stroke, the kudzu extract puerarin has been used in a dose of 200 mg once daily for 15 days (16400).

Editor's Comments:

Kudzu has been used medicinally in Chinese medicine since at least 200 BC. As early as 600 AD, it was used to treat alcoholism (15498).

Kudzu was introduced in North America in 1876 in the southeastern US. It was initially used to prevent soil erosion. Kudzu spread quickly and overtook several farms and buildings. Some have referred to kudzu as "the vine that ate the South" (13085).



http://wwwwikipedia.org

Puerarin

Puerarin  
Names
IUPAC name : 7-Hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-[(3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]chromen-4-one
Other names :
Daidzein-8-C-glucoside
7,4'-Dihydroxy-8-C-glucosylisoflavone
Identifiers
CAS Number : 3681-99-0
ChEMBL     ChEMBL486386
ChemSpider : 4445119
PubChem : 5486172

Properties

Chemical formula : C21H20O9
Molar mass : 416.38 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
    
Puerarin, one of several known isoflavones, is found in a number of plants and herbs, such as the root of Pueraria (Radix puerariae)[1] notably of the kudzu plant.

Puerarin is the 8-C-glucoside of daidzein.[2]

List of plants that contain the chemical

Pueraria lobata[3][4]
Pueraria phaseoloides[5][6]

Notes and references

Dennis K.Y. Yeunga, Susan W.S. Leung, Yan Chun Xua, Paul M. Vanhouttea and Ricky Y.K. Mana (2006). "Puerarin, an isoflavonoid derived from Radix puerariae, potentiates endothelium-independent relaxation via the cyclic AMP pathway in porcine coronary artery". European Journal of Pharmacology 552 (1–3): 105–11. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.08.078. PMID 17027964.

Overstreet DH, Kralic JE, Morrow AL, Ma ZZ, Zhang YW, Lee DY (2003). "NPI-031G (puerarin) reduces anxiogenic effects of alcohol withdrawal or benzodiazepine inverse or 5-HT2C agonists". Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 75 (3): 619–625. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00114-X. PMID 12895679.

Wang, Lingzhao; Yang, BAO; Du, Xiuqiao; et al. (2009). "Investigation of supercritical fluid extraction of puerarin from Pueraria Lobata". Journal of Food Process Engineering (John Wiley & Sons) 32 (5): 682–691. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4530.2007.00238.x.

Chen, Gang; Zhang, J; Ye, J; et al. (2001). "Determination of puerarin, daidzein and rutin in Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection". Journal of Chromatography A (Elsevier) 923 (1 – 2): 255–262. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00996-7. PMID 11510548.

Kintzios, Spiridon; Makri, Olga; Pistola, Eleni; Matakiadis, Theodoros; Ping Shi, He; Economou, Athanassios; et al. (2004). "Scale-up production of puerarin from hairy roots of Pueraria phaseoloides in an airlift bioreactor". Biotechnology Letters (Springer) 26 (13): 1057–1059. doi:10.1023/B:BILE.0000032963.41208.e8. ISSN 0141-5492.

Shi, H. P; S. Kintzies (2003). "Genetic transformation of Pueraria phaseoloides with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and puerarin production in hairy roots". Plant Cell Reports (Springer) 21 (11): 1103–1107. doi:10.1007/s00299-003-0633-6. ISSN 0721-7714.



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kudzu

Kudzu
 
Kudzu (/ˈkʊdzuː/, also called Japanese arrowroot ) is a group of plants in the genus Pueraria, in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. They are climbing, coiling, and trailing perennial vines native to much of eastern Asia, Southeast Asia, and some Pacific islands. The name comes from the Japanese name for the plants, kuzu, which was written "kudzu" in historical romanizations. Where these plants are naturalized, they can be invasive and are considered noxious weeds. The plant climbs over trees or shrubs and grows so rapidly that it kills them by heavy shading. The plant is edible, but often sprayed with herbicides.

Taxonomy and nomenclature

The name kudzu describes one or more species in the genus Pueraria that are closely related, and some of them are considered to be varieties rather than full species. The morphological differences between them are subtle; they can breed with each other, and introduced kudzu populations in the United States apparently have ancestry from more than one of the species. They are:

P. montana
P. lobata (P. montana var. lobata)
P. edulis
P. phaseoloides
P. thomsonii (P. montana var. chinensis)
P. tuberosa

Origin in the United States

Kudzu was introduced to the United States as an ornamental bush and an effortless and efficient shade producer at the Philadelphia Continental Exposition in 1876. In the 1930s and '40s, the vine was rebranded as a way for farmers to stop soil erosion. Southern farmers were given about eight dollars an acre to sow topsoil with the invasive vine. The cultivation covered over one million acres of kudzu.[7]

Propagation

Kudzu spreads by vegetative reproduction via stolons (runners) that root at the nodes to form new plants and by rhizomes. Kudzu will also spread by seeds, which are contained in pods and mature in the autumn, although this is rare. One or two viable seeds are produced per cluster of pods. The hard-coated seeds can remain viable for several years, and will successfully germinate only when soil is persistently soggy for five to seven days, with temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F). Once germinated, saplings must be kept in a well-drained medium that retains high moisture. During this stage of growth, it is critical for kudzu to receive as much sunlight as possible. Kudzu saplings are sensitive to mechanical disturbance, and are damaged by chemical fertilizers. They do not tolerate long periods of shade, or high water tables.

Uses

Soil improvement and preservation


Kudzu has been used as a form of erosion control and also to enhance the soil. As a legume, it increases the nitrogen in the soil by a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.[8] Its deep taproots also transfer valuable minerals from the subsoil to the topsoil, thereby improving the topsoil. In the deforested section of the central Amazon Basin in Brazil, it has been used for improving the soil pore-space in clay latosols, thus freeing even more water for plants than in the soil prior to deforestation.

Animal feed

Kudzu can be used by grazing animals, as it is high in quality as a forage and palatable to livestock. It can be grazed until frost and even slightly after. Kudzu had been used in the southern United States specifically to feed goats on land that had limited resources. Kudzu hay typically has a 15–18% crude protein content and over 60% total digestible nutrient value. The quality of the leaves decreases, however, as vine content increases relative to the leaf content. Kudzu also has low forage yields despite its rate of growth, yielding around two to four tons of dry matter per acre annually. It is also difficult to bale due to its vining growth and its slowness in shedding water. This makes it necessary to place kudzu hay under sheltered protection after being baled. Kudzu is readily consumed by all types of grazing animals, yet frequent grazing over three to four years can ruin stands. Thus, kudzu only serves well as a grazing crop on a temporary basis.

Basketry

Kudzu fiber has long been used for fiber art and basketry. The long runners which propagate the kudzu fields and the larger vines which cover trees make excellent weaving material. Some basketmakers use the material green. Others use it after splitting it in half, allowing it to dry and then rehydrating it using hot water. Both traditional and contemporary basketry artists use kudzu.

Medicine

Kudzu contains a number of useful isoflavones, including puerarin, about 60% of the total isoflavones, and also daidzein (an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent) and daidzin (structurally related to genistein). It has shown value in treating migraine and cluster headaches. It is recommended for allergies and diarrhea.

In traditional Chinese medicine, where it is known as gé gēn, kudzu is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs. It is used to treat tinnitus, vertigo, and Wei syndrome (superficial heat).

Kudzu has been used as a remedy for alcoholism and hangover. The root was used to prevent excessive consumption, while the flower was supposed to detoxify the liver and alleviate the symptoms afterwards. However, a 2007 study suggested that the use of the kudzu root is inappropriate as a hangover remedy due to increased acetaldehyde accumulation through mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition. Some hangover remedies are marketed with kudzu as one of their active ingredients.

It has also shown potential in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

Food and beverage

The roots contain starch, which has traditionally been used as a food ingredient in East Asia. In Vietnam, the starch called bột sắn dây is flavoured with pomelo oil and then used as a drink in the summer. In Japan, the plant is known as kuzu and the starch named kuzuko. Kuzuko is used in dishes including kuzumochi, mizu manjū, and kuzuyu. It also serves as a thickener for sauces, and can substitute for cornstarch.

The flowers are used to make a jelly that tastes similar to grape jelly. Roots, flowers, and leaves of kudzu show antioxidant activity that suggests food uses. Nearby bee colonies may forage on kudzu nectar during droughts as a last resort, producing a low-viscosity red or purple honey that tastes of grape jelly or bubblegum.

Kudzu has also been used for centuries in East Asia to make herbal teas and tinctures.[19] Kudzu powder is used in Japan to make an herbal tea called kuzuyu.

Other uses

Kudzu fiber, known as ko-hemp, is used traditionally to make clothing and paper, and has also been investigated for industrial-scale use. The stems are traditionally used for basketry.

It may become a valuable asset for the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the Southern United States, kudzu is used to make soaps, lotions, and compost.
Invasive species
Kudzu growing on trees in Georgia, United States
Kudzu plants near Canton, Georgia
Ecological damage and roles

Kudzu's environmental and ecological damage results from acting through "interference competition", meaning it outcompetes other species for a resource. Kudzu competes with native flora for light, and acts to block their access to this vital resource by growing over them and shading them with its leaves. Native plants may then die as a result.

Changes in leaf litter associated with kudzu infestation results in changes to decomposition processes and a 28% reduction in stocks of soil carbon, with potential implications for processes involved in climate change.

United States

Kudzu was introduced from Japan into the United States at the Japanese pavilion in the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. It is now common along roadsides and other disturbed areas throughout most of the southeastern United States. Estimates of its rate of spreading differ wildly; it has been described as spreading at the rate of 150,000 acres (610 km2) annually, although in 2015 the United States Forest Service estimated the rate to be only 2,500 acres per year.

Canada

Kudzu was discovered July 2009 in a patch 110 m (360 ft) wide and 30 m (98 ft) across, on a south-facing slope on the shore of Lake Erie near Leamington, Ontario, about 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Windsor. Leamington is located in the second-warmest growing region of Canada after south coastal British Columbia.

Ecologist Gerald Waldron made the Leamington find while walking along the beach. He recognized the kudzu instantly, having read about its destructive expansion in the southeastern United States.

Other countries

During World War II, kudzu was introduced to Vanuatu and Fiji by United States Armed Forces to serve as camouflage for equipment and has become a major weed.

Kudzu is also becoming a problem in northeastern Australia, and has been seen in isolated spots in Northern Italy (Lake Maggiore).

In New Zealand, kudzu was declared an "unwanted organism" and was added to the Biosecurity New Zealand register in 2002.

Control

Crown removal

For successful long-term control of kudzu, it is not necessary to destroy the underground system, which can be extremely large and deep. It is only necessary to use some method to kill or remove the kudzu root crown[36] and all rooting runners. The root crown is a fibrous knob of tissue that sits on top of the roots. Crowns form from multiple vine nodes that root to the ground, and range from pea- to basketball-sized.[36] The older the crowns, the deeper they tend to be found in the ground. Nodes and crowns are the source of all kudzu vines, and roots cannot produce vines. If any portion of a root crown remains after attempted removal, the kudzu plant may grow back.

Mechanical methods of control involve cutting off crowns from roots, usually just below ground level. This immediately kills the plant. Cutting off the above-ground vines is not sufficient for an immediate kill. It is necessary to destroy all removed crown material. Buried crowns can regenerate into healthy kudzu. Transporting crowns in soil removed from a kudzu infestation is one common way that kudzu unexpectedly spreads and shows up in various locations.

Mowing

Close mowing every week, regular heavy grazing for many successive years, or repeated cultivation may be effective, as this serves to deplete root reserves.[36] If done in the spring, cutting off vines must be repeated. Regrowth appears to exhaust the plant's stored carbohydrate reserves. Cut kudzu can be fed to livestock, burned, or composted.

Grazing

The city of Chattanooga, Tennessee, has undertaken a trial program using goats and llamas to graze on the plant. As of 2007, the goats are grazing along the Missionary Ridge area in the east of the city. Similar efforts to reduce widespread nuisance kudzu growth have also been undertaken in the cities of Winston-Salem, North Carolina and Tallahassee, Florida.

Fire

Prescribed burning is also used on old extensive infestations to remove vegetative cover and promote seed germination for removal or treatment. While fire is not an effective way to kill kudzu, equipment, such as a skid loader, can later remove crowns and thereby kill kudzu with minimal disturbance of soil.

Herbicide

A systemic herbicide, for example, glyphosate, Triclopyr, or Tordon, can be applied directly on cut stems, which is an effective means of transporting the herbicide into the kudzu's extensive root system.[43] Herbicides can be used after other methods of control, such as mowing, grazing, or burning, which can allow for an easier application of the chemical to the weakened plants. In large-scale forestry infestations, soil-active herbicides have been shown to be highly effective.

After initial herbicidal treatment, follow-up treatments and monitoring are usually necessary, depending on how long the kudzu has been growing in the area. It may require up to 10 years of supervision after the initial chemical placement to make sure the plant does not return.

Fungi

Since 1998, the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has experimented with using the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria as a biologically based herbicide against kudzu.[30] A diacetylverrucarol spray based on M. verrucaria works under a variety of conditions (including the absence of dew), causes minimal injury to many of the other woody plants in kudzu-infested habitats, and takes effect quickly enough that kudzu treated with it in the morning starts showing evidence of damage by midafternoon.[30] Initial formulations of the herbicide produced toxic levels of other trichothecenes as byproducts, though the ARS discovered growing M. verrucaria in a fermenter on a liquid instead of a solid diet limited or eliminated the problem.

References

Sun, J H; Li, Z-C; Jewett, D K; Britton, K O; Ye, W H; Ge, X-J (2005). "Genetic diversity of Pueraria lobata (kudzu) and closely related taxa as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat analysis". Weed Research 45 (4): 255. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3180.2005.00462.x.

Kudzu: The Vine that Ate the South; PorterBriggs.com http://porterbriggs.com/the-vine-that-ate-the-south/

"Kudzu". Med-owl.com.

The flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana exhibit protective effects against ethanol-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells
Neil R. McGregor (2007). "Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk". Alcohol 41 (7): 469–478. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2007.07.009. PMID 17980785.

Li J, Wang G, Liu J, et al. (December 2010). "Puerarin attenuates amyloid-beta-induced cognitive impairment through suppression of apoptosis in rat hippocampus in vivo". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 649 (1–3): 195–201. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.09.045. PMID 20868658.

Larry W. Mitich (Jan–Mar 2000). "Kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi)". Weed Technology 14 (1): 231–235. doi:10.1614/0890-037X(2000)014[0231:KPLWO]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 3988532.

Robert D. Tanner, S. Shahid Hussain, Lindsey A. Hamilton and Frederick T. Wolf (October 1979). "Kudzu (Pueraria Lobata): Potential agricultural and industrial resource". Economic Botany 33 (4): 400–412. doi:10.1007/BF02858336. ISSN 1874-9364.

Sibel Uludag, Veara Loha, Ales Prokop and Robert D. Tanner (March 1996). "The effect of fermentation (retting) time and harvest time on kudzu (Pueraria lobata) fiber strength". Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 57-58 (1): 75–84. doi:10.1007/BF02941690. ISSN 1559-0291.

Tamura, Mioko; Tharayil, Nishanth (July 2014). "Plant litter chemistry and microbial priming regulate the accrual, composition and stability of soil carbon in invaded ecosystems". New Phytologist 203 (1): 110–124. doi:10.1111/nph.12795.

"Controlling Kudzu With Naturally Occurring Fungus". ScienceDaily. July 20, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-20.

"Kudzu Control Without Chemicals". kokudzu.com. 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
 


http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FB%3ABILE.0000032963.41208.e8
Biotechnology Letters, July 2004, Volume 26, Issue 13, pp 1057-1059

Scale-up production of puerarin from hairy roots of Pueraria phaseoloides in an airlift bioreactor

Spiridon Kintzios, Olga Makri, Eleni Pistola, Theodoros Matakiadis, He Ping Shi, Athanassios Economou



http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4530.2007.00238.x

Journal of Food Process Engineering, Volume 32, Issue 5, pages 682–691, October 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4530.2007.00238.x

INVESTIGATION OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUERARIN FROM PUERARIA LOBATA

LINGZHAO WANG, BAO YANG, andXIUQIAO DU



https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Puerarin#section=Pharmacology-and-Biochemistry



http://worldwide.espacenet.com/advancedSearch?locale=en_EP

PATENTS : PUERARIN EXTRACTION

CN104945390
Puerarin extraction process
The invention discloses a puerarin extraction process, relating to extraction of effective components in Chinese herbal medicine plants and belonging to the field of extraction processes. The puerarin extraction process is characterized by comprising the following steps: taking kudzu root, pulverizing at the low temperature of -4-0 DEG C, passing through a 30-100-mesh screen, adding distilled water which is 1-7 times by weight of kudzu root, immersing at room temperature for 5-8 hours, stirring with a stirrer to obtain a kudzu root slurry, adding an enzyme preparation to perform enzymolysis reaction while performing low-intensity ultrasonic treatment, carrying out solid-liquid separation and collecting the filtrate to obtain the kudzu root extract concentrated solution. The technique for extracting effective components of kudzu root has the advantages of high production efficiency, low requirements for equipment, high controllability, high operability and low energy consumption, is suitable for large-scale production of the kudzu root product, is beneficial to overall development and utilization of kudzu root resources, and has obvious economic benefit and social benefit. The kudzu root beverage prepared by the technique has the advantages of high nutrient content and good and diversified tastes, is convenient to drink, and is convenient for transportation and storage.


Method for extracting puerarin from residue of radix puerariae
CN104844584
The invention discloses a method for extracting puerarin from residue of radix puerariae, which comprises the following steps: extracting kudzuvine root starch to obtain slag and drying, performing ultramicro crushing to obtain the particles with diameter being 1-20 micrometers; mixing the crushed residue of radix puerariae and ethanol, adding beta-cyclodextrin and performing ultrasonic extraction; performing heating reflux, performing pumping filtration for extracting puerarin; performing rotary evaporation on a filtrate to a stiff paste, simultaneously recovering ethanol, drying the obtained extract under vacuum; and performing supercritical carbon dioxide extraction on the extract to obtain the puerarin. According to the invention, beta-cyclodextrin can increase the puerarin solubility and dissolution speed from the root of kudzu vine. The method for performing supersonic wave extraction, separating and purifying puerarin has the advantages of short production period, high efficiency, simple equipment, little boiler heat supply and cooling water, saved energy consumption, reduced environment pollution, and low product cost. A used extractant (CO2) is gas which is easily removed, the obtained product has no residual toxicity, and is especially suitable for medicine and food industries.

Method for extracting puerarin from kudzu vine
CN104447719
The invention discloses a method for extracting puerarin from kudzu vine. The method comprises the following specific steps: putting the kudzu vine into a flask, adding 95% ethanol, adjusting the temperature to 5 DEG C, applying ultrasonic waves of which the frequency is 20KHz and the power is 100W, reacting for 40 minutes, sucking away filtrate, repeating the process for several times until the filtration residue contains no puerarin, mixing filtrates, dropwise adding saturated n-butanol, raising the temperature to 50 DEG C, stirring for 2 hours, standing for 2 hours, extracting a supernatant, repeating the steps for several times until the supernatant contains no puerarin, mixing the supernatants, extracting with n-butanol to obtain an extraction liquid, quickly decolorizing the extraction liquid by virtue of an aluminum oxide column, heating and dissolving with 50mL glacial acetic acid until crystals are seperated out. The method has the characteristics of low cost, simple operation, short time and the like and puerarin is easily synthesized and is high in purity.

Puerarin preparation method
CN103570700
The invention provides a puerarin preparation method. The puerarin preparation method comprises the following steps of 1, putting kudzu vine root as a raw material into a container, 2, adding an n-butyl alcohol solvent into the container and carrying out extraction, wherein the step 2 is generally carried out 3 times and is characterized in that in the primary extraction process, the amount of the used n-butyl alcohol solvent is 5-9 times that of the raw material and the temperature is increased to 35-100 DEG C and the extraction time is in a range of 4.5-8h, in the secondary and tertiary extraction processes, the amount of the used n-butyl alcohol solvent is 3-5 times that of the raw material and the extraction time is in a range of 2.5-4h, after each extraction process, the extract product is separated, and after all the extraction processes, all the extract products are merged, 3, concentrating the merged extract products to recover n-butyl alcohol and to obtain extract paste, and 4, carrying out acetic acid crystallization and water recrystallization to obtain puerarin. The puerarin preparation method has the advantages of high active ingredient content, less impurities, small environmental pollution, low damage on operators, low production cost and short period.

Microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction and separation method of kudzu root total flavones
CN103432193
The invention relates to a microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction method for separating kudzu root total flavone, which comprises the following steps: 1) preparation of an aqueous two-phase system: taking an inorganic salt, adding water to dissolve the inorganic salt, and adding an organic solvent to obtain a aqueous two-phase extractant; and 2) microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction: adding kudzu root powder into the aqueous two-phase extractant obtained in the step 1), carrying out microwave-assisted extraction, and carrying out vacuum filtration to obtain an obvious phase-separated kudzu root flavone extracting solution. Compared with the prior art, the method provided by the invention has the following advantages: (1) the method is simple to operate and does not need to wait for phase separation; 2) the process is integrated; 3) the extraction process is quick and efficient; 4) the extraction solvent is low in toxicity; 5) the interfacial tension is small, thereby being beneficial to mass transfer between the two phases; 6) abundant impurities can be removed along with solid matters, thereby being beneficial to purifying the sample; and 7) the extraction method does not have obvious scale-up effect, can easily implement technique amplification and continuous operation, and can be directly connected with the subsequent purification procedure without special treatment.

Method for extracting kudzu root
CN103371342
The invention relates to a method for extracting kudzu root, which comprises the following steps: 1) immersion: immersing 10-20 wt% of kudzu root in normal temperature water for 30-60 minutes, wherein stirring is performed regularly in the immersion period so that the kudzu root sufficiently absorbs water; 2) extracting with boiling water 3 times: first time: heating water to a boiling state, keeping boiling for 30 minutes, and pouring; second time: adding 8 times of water into kudzu root (on dry basis), heating water to a boiling state, keeping boiling for 20 minutes, and pouring; third time: adding 6 times of water into kudzu root (on dry basis), heating water to a boiling state, keeping boiling for 15 minutes, and pouring; evenly mixing the three juices, naturally precipitating, and carrying out gravitational separation for later use; 3) sterilization: heating the mixture solution to 90-95 DEG C while stirring, and keeping for 15 minutes; 4) cooling: cooling to 30 DEG C below; and 5) sterile filling. By using the method provided by the invention, the extraction rate of puerarin and kudzu root flavone is up to 90%, and the nutrients are not destroyed; and in addition, the method is easy to operate and suitable for industrial production.

Novel process for producing puerarin by utilizing root of kudzu vine
CN103254185
The invention provides a novel process for producing puerarin by utilizing root of kudzu vine. According to the process, starch and puerarin in the root of kudzu vine can be respectively extracted. According to the process, the flesh part which is rich in starch and the high-puerarin-content bast part of the root of kudzu vine are separated for performing independent extraction; because puerarin is insoluble in water and soluble in alkaline water, low-alkalinity lime water treatment is adopted in the process of extracting the starch, the content of pueraria root flavone in the starch can be fully kept, and the quality of the edible starch is improved; when puerarin is extracted from the bast part of the root of kudzu vine, non-toxic and safe ethanol serves as a solvent, the extracting process is the traditional reflux extraction process, and coarse puerarin is obtained; and coarse puerarin is subjected to two-step separation, coarse puerarin is subjected to crude separation in the first step through macroporous resin, the purity of puerarin is further improved, puerarin is further refined by employing silica gel column chromatography, and high-purity puerarin with the content of more than or equal to 98 percent is produced. The resources are fully utilized, and the production method is simple and feasible and can be suitable for industrial production.

Process for low-temperature extracting kudzu root flavanone and kudzu root starch from kudzu root
CN102988465
The invention relates to a process for low-temperature extracting kudzu root flavanone and kudzu root starch from kudzu root. According to the process, kudzu or pueraria thomsonii benth developing for 2-5 years is washed, sliced, dried and crushed into pueraria powders, then edible alcohol with a certain concentration is added into the pueraria powders, the mixture is heated and extracted supersonically and subsequently filtered under heating to obtain pueraria extract and filter residues; and the pueraria extract is subjected to vacuum distillation and drying to obtain kudzu root flavanone extract, the filter residues are ground by adding water, screened and subjected to centrifugal separation, and precipates are dried and crushed to obtain kudzu root powder. The raw materials selected by the process have rich resources and high content of kudzu root flavanone, and suitable for scale production requirements; according to the process, the technology of firstly supersonically extracting kudzu root flavanone and subsequently preparing kudzu root powder by centrifugal separation improves the comprehensive utilization value of kudzu root; the process adopts edible alcohol and purified water as the extraction solvent, the recovery is convenient, and simultaneously nontoxic and harmful products are guaranteed; and the process is simple and has short production period, and can be used for large-scale industrial production.

Method for extracting puerarin from traditional Chinese medicine kudzu
CN102532111
The invention relates to a method for extracting puerarin from traditional Chinese medicine kudzu, which belongs to the fields of plants' medicinal component extraction and separation. The method comprises the following process steps of enabling root raw materials of the pueraria plant kudzu to be smashed and conducting backflow extraction by using ethanol, concentrating and drying extraction liquid, adding water for dissolving and filtering, conducting adsorption separation through macroporous resin, eluting by using 2-4 times of column volume water, removing composition of saccharides and the like in extractive, eluting by using 4-7 times of column volume ethanol, collecting ethanol eluent, decompressing, concentrating and recovering the ethanol, drying to obtain puerarin extractive with high purity. The method has the advantages of being simple in process engineering, convenient to operate, short in production period, low in cost, free of poisonous reagents and the three wastes and the like, and obtained puerarin is high in content and yield coefficient, stable in product quality, apt to serve as high-purity medical preparation such as dropping pills.

Aqueous two-phase extraction method for total flavones in kudzu root
CN102319282
The invention relates to an aqueous two-phase extraction method for total flavones in kudzu root. The method comprises the following steps of: (1) solid-liquid leaching: smashing a kudzu root medicinal material, adding a leaching agent, heating, performing reflux extraction, and combining the filtrate to obtain a kudzu root crude extract; (2) aqueous two-phase extraction: concentrating the kudzu root crude extract obtained in the step (1), adding into an aqueous two-phase system formed by absolute ethanol/monopotassium phosphate, adding water, mixing uniformly, and standing to separate into an upper phase and a lower phase; and (3) distilling under reduced pressure, and drying in vacuum to obtain a kudzu root total flavone extract. The invention has the advantages: (1) phase separating israpid, and the recovery rate is high; (2) process integration is performed, the aim of purifying through aqueous two-phase extraction is fulfilled, and a material liquid is concentrated; (3) the use of n-butyl alcohol serving as a toxic solvent is avoided; (4) the boundary tension is small, and mass transfer between two phases is facilitated; (5) purification of a sample is facilitated; and (6) process amplification and continuous operation are easy, and a subsequent purification process can be directly connected without special treatment.

Method for extracting active ingredients from plants
CN102160871
The invention relates to a method for extracting active ingredients from plants, and the method is mainly used for solving the problems of the prior art that the usage amount of the organic solvent is large, the content of the impurity in the extraction liquid is high and the extraction time is long. The technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a) crushing the plant materials needing to be extracted into particles with the granularity of more than 10 meshes; b) wetting the particles obtained from the step a) by utilizing a desorption agent, and then placing in a place at the temperature less than the boiling point of the desorption agent, wherein at least one of carbinol, ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate is selected as the desorption agent;; and c) adding a thermal solvent in the wetted material obtained from the step b) for hot extraction on the condition that the gage pressure is minus 0.01-0MPa, and separating to obtain the extraction liquid containing active ingredients, wherein at least one water or ethanol is selected as the thermal solvent, the temperature of the thermal agent is 2 DEG C higher than the boiling temperature of the desorption agent, and at least one of chlorogenic acid in honeysuckle, puerarin in kudzu vine root, cinnamyl aldehyde in cinnamon bark, salvianolic acid in salvia miltiorrhiza, flavones in ginkgo leaves, andrographolide in common andrographis herbs, or panax notoginseng saponins in panax notoginseng is selected as the active ingredients, thereby preferably solving the problems in the prior art. The method can be used for industrial production for extracting the active ingredients from the plants.

Botanical extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction
GB2483934
Subcritical water extraction may be applied to botanical material (Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis), St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), red clover (Trifolium pratense), Sophora flavescens, hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), black cohosh (Cimicifuga species, especially varieties dahurica and racemosa), Paeonia species (especially varieties lactiflora and suffructicosa) or any closely related species) to give materials for use as anti-inflammatory agents and as agents for controlling the activity of matrix metalloproteinases typified by elastase and collagenase. The sub-critical water extraction may preferably be conducted at 150-200Â DEG C and/or at 70-85 bar. The extract may be incorporated into a topical formulation which may be suitable for reducing inflammation of the skin or for reducing the appearance of skin aging by reducing the activity of the proteolytic enzymes elastase and collagenase; it may be used as an adjunctive in the treatment of skin cancer.

Preparation method and application of kudzu polysaccharide extract
CN101704904
he invention relates to a kudzu polysaccharide extract as well as a preparation method and application thereof. The method comprises the following steps of: A, smashing kudzu: smashing kudzu to 60-150 meshes; B, extracting polysaccharide: extracting with water of 8-20 times based on weight, carrying out circumfluence extraction for 2-4 hours at 60-100 DEG C; C, centrifugalizing extracting solution wherein the centrifugal speed is 3000-4000r/min; D, taking supernatant of centrifugalized solution to concentrate to a certain concentration with the concentration time of 8-20 times; adding ethanol for deposition ,wherein the concentration of ethanol in concentrated solution of polysaccharide is 60-85%, then centrifugalizing or filtering to remove undissolved substance; E, carrying out secondary ethanol precipitation on the supernatant with the conditions being to the same as that of the step D, then drying to obtain the kudzu polysaccharide extract. The polysaccharide extract is dried for 16-30 hours by using a freeze-dry method. The method for preparing kudzu polysaccharide extract is simple and convenient and oxidation resisting functional foods can be prepared by using the kudzu polysaccharide extract; meanwhile, the invention makes waste profitable, improves the additional value of kudzu byproduct and improves the rate of multipurpose utilization of kudzu resource.

Method for preparing kudzu root flavone
CN101485712
The invention belongs to the field of traditional Chinese medicine pharmacy, and relates to a method for preparing an effective activity part of pueraria. The invention in particular adopts the method of diluted alcohol extraction-ethanol reclaiming from the diluted alcohol till alcohol-free taste-D101 macroporous resin-ethanol elution, condensation and drying; and the effective activity part-pueraria flavone is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine the pueraria. The method adopts 20 to 40 percent ethanol to extract medicine material, can effectively extract the pueraria flavone, and reduce the extraction of impurity, so that the pueraria flavone can be better richened on the macroporous resin. The method improves the purity of the pueraria flavone in the extract, and considers both the transfer rate and the yield of the extract simultaneously so as to obtain the extract of the effective activity part of the pueraria with stable transfer rate and yield and higher purity. The content of the pueraria flavone in the extract is more than 70 percent; and the content of puerarin of the pueraria flavone in the extract is more than 30 percent. In a preparation prepared by the method, the effective composition has high and stable content and remarkable treatment effect. The effective composition is added with an auxiliary material or an auxiliary composition accepted in pharmacy to prepare a medicine preparation.

Puerarin extractive technique and kudzuvine root beverage process
CN101284856
he invention provides a technology for extracting puerarin and a process for making kudzu root beverage. The technology for extracting puerarin adopts an ultrasonic multistage advection contact process to carry out extraction, wherein the contact process is as follows: the second stage and the third stage of a three-stage advection contact process for extracting kudzu root adopt ultrasonic wave to assist the extraction; the process for making kudzu root beverage comprises material selection, pretreatment and precooking; during extraction, the ultrasonic multistage advection contact process is adopted to extract kudzu root; finally, the extract is made into kudzu root beverage after centrifugation. The extracting technology is scientific and reasonable and has short extraction time, good effect and strong operability; when the technology is adopted to make kudzu root beverage, the process of the technology has low requirement on equipment and is easy to control along with strong operability, less energy consumption and low production cost; therefore, the technology is suitable for the large-scale production of kudzu root beverage; moreover, manufactured kudzu root beverage has abundant nutrition, convenient eating and delicious and various tastes; therefore, the technology has tremendous economic benefit.

Technique for extracting and purifying kudzu root, whitethorn, safflower yellow ketones component
CN101269135
The invention relates to an extraction and purification process of Pueraria lobata, hawthorn and safflower flavonoid in the prescription of compound Naodesheng. 261 shares of Pueraria lobata, 157 shares of hawthorn and 91 shares of safflower are taken according to the mass ratio, ethanol with a concentration of 60 to 80 percent is added in for a back extract for three times, the addition of ethanol for the three times is respectively 10, 8 and 6 times of the quality of the drug ingredients, the extracting duration is respectively 2, 1 and 1 hour(s), the extracted solutions for the three times are combined, ethanol is reclaimed and concentrated to be free from ethanol smell, an extracted concentration solution is obtained, water is added till 0.1 gram of crude drug is contained per milliliter, the solution is filtered,; the filtrate is absorbed by a D-101 macroporous resin column and eluted by water and ethanol, the absorption flow rate is 1 to 3 times the volume of the column per hour and the quantity of the absorption liquid is 4 to 5 times the volume of the column. The water rate is 1 to 3 times the volume of the column per hour and the water volume is 4 to 6 times the volume of the column. The ethanol concentration for eluting is 30 to 60 percent, the flow rate is 1 to 3 times the volume of the column per hour and the consumed quantity is 2 to 6 times the volume of the column. The ethanol eluent is collected, concentrated to a density of 1.05 to 1.10 grams per milliliter and then dried to obtain an extracted product with a total flavonoid quality content of 78.1 percent.

Process of extracting pueraria polysaccharide
CN101020720
The process of extracting pueraria polysaccharide includes the following steps: milling slurry with kudzu vine root, adding cellulase and protease into the slurry for enzymolysis and simultaneous low strength ultrasonic treatment, adding vitamin C and xylose for protecting color, filtering to eliminate fiber, centrifugally separating the filtrate to eliminate starch, vacuum concentrating the centrifugate, adding alcohol before further centrifugally separating to obtain wet pueraria polysaccharide, and drying to obtain pueraria polysaccharide product. The present invention has raised enzyme activity and substrate converting rate, raised extraction rate of polysaccharide and flavone, effective prevention of browning, and natural color of the product.

Method for extracting kudzu root fermentation fuel ethanol remainder flavone
CN101190908
The invention relates to a method of extracting pueraria flavonid from residue in the fermentation of kudzuvine root: the residue in the fermentation is filtered and the pueraria flavonid in filtrate is extracted with a decoction and alcohol sedimentation technique while the pueraria flavonid in filter residue is extracted with an ethanol-thermal reflux method so as to establish the method of extracting the pueraria flavonid in the residue in the fermentation. During the production of fuel ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from the kudzuvine root, cellulose is added before the fermentation so as to degrade cellulose constituent at the epidermis of the kudzuvine root and release and utilize pueraria starch; in the fermentation process, the change of structure of the starch and the production of ethanol ensure slow dissolution of flavone after the starch is utilized, which results in that the extraction rate of the pueraria flavonid from the residue in the fermentation is increased by 12.15 percent compared with that of the kudzuvine root without fermentation. By extracting the pueraria flavonid from the residue in the fermentation, the comprehensive utilization of the kudzuvine root and improvement of economic effect can be achieved, thus being conducive to industrial production of the kudzuvine root.

Kudzu root total flavone extracting after steam-explosion process
CN101190255
The invention relates to a total flavonoids extract method after steam blast treatment of kudzuvine root. Kudzuvine root is processed with steam blast treatment under the conditions of 0.5-1.0 MPa steam pressure for 2 to 4 minutes. Water is added and diffusion is carried out at pH 6-8 at normal temperature, then the leaching liquor is filtered; the total flavonoids in the filtrate is extracted by alcohol sedimentation method, and the total flavonoids in the filter residue is extracted by ethanol heating refluxing method, and the total flavonoids extraction method with steam blast under low pressure is established; kudzuvine is pretreated by using the short-time (2-4min) steam blast technique;; the heat mechanism chemical action breaks the cell walls of kudzuvine tissues and destroys the structure of solid material kudzuvine, facilitating dissolution of kudzuvine effective components, improving extract rate of flavonoids.

Method for extracting and separating isoflavone from kudzu slag
CN1769279
The invention discloses a process for extracting and separating isoflavones from kudzu slag, which comprises the steps of disintegrating kudzu slag to 60-150 meshes, loading into a liquid dynamic continuous flow upstream extraction device for alcohol extraction, combining the extract liquid and filtering, concentrating the filtrate to obtain total isoflavones extract, and separating the total isoflavones extract to obtain puerarin and soybean aglycone.

Method for extracting and separating isoflavone from kudzu
CN1769278
The invention discloses a process for extracting and separating isoflavones from kudzu vine, which comprises the steps of disintegrating kudzu vine to 60-150 meshes, loading into a liquid dynamic continuous flow upstream extraction device for alcohol extraction, combining the extract liquid and filtering, concentrating the filtrate to obtain total isoflavones extract, and separating the total isoflavones extract to obtain puerarin and soybean aglycone.

Extraction separation for Nepal irid isoflavone from kudzu, process for preparing sulfonated compounds thereof , and their pharmaceutical uses
CN1594307
The invention provides a process for extracting Nepal iris isoflavone from wild pueravia flower and a process for preparing Nepal iris isoflavone-3'-sulfonic acid sodium, wherein the extraction and separation process consists of solubilizing agent, heating up and returning flow, or ultrasonic wave abstraction, subjecting the extractive to n-butyl alcohol extraction, diluted acid hydrolysis, filtering, recrystallizing and drying. And the preparing process comprises charging Nepal iris isoflavone into the solution, charging sulphonating agent for reaction, purifying through the conventional separation method. The invention also provides a medicament and composition for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

Method for extracting kudzuvine root total flavone
CN1524867
The invention relates to a process for extracting kudzuvine root total flavone comprising the steps of, water extraction, chitosan edulcoration, big hole resinification, wherein the flavone content is greater than 60%, and the process according to the invention realizes easy extraction, less ethanol consumption and high rate of extract.

PUERARIN HYDRATES, PREPARATION METHODS AND USES THEREOF
US2013331345
The present invention pertains to the field of pharmaceutical and chemical engineering, and relates to a puerarin hydrate, the preparation method and use thereof. Specifically, said puerarin hydrate has a molecular formula of C21H20O9.n H2O, in which n is a value of 0.8-1.3. The present invention further relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising said puerarin hydrate, and a method for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or eye diseases. The puerarin hydrate of the present invention is more stable than puerarin without water of crystallization, convenient for storage and transportation, and has good fluidity at room temperature thereby easy for the manufacture of preparations.

Composition for preventing or treating poliosis or vitiligo comprising a pueraria genus plant extract or puerarin
US8901088
Disclosed is a composition for preventing or treating poliosis or vitiligo comprising a Pueraria genus plant extract or puerarin as an active ingredient.

Fructosylated puerarin, and preparation method and use thereof
US8598128
Fructosylated puerarin being converted from puerarin by a bioconversion method conducted in an aqueous phase or nonaqueous phase system, including monofructosyl-(2,6)-puerarin, bifructosyl-(2,6)-puerarin, trifructosyl-(2,6)-puerarin, tetrafructosyl-(2,6)-puerarin and pentafructosyl-(2,6)-puerarin. Tests have shown that the oligosaccharylated puerarin is effective to treat acute myocardial ischemia, and can markedly suppress in vitro the proliferation of human breast cancer cell strain MDA-MB-23 and human chronmyelogenors leukemia cell strain K562, and it has a low toxicity.



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Kudzu powder / Puerarin @ Ebay.com






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