rexresearch.com


Lewis LARSEN, et al.

LENR Gold Production






http://www.kitco.com/ind/Albrecht/2014-02-25-Alchemy-2-0-Low-Energy-Nuclear-Reactor-Creates-Gold-and-Platinum.html
February 25, 2014

Alchemy 2.0 – Low Energy Nuclear Reactor Creates Gold and Platinum

The transmutation from lead to gold has been mankind’s dream for millennia. Lattice Energy LLC, a company from Chicago, IL, claims to have developed a process for energy production, utilizing a low-energy nuclear reactor (LENR) that, as a byproduct of neutron captures on tungsten, will create a mix of precious metals.

To learn more about the technology, Tech Metals Insider spoke with Lewis Larsen, president and CEO of Lattice.

Lattice was founded in 2001 upon the ruins of the “cold fusion” failures that had caused much hope and disappointment back in the late 1980’s. Larsen is part of a team that learned from cold fusion’s mistakes: “their heat production measurements were right”, said Larsen with respect to cold fusion, “but their conclusions about the heat being produced by a fusion process were completely wrong.”

What enabled Lattice’s new approach were recent advances in nanotechnology. “Nanotechnology and LENR are joined at the hip”, said Larsen. “It is one of the reasons why this could not be done back in 1989-90. Before our work, nobody had a grasp on the theory of neutron creation from protons and electrons in tabletop apparatus; nor on exactly how to apply advanced nanotechnology to build well-performing prototype devices.”

Combining the know-how of experts from a variety of disciplines including electro-dynamics, quantum electro-dynamics, nuclear physics and solid state physics, lead to the development of a theoretical foundation which is now ready to be prototyped, and put to the test.

The goal of Lattice is to build high performance thermal sources with outputs ranging from single watts to 100 kilowatts, the ultimate application being the use of LENRs in cars. Patents have been filed and some were issued. At this point, financing is provided by insiders and several angel investors, but larger amounts of capital are needed to take the technology to its next level.

Larsen is labeling the LENR as “green nuclear technology” – green because commercial systems could be operated very similar to aluminum production using an electric arc. The process would emit no energetic neutrons (LENR ultra low energy neutrons are all absorbed locally deep inside the reactor and are thus not a safety problem), and no gamma radiation.

When asked about differences compared to the deuterium-tritium fusion process presented by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory last week, Larsen said: “Their dirty little secret they don’t talk about is that they produce deadly, very energetic neutrons and gamma radiation. Harvesting the energy from these neutrons produced by fusion is quite difficult. Furthermore, shielding requirements will make fusion unusable for mobile and portable power generation applications.”

Larsen’s theory that gold, platinum and several other metals can be created by his process is based on findings by Japanese physicist Prof. Hantaro Nagaoka who successfully transmuted tungsten into gold back in 1924. Nagaoka’s results have been verified by several institutions in recent independent experiments but so far there has been no effort to commercialize the process. “Now that the LENR transmutation process is well understood the use of nanotechnology may change all that”, believes Larsen.

“The neutron-catalyzed LENR process follows rows of the periodic table of elements”, he went on, meaning that heavier metals than the starting targets’ will be created. The work published by Larsen and his team suggests that a tungsten target, for instance, will absorb neutrons and gradually be transmuted to gold, platinum and other platinum group metals. “And because LENR products are not dangerously radioactive”, Larsen added, “conventional metal recovery processes can be utilized.”

“Can we scale this up to a commercial process that makes money?” – Larsen is convinced it may be possible.

By Bodo Albrecht
tminsider@eniqma.com



APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR GENERATION OF ULTRA LOW MOMENTUM NEUTRONS    
WO2006119080

[ PDF ]

Also published as:     WO2006119080 (A3)  US2008232532 (A1)  EP1880393


Method and apparatus for generating ultra low momentum neutrons (ULMNs) using surface plasmon polariton electrons, hydrogen isotopes, surfaces of metallic substrates, collective many-body effects, and weak interactions in a controlled manner. The ULMNs can be used to trigger nuclear transmutation reactions and produce heat. One aspect of the present invention effectively provides a "transducer" mechanism that permits controllable two-way transfers of energy back-and-forth between chemical and nuclear realms in a small-scale, low-energy, scalable condensed matter system at comparatively modest temperatures and pressures.

[0002] Co-Inventors: Lewis G. Larsen, Allan Widom

[0003] Cross Reference and Priority Claim

[0004] [0001] The present application claims the benefit of the following provisional patent applications by the present inventors: (a) "Apparatus and Method for Generation of Ultra Low Momentum Neutrons," filed at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on April 29, 2005 and having serial number 60/676,264; and (b) "Apparatus and Method for Absorption of Incident Gamma Radiation and Its Conversion to Outgoing Radiation at Less Penetrating, Lower Energies and Frequencies," filed at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on September 9, 2005 having serial number 60/715,622. Background of the Invention

[0005] [0002] The present invention concerns apparatus and methods for the generation of extremely low energy neutrons and applications for such neutrons. Neutrons are uncharged elementary fermion particles that, along with protons (which are positively charged elementary fermion particles), comprise an essential component of all atomic nuclei except for that of ordinary hydrogen. Neutrons are well known to be particularly useful for inducing various types of nuclear reactions because, being uncharged, they are not repelled by Coulombic repulsive forces associated with the positive electric charge contributed by protons located in an atomic nucleus. Free neutrons are inherently unstable outside of the immediate environment in and around an atomic nucleus and have an accepted mean life of about 887 to 914 seconds; if they are not captured by an atomic nucleus, they break up via beta decay into an electron, a proton, and an anti-neutrino. Neutrons are classified by their levels of kinetic energy; expressed in units measured in MeV, meV, KeV, or eV - Mega-, milli-, Kilo- electron Volts. Depending on the mean velocity of neutrons within their immediate physical environment, energy levels of free neutrons can range from: (1) ultracold to cold (nano eVs to 25 meV); (2) thermal (in equilibrium with environment at an E approx. = kT = 0.025 eV); (3) slow (0.025 eV to 100 eV - at around 1 eV they are called epithermal); (4) intermediate (100 eV to about 10 KeV); (5) fast (10 KeV to 10 MeV), to ultrafast or high-energy (above 10 MeV). The degree to which a given free neutron possessing a particular level of energy is able to react with a given atomic nucleus/isotope via capture (referred to as the reaction capture "cross section" and empirically measured in units called "barns") is dependent upon: (a) the specific isotope of the nucleus undergoing a capture reaction with a free neutron, and (b) the mean velocity of a free neutron at the time it interacts with a target nucleus.

[0006] [0003] It is well known that, for any specific atomic isotope, the capture cross section for reactions with externally supplied free neutrons scales approximately inversely proportional to velocity (1/v). This means that the lower the mean velocity of a free neutron (i.e., the lower the momentum) at the time of interaction with a nucleus, the higher its absorption cross section will be, i.e., the greater the probability that it will react successfully and be captured by a given target nucleus/isotope.

[0007] [0004] Different atomic isotopes can behave very differently after capturing free neutrons. Some isotopes are entirely stable after the capture of one or more free neutrons (e.g., isotopes of Gadolinium (Gd), atomic number 64: <154>Gd to <155>Gd to <156>Gd). (As used herein, superscripts at the top left side (or digits to the left side) of the elemental symbol represent atomic weight.) Some isotopes absorb one or more neutrons, forming a more neutron-rich isotope of the same element, and then beta decay to another element. Beta decay strictly involves the weak interaction, because it results in the production of neutrinos and energetic electrons (known as [beta]-particles). In beta decay, the neutron number (N) goes down by one; the number of protons (atomic number = Z = nuclear charge) goes up by one; the atomic mass (A = Z + N) is unchanged. Higher-Z elements are thus produced from lower-Z "seed" elements. Other atomic isotopes enter an unstable excited state after capturing one or more free neutrons, and "relax" to a lower energy level by releasing the excess energy through the emission of photons such as gamma rays (e.g., the isotope Cobalt- 60 [<60>Co], atomic number 27). Yet other isotopes also enter unstable excited states after capturing one or more free neutrons, but subsequently "relax" to lower energy levels through spontaneous fission of the "parent" nucleus. At very high values of A, de-excitation processes start being dominated by fission reactions (involving the strong interaction) and alpha particle (Helium-4 nuclei) emission rather than beta decays and emission of energetic electrons and neutrinos. Such fission processes can result in the production of a wide variety of "daughter" isotopes and the release of energetic particles such as protons, alphas, electrons, neutrons, and/or gamma photons (e.g., the isotope <252>Cf of Californium, atomic number 98). Fission processes are commonly associated with certain very heavy (high A) isotopes that can produce many more neutrons than they "consume" via initial capture, thus enabling a particular type of rapidly escalating cascade of neutron production by successive reactions commonly known as a fission "chain reaction" (e.g., the uranium isotope <235>U, atomic number 92; or the plutonium isotope Pu, atomic number 94). For U, each external free "trigger" neutron releases another 100 neutrons in the resulting chain reaction. Isotopes that can produce chain reactions are known as fissile. Deliberately induced neutron- catalyzed chain reactions form the underlying basis for existing nuclear weapons and fission power plant technologies. Significant fluxes of free neutrons at various energies are useful in a variety of existing military, commercial, and research applications, with illustrative examples as follows. It should be noted that an advantage of the present invention is mentioned in the following Table I: -A-

[0008]

[0009] Table I [0005]

[0010] [0006] Locations and Reaction Products of Fluxes of Free Neutrons Found in Nature:

[0011] [0007] Minor natural sources of free neutrons are produced by relatively rare accumulations of long-lived radioactive isotopes incorporated in a variety of minerals (e.g., Uraninite - UO2; with U comprised of about 99.28% of <238>U and 0.72% <235>U and a trace of <234>U) found in planetary crusts, asteroids, comets, and interstellar dust. In addition to such radioactive isotopes and various man-made sources of free neutrons noted earlier, natural sources of significant fluxes of free neutrons are found primarily in stellar environments. In fact, since the Big Bang, nearly all of the elements and isotopes found in the Universe besides hydrogen and helium have been created by a variety of cosmic nucleosynthetic processes associated with various stages of stellar evolution.

[0012] [0008] Stellar nucleosynthesis is a complex collection of various types of nuclear processes and associated nuclear reaction networks operating across an extremely broad range of astrophysical environments, stellar evolutionary phenomena, and time-spans. According to current thinking, these processes are composed of three broad classes of stellar nucleosynthetic reactions as follows:

[0013] [0009] 1. Various nuclear reactions primarily involving fusion of nuclei and/or charged particles that start with hydrogen/helium as the initial stellar "feedstock" and subsequently create heavier isotopes up to <56>Fe (iron), at which the curve of nuclear binding energy peaks. At masses above <56>Fe, binding energies per nucleon progressively decrease; consequently, nucleosynthesis via fusion and charged particle reactions are no longer energetically favored. As a result, isotopes/elements heavier than <56>Fe must be created via neutron capture processes. [0010] 2. S-Process - short-hand for the Slow (neutron capture) Process; it is thought to occur in certain evolutionary stages of cool giant stars. In this process, "excess" neutrons (produced in certain nuclear reactions) are captured by various types of "seed" nuclei on a long time-scale compared to [beta]-decays. Heavier nuclides are built-up via successive neutron captures that ascend the so-called beta-stability valley from <56>Fe (a common initial "seed" nucleus in stellar environments) all the way up to <209>Bi (Bismuth). Masses above <209>Bi require much higher neutron fluxes to create heavier elements such as Uranium (e.g. <238>U).

[0014] [0011] 3. R-Process - short-hand for the Rapid (neutron capture) Process; -it is thought to occur in Type II supernovae and various high-energy events on and around neutron stars. In this process, intermediate products comprising very neutron-rich nuclei are built up by very large neutron fluxes produced under extreme conditions that are captured by various types of "seed" nuclei. These intermediate products then undergo a series of [beta]- decays accompanied by fission of the heaviest nuclei. Ultimately, this process produces nuclei having even larger masses, i.e. above <209>Bi, that are located on the neutron-rich side of the "valley of nuclear stability".

[0015] [0012 ] As evident from the Table I discussed above, various types of neutron generators have been known for many years. However, the neutron generators of the prior art do not produce ultra low momentum neutrons. Two prior publications have mentioned or involve "ultracold" neutrons (which are created at significantly higher energies and much greater momenta than "ultra low momentum" neutrons), but these are easily distinguished from the present invention. Specifically, RU2160938 (entitled "Ultracold Neutron Generator," by Vasil et al, dated December 20, 2000) and RU2144709 (entitled "Ultracold Neutron Production Process," by Jadernoj et al., dated January 20, 2000) both utilize either large macroscopic nuclear fission reactors or accelerators as neutron sources to create thermal neutrons, which are then subsequently extracted and brought down to "ultracold" energies with certain neutron moderators that are cooled-down to liquid helium temperatures.

[0016] [0013] An object of the present invention is to provide method and apparatus for directly producing large fluxes of ultra low momentum neutrons (ULMNs) that possess much lower momentum and velocities than ultracold neutrons. Illustratively, such fluxes of ULMNs produced in the apparatus of the Invention may be as high as ~10<16> neutrons/sec/cm<2>.

[0017] [0014] Another object of the present invention is to generate ULM neutrons at or above room temperature in very tiny, comparatively low cost apparatus/devices.

[0018] [0015] A further obj ect of the present invention is to generate ULM neutrons without requiring any moderation; that is, without the necessity of deliberate "cooling" of its produced neutrons using any type of neutron moderator.

[0019] [0016] A further object of the present invention is to utilize controlled combinations of starting materials and successive rounds of ULM neutron absorption and beta decays to synthesize stable, heavier (higher-A) elements from lighter starting elements, creating transmutations and releasing additional energy in the process.

[0020] [0017] Yet another object of the present invention is to produce neutrons with extraordinarily high absorption cross-sections for a great variety of isotopes/elements. Because of that unique characteristic, the ULMN absorption process is extremely efficient, and neutrons will very rarely if ever be detected externally, even though large fluxes of ULMNs are being produced and consumed internally within the apparatus of the invention. One specific object of the present invention is to produce neutrons at intrinsically very low energies, hence the descriptive term "ultra low momentum" neutrons. ULM neutrons have special properties because, according to preferred aspects of the invention, they are formed collectively at extraordinarily low energies (which is equivalent to saying that at the instant they are created, ULMNs are moving at extraordinarily small velocities, v, approaching zero). Accordingly, they have extremely long quantum mechanical wavelengths that are on the order of one to ten microns (i.e., 10,000 to 100,000 Angstroms). By contrast, a "typical" neutron moving at thermal energies in condensed matter will have a quantum mechanical wavelength of only about 2 Angstroms. By comparison, the smallest viruses range in size from 50 to about 1,000 Angstroms; bacteria range in size from 2,000 to about 500,000 Angstroms. The great size of the domain of their wave function is the source of ULMNs' extraordinarily large absorption cross-sections; it enables them to be almost instantly absorbed by different local nuclei located anywhere within distances of up to 10,000 Angstroms from the location at which they are created.

Summary of the Invention

[0021] [ 0018 ] The present invention has numerous features providing methods and apparatus that utilize surface plasmon polariton electrons, hydrogen isotopes, surfaces of metallic substrates, collective many-body effects, and weak interactions in a controlled manner to generate ultra low momentum neutrons that can be used to trigger nuclear transmutation reactions and produce heat. One aspect of the present invention effectively provides a "transducer" mechanism that permits controllable two-way transfers of energy back-and-forth between chemical and nuclear realms in a small-scale, low-energy, scalable condensed matter system at comparatively modest temperatures and pressures.

[0022] One aspect of the invention provides a neutron production method in a condensed matter system at moderate temperatures and pressures comprising the steps of providing collectively oscillating protons, providing collectively oscillating heavy electrons, and providing a local electric field greater than approximately 10<n> volts/meter. Another aspect of the invention provides a method of producing neutrons comprising the steps of: providing a hydride or deuteride on a metallic surface; developing a surface layer of protons or deuterons on said hydride or deuteride; developing patches of collectively oscillating protons or deuterons near or at said surface layer; and establishing surface plasmons on said metallic surface.

[0023] Another aspect of the invention provides a method of producing ultra low momentum neutrons ("ULMNs") comprising: providing a plurality of protons or deuterons on a working surface of hydride/deuteride-forming materials; breaking down the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in patches on said working surface; producing heavy electrons in the immediate vicinity of coherently oscillating patches of protons and/or deuterons; and producing said ULMNs from said heavy electrons and said protons or deuterons.

[0024] According to another aspect of the invention, a nuclear process is provided using weak interactions comprising: forming ultra low momentum neutrons (ULMNs) from electrons and protons/deuterons using weak interactions; and locally absorbing said ULMNs to form isotopes which undergo beta-decay after said absorbing.

[0025] According to a further aspect of the invention, a method of generating energy is provided. At first sites, the method produces neutrons intrinsically having, upon their creation, ultra low momentum (ULMNs). A lithium target is disposed at a second site near said first sites in a position to intercept said ULMNs. The ULMNs react with the Lithium target to produce Li-7 and Li-8 isotopes. The lithium isotopes decay by emitting electrons and neutrinos to form Be-8; said Be-8 decaying to He-4. This reaction produces a net heat of reaction.

[0026] The foregoing method of producing energy may further comprise producing helium isotopes by reacting helium with ULMNs emitted from said first sites to form He-5 and He-6; the He-6 decaying to Li-6 by emitting an electron and neutrino; the helium-to-lithium reactions yielding a heat of reaction and forming a nuclear reaction cycle.

[0027] The present invention also provides a method of producing heavy electrons comprising: providing a metallic working surface capable of supporting surface plasmons and of forming a hydride or deuteride; fully loading the metallic surface with H or D thereby to provide a surface layer of protons or deuterons capable of forming coherently oscillating patches; and developing at least one patch of coherently or collectively oscillating protons or deuterons on the surface layer.

[0028] In addition, the present invention also provides apparatus for a nuclear reaction. Such apparatus comprises: a supporting material; a thermally conductive layer; an electrically conductive layer in contact with at least a portion of said thermally conductive layer; a cavity within said supporting material and thermally conductive layer; a source of hydrogen or deuterium associated with said cavity; first and second metallic hydride-forming layers within said cavity; an interface between a surface of said first hydride-forming layer, said interface being exposed to hydrogen or deuterium from said source; a first region of said cavity being located on one side of said interface and having a first pressure of said hydrogen or deuterium; a second region of said cavity being located on one side of said second hydride- forming layer and having a second pressure of said hydrogen or deuterium; said first pressure being greater than said second pressure; said apparatus forming a sea of surface plasmon polaritons and patches of collectively oscillating protons or deuterons, and ultra low momentum neutrons in a region both above and below said interface. Optionally, a laser may be positioned to irradiate said sea and said interface. An electrically conductive layer may form a portion of an inside wall of the cavity.

[0029] Another aspect of the present invention provides a neutron generator for producing ultra low momentum neutrons ("ULMNs") comprising: a metallic substrate having a working surface capable of supporting surface plasmons and of forming a hydride or deuteride, located above the substrate. The metallic substrate is fully loaded with hydrogen or deuterium; a surface layer of protons or deuterons. At least one region of collectively oscillating protons or deuterons is on said surface layer, and surface plasmons are located above the surface layer and said region. A flux of protons or deuterons is incident on said surface plasmons, surface layer, and working surface. Optionally, a plurality of target nanoparticles can be positioned on the working surface.

[0030] Preferably, in the ULMN generator just mentioned, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down on the upper working surface. The invention may further comprise laser radiation incident on said working surface to stimulate and transfer energy into said surface plasmons. Brief Description of the Drawings

[0031] [0019] In describing examples of preferred embodiment of the present invention, reference is made to accompanying figures in which:

[0032] [0020] Figure 1 is a representative side view of a ULMN generator according to aspects of the present invention;

[0033] [0021] Figure 2 is a representative top view of the ULMN generator of Figure 1 ; [0022] Figure 3 is a representative side view of a ULMN generator according to aspects of the present invention, including optional nanoparticles;

[0034] [0023] Figure 4 is a representative top view of the ULM generator of Figure 3 with randomly positioned nanoparticles affixed to the working surface;

[0035] [0024] Figure 5 is a representative schematic side sketch of one alternative preferred embodiment of a ULMN power generation system according to aspects of the present invention;

[0036] [0025] Figure 6 is a representative schematic block diagram of another alternative preferred embodiment of a ULMN power generation system according to aspects of the present invention;

[0037] [0026] Figure 7 is a representative schematic block diagram of another alternative preferred embodiment of a ULMN power generation system according to aspects of the present invention; and

[0038] [0027] Figure 8 is a sketch useful in understanding some of the physics used in aspects of the present invention.



 



Apparatus and Method for Absorption of Incident Gamma Radiation and its Conversion to Outgoing Radiation at Less Penetrating, Lower Energies and Frequencies
US7893414

[ PDF ]

Also published as: WO2007030740 // EP1934987

Gamma radiation (22) is shielded by producing a region of heavy electrons (4) and receiving incident gamma radiation in such region. The heavy electrons absorb energy from the gamma radiation and re-radiate it as photons (38, 40) at a lower energy and frequency. The heavy electrons may be produced in surface plasmon polaritons. Multiple regions (6) of collectively oscillating protons or deuterons with associated heavy electrons may be provided. Nanoparticles of a target material on a metallic surface capable of supporting surface plasmons may be provided. The region of heavy electrons is associated with that metallic surface. The method induces a breakdown in a Born-Oppenheimer approximation Apparatus and method are described.

[0001] Applicants claim the benefit of their provisional patent application 60/715,622 filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office on Sep. 9, 2005.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention concerns apparatus and methods for the shielding (absorption) of incident gamma radiation and its conversion to less energetic photons. Gamma photons (often denoted by the Greek letter gamma, [gamma]) are a form of very high energy, very high frequency, very short wavelength, and very penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted by, for example:

Atomic nuclei making a transition from an initial excited nuclear state to a subsequent lower energy state, or

Transmutation reactions (nuclear reactions in which one element changes to another) in which prompt gamma rays are emitted by an atomic nucleus after it has absorbed a type of neutral elementary particle called a neutron, or

Radioactive decay of nuclei in processes such as fission of unstable radioactive isotopes (e.g. Uranium-235, used in nuclear weapons and some commercial nuclear power plants), and
Other subatomic processes involving elementary particles such as electron-positron annihilation...
















ELECTRODE CONSTRUCTS INCLUDING MODIFIED METAL LAYERS, AND RELATED CELLS AND METHODS
WO2004103036

Flake-resistant multilayer thin-film electrodes and electrolytic cells incorporating same
US6599404

Electrical cells, components and methods
US7244887



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OVRLcC21F14

Widom Larsen Theory LENRs . . . Energy Revolution?



http://news.newenergytimes.net/2013/02/22/lenr-nasa-widom-larsen-nuclear-reactor-in-your-basement/

 






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