Lewis LARSEN, et al.

LENR ( Cold Fusion ),0,1831279.story?coll=chi-business-hed
( April 16, 2007 )

Nuclear Reactions May Produce Phones' Power


Jon Van

For several years a Chicago entrepreneur has labored quietly building a company to create an alternative to batteries for powering cell phones and other small gadgets.

The company, Lattice Energy LLC, deliberately kept a low profile because its core technology, first called cold fusion 18 years ago, has long been ridiculed by mainstream scientists. Lewis Larsen, Lattice's founder, didn't want his enterprise tainted by the empty promises of unlimited cheap energy surrounding cold fusion.

Larsen, who has had careers in investment banking and consulting, has worked with many scientists doing experiments with what now is called low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) rather than cold fusion. Even with the name change, he said, many scientists mistakenly still believe they are creating nuclear fusion in a bottle when they thrust palladium or other metals into heavy water and add energy.

"A lot of people are doing very good chemistry experiments, but they don't understand what's happening," Larsen said. "They write fine papers but then add foolish speculation."

A few years ago Larsen began collaborating with a theoretical physicist, professor Allan Widom of Northeastern University in Boston, to help him understand why LENR experiments often give off heat and charged particles.

Before taking on the assignment, Widom was a skeptic, but Larsen showed him enough experimental results from laboratories in Russia, China and Japan, as well as the U.S., to convince him that something important was happening.

The problem soon became apparent to Widom: The experimenters were convinced that atoms of a form of hydrogen called deuterium were fusing together to form helium.

"That kind of fusion requires very high temperatures," Widom said.

Rather than look for other explanations, most experimenters preferred to invent new laws of physics to account for cold fusion, Widom said. But instead of a strong nuclear force like fusion at work, he concluded that a weak force was at the core of the experimental results. Electrons were combining with protons to form neutrons, giving off energy in the process.

The entrepreneur and the professor have published their Widom-Larsen theory of low-energy nuclear reactions and have been meeting with business executives and government officials to build credibility for their ideas.

"Our model invokes no new physics," said Widom. "Everything we've done conforms to the Standard Model's predictions for weak interactions."

With advances in nanotechnology, Larsen predicts it will become practical to design devices using LENR to power cell phones that can last 500 hours. The technology also might be used to produce power in other settings, but Larsen said, "We're going for the best available market with lots of demand, and that's electronic mobile devices."

Larsen, who has competitors domestically and abroad also working on the problem, predicts that within five years there will be power sources based on LENR technology.




Abstract -- Described are electrode devices for electrical cells and other similar multilayer thin film devices, including a substrate and a multilayer working structure bonded to the substrate. In one embodiment, the multilayer working structure includes at least one metal layer and at least one metal oxide layer. In another embodiment, the multilayer working structure includes at least one layer comprising an alloy of tin. Also described are related apparatuses and methods employing these devices.

USP # 6921469 // WO03083965



Applicant: MILEY GEORGE H (US)
EC:  H01L35/00  IPC: C23C28/00; G21B3/00; H01L35/00 (+12)

Flake-resistant multilayer thin-film electrodes and electrolytic cells ...

EC:  C25D17/10; G21B3/00  IPC: C25D17/10; G21B3/00; C25D17/10






Adapted from :

Lattice Energy LLC
Contact: 1-312-861-0115

Are LENRs Occurring in Compact Fluorescent Lights


Lewis Larsen
President and CEO at Lattice Energy LLC

1. Low energy neutron reactions (LENRs) Neutron-catalyzed LENR transmutations can alter Mercury isotopes Mead et al. reported inexplicable Hg isotope shifts in compact fluorescent lights LENRs may be occurring at very low rates during everyday operation of CFLs Technical Comments Lewis Larsen President and CEO Lattice Energy LLC March 7, 2013 Stable 80Hg198 target Series of intermediate Hg isotope shifts Stable 82Pbisotopes +nulm Widom-Larsen LENR network Neutron-catalyzed transmutations Neutron-catalyzed transmutations?

2. Cite and discuss outstanding new experimental paper by Mead et al. (Environmental Science and Technology, Feb. 2013) in which they report measurements of anomalous shifts in Mercury isotopes found in household compact fluorescent lights (CFLs); according to the paper’s authors, a portion of these observed shifts are simply not explainable with well-known MDF or MIF mechanisms for prosaic chemical fractionation. Examine strong possibility that some indeterminate percentage of isotopic shift anomalies present in Mead et al.’s new data could potentially have been caused by low energy neutron reactions (LENRs) occurring at extremely low rates somewhere inside CF lights during normal operation; this would be an unexpected, surprising discovery. Discuss additional types of measurements that experimentalists could make on such CFLs (SIMS, solid-state NMR, etc.) to unambiguously determine: (1) whether LENRs are occurring therein; (2) if so, at exactly what locations inside the lights; (3) at what reaction rates; and (4) what percentage of observed shifts in Mercury isotopes might reasonably be attributed to LENR transmutations vs. prosaic chemical fractionation processes? LENRs don’t produce hard radiation or long-lived wastes Thus can be hidden in plain sight and occur in many surprising places Subtle isotopic traces of LENRs can readily be observed with mass spectroscopy Main points in this presentation

4. False-color image of surface plasmon excitation on substrate
For copy of informative Nature article by Exter re quantum entanglement of surface plasmons, see:

5. “Unique Hg stable isotope signatures of compact fluorescent lamp-sourced Hg”
C. Mead, J. Lyons, T. Johnson, and D. Anbar Environmental Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1021/es303940p
Reported inexplicable shifts of Mercury isotopes in consumer lamps
Quoting abstract directly: “The recent widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Stable isotope analysis can identify the sources of environmental Hg, but the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL is not yet known. Results from analyses of CFL with a range of hours of use show that the Hg they contain is isotopically fractionated in a unique pattern during normal CFL operation. This fractionation is large by comparison to other known fractionating processes for Hg and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg could be uniquely identified from other sources. The fractionation process described here may also explain anomalous fractionation of Hg isotopes in precipitation.” Direct quotes selected from body of paper: “Trapped Hg of used CFL show unusually large isotopic fractionation, the pattern of which is entirely different from that which has been observed in previous Hg isotope research aside from intentional isotope enrichment. Most notably, there is no straightforward relationship between extent of fractionation and isotope mass. Thus, while previous studies of MIF of Hg only observed large deviations from mass- dependence in odd mass isotopes, our results clearly show MIF across multiple even mass and odd mass isotopes.” Fig. shows large deviations from MDF and unused samples

6. A. Widom and L. Larsen  : “Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces”
European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields 46 pp. 107 - 112 (2006)

“Absorption of nuclear gamma radiation by heavy electrons on metallic hydride surfaces”

Widom and Larsen : “Nuclear abundances in metallic hydride electrodes of electrolytic chemical cells”

Widom and Larsen : “Theoretical Standard Model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces”

Widom and Larsen : “Energetic electrons and nuclear transmutations in exploding wires”

Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen : “Errors in the quantum electrodynamic mass analysis of Hagelstein and Chaudhary”

Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen : “High energy particles in the solar corona”

Widom, Srivastava, and Larsen : “A primer for electro-weak induced low energy nuclear reactions”
Pramana - Journal of Physics 75 pp. 617 - 637 (2010) Y. Srivastava, A. Widom, and L. Larsen

“Erroneous wave functions of Ciuchi et al. for collective modes in neutron production on metallic hydride cathodes”
(v1 Oct. 17, 2012)

7. “LENRs in catalytic converters: are green LENRs occurring in common devices?” L. Larsen, June 25, 2010 [76 PowerPoint slides]
Note: discuss mass spectroscopy data indicating LENRs could be occurring at very low rates therein
“Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and LENRs” L. Larsen, November 25, 2009 [61 PowerPoint slides]
Note: shows how LENRs can be triggered on aromatic Carbon rings with just temperature, pressure, time
“Neutron-catalyzed LENR transmutations produce Gold from Tungsten; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries presents new data at Winter ANS meeting” L. Larsen, December 7, 2012 [29 PowerPoint slides]
Note: Mitsubishi reported experimental data; confirms W-L LENR network pathway: W → Re → Os → Ir → Pt → Au
“Surface plasmons on Graphene are confirmed” L. Larsen, July 6, 2012 [64 PowerPoint slides]
Note: discuss confirmation of surface plasmons on Graphene; LENRs in electric arcs w. Carbon electrodes in H2O
“Index to key concepts and documents” L. Larsen, Version #19, updated through August 19, 2014 [119 PowerPoint slides]
Note: provides title, description, and URL for many online documents about Widom-Larsen theory, LENRs, and Lattice

9. “We have now not only traversed the region of the pure understanding and carefully surveyed every part of it, but we have also measured it, and assigned to everything therein its proper place. But this land is an island, and enclosed by Nature herself within unchangeable limits. It is the land of truth (an attractive word), surrounded by a wide and stormy ocean, the region of illusion, where many a fog-bank, many an iceberg, seems to the mariner, on his voyage of discovery, a new country, and, while constantly deluding him with vain hopes, engages him in dangerous adventures, from which he never can desist, and which yet he never can bring to a termination. But before venturing upon this sea, in order to explore it in its whole extent, and to arrive at a certainty whether anything is to be discovered there, it will not be without advantage if we cast our eyes upon the chart of the land that we are about to leave, and to ask ourselves, firstly, whether we cannot rest perfectly contented with what it contains, or whether we must not of necessity be contented with it, if we can find nowhere else a solid foundation to build upon; and, secondly, by what title we possess this land itself, and how we hold it secure against all hostile claims?” Immanuel Kant, “The Critique of Pure Reason” (1781) Kant comments on search for truth in the advancement of science Modern nuclear alchemy al la Widom-Larsen.

10.Modern nuclear alchemy al la Widom-Larsen. Nuclear and chemical energy realms can interconnect in small regions  1. Since the inception of modern nuclear science in ~1940s, it has been widely believed that the only nuclear processes suitable for commercial power generation were strong interaction fission or fusion; it was also thought that nuclear transmutation reactions could only happen in certain environments, e.g., fission reactors, nuclear weapons, or stars. Pons & Fleischmann’s 1989 discovery of seemingly nuclear processes operating inside what would otherwise be ordinary D2O electrolytic chemical cells challenged long- established conceptual paradigms about nuclear physics. Initially, P&F rashly speculated that their observed radiation-free “excess heat” resulted from some sort of a D+D “cold fusion” process. That totally erroneous theoretical idea, coupled with then-irreproducible experimental results, resulted in deep skepticism about LENRs by mainstream scientists that has persisted to the present. Starting with release of our first arXiv preprint in 2005, the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs has shown, using known physics, how energetic nuclear reactions can occur in ordinary chemical cells. Per W-L, key aspects of LENRs involve weak interactions that can occur in a variety of different environments under relatively mild physical conditions. Our theory posits that in condensed matter systems, many-body collective quantum effects allow otherwise disparate chemical and nuclear energy realms to briefly interconnect in special nm- to micron-scale regions on surfaces. 1. Rudyard Kipling, “The Battle of East and West” (1889)

11. “The neutron plays a pivotal role in manmade transmutations. In the words of Bronowski, ‘At twilight on the sixth day of Creation, so say the Hebrew commentators to the Old Testament, God made for man a number of tools that gave him also the gift of creation. If the commentators were alive today, they would write, ‘God made the neutron.’ Is it far-fetched to consider the neutron to be the Stone of the Philosophers (and atom smashers to be athanors – the furnaces of the Philosophic Egg)? Frankly, yes. But, in 1941, fast neutrons were used to transmute mercury into a tiny quantity of gold1.. Was the age old dream realized? Would a modern day version of the Roman Emperor Diocletian have to burn all the notebooks and journal articles and destroy the atom smashers in order to protect the world’s currency? Well, probably not. It is likely that an ounce of such gold would cost more than the net worth of the planet. Also, the gold so obtained is radioactive and lives for only a few days at most. But, we are not always logical when it comes to gold. In the words of Black Elk, a holy man of the Oglala Lakota-Sioux on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, ‘Our people knew there was yellow metal in little chunks up there, but they did not bother with it, because it was not good for anything’.” 1. Sherr et al., The Physical Review 60 pp. 473 - 479 (1941) Arthur Greenberg, “From Alchemy to Chemistry in Picture and Story” pp. 571 2007 Modern nuclear alchemy al la Widom-Larsen Uncharged neutrons play a crucial role in modern transmutation 1941: US nuclear physicists realized an age-old dream of the ancient alchemists

12.  Ultra low energy neutrons play key role in LENR transmutations Widom-Larsen breakthrough theory based on well-accepted nuclear science “Alchemy, derived from the Arabic word ‘al-kimia’ is both a philosophy and an ancient practice focused on the attempt to change base metals into gold, investigating the preparation of the ‘elixir of longevity’, and achieving ultimate wisdom, involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of several substances described as possessing unusual properties. The practical aspect of alchemy generated the basics of modern inorganic chemistry, namely concerning procedures, equipment and the identification and use of many current substances. Alchemy has been practiced in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), India (modern Indian subcontinent), Persia (modern Iran), China, Japan, Korea, the classical Greco-Roman world, the medieval Islamic world, and then medieval Europe up to the 20th century, in a complex network of schools and philosophical systems spanning at least 2,500 years.” Source for above quote: Wikipedia article as of July 7, 2010 According to the WLT, LENRs and chemistry intersect on nm - μ length-scales in condensed matter systems under comparatively ‘mild’ conditions compared to interiors of stars, nuclear weapons, and fuel rods of operating fission reactors. Production of gold from lower-Z elements such as Tungsten (W) is not just some alchemist’s fevered delusion. It is an understandable result of ULM neutron-captures on W and subsequent beta decays, both of which are presently well-accepted in mainstream nuclear science “Popular Science” magazine, March 1948 US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) produced Gold

17. Overview: Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs LENR-active surface sites in condensed matter are not permanent entities or static structures; in fact, they are extraordinarily dynamic, short lived, many-body collective organizations of matter. In experimental or certain natural systems with sufficient input energy, when conditions are just right they will form spontaneously, operate for as little as 10 ns up to perhaps several hundred nanoseconds, and then suddenly ‘die’ (they effectively destroy themselves with heat). Over time or the course of a given experiment, many cycles of ‘birth’, nuclear binding energy release, and ‘death’ may be repeated over and over again at many different, randomly scattered nm-to μm-sized locations found on an LENR-active surface or interface; neutron-dose histories can vary greatly over small length-scales across an entire LENR-active surface. Such spatial elemental/isotopic heterogeneity has often been observed by LENR researchers with SIMS. While ULM neutron production and local capture, gamma conversion to IR by heavy electrons, and subsequent nuclear decays are occurring, these tiny patches temporarily become hot spots. Their temperatures may briefly reach 4,000 - 6,000o K or perhaps even higher. That value is roughly as high as the surface temperature of the Sun and hot enough to melt and/or even flash-boil essentially all metals and alloys, including Tungsten (b.p. 5,666o C). For a brief time, a tiny dense ball of very hot, nanodusty plasma is created. Such intense local heating events can produce various types of distinctive explosive melting features and/or comparatively deep craters that are often observed in post-experiment SEM images of LENR device surfaces; for example, please see Zhang & Dash’s SEM-EDX image of such surface features on Slide #69 in

18. Unlike fission and fusion reactions, naturally occurring LENR transmutation processes in condensed matter are biologically benign because they make extensive use of and are enabled by many-body collective effects, quantum phenomena, and the weak interaction. As a result, they typically do not emit dangerous high-energy gamma photon or neutron radiation, nor do they produce large amounts of long-lived radioactive isotopes. LENRs are clean, green, ubiquitous, and effectively hidden in plain sight; best way to detect subtle effects of these processes is to analyze samples with very sensitive mass spectroscopy. In a 2012 Lattice PowerPoint presentation
On Slide #68 we stated that, “Recently, greatly increased use of various types of mass spectroscopy by geochemists, microbiologists, and environmental scientists has revealed that the longstanding assumption of effective natural uniformity of U238/U235 ratios across the earth is clearly erroneous; importantly, present-era abiological and/or biologically mediated processes appear to be responsible for such anomalous variances.” We concluded that key remaining questions were whether, “ ... anomalous variances in such isotopic ratios the result of purely chemical ‘fractionation’ process or processes of some sort, and/or could they [alternatively] be caused by low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), either abiologically or somehow induced by the actions of bacteria through some yet to be clarified mechanism?” A large array of additional measurements is obviously needed. Absence of strong radiation signatures renders LENRs unnoticeable

19. Metallic substrates: substantial quantities of Hydrogen isotopes must be brought into intimate contact with fully-loaded metallic hydride-forming metals; e.g., Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, Nickel, Titanium , Tungsten, etc.; please note that collectively oscillating, very roughly 2-D surface plasmon (SP) electrons are intrinsically present and cover exposed surfaces of such metals. At full loading occupation of ionized Hydrogen at interstitial sites in bulk metallic lattices, many- body, collectively oscillating patches of protons (p+), deuterons (d+), or tritons (t+) will then form spontaneously at random locations scattered across metal hydrides’ surface interfaces; And/or certain types of Carbon substrates: delocalized, many-body collectively oscillating π electron clouds that comprise outer covering surfaces of fullerenes, graphene, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules behave very similarly to SPs; when such Carbon-based molecules are hydrogenated (i.e., chemically protonated), they can create many-body, collectively oscillating, Q-M entangled quantum systems that, in context of the Widom-Larsen theory of LENRs, are functionally equivalent to and behave dynamically like loaded metallic hydrides; Breakdown of Born-Oppenheimer approximation: in both cases above, occurs in tiny surface patches of contiguous collections of collectively oscillating p+, d+, and/or t+ ions; enables E-M coupling between nearby SP or alternatively delocalized π electrons and nearby hydrogenous ions; patches create their own local nuclear-strength electric fields; effective masses of coupled patch electrons are then increased to a significant multiple of an electron at rest (e- → e-*) that is determined by required simultaneous energy input(s); and Disequilibrium input energy: triggering LENRs requires external non-equilibrium fluxes of charged particles or electromagnetic (E-M) photons that transfer input energy directly to many-body SP or π electron plasmonic surface films. Examples of such external energy sources include (they may be used in combination): electric currents (electron beams); E-M photons (e.g., emitted from lasers, IR radiation from resonant E-M cavity walls, etc.); pressure gradients of p+, d+, and/or t+ ions imposed across surfaces; currents of other ions crossing the SP electron surface film in either direction (ion beams); etc. Such sources provide additional input energy required to surpass certain minimum H-isotope-specific electron- mass thresholds that allow production of ULM neutron fluxes via e-* + p+, e-* + d+, or e-* + t+ electroweak nuclear reactions. Following required to create right conditions for LENR-active surfaces

20. LENR hot spots create intense local heating and variety of readily noticeable surface features such as craters: over time, LENR-active surfaces inevitably experience major micron-scale changes in local nanostructures and elemental/isotopic compositions. On LENR-active substrate surfaces, there are a myriad of different complex, nanometer-to micron-scale electromagnetic, chemical, and nuclear processes that operate in conjunction with and simultaneously with each other. LENRs involve interactions between surface plasmon electrons, E-M fields, and many different types of nanostructures with varied geometries, surface locations relative to each other, different- strength local E-M fields, and varied chemical/isotopic compositions; chemical and nuclear realms interoperate, To varying degrees, many of these complex, time-varying surface interactions are electromagnetically coupled on many different physical length-scales: thus, mutual E-M resonances can be very important in such systems. In addition to optical frequencies, SP and π electrons in condensed matter often also have some absorption and emission bands in infrared (IR) and UV portions of E-M spectrum. Well, walls of gas-phase metallic or glass LENR reaction vessels can emit various wavelengths of E-M photon energy into the interior space; glass tubes with inside surfaces coated with complex phosphors can function as resonant E-M cavities. Target nanostructures, nanoparticles, and/or molecules located inside such cavities can absorb IR, UV, or visible photons radiated from vessel walls if their absorption bands happen (or are engineered) to fall into same spectral range as E-M cavity wall radiation emission; complex two-way E-M interactions between targets and walls occurs (imagine interior of a reaction vessel as arrays of E-M nanoantennas with walls and targets having two-way send/receive channels), Wide variety of complex, interrelated E-M, nuclear, and chemical processes may be occurring simultaneously, side-by-side in adjacent nm to μ-scale local regions on LENR-active surfaces: for example, some regions on a given surface may be absorbing E-M energy locally, while others nearby can be emitting energy (e.g., as energetic electrons, photons, other charged particles, etc.). At the very same time, energy can be transferred laterally from regions of resonant absorption or capture to other regions in which emission or consumption is taking place, e.g., photon or electron emission, and/or LENRs in which [E-M field energy] + e- → e-* + p+ → nulm + ν LENR-active surfaces host many dynamically interacting processes

21.  Using conceptual insights provided by the WLT, experimental conditions in condensed matter systems and dusty plasmas can be technologically tweaked to increase rates of weak reaction neutron production vastly above whatever levels might ever be attainable in analogous systems found at random out in Nature or the myriad of LENR laboratory experiments that have been conducted to date, It is known within the field of LENRs that, under exactly the right conditions and in a number of different types of experimental systems (e.g., rare well-performing current-driven aqueous H2O/D2O electrolytic chemical cells), rates of transmutation product production (which according to WLT are very closely related to parallel rates of many-body, collective electroweak reaction ULM neutron production) can be quite substantial. Measured indirectly via qualitative and quantitative assays of LENR transmutation products, estimates of experimentally observed, effectively neutron production rates reported by LENR researchers range from ~109 - 1010 cm2/sec up to ~1012 - 1016 cm2/sec in a small subset of very well-performing experimental systems. In 2007, Widom & Larsen published first-principles calculations which show that substantial ULM neutron production rates via such electroweak reactions are theoretically possible in condensed matter systems under such mild conditions; calculated results for such rates in a model electrolytic chemical cell (on the order of 1012 to 1014 neutrons cm2/second) are thus in good agreement with the best available published experimental data; again please see arXiv preprint at:
Technologically, many-body collective electroweak neutron production rates can be directly manipulated by: (1) controlling total numbers and density of e-p+ pairs on a given surface (which is ~equivalent to controlling the area-density and dimensions of many- body, collectively oscillating surface patches of protons or deuterons); and (2) controlling the rate and total quantity of appropriate form(s) of nonequilibrium energy input into LENR-active patches; appropriate forms of input energy can go directly into high electric fields that bathe SP electrons in a patch --- it determines the number and effective masses of e* electrons present in a given patch whose increased masses are at values somewhere above the minimum mass-renormalization threshold ratio, β0 that is required for initiating e* + p+ or e* + d+ electroweak neutron production reactions. The term (β - β0)2 in our published LENR rate equation reflects the degree to which mass renormalized e* electrons in a given patch exceed the minimum threshold ratio for electroweak neutron production β0. Rigorous details of supporting calculations are explained in:
LENR reaction rates can be increased by controlling key parameters All other things being equal, the higher the density of e-p+ reactants and the greater the rate and quantity of appropriate forms of nonequilibrium energy inputs, the higher the rate of ULM neutron production in nm- to μ-scale LENR-active patches in an appropriately pre-configured condensed matter system

23. “The delusion of transmutation” “As we peer down the vista of the past we find the delusion of transmutation holding the most prominent place in the minds of thinking men. Frenzied alchemy held the world in its grip for seventeen centuries and more of recorded history. This pseudoscience with its alluring goal and fascinating mysticism dominated the thoughts and actions of thousands. In the records of intellectual aberrations it holds a unique position. Even Roger Bacon of Oxford, easily the most learned man of his age, the monk who seven hundred years ago foresaw such modern scientific inventions as the steamship and the flying machine, believed in the possibility of solving this all- consuming problem … Sir Isaac Newton, one of the clearest scientific thinkers of all time, bought and consulted books on alchemy as late as the eighteenth century … The power and the influence of many of the alchemists can hardly be exaggerated … While among the alchemists there were some genuine enthusiasts like Bernard Trevisan, the annals of this queer practice are filled with accounts of charlatans and spurious adepts who, with a deluge of glib words but with only a drop of truth, turned alchemy into one of the greatest popular frauds in history.” Bernard Jaffe, “Crucibles: the story of chemistry” 4th Revised ed., pp. 7-8 Dover 1976 Historical perspective: over 100 years of data Alchemy was not always thought to be a questionable area of inquiry

24. "The Alchemist's Workshop" by Jan van der Straet (1570) "The Alchymist in Search of the Philosophers' Stone Discovers Phosphorous”by Joseph Wright of Derby (1771) Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1901: Discovery of modern nuclear alchemy by Soddy & Rutherford “For Mike’s sake Soddy, don’t call it transmutation. They’ll have our heads off as alchemists.” Comment made by Ernest Rutherford to Frederic Soddy in 1901; Rutherford subsequently received Nobel prize in chemistry in 1908 “In 1901, twenty-four year-old chemist Frederick Soddy and Ernest Rutherford were attempting to identify a mysterious gas that wafted from samples of radioactive thorium oxide. They suspected that this gas - they called it an ‘emanation’ - held a key to the recently discovered phenomenon of radioactivity. Soddy had passed the puzzling gas over a series of powerful chemical reagents, heated white-hot. When no reactions took place, he came to a startling realization. As he told his biographer many years later, ´I remember quite well standing there transfixed as though stunned by the colossal import of the thing and blurting out-or so it seemed at the time, ‘Rutherford, this is transmutation: the thorium is disintegrating and transmuting itself into argon gas.’ Rutherford‘s reply was typically aware of more practical implications.” J. Magill, “Decay Engine” at

25. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1920: Rutherford predicts neutron and its creation via electric discharges “On present views, the neutral hydrogen atom is regarded as a nucleus of unit charge with an electron attached at a distance, and the spectrum of hydrogen is ascribed to the movements of this distant electron. Under some conditions however, it may be possible for an electron to combine much more closely with the H nucleus, forming a kind of neutral doublet [neutron]. Such an atom would have very novel properties. Its external field would be practically zero, except very close to the nucleus, and in consequence it should be able to move freely through matter. Its presence would be difficult to detect by the spectroscope, and it may be impossible to contain in in a sealed vessel. On the other hand, it should enter readily the structure of atoms, and may either unite with the nucleus [now called neutron capture] or be disintegrated by its intense field, resulting in possibly the escape of a charged H atom [now called proton emission] or an electron [now called beta particle emission] or both.” 2nd Bakerian lecture was given in London on June 20, 1920 “Nuclear constitution of atoms” Ernest Rutherford Proc. Roy. Soc. pp. 577 - 585 (1920) Quoting further (his next statement is utterly astounding): “If the existence of such atoms [he is referring to neutrons here] be possible, it is to be expected that they may be produced, but probably in only very small numbers, in the electric discharge through hydrogen, where both electrons and H nuclei are present in considerable numbers. It is the intention of this writer to make experiments to test whether any indication of the production of such atoms [read ‘neutrons’] can be obtained under these conditions.” Comment: Rutherford is saying that neutrons could be produced by intense electric discharges in Hydrogen.

26. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1922: Wendt & Irion see Helium spectroscopically in exploding W wire “Experimental attempts to decompose Tungsten at high temperatures” “This has become possible through the work of Anderson whose method of exploding wires at temperatures above 20,000o, well above that attributed to the hottest stars, has become valuable in spectroscopy. In our application of this method the [Tungsten] wires were exploded within strong glass bulbs so that the gaseous products of the explosions could be collected for analysis. The method thus includes factors, both of cause and of error, analogous to those operative in the voluminous and inconclusive controversy on the evolution of helium in various types of low pressure discharge tubes, extending from 1903 to 1915.” American Chemical Society 44 pp. 1887 - 1894 (1922) Quoting further: “The bulb was then connected to the leads from the condenser through the spark gap and the wire was exploded by closing the primary circuit of the transformer. There was a delay of a fraction of a second before the condenser was fully charged to the voltage used, about 30,000, but thereafter the wire disappeared in a brilliant flash … [conclusion] When fine Tungsten wires are exploded in a vacuum at such temperatures, the spectrum of Helium appears in the gases produced.” Comment: Wendt & Irion’s results were discredited by an attack that Rutherford published in Nature. This stopped their work and effectively ended their careers. In 2006, we reanalyzed their data in light of the Widom-Larsen theory and discovered that their experimental results were most likely correct and Rutherford’s criticisms were wrong. Please see our 2007 arXiv preprint on exploding wires for details.

27. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1923: after winning Nobel prize, Millikan excited about transmutations “As early as 1912, Dr. Winchester and I thought we had good evidence that we were knocking hydrogen out of aluminum and other metals by very powerful electric discharges in vacuo … How much farther can we go in this artificial transmutation of elements? This is one of the supremely interesting problems of modern physics upon which we are all assiduously working.” Comment made on pp. 584 by Robert Millikan, then at Caltech, as written in his Scribner’s magazine article “Gulliver’s travels in science” Robert Millikan Scribner’s pp. 577 - 585 (Nov. 1923)
Quoting further: “… Has nature a way of making these transmutations in her laboratories? She is doing it under our eyes in the radioactive process … Does the process go on in both directions, heavier atoms being continually formed, as well as continually disintegrating into lighter ones? Not on earth, so far as we can see. Perhaps in God’s laboratories, the stars. Some say we shall be finding out.”

28. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1924: Soddy, now famous, discusses new transmutation experiments “Indeed, for some time before Prof. Miethe’s announcement it has been clear to me that, by passing a sufficiently high tension discharge though mercury vapor, not merely that such a transmutation might occur, but that it was inevitable, unless our present views on atomic structure are radically at fault.” Comment made by Soddy in Nature article; had already received Nobel prize in chemistry in 1921 “The reported Transmutation of Mercury into Gold” Frederic Soddy Nature 114 pp. 244 - 245 (1924)

29. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1924: Gaschler claims transmutation of Gold into Mercury with protons “Der zerfall des quecksilberatoms” [Translated from German: The decay of the Mercury atom] Alois Gaschler Summary: Gold was sealed into vacuum tube and bombarded with protons; after 30 hours, Mercury line appeared in spectrum and became progressively stronger over time. Oil pump used to produce vacuum - hydrocarbons were likely present on the Gold Angewandte Chemie 37 pp. 666 - 667 (1924) now online at:
“Gold changed to Mercury by German physicist” Journal of Chemical Education 3 pp. 679 (1926) DOI: 10.1021/ed003p679
Also see: Comment: Gaschler was also issued U.S. patent on transmutation- related novel subject matter art as follows: US Patent # 1,644,370 “Method of Artificially Producing Radioactive Substances” Oct. 4, 1927 [filed September 4, 1924]
Claim #5: “A process for increasing radioactivity of materials which comprises vaporizing said materials by heating said materials to a high temperature by means of a current of low voltage and high intensity and submitting said vapors to contact with relatively large electrodes and passing a high tension low intensity current between said electrodes.”

30. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1925: Nagaoka sees Gold from Tungsten electrodes w. electric arcs in oil World famous Japanese physicist “Preliminary note on the transmutation of Mercury into Gold” Hantaro Nagaoka Nature 116 pp. 95 - 96 (1925) “The [high-current electric arc] experimental procedure here sketched cannot be looked upon as the only one for effecting transmutation [of other elements into Gold]; probably different processes will be developed and finally lead to industrial enterprises … Experiments with various elements may lead to different transmutations, which will be of significance to science and industry. Meagre as is the result, I wish to invite the attention of those interested in the subject so that they may repeat the experiment with more powerful means than are available in the Far East.” Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka in “Letters to the Editor” Nature July 18, 1925

31 Unlike, the comparatively unknown Wendt & Irion team at the U. of Chicago, Nagaoka was a world-renowned physicist and one of the most preeminent scientists in Japan when he began his high-current discharge transmutation experiments in September 1924/ For an appreciation of Hantaro’s high scientific stature, please see Wikipedia article:
Nagaoka was contemporary competitor of Ernest Rutherford; Hantaro’s “Saturn model” of the atom was only competing model cited by Rutherford in his seminal 1911 paper on atomic nuclei. Given the very international character of science even at that time, it is very likely that Nagaoka was aware of worldwide controversy swirling around Wendt & Irion’s exploding wire experiments and of Rutherford's short but devastating critical attack on them in Nature. It is also quite likely that Hantaro was aware of Robert Millikan’s well-publicized views on subject of triggering transmutations with electric arcs (note: Millikan had just won a Nobel prize in physics). Lastly, he must have known about Miethe & Stammreich’s work in Germany; they claimed to have changed Mercury into Gold in a high-voltage Mercury vapor lamp, “The reported transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” Nature 114 pp. 197 - 198 (1924) Please see: “Preliminary note on the transmutation of Mercury into Gold,” H. Nagaoka, Nature 116 pp. 95 -96 (18 July 1925) Available for purchase on Nature archives at:
Abstract: "The experiment on the transmutation of mercury was begun in September 1924, with the assistance of Messrs. Y. Sugiura, T. Asada and T. Machida. The main object was to ascertain if the view which we expressed in NATURE of March 29, 1924, can be realised by applying an intense electric field to mercury atoms. Another object was to find if the radio- active changes can be accelerated by artificial means. From the outset it was clear that a field of many million volts/cm. is necessary for the purpose. From our observation on the Stark effect in arcs of different metals (Jap. Journ. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 45 “73) we found that with silver globules the field in a narrow space very near the metal was nearly 2 Ã -105 volts/cm. with terminal voltage of about 140. The presence of such an intense field indicated the possibility of obtaining the desired strength of the field for transmutation, if sufficient terminal voltage be applied. Though the above ratio of magnification would be diminished with high voltage, the experiment was thought worth trying, even if we could not effect the transmutation with the apparatus at hand." Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1925: Nagaoka sees Gold from Tungsten electrodes w. electric arcs in oil

32. Essence of Prof. Nagaoka’s experiments: In the simplest terms: Prof. Nagaoka created a powerful electric arc discharge between a spark gap comprising two metallic, Thorium-oxide-free Tungsten (W) electrodes (supplied by Tokyo Electric Company) bathed in a dielectric liquid “paraffin” (today referred to as transformer oil; general formula CnH2n+2) that was interlaced with liquid native Mercury (Hg). Depending on experiment, arcing between Tungsten electrodes in oil was continued for 4 - 15 hours until, quoting, “ … the oil and mercury were mixed into a black pasty mass.” Please note that Mercury readily forms amalgams with many different metals, including Gold (Au) and Tungsten (W). Small flecks of Gold were sometimes quite visible to the naked eye in “black masses” produced at the end of a given experiment. They also noted that, “The Gold obtained from Mercury seems to be mostly adsorbed to Carbon.”. Microscopic assays were conducted by, “heating small pieces of glass with the Carbon,” to form a so-called “Ruby glass” that can be used to infer the presence of gold colloids from visual cues very apparent under a microscope. Critics complained about the possibility that the Gold observed was some sort of “contamination.” Responding to critics, Nagaoka et al. further purified literally everything they could think of and also made certain that the lab environs were squeaky clean; they still kept seeing anomalous Gold. Also, in some experiments they also observed, “a minute quantity of white metal.” Two years later in 1926, Nagaoka reported to Scientific American that they had finally been able to identify the “white metal” --- it was Platinum (Pt) Fig. 1 – Apparatus for the electric discharge H. Nagaoka, Nature July 18, 1925 Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1925: Nagaoka sees Gold from Tungsten electrodes w. electric arcs in oil

33. All of the ingredients for LENRs to occur were in fact present: hydride-forming metal found therein was Tungsten (sadly, Nagaoka was unaware that Mercury was more-or-less a red herring); which was in contact with abundant Hydrogen (protons) in transformer oil (CnH2n+2); the Born-Oppenheimer approximation broke-down on surfaces of electrodes; and finally, there were large non-equilibrium fluxes of charged particles --- electrons in the high-current arc discharges. Unbeknownst to Nagaoka, his high-current arcs probably also produced small amounts of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and perhaps even a little graphene. ULM neutron production rates via W-L weak interaction could have been quite substantial in his high-electric-current-driven experimental system because of very large inputs of electrical energy. What could have happened in Nagaoka’s experiments was that Tungsten-seed, ULM neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic networks spontaneously formed. What follows is but one example of an energetically favorable network pathway that could produce detectable amounts of the only stable Gold isotope, 197Au, within ~4 hours (shortest arc discharge period after which Au was observed). Other alternative viable LENR pathways can produce unstable Gold isotopes, e.g., 198Au with half-life = 2.7 days and 199Au with HL = 3.1 days (both would be around for a time at end of a successful experiment). One possible 74W180-target LENR network pathway that could produce Pt and Au in as little time as 4-5 hrs follows: 74W-186 Stable 28.4% 76Os-192 Stable 41% 79Au-197 Stable 100% 74W-187 HL = 23.7 hrs 76Os-193 HL = 1.3 days 74W-188 HL = 69.8 days 76Os-194 HL = 6.0 yrs 74W-189 HL = 11.6 min 76Os-195 HL = 6.5 min 74W-190 HL = 30 min 77Ir-195 HL = 2.5 hrs 74W-191 HL = 20 sec 77Ir-196 HL = 52 sec 74W-192 HL = 10 sec 78Pt-196 Stable 25.3% 75Re-192 HL = 16 sec 78Pt-197 HL = 19.9 hrs 5.6 7.1 5.3 2.0 5.8 β- 4.2 4.2 0.7 0.7 5.5 6.8 4.9 6.9 4.9 6.6 2.1 3.2 5.9 End at Gold Note: stable elements (incl. % natural abundance) and half-lives of unstable isotopes are shown; green arrows connecting boxes denote capture of an LENR neutron; blue connecting arrows denote beta decays; energetic Q- values for neutron captures or beta decays are also provided; note that ALL Q-values are substantially positive, thus this particular nucleosynthetic pathway is very energetically favorable for producing Platinum and Gold 3.2 2.0 β- Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1925: Nagaoka sees Gold from Tungsten electrodes w. electric arcs in oil Begin Which LENR network could have produced Gold or Platinum from a Tungsten target?

34. Re other possibly anomalous sources of Gold: “Occurrence of Platinum, Palladium, and Gold in pine needles of Pinus pinea from the city of Palermo (Italy)” G. Dongarra, D. Varrica, and G. Sabatino Applied Geochemistry 18 pp. 109-116 (2003) Quoting: “Preliminary data on the presence of Pt, Pd and Au in airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Palermo (Sicily, Italy) are presented. They were obtained by analysing 40 samples of pine needles (Pinus pinea L.) collected in and around the city. Observed concentrations range from 1 to 102 μg/kg for Pt, 1 to 45 μg/kg for Pd and 22 to 776 μg/kg for Au. Platinum and Pd concentrations in pine needles are up to two orders of magnitude higher than their crustal abundances. They exhibit a high statistical correlation (R2=0.74) which suggests a common origin.” “Precious metal concentrations measured within the city centre are much higher than those occurring outside the town. The distribution patterns of Pt and Pd in the study area are compared to the distributions of Au and Pb. Gold is enriched at the same sites where Pt and Pd are enriched, while Pb shows some discrepancies. The most probable local source of all of these elements is traffic. Average Pt and Pd emissions in the city area are estimated to be about 136 and 273 g/a, respectively.” Discussed in Lattice presentation at URL: energy-llc-len-rs-in-catalytic-convertersjune-25-2010
Nagaoka’s reported results were probably correct; Gold (Au) and Platinum (Pt) could have been produced by LENRs per W-L theory: Plausible LENR nucleosynthetic pathway shown in a previous Slide suggests that Nagaoka et al.’s claimed observations of macroscopically visible particles of Gold in their ca. 1920s electric arc experiments in transformer oil could very well have been correct observations. Note that stable Gold can also be produced via neutron capture on stable 80Hg196 which creates unstable 80Hg197 that has a half-life of 2.7 days and decays via electron capture into stable 79Au197. However, the natural abundance (0.15%) of 80Hg19 initially present in Nagaoka's mid-1920s experiments was so low that this alternative LENR pathway cannot plausibly account for observed production of macroscopic flecks of metallic of Au and Pt that are readily visible to the naked human eye. Please take note of the quotation from Prof. Nagaoka reproduced on earlier Slide. In saying what he said, Hantaro clearly believed that some sort of commercial transmutation technology would eventually be developed at some point in the future. Thus, in our opinion not only was he a humble, brilliant scientist; he was also a rather bold visionary thinker --- truly a man far ahead of his own time. In the present era it is very possible that minute quantities of Gold are actually being produced in automobile catalytic converters via the transmutation of some Platinum present in the converters: at right, please see citation to a 2003 paper in Applied Geochemistry and URL to yet another Lattice SlideShare presentation dated June 25, 2010 Historical perspective: over 100 years of data Final remarks re Nagaoka; today Au is produced in catalytic converters

35. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1927: Millikan’s Caltech PhD student observed Pb → Hg and Bi → Tl Comment: in Widom-Larsen condensed matter LENR nucleosynthetic network shown earlier, unstable isotopes of Lead and Bismuth will spontaneously transmute into unstable isotopes of Mercury and Thallium, respectively, which could be detected spectroscopically. This was observed and reported by Lars Thomassen in experimental work conducted for his PhD at Caltech under Millikan. Note that Thomassen cites Nagaoka (who was a famous physicist) but does not cite Wendt & Irion; credibility of their exploding wire work in 1922 had already been destroyed by Rutherford with his attack published in Nature. “Transmutation of elements” L. Thomassen Physical Review 33 pp. 229 - 238 (1929)
Comment re thesis: Please note Thomassen’s frequent complaints about experimentalists having great difficulty in repeating their results in transmutation experiments; does that sort of complaint sound familiar a la Pons & Fleischmann? See Lattice SlideShare document discussing this work: llcaddendum-to-may-19-2012-technical-overview1927- caltech-experimentsmay-26-2012
Version of his thesis published in peer-reviewed journal as: Unstable 82Pb210 Half-life = ~22.2 years Alpha decay Unstable 80Hg206 Half-life = ~8.2 minutes Lead Mercury Unstable 83Bi210 Half-life = ~5 days Unstable 81Tl206 Half-life = ~4.2 minutes Alpha decay Bismuth Thallium LENR transmutation of Lead into other elements was observed in experiments PhD thesis, Caltech August 1927 [22 pages]:

36. 1932: Chadwick confirms existence of Rutherford’s predicted neutron “It is evident that we must either relinquish the application of the conservation of energy and momentum in these collisions or adopt another hypothesis about the nature of the radiation. If we suppose that the radiation is not a quantum radiation, but consists of particles of mass very nearly equal to that of the proton, all the difficulties connected with the collisions disappear, both with regard to their frequency and to the energy transfer to different masses. In order to explain the great penetrating power of the radiation we must further assume that the particle has no net charge. We may suppose it to consist of a proton and an electron in close combination, the ‘neutron’ as discussed by Rutherford in his Bakerian Lecture of 1920.” Above quoted from paper cited below; received Nobel Prize in physics for this work in 1936 “The existence of a neutron” J. Chadwick Proc. Roy. Soc. A 136 pp. 692 - 708 (1932)
Quoting further: “The properties of penetrating radiation emitted from Beryllium (and Boron) when bombarded by the α-particles of Polonium have been examined. It is concluded that the radiation consists, not of quanta as hitherto supposed, but of neutrons, particles of mass 1, and charge 0. Evidence is given to show that the mass of the neutron is probably between 1.005 and 1.008 … Although there is certain evidence for the emission of neutrons only in two cases of nuclear transformations, we must nevertheless suppose that the neutron is a common constituent of atomic nuclei … It is … possible to suppose that the neutron is an elementary particle. This view has little to recommend it at present …” Neutral nuclear particle had been boldly conjectured by Rutherford back in 1920

37. 1933: at his pinnacle, Rutherford dismisses commercial transmutation “Anyone who expects a source of power from the transformation of the atom is talking moonshine.” Variations of this comment made many times by Rutherford during 1930s; died suddenly in 1937 at age 66 Epilogue: fission discovered (1939); first use of atomic weapons (1945); first commercial reactor (1955) “We might in these processes obtain very much more energy than the proton supplied, but on the average we could not expect to obtain energy in this way. It was a very poor and inefficient way of producing energy, and anyone who looked for a source of power in the transformation of the atoms was talking moonshine. But the subject was scientifically interesting because it gave insight into the atoms.” The London Times, Sept. 12, 1933, quoted from talk given by Rutherford at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

38. Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1934: Fermi published beta decay theory in which neutrinos are invoked “Versuch einer theorie der β-strahlen. I“ Googlish translation of German abstract: “A quantitative theory of β-decay is proposed, in which one assumes the existence of the neutrino, and treated the emission of electrons and neutrinos from a core in β-decay with a similar method as in the emission of a photon from an excited atom of radiation theory. Formulas for the service life and for the shape of the emitted β-continuous radiation spectrum can be derived and compared with observations.” Epilogue: Salam, Glashow, and Weinberg published electroweak theory (1960s); eventually confirmed experimentally (1980s) “Versuch einer Theorie der β-Strahlen. I“ Enrico Fermi Zeitschrift für Physik 88 pp. 161-177 (1934) In 1938, he received Nobel prize in physics for work on induced radioactivity & discovery of transuranic elements Comment: in Fermi’s theory, the neutron conceptually became an elementary particle (instead of an electron tightly-bound to a proton located inside a nucleus proper). The idea of an inverse beta decay electron capture e + p  n + ν process occurring outside of a nucleus in Nature was first discussed by Fred Hoyle (MNRAS 106 pp. 343 - 383, 1946) in connection with theoretical work on collapsing stars. Fast forward to 1990s: several LENR researchers (e.g., Mizuno) speculated that e + p neutron production could be occurring in electrolytic chemical cells. In a 2005 arXiv preprint, Widom & Larsen published LENR theory that integrated many-body collective effects with modern electroweak theory under umbrella of the Standard Model

39. 1935 to 1980s: most experimental work on LENR transmutations stops ? What happened during this time? Why did electric arc transmutation research just stop? Was it problems with reproducibility? Comment: it is very puzzling why this seemingly fruitful line of inquiry involving electric-arc- driven transmutations seems to have more-or-less died-out worldwide by the time Chadwick experimentally verified the Rutherford neutron’s existence in 1932. After that date, only a handful of researchers such as Fritz Paneth continued the work. Oddly, it also does not appear that anyone else ever tried to exactly duplicate Nagaoka’s astounding experiments. However, at around that time there were very well-publicized failures to replicate Miethe & Stammreich’s Gold experiments that were extensively chronicled in Scientific American. Interestingly, Miethe’s experimental apparatus consisted of Mercury arc lamps with Tungsten electrodes inside well-evacuated quartz tubes; no transformer oil was present in those electric arc experiments. In hindsight, perhaps Nagaoka’s decision to use oil was exceedingly fortuitous: by arcing in transformer oil, he inadvertently guaranteed that his experimental apparatus contained huge quantities of hydrogen (protons) for making neutrons via LENRs.

40. 1989: Pons & Fleischmann claim “cold fusion” occurs in chemical cells D+D fusion theory was wrong; excess heat results were irreproducible back then Tragic outcome was very similar to Wendt & Irion’s controversy with Rutherford back in 1922 - 23 Comment: unfortunately for Pons & Fleischmann, their claimed excess heat production effects were very poorly reproducible in 1989-1990 because they were completely wrong about their D+D fusion hypothesis and had no knowledge whatsoever of what are now called the fields of nanotechnology and plasmonics. Indeed, certain recent technical knowledge derived from nanotechnology, plasmonics, and advanced materials science that is crucial to being able to fabricate reproducible, well-performing LENR devices did not even exist in 1989, or even in the mid- to late 1990s. In our opinion, there is no way condensed matter LENRs could have been truly experimentally reproducible prior to the past several years. Commercialization of technology should now be feasible with the help of new Widom-Larsen theory and nanotech. “Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium” Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 261 pp. 301 - 309 (1989)

41. Skepticism is reminiscent of Rutherford’s dismissal of nuclear power in 1930s “Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose.” Epigram by Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr in the January 1849 issue of his journal “Les Guêpes” (The Wasps) “The idea of producing useful energy from room temperature nuclear reactions is an aberration.” Prof. John Huizenga, well-respected chemist and physicist, referring to “cold fusion” in his 1993 book, “Cold fusion --- The scientific fiasco of the century” Oxford University Press (2007) Wiley – Interscience (2007) Historical perspective: over 100 years of data 1990s: Huizenga personally believed that LENRs were very dubious.

43. Region of neutron-catalyzed transmutation pathways discussed herein LENR transmutation processes typically proceed from left to right along rows in the Periodic Table of elements Neutron-catalyzed LENR networks Map of all presently known stable and unstable isotopes of elements In this presentation, we will be discussing a theoretical LENR neutron-catalyzed nucleosynthetic network (yellow arrow) that can begin in the region of Tungsten (W) targets and, depending on the size and duration of neutron fluxes per Widom-Larsen theory, can potentially extend to heavier, higher-Z elements as far as Lead (Pb) and Bismuth (83Bi209) March 7, 2013  

44. Starting with Tungsten targets can reach Lead (Pb) and Bismuth (83Bi209) Neutron-catalyzed LENR networks Periodic table of elements: LENR transmutation processes traverse rows LENR transmutation network pathway

45. Neutron-catalyzed LENR networks Example: network makes Platinum, Gold, Mercury, Lead, and Bismuth. We will now examine a hypothetical LENR transmutation network that can begin with neutron captures on Tungsten (W) as well as other intermediate targets. Explanatory legend for network diagrams appears on the next slide 74W180-seed network includes Mercury (Hg); if sufficiently high neutron fluxes are maintained for enough time, can even reach Bismuth (Bi) under optimal conditions. While unstable intermediate network products undergo nuclear decays, their half- lives are generally short (especially those that are more neutron-rich); this network does not produce significant amounts of dangerous long-lived radioactive isotopes. According to the WLT, in condensed matter systems LENRs occur in many tiny nm- to micron-scale surface sites or patches that only exist for several hundred nanoseconds before they ‘die’; such sites can form and re-form spontaneously. Need input energy to make ultra cold neutrons that catalyze LENR transmutations. Herein, we will discuss new Hg isotopic data of Mead et al. indicating that portions of this nucleosynthetic network may be occurring inside compact fluorescent lights

46. Example: network makes Platinum, Gold, Mercury, Lead, and Bismuth Neutron capture and nuclear decay processes: ULM neutron captures proceed from left to right except for upper-left corner; Q-value of capture reaction (MeV) in green either above or below horizontal arrow. Beta- (β-) decays proceed from top to bottom; denoted with bright blue vertical arrow pointing down with Q-value (MeV) in blue either to left or right; beta+ (β+) decays are denoted with yellow arrow pointing upward to row above Alpha decays, indicated with orange arrows, proceed mostly from right to left at an angle with Q-value (MeV) shown in orange located on either side of the process arrow. Electron captures (e.c.) indicated by purple vertical arrow; Q-value (MeV) to left or right. Note: to reduce visual clutter in the network diagram, gamma emissions (converted to infrared photons by heavy e-* electrons) are not shown; similarly, except where specifically listed because a given branch cross-section is significant, beta-delayed decays also generally not shown; BR means “branching ratio” if >1 decay alternative Color coded half-lives: When known, half-lives shown as “HL = xx”. Stable and quasi-stable isotopes (i.e., those with half-lives > or equal to 107 years) indicated by green boxes; isotopes with half-lives < 107 but > than or equal to 103 years indicated by light blue; those with half-lives < than 103 years but > or equal to 1 day are denoted by purplish boxes; half-lives of < 1 day in yellow; with regard to half-life, notation “? nm” means isotope has been verified by HL has not been measured Measured natural terrestrial abundances for stable isotopes: Indicated with % symbol; note that 83Bi209 = 100% (essentially ~stable with half-life = 1.9 x 1019 yrs); 82Pb-205 ~stable with HL= 1.5 x107 yrs Legend:

47.  Please note: once created, the process of capturing an LENR ULM neutron on a nearby atom occurs very quickly; on the order of picoseconds, i.e., 0.000000000001 sec., i.e., 10-12 sec, which is much faster than any of the various nuclear decays found in this particular LENR network. Moreover, in case of condensed matter LENRs, while their neutron production rates are probably significantly lower than the r-process, LENR neutron capture cross-sections are vastly higher than those in stellar environments; on balance it’s essentially ‘a wash’, so LENRs can effectively mimic the r-process. Thus, isotopes in LENRs can potentially capture additional neutrons (i.e., become more neutron-rich isotopes of the same element) before beta decay transmutes them into other higher-Z elements found in the Periodic Table. This is why the ‘hot’ astrophysical r-process can make heavier elements than the s-process (i.e., go beyond Bismuth): with much higher produced neutron fluxes, the r-process can successfully traverse and bridge key regions of very short-lived isotopes that are found in ultra-neutron-rich, high-Z reaches of vast nuclear isotopic landscape Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 75Re-185 Stable 37.4% 75Re-186 HL = 3.7 days 76Os-186 Stable 1.58% 6.2 6.3 Increasing values of Z 73Ta-181 Stable 99.9+% 73Ta-182 HL = 114 days 73Ta-184 HL = 8.6 hrs 73Ta-185 HL = 49.3 min 7.4 6.9 5.6 74W-180 Stable 0.12% 74W-182 Stable 26.5% 74W-183 Stable 14.3 % 74W-184 Stable 30.6% 74W-185 HL = 75.1 days 8.1 6.2 5.8 73Ta-183 HL = 5.1 days 74W-186 Stable 28.4% Increasing values of A 6.1 6.7 7.4 7.2 5.5 7.4 1.8 1.1 2.9 2.0 5.4 73Ta-186 HL = 10.5 min 3.9 6.2 433 keV 1.1 BR 92.5% 7.2 74W-181 HL = 121 days ε 188 keV BR = 100% ε 579 keV BR = 7.5% Start with stable Tungsten targets of pure W metal Alternatively, one could start with 73Ta181 target Tungsten It should also be noted that all of the many atoms located within a 3-D region of space that encompasses a given ULM neutron’s spatially extended DeBroglie wave function (whose dimensions can range from 2 nm to 100 microns) will compete with each other to capture such neutrons. ULM neutron capture is thus a decidedly many-body scattering process, not few- body scattering such as that which characterizes capture of neutrons at thermal energies in condensed matter in which the DeBroglie wave function of a thermal neutron is on the order of ~ 2 Angstroms. This explains why vast majority of produced neutrons are captured locally and are only rarely detected at any energies during course of LENR experiments; it also clearly explains why human-lethal MeV-energy neutron fluxes are characteristically not produced in condensed matter LENR systems.

48.  75Re-188 HL = 17 hrs 76Os-188 Stable 13.3% 6.8 5.9 74W-187 HL = 23.7 hrs 75Re-187 ~Stable 1010 yrs ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Ta Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 75Re-190 HL = 3.2 min 75Re-189 HL = 1 day 76Os-189 Stable 16.1% 76Os-191 HL = 15.4 days 76Os-190 Stable 26.4% 76Os-192 ~Stable 41.0% 76Os-193 HL = 1.3 days 76Os-194 HL = 6.0 yrs 77Ir-191 Stable 37.3% 77Ir-193 Stable 62.7% 77Ir-194 HL = 19.3 hrs 78Pt-192 Stable 0.79% 78Pt-193 HL = 51 yrs 78Pt-194 Stable 32.9% 4.9 7.0 5.7 6.9 8.0 6.2 6.3 8.4 6.1 1.8 1.6 Increasing values of A Increasing values of Z Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 73Ta-187 HL = 1.7 min 75Re-192 HL = 16 sec 75Re-193 HL = 30 sec 75Re-194 H L = 2 sec 74W-190 HL = 30 min 74W-191 HL = 20 sec 6.3 5.5 6.2 7.4 5.1 74W-189 HL = 11.6 min 74W-188 HL = 69.8 days 76Os-187 Stable 1.6% 75Re-191 HL = 9.8 min ULM Neutron Capture Ends on W ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Re 3.1 6.9 4.9 5.4 6.7 5.3 7.8 5.9 5.8 7.6 5.6 7.1 5.3 7.8 6.1 1.5 BR 95.1% 1.0 3.1 2.1 4.2 3.1 313 keV BR 100% 2..1 73Ta-189 HL = 3 sec 73Ta-190 HL= 3 x 102 msec 73Ta-188 HL = 20 sec 4.9 3.7 5.6 74W-192 HL = 10 sec ε 1..1 BR = 4.9% 77Ir-192 HL = 73.8 days 1.1 ε 57 keV BR = 100% 1.3 349 keV 2.5 1.3 3.2 2.1 4.9 97 keV 2.2 7.2 6.1 4.9 6.7 Produce Platinum As shown in these network charts, more neutron-rich, unstable beta-decaying isotopes tend to have more energetic decays and shorter half-lives. Electric current-driven LENR ULM neutron production and capture processes can occur at much faster rates than decay rates of beta-/e.c.-unstable isotopes in this network. Thus, if local ULM neutron production rates in given LENR patch are high enough, large differences in rates of beta decay vs. neutron capture processes means that largish populations of unstable, very neutron-rich isotopes can accumulate locally during 300 nanosec lifetime of an LENR-active patch, prior to its being destroyed.

49.  6Os-196 HL = 34.8 min 77Ir-196 HL = 52 sec 78Pt-196 Stable 25.3% 6.7 76Os-195 HL = 6.5 min 77Ir-195 HL = 2.5 hrs Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 77Ir-199 HL = 20 sec 77Ir-198 HL = 8 sec 78Pt-197 HL = 19.9 hrs 78Pt-199 HL = 30.8 min 78Pt-198 Stable 7.2% 78Pt-200 HL = 13 hrs 79Au-197 Stable 100% 79Au-199 HL = 3.1 days 79Au-200 HL = 48 min 79Au-201 HL = 27 min 5.8 6.9 5.6 6.9 5.9 7.6 5.6 7.3 5.2 6.9 6.5 7.6 6.3 7.2 6.1 6.8 2.0 1.3 0.6 1.7 666 keV 2.7 1.8 Increasing values of A Increasing values of Z Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 78Pt-195 Stable 33.8% ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Ir 5.3 7.2 6.1 78Pt-202 HL = 1.9 days 79Au-202 HL = 28.8 sec ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Os 80Hg-198 Stable 9.8% 80Hg-199 Stable 16.9% 80Hg-201 Stable 13.2% 80Hg-200 Stable 23.1% 80Hg-202 Stable 29.9% 79Au-198 HL = 2.7 days 78Pt-201 HL = 2.5 min 1.4 452 keV 719 keV 1.3 2.2 3.0 77Ir-197 HL = 5.8 min 2.2 4.1 3.0 1.2 1.1 3.2 6.7 8.0 6.2 7.8 6.0 7.9 ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Pt 80Hg-196 Stable 0.15% 80Hg-197 HL = 2.7 days ε 600 keV BR = 100% 6.8 8.5 Please note that: Q-value for neutron capture on a given beta-unstable isotope is often larger than the Q-value for the alternative β- decay pathway, so in addition to being a faster process than beta decay it can also be energetically more favorable. This can also contribute to creating fleeting yet substantial local populations of short-lived, neutron-rich isotopes. There is indirect experimental evidence that such neutron-rich isotopes can be produced in complex ULM neutron-catalyzed LENR nucleosynthetic (transmutation) networks that set-up and operate during brief lifetime of an LENR-active patch; see Carbon-seed network on Slides # 11 - 12 and esp. on Slide #55 in:
Thermal Neutron Capture Cross-section (barns) 105 not available 0.017 2.1 x 103 <60 <60 4.9 Produce Gold and Mercury

50. Neutron-catalyzed LENR networks Example: network makes Platinum, Gold, Mercury, Lead, and Bismuth 79Au-204 HL = 39.8 sec 80Hg-204 Stable 6.9% 81Tl-204 HL=3.8 yrs 82Pb-204 Stable 1.4% 5.7 7.5 81Tl-203 Stable 29.5% Dotted green arrow denotes ULMN capture products coming from lower values of A 80Hg-206 HL = 8.2 min 80Hg-205 HL = 5.2 min 80Hg-207 HL = 2.8 min 81Tl-205 Stable 70.5% 81Tl-207 HL = 4.8 min 81Tl-206 HL = 4.2 min 81Tl-208 HL = 3.1 min 81Tl-209 HL = 2.2 min 81Tl-210 HL = 1.3 min 82Pb-205 HL= 1.5 x 107 yrs 82Pb-207 Stable 22.1% 82Pb-206 Stable 24.1% 82Pb-208 Stable 52.4% 83Bi-209 ~Stable 100% 2.1 5.7 6.7 3.3 6.7 7.6 6.5 6.9 3.8 5.0 3.7 6.7 8.1 6.7 7.4 3.9 5.2 3.8 4.6 5.1 1.3 644 keV Increasing values of A Increasing values of Z Network may potentially continue upward to even higher values of A; This depends on ULM neutron flux in cm2/sec 80Hg-208 HL = 42 min ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Au ULM Neutron Capture Ends on Hg 6.8 6.0 80Hg-203 HL= 46.6 days 82Pb-209 HL = 3.3 hrs 82Pb-210 HL= 22.2 yrs 6.1 79Au-205 HL = 31 sec 80Hg-209 HL = 37 sec 80Hg-210 HL = 10 min 492 keV 344 keV BR 2.9% ε 344 keV BR = 97.1% 79Au-203 HL= 53 sec 4.9 ε 51 keV BR = 100% 63 keV BR 99.9% 1.4 1.5 5.0 4.0 5.5 3.9 3.5 84Po-210 HL= 138 days 83Bi-210 HL= 5 days 1.2 BR 99.9% 1.5 1.3 4.8 3.7 5.3 4.1 4.9 3.3 4.8 Beginning with target starting nuclei upon which ULM neutron captures are initiated, complex, very dynamically changing LENR nucleosynthetic networks are established in tiny micron-scale LENR-active patches. These ULM neutron-catalyzed LENR networks exist for lifetimes of the particular patches in which they were created; except for any still-decaying transmutation products that may linger, such networks typically ‘die’ along with the LENR-active patch that originally gave birth to them. Target nuclei for such networks can comprise any atoms in a substrate underlying an LENR-active patch and/or include atoms located nearby in various types of surface nanoparticles or nanostructures electromagnetically connected to a patch. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross-section ( barns) 80Hg-203 = n.a. 80Hg-204 = 0.40 Produce Bismuth Produce Lead

51. False-color image of surface plasmon excitation on substrate Credit: Martin van Exter, Leiden Univ. Source: For copy of informative Nature article by Exter re quantum entanglement of surface plasmons, see:
Overview: compact fluorescent lights

52. Overview: compact fluorescent lights Tungsten (W) electrode Credit: Edison Tech Center Commercial arc tube lighting technology goes way back to 1895

53. Overview: compact fluorescent lights Credit: Edison Tech Center Historical timeline of various electric lighting technologies since 1800

54. Overview: compact fluorescent lights Fluorescent lights come in straight tubes, curves, and spirals Source:
Fluorescent lamp tube: “Is filled with a gas containing low pressure mercury vapor and argon, xenon, neon, or krypton. The pressure inside the lamp is around 0.3% of atmospheric pressure. The inner surface of the lamp is coated with a fluorescent (and often slightly phosphorescent) coating made of varying blends of metallic and rare-earth phosphor salts. The lamp's electrodes are typically made of coiled tungsten and usually referred to as cathodes because of their prime function of emitting electrons. For this, they are coated with a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides chosen to have a low thermionic emission temperature.” “Fluorescent lamp tubes are typically straight and range in length from about 100 millimeters (3.9 in) for miniature lamps, to 2.43 meters (8.0 ft) for high-output lamps. Some lamps have the tube bent into a circle, used for table lamps or other places where a more compact light source is desired. Larger U-shaped lamps are used to provide the same amount of light in a more compact area, and are used for special architectural purposes.” “Light-emitting phosphors are applied as a paint-like coating to the inside of the tube. The organic solvents are allowed to evaporate, and then the tube is heated to nearly the melting point of glass to drive off remaining organic compounds and fuse the coating to the lamp tube. Careful control of the grain size of the suspended phosphors is necessary; large grains, 35 micrometers or larger, lead to weak grainy coatings, whereas too many small particles 1 or 2 micrometers or smaller leads to poor light maintenance and efficiency. Most phosphors perform best with a particle size around 10 micrometers. The coating must be thick enough to capture all the ultraviolet light produced by the mercury arc, but not so thick that the phosphor coating absorbs too much visible light. The first phosphors were synthetic versions of naturally occurring fluorescent minerals, with small amounts of metals added as activators. Later other compounds were discovered, allowing differing colors of lamps to be made.” Compact fluorescent lights (CFLs): “Have several small-diameter tubes joined in a bundle of two, four, or six, or a small diameter tube coiled into a spiral, to provide a high amount of light output in little volume.”

55. Overview: compact fluorescent lights Details of common straight fluorescent tubes used for many decades Image credit: Edison Tech Center See very informative Edison Tech Center YouTube video at

56. Overview: compact fluorescent lights Illustrates key details of fluorescent tube start-up process sequence Image credit: Edison Tech Center at
Note: both electrodes composed of Tungsten (W) ; hot lamp has ionized Argon gas and vaporized Mercury When excited, ionized Mercury emits UV photons; phosphors absorb UV and re-radiate visible photons in various colors

61. LENRs can mimic chemical fractionation W-L posit chemical and nuclear processes coexist in many systems LENRs versus chemical fractionation explanations for anomalous isotopic shifts Before proceeding further, let it be crystal clear to readers exactly what we are and are not saying here: We are not asserting that the existing chemical fractionation paradigm fails to adequately explain most reported isotope anomalies with respect to statistically significant deviations from natural abundances --- indeed, it may well effectively and accurately explain the vast majority of them. We are saying that presently published literature does contain a significant subset comprising many cases such as Mead et al. (2013) in which a chemical fractionation paradigm must be pushed very, very hard (which includes use of various ad hoc constructs) to explain certain otherwise inexplicable isotope anomalies; paradigm is being overly stretched to be able to comfortably accommodate anomalous data. We are suggesting that when confronted with otherwise totally inexplicable isotopic or elemental data, it may be fruitful for researchers to reexamine such data through the conceptual lens of the LENR paradigm to see if invoking nuclear transmutation leads to a deeper, better understanding of otherwise perplexing results. In some instances, LENRs may illuminate; in others not --- but we should examine anyway.

62. Chemical fractionation paradigm assumes that no nuclear processes are present. For ~ 60 years, a body of theory has been developed and articulated to explain progressively increasing numbers of stable isotope anomalies observed in a vast array of mass spectroscopic data obtained from many different types of natural and experimental, abiological and biological, systems. Central ideas in chemical “fractionation” theory embody equilibrium and irreversible, mass-dependent and mass-independent, chemical processes that are claimed to separate isotopes, thus explaining the reported anomalies. Although not explicitly acknowledged by fractionation theorists, an intrinsic fundamental assumption underlying all of this theory and interpretation of data is that no nucleosynthetic processes are occurring anywhere in any of these systems, at any time, that are capable of altering isotope ratios and/or producing new mixtures of different elements over time; ergo, chemistry explains everything. However, if Widom-Larsen theory is correct, for some of this data the above fundamental assumption may be wrong.

63. Modern isotopic analysis using mass spectroscopy began back in the 1920s. Modern isotopic chemical analysis using mass spectrometry initially began in the early 1920s as scientists started designing and building progressively better, more sensitive types of instruments; the scientific community gradually began to systematically measure and publish abundances of stable and unstable isotopes found on earth as well as in meteoritic materials that reached the earth’s surface from outer space, i.e., most likely from elsewhere in the solar system. Extensive compilations of varied isotopic data eventually lead to the idea of the “natural abundances”: natural abundance (NA) refers to the isotopic composition of a given chemical element as it is naturally found on a particular planet, e.g., earth. For a given element composed of one or more isotopes, a weighted average of the naturally occurring composition of these isotopes (natural abundance) is the specific value for atomic weight that is listed for that element in the periodic table. Note that although the ‘natural’ isotopic composition of a given chemical element can vary from planet to planet, in theory it should remain essentially constant over geological time (except in the case of elements having one or more radioactive isotopes). On a given planet, the characteristic isotopic composition of a given element, i.e., its natural abundance, should be essentially identical everywhere. For example, in the case of the element Copper on earth, it is comprised of two stable isotopes that typically occur in ~ following proportions: 69% Cu-63 and 31% Cu-65. With many terrestrial elements, one out of several stable isotopes frequently predominates; others may be present only in minor traces, e.g., in the case of natural Oxygen one would in principle measure ~ 99.759% O-16; 0.0374% O-17; and 0.2039% O-18.

64. By 1947 chemical fractionation theorists assumed absence of nuclear processes. Statistically significant deviations from natural abundances began to appear in some early isotopic data collected by scientists; such anomalies were observed in many different types of experimental chemical reaction systems and in the natural environment, as well as in meteoritic materials. Given that the observed isotopic anomalies in question obviously did not involve material freshly processed in stars, fission reactors, or nuclear explosions, it was readily assumed that significant deviations from natural isotopic abundances had to be the result of chemical processes. In the 1940-50s, early theories of “chemical fractionation” were published in an effort to explain significant anomalies from natural abundances found in some experimental data. These early theories mainly involved equilibrium isotope effects in reversible chemical systems and kinetic effects of isotopes on reaction rates in irreversible chemical systems (details will explained shortly in subsequent slides) One example of a classic paper on abundances is: White, J. R. and Cameron, A. E., “The Natural Abundance of Isotopes of Stable Elements,” Physical Review 74 pp. 991-1000 (1948) Two widely cited early papers on chemical isotopic fractionation are as follows: Bigeleisen, J. and Mayer, M. J., “Calculation of equilibrium constant for isotope exchange reaction,” Chem. Phys. 15 pp. 261-267 (1947) Urey, H.C., “The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances,” J. Chem. Soc. pp. 562-581 (1947)

65. Mass-independent fractionation ‘explains’ isotope shifts seen in heavier elements. Since the 1950s, development of an increasing variety of progressively improved, much less expensive, and substantially more accurate mass spectroscopy techniques has enabled M-S to be utilized in many different fields. A vast quantity of reliable isotopic data has thus accumulated Since early theories of chemical isotopic fractionation were directly tied to mass differences between isotopes, their applicability was generally limited to lighter elements in the Periodic Table (from Hydrogen out through roughly Sulfur) where % differences in relative masses are large enough to have a plausibly significant impact on isotopic separation via some form of mass-sensitive physico-kinetic process. Today’s fractionation theories include equilibrium and kinetic effects and mass-independent: nuclear field shift, photochemical, and Q-M symmetry effects that attempt to extend such concepts to accommodate much higher-mass elements-isotopes in the Periodic Table --- even Uranium The first reliable report of an of an isotopic anomaly that could not plausibly be explained by simple physical processes such as condensation or evaporation --- phase changes --- (i.e., it was mass- independent ) was published by Clayton, R., Grossman, L., and Mayeda, T., “A component of primitive nuclear composition in carbonaceous meteorites,” Science 182 pp. 485 - 488 (1973) Mass-independent fractionation now utilized to explain a growing body of anomalous, perhaps otherwise chemically inexplicable isotopic data. For Oxygen, see Michalski, G. and Bhattacharya, S., “Role of symmetry in the mass-independent isotope effect in ozone,” PNAS 106 pp. S493-S496 (2009)

66. Definition of key term: isotopic fractionation factor = f Isotope fractionation: “… is the physical phenomenon which causes changes in the relative abundance of isotopes due to their differences in mass. There are two categories of isotope effects: equilibrium and kinetic.” “An equilibrium isotope effect will cause one isotope to concentrate in one component of a reversible system that is in equilibrium. If it is the heavier isotope that concentrates in the component of interest, then that component is commonly referred to as enriched or heavy. If it is the light isotope that concentrates then the component is referred to as depleted or light. In most circumstances the heavy isotope concentrates in the component in which the element is bound more strongly and thus equilibrium isotope effects usually reflect relative differences in the bond strengths of the isotopes in the various components of the system. A kinetic isotope effect occurs when one isotope reacts more rapidly than the other in an irreversible system or a system in which the products are swept away from the reactants before they have an opportunity to come to equilibrium. Normally, the lighter isotope will react more rapidly than the heavy isotope and thus the product will be lighter than the reactant.” “It should be noted that isotope fractionation will only occur in systems in which there is both an isotope effect and a reaction that does not proceed to completion. Thus, even in the presence of an isotope effect, there will be no isotope fractionation if all the reactant goes to a single product because all the atoms have reacted and thus the ratio of the heavy to light isotope must be the same in the product as it was in the reactant. The magnitude of an isotope effect is expressed as a fractionation factor. This f is defined as the ratio of the heavy to light isotope in the product divided by the ratio of the heavy to light isotope in the reactant. Stated mathematically:” “When f is greater than 1, the product is heavy or enriched. When it is less than 1, the product is light or depleted. Most fractionation factors lie between 0.9 and 1.1, but deuterium isotope effects can result in much smaller or larger fractionation factors. A fractionation factor of 1.050 is often referred to as a 5% isotope effect.” Source of definitions: D. Schoeller and A. Coward at :

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