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Edward LANIER

Para-Plane // Vacu-Jet







E. Lanier and Riley ---


[ See also: LANIER : Vacu-Plane ]


CHARACTERISTICS :

STOL (short takeoff, landing.)...  Anti-stall, anti-lateral slip-off, anti-spin, anti-skid during turns.

INHERENT SAFETY : --  Safe low and slow flight around obstacles...  "Bird like" maneuverability at slow speed.

Takeoff speed: Under 30 mph (48 kmh)...  Landing speed: Under 30 mph (48 kmh)...
Takeoff distance at normal gross wt.: 20 yd (18 m)...  Landing distance at normal gross wt.: 20 yd (18 m)... Takeoff over 50 ft. obstacle: 55 yd (50 m)
Rate of climb: 1,500 ft (457 m)/min plus
Slow flight with good control: 25 mph (40 kmh)... Slow flight with power without loss of altitude: 15 mph (24 kmh)


http://www.eaach1.org/Design/Comm4v1_FullR4.pdf

Communique ( Issue #4 , Vol. 1 )

Low Aspect Ratio Aircraft , Part 2

by

Ed Marquart


http://www.aerofiles.com/_la.html

Edward Lanier

Edward H Lanier and son (Edward M), Miami and Jacksonville FL, Covington KY. 1943: (E M) Lanier Aircraft Corp, Marlton NJ.

1908-22 - Of interest is that the elder Lanier was also inventor of the ice cream cone, which he created while an exhibitor at the 1898 Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Although he had a profitable business selling patented cone-making machines, his real fascination was with flight.

NOTE: if interested in Lanier's theories and applications, an incredibly detailed and scholarly 32-page research project is presently (2007) online as a downloadable PDF file. A 23-page version is also available in HTML format via Google search but lacks all graphics pertaining to the text.

  Lanier Paraplane PL-8 [N4157A] (Lanier via Ron Dupas coll)

110 Paraplane Commuter PL-8 1958 = 1-2pClwM; 150hp Lycoming O-320; span: 20'7" length: 21'5" load: 500# v: 165/151/30 range: 625 ceiling: 23,000'. Controllable slow-flight at 20-25 mph; take-off and land in 60'. [N4157A]. (The name, Paraplane, fell out of copyright and was adopted for powered parachutes c.2000.)

  Lanier Paraplane II [N9060H] (Frank Rezich coll)
  Lanier Paraplane II Topps card #3

120 Paraplane I, Paraplane II 1949 = 1pClwM; 90hp Continental A-90; span: 20'5" length: 22'0" load (prototype): 455# v: 120/30-120/28; ff: ?? (p: Leo Riley). POP: 1 test-bed used by Office of Naval Research in STOL evaluation [N9060H]. Inverted "Vacucell" gull-wing with an air scoop below and vacuum-slots on top—operated by a hand-crank in the cockpit—enabled slow flight at 19mph, take-off in 100', a 30° climb angle and 40° descent angle, and was spin- and stall-proof. Modified Paraplane II showed up in 1949 with a 22'6" wing and was capable of nearly hovering.

443 Paraplane 1949 = Little data were found, but this was apparently a larger, possibly high-wing, reconstruction of the previous with 180hp Lycoming O-320; v: 171/x/30. POP: 1 [N9060H] (transferred from 120 Paraplane?). Project abandoned c.1955 after failing to attract a market.

Vacuplane 1928-33 - A series of experiments to explore Lanier's ideas on low-speed flight. Relative US patents from 1930-33: #1,750,529, #1,779,005, #1,803,805, #1,813,627, #1,866,214, and #1,913,809. The idea was to adopt the vacuum principle for inherent stability, especially at stalling conditions. Low speed was achieved by placing an upwardly-open concave cell ("vacuum cell") in the center section of the aircraft, most often blending into the fuselage. Slots were also involved. Hence reduced air pressure evolved in the cell which, of course, had a positive influence on the lift. Most Vacuplanes involved the University of Miami aeronautics department and its director, Prof F H Given, to some degree—details are sketchy. Vacuplane documentation is chaotic, and likely no one will ever sort it out, so the following information on the XLs should be regarded as a mixture of facts with some added educated guesses. (— Lennart Johnsson)

    XL-1 1928 = 1pOlwM; Anzani; span: 8'10"(?). The wings were spaced away from the fuselage to allow the air to flow against the vacuum cell. [3505] c/n 1.

    XL-2 1930 = 1pCmwM; 85hp LeBlond 5DF. Here the vacuum cell was mounted as a separate box on top of the fuselage. Full-cantilever wing with a span of at least 25', reportedly a modified Durand 13 airfoil. Twin fins and rudders. Pilot in an enclosed cabin under the wing. [X816Y] c/n XL-2.

    XL-3 c.1931 = 1pChwM; span: 13'10" v: 90/x/25; take-off in about 50'.

    XL-4 1931 = 1pChwM; LeBlond. XL-3 modified with stabilizing wingtip "winglets"; v: 110/x/25. The wing was mounted as a parasol on top of a central pillar which also housed the pilot. [11512] c/n X-141.

    LVF (XL-5) 1932 = 1p or 2pOmwM; 36hp Aeronca; span: 14'4" load: 225# v: 96/80/30 range: 250. Take-off run: 90'. A number of pilots found it stable enough not to slip or dive in a stall. In landing it had a tendency to favor a steep descent with control maintained at minimum forward speed. [X12865] c/n XL-5. Some data refer to it as XL-5> from its c/n. A mysterious, Roman-numbered XL-III referred to in some documents might be identical with this one.


http://www.1000aircraftphotos.com/PRPhotos/LanierParaplane1.htm

RON DUPAS COLLECTION
No. 569. Lanier Paraplane-Commuter 110 (N4157A c/n PL-8B)
Photographs from Lanier

The following information and the four views were printed together on an 8x10 in (20x25 cm) glossy photo.

Specifications and Performance of Prototype (Patented)

CHARACTERISTICS :
STOL (short takeoff, landing.)
Anti-stall, anti-lateral slip-off, anti-spin, anti-skid during turns.

INHERENT SAFETY
Safe low and slow flight around obstacles.
"Bird like" maneuverability at slow speed.

Takeoff speed: Under 30 mph (48 kmh)
Landing speed: Under 30 mph (48 kmh)
Takeoff distance at normal gross wt.: 20 yd (18 m)
Landing distance at normal gross wt.: 20 yd (18 m)
Rate of climb: 1,500 ft (457 m)/min plus
Takeoff over 50 ft. obstacle: 55 yd (50 m)
Slow flight with good control: 25 mph (40 kmh)
Slow flight with power without loss of altitude: 15 mph (24 kmh)

AIRPLANE
Manufacturer: Lanier Aircraft Corporation
Type: Paraplane-Commuter 110, single place (STOL)
Serial No. PL-8B
Span: 20 ft 7 in (6.27 m)
Length: 21 ft (6.40 m)
Fixed type landing gear (Special design of low drag and maintenance)
Gross wt: (Normal) 1,280 lb (581 kg). (Ferry) 1,400 lb (635 kg)
Useful load: 500 lb (227 kg)
Fuel: (Normal) 24 gal (91 l). (Ferry) Built in, 20 gal (76 l). All tanks located in wings
Oil: 8 qt (7.57 l)
Engine: 150 hp Lycoming O-320
Wing area: 111 sq.ft (10.31 sq.m)
Propeller: McCauley, metal fixed pitch
Airplane equipped with flaps, flaperons and Vacu-jet (Natural BLC)

PERFORMANCE
Top speed: 165 mph (266 kmh)
Cruise speed: 151 mph (243 kmh)
Range: 625 mls (1,006) plus 45 min. fuel reserve
Mls (km)/gal.: 17 (27)
Takeoff speed: Under 30 mph (48 kmh)
Landing speed: Under 30 mph (48 kmh)
Takeoff distance at normal gross wt.: 20 yd (18 m)
Landing distance at normal gross wt.: 20 yd (18 m)
Rate of climb: 1,500 ft (457 m)/min plus
Takeoff over 50 ft. obstacle: 55 yd (50 m)
Slow flight with good control: 25 mph (40 kmh)
Slow flight with power without loss of altitude: 15 mph (24 kmh)
Ceiling: 23,000 ft (7,010 m) (compensated carburetor)

CHARACTERISTICS
STOL (short takeoff, landing.)
Anti-stall, anti-lateral slip-off, anti-spin, anti-skid during turns.
INHERENT SAFETY
Safe low and slow flight around obstacles.
"Bird like" maneuverability at slow speed.

EQUIPMENT
Tires: 6:00 - 6 Nylon
Brakes: Hydraulic single disc.
Tail wheel: Oleo shock absorber. (Steerable, full swivel.)
Engine muffler: New patented type. High power and low noise level.
Radio: Transmitter and receiver. (Shielded engine plygs and harness.)
Lights: Landing and running lights.
Complete instrument panel, including helicopter airspeed indicator, magnetic compass, gyro artificial horizon, directional gyro compass, turn & bank indicator (vacuum source is engine pump,) altimeter, inclinometer, rate of climb, outside air temperature, electric fueld gauges, engine switch and key lock, cyclinder temp. gauge, switches, primer, cowl flap control, parking brake and mixture control.





USP # 2,678,784

Airplane

EC:  B64C21/02  IPC: B64C21/02; B64C21/00
1954-05-18




USP # 3,326,500

Aircraft Lift-Increasing Device

EC:  B64C23/00A  IPC: B64C23/00; B64C23/00

1967-06-20




GB 1,181,991
CA832316

Aircraft Lift-Increasing Device

EC:  B64C9/14B; B64C9/28; (+1)  IPC: B64C9/14; B64C9/28; B64C21/02 (+2)
1970-02-18

passage being converging from, and rising upwardly and rearwardly from an inlet on the lower aerofoil surface, the passage being defined by a fixed front wall and a rear wall 63 movable from a closed position, Fig. 1, in which both ends of the passage are closed, and a passage open position, Fig. 2, in which a lower portion 62 of the rear wall forms a scoop projecting below the lower surface of the aerofoil, there being a flap 74 pivoted on this lower portion which moves from a closed position flush with the aerofoil, Fig. 1, to an open position projecting below the scoop. Fig. 2. There may be a further flap 29 on the upper aerofoil surface, and a further converging passage 17 further forward on the aerofoil. The movable rear wall may comprise a flexible surface 63, 53 of which the upper part is pulled open by a link 66, 58, the lower part only being attached to ribs 64, 43 which pivot at 66, 56 to open the inlet of the passage. The scoop 62 and the flap 74, Fig. 4, both assist in increasing the airflow through the passage, where it is accelerated and then added to the boundary layer on the upper aerofoil surface. It is stated that an aircraft with wings of a cross-section as shown flew at 19 miles per hour without loss of height. Actuation,-The linkage may be controlled by torque tubes 19, 21 which in turn control either rods, as shown, or cables, and/or possibly hydraulic circuitry or electric servomotors. Actuation of torque tube 21 alone will move spoiler flap 29 only (by links 23 and 28), the compensatory mechanisms 24, 26 imparting no movements to arms 47, 69 until arms 46, 68 are moved by torque tube 19. Movement of torque tube 19 opens both the passages 17, 18, the throat of the front passage 17 being controlled by link 34, bellcrank 36 and link 58, and link 32, crank 33 and link 42 controlling the movement of rib 54 pivoting at 56, links 34, 37 transmitting control to similar linkages for the rear passage 18. As the front passage is opened crank 33 transmits via rod 44 a movement to arm 46 of the compensating mechanism 24. This transmits a portion of this movement to arm 47, the portion depending on the position of arm 31. Movement of arm 47 controls flap 57 by link 48, bellcrank 49 and link 51. The rear flap 74 is similarly controlled via compensating mechanism 26.






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