My Science Fair Project : How To Make Gold
Robert A. Nelson
Alchemists have tried to make gold from other elements ever since smelting was discovered. The process of discovery eventually culminated in the legendary Philosophers' Stone, (Lapis Philosophorum), which supposedly can transmute base metals such as lead or mercury into gold -- besides being able to heal any disease, rejuvenate, and enlighten the adept, etc. The collective effort of The Great Work (Ars Magna), as it was called, peaked in Europe during the 17th century and declined thereafter with the development of modern chemistry. Popular opinion now considers the Philosophers' Stone to be a psychic projection with no scientific basis in material reality.
That is almost true insofar as most alchemists were somewhat deluded, ignorant, or addlepated with mercury poisoning. Au contraire, the singular case of Wenzel Seyler, who was not an alchemist, proves the truth of physical Alchemy beyond reasonable doubt. His fantastic story was verified and well-documented by Doctor Johan Becher (1635-1682) in "Magnalia Naturae (1680). Becher also minted a medallion from gold he made with Seyler's tincture
Wenzel Seyler (AKA Wenceslaus Seilerus) was a reluctant young friar of the Augustinian order -- he had entered to avoid prosecution for sexing with the Governor's daughter. In 1676, he and an elderly priest discovered a cache of the Philosophers' Stone buried in the ruins of a chapel at Brno (Moravia, now the Czech Republic) by the founding abbot circa 1350. When the priest died suddenly of a stroke, Seyler stole the treasure and escaped from the abbey. After a series of misadventures, he became a favorite of Austria's Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. Hoping to secure royal patronage, Seyler presented the Emperor with a medal, decorated with portraits of members of the Habsburg family, and Leopold I in the center. The souvenir is on display in the Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna). Seyler performed many demonstrations of gold-making, becoming a great favorite of Emperor Leopold, appointed Hereditary Master of the Mint of Bohemia, and ennobled as "Baron Seyler von Reinburgh".
His incredible good fortune was the sole exception to the rule. Several genuine master alchemists of that era willingly suffered death by torture rather than reveal their sacred secret synthesis to greedy tyrants. But there was no particular reason to torture Seyler other than sadism (which hadn't been invented yet), for he did not know how to make the Lapis, and the Emperor had immediately appropriated much of it for himself. Seyler wasted his fabulous fortune in depravity and eventually resorted to sordid fraud by adulterating the dwindling stock.
Baron Wilhelm von SchroederBaron Wilhelm von Schroeder, who was a member of the Royal Society in London, claimed that Friedrich Augustus II (1670-1773), the great Polish Elector of Saxony, manufactured large quantities of gold by alchemical means, but the family heirs lost the way. Schroeder transmits this story in his "Instructions Respecting the Art of Transmutation and Ameliorating the Metals" (1684):
"My intention is not to enter into Disputes as my time is too precious for that; what I propose writing I have seen and partly elaborated myself, and am still employed in bringing the same to perfection.
"Although it is hardly worth a Man’s while to bring any proofs concerning the Reality and Existence of our Art, yet if we were not to mention something, our silence would by many be deemed inability, therefore almost against our inclination we see ourselves obliged to relate a few Tracts, the Truth of which cannot be taken in question.
"Plinius in his 33 Book of Natural History, says: that there exists a process whereby Gold is made by means of orpiment, a process which invited the Emperor Caligula, a prince very covetous of Riches, to cause some men to work a great quantity of orpiment; by which operation perfect Gold was procured, but so small a quantity that the Emperor had reason to repent of his avarice.
"It is positively known that Theophrastus Paracelsus was well acquainted with the knowledge of transmuting mercury and lead into gold; this has even been attested by some of his enemies.
"Raymundus Lullius transmuted a great quantity of lead into gold, which he gave to King Henry of England, to enable him to assist other powers in retaking the Holy Land from the Turks; this is well authenticated in History, and yet there exists yet a letter written by the same Raymundus Lullius to King Henry, where he comments having furnished gold to the King, as he employed it to the contrary to agreement, to go to war with France. Through this Letter Raymundus Lullius was put in the Tower of London, as a prisoner of State.
"I have seen several Rose Nobles, which have all been made of that gold procured by Lullius. But what need have we to quote Examples of remote times? We have plenty of a later date, and even have no occasion to go out of Germany!
"Whosoever doubts, let him go to Dresden in Saxony, and examine the so-called Gold-House, and let him enquire what has been translated in that laboratory, in the times of Elector Augustus, Electress Anne and their Son Christianus I, and let him ask from where proceeded those superb buildings seen in Dresden? If he, the unbeliever, wants still more proofs, let him go to the Electoral Libraries and enquire for the Chemical Acts and Journals of the Middle and later End of the 15th Century. And if he goes to the Secret Chancery, he will see such an immense quantity of manuscripts and large volumes, some written by the Elector Augustus himself, wherein he may read how from time to time the tingeing powders were elaborated and what immense quantities of Gold was procured thereby weekly, that he may well be astonished, as we have been ourselves.
"On the other hand in the Chamber of Public Accounts, where all the immense Expenses were set down, for erecting such magnificent buildings, he will not find a single groschen set down as received for defraying such enormous expenses.
"Such buildings were the Palaces, Stables, Gardens, Augustusburgh, etc., for erecting them, the Expenses flowed from the Secret Chancery, as they received it from the Gold-House.
"It is well known at Vienna that Baron Chaos had a Powder in his possession, wherewith he made projection in presence of our late Emperor Ferdinand III, when His Imperial Majesty who was a Lover, a wise and good man; made Baron Chaos a Count of the Empire.
"Baron Chaos had not made the Tincture himself, but had received it from an Earl of Mansfield, who was a General at Raab in Hungary, who died, and the Tincture fell into the hands of Chaos.
"There is at this day a gold medal in the Imperial Cabinet of Curiosities which attests, that that gold was made out of mercury in the presence of his Imperial Majesty Ferdinand III.
"The many projections which have been made at Vienna with a Tincture of the well known Wentzel by his present Imperial majesty and by many others, and that the said Wenzel was made Baron of Reinburg, are so fresh in memory, that it is superfluous to repeat it here; although Baron Reinburg could not prepare the tincture no more than Baron Chaos, which is well known.
"What Dr Helvetius at the Hague related to me with his own mouth, many years ago, when I paid him a visit, every one may read in his own publication, The Golden Calf.
"Baron Wagner Ecko, who departed this life only last year, had a Tincture, whereof 1 grain transmuted 3-1/2 lott of any imperfect metal into pure gold. Consequently 1 part transmuted and fixed 1680 parts.
"The whole City of Prague, many wise men, and men of rank can testify the truth of this, to whom the Baron showed the Transmutation without fear, and made them presents of small pieces, as testimonies of the Truth of the Art.
"So much I know that the Baron’s Tincture was elaborated Via Universali; a Mercurial Water was made first and then united with a Sulfur or most subtle Crocus of Gold, ad observing the degrees of fire, it passed through the black, white, yellow and red colors and was multiplied by the same Mercurial Water. This Tincture was of a very fiery color.
"The Baron de Wagner Ecko’s Furnace was an Athanor built of bricks and was fired with charcoal.
"There are at present living possessors, some of them are my friends, others I only know, but I cannot divulge their names, whilst they are living.
"I know one amongst them, but a very few years ago, was very poor, but at present is a very different man.
"Frankfurt and Augsburg can tell long stories concerning this man’s gold and silver. At first I would not believe him, that he was a possessor, because he did not immediately discover himself, and I knew his former Indigence!
"Men generally make use of their good fortune according to their genius and natural capacity.
"It is yet fresh in memory, that not long ago a Hollander, a goldsmith, of the name of Sommer resided in Vienna, who fixed out of a Tincture of Mercury 4 jj into pure silver.
"I have made the Experiment with my own hands; I have seen his Medicine under two forms."
It is unlikely that anyone will attain the Philosophers' Stone, or will tweet the tale if/when, but there are several other ways to manufacture gold without the Magistery. The transmutation of silver to gold is in fact easy to accomplish, but it is very dangerous, due to arsenic, nitric acid, and whatnot.
Martin RulandMartin Ruland the Elder (1532-1602) wrote "A Lexicon of Alchemy" in which he generously provided these instructions for the transmutation of silver by arsenic:
We propose to provide in this place an account of a formal experiment, the worth of which has been tested over and over again, and has in fact become little less than familiar among operators in the pursuit of the Grand Work. In order to perform it a large crucible must be provided, and it must be of such a quality as will be able to resist the action of intense heat. This crucible must be set over a burning furnace, and at the bottom of the vessel there must be strewn Powder of Colophony (a kind of resin) to about the thickness of the little finger. Above this undermost layer there must be another layer of Fine Powder of Iron --- that is, the Finest Iron Filings --- which shall be of the same thickness. Subsequently, the filings must be covered with a little Red Sulphur. Then the fire in the furnace must be increased till the iron filings have passed into a liquid condition. The next operation is to throw in Borax --- that kind which is made use of by goldsmiths for melting gold. To this must be added a like quantity of Red Arsenic, and as much Pure Silver as will be equivalent to the weight of the Iron Filings. Let the entire composition undergo coction by driving the furnace, taking care at the same time not to inhale the steam, on account of the arsenic in the vessel. Take then another crucible into which, by inclining the first vessel, you must pour the cocted matter, having previously stirred it effectually with an iron spatula. Proceed in such a manner that the composition will flow into the second crucible in a purified state, and devoid of excremental matter. By means of the Water of Separation [nitric acid], the Gold will be precipitated to the bottom. When it has been collected, let it be melted in a crucible, and the result will be good Gold, which will repay all pains and expense which have been devoted to its production. This chemical secret is contained in the ‘Hermetic Cabinet’, and the facility with which the experiment can be performed has led many persons to undertake it. The authority cited in support of it is no less than that of the most learned Basil Valentine..."
In short: melt resin, iron powder, sulfur, borax, realgar/orpiment (Danger!), and silver together, decant, cool, and extract with nitric acid. Traces of gold probably will be present in the reagents, so it behooves one to determine their purity before proceeding to a sorely mistaken conclusion.
The method developed by Theodore Tiffereau was successful in principle, but he never capitalized on it. Tiffereau conducted his experiments while supporting himself making daguerotypes in Mexico during the 1820s. He claimed that Mexican silver possesses peculiar qualities that lend to its augmentation. Tiffereau once demonstrated his process at the French Mint in Paris, but the results were unsatisfactory. In 1854 he submitted several memoirs to the French Academie des Sciences describing his alleged transmutation of silver to gold.
Tiffereau's general method was to dissolve silver in concentrated nitric or sulfuric acid and "solarize" the solution for two weeks, then boil it to dryness. He complained that the sunlight in France was not so effective as in Mexico -- possibly due to the different levels of ultraviolet light. Trace amounts of zinc, iron, alumina, silica, sulfur, copper, ozone, and gold served to catalyze the reaction. The blackish-green residue was refluxed in nitric acid for several hours until it appeared golden.
Tiffereau attributed the production of gold in the earth to the action of the "microbe of gold". He was vindicated in the 1980s by the discovery that placer gold nuggets can form around a nucleus of Bacillus cereus.
Arthur E. WaiteThe eminent occultist Arthur E. Waite (1857-1942) published "A Collection of Alchymical Processes" which includes a segment entitled "Silver Transmuted into Gold by the Action of Light", similarly to Tiffereau's technique:
"In the focus of a Burning-Glass, 12 inches in diameter, place a glass Flask, 2 inches in diameter, containing Nitric Acid, diluted with its own volume of water:
"Pour into the Nitric Acid, alternately, small quantities of a Solution of Nitrate of Silver and of Muriatic acid, the object being to cause the Chloride of Silver to form a minutely divided state, so as to produce a milky fluid, into the interior of which the brilliant convergent cone may pass, and the currents generated in the Flask by the Heat may so drift all the Chloride through the Light.
"The Chloride, if otherwise exposed to the Sun, merely blackens on the surface, the interior parts undergoing no change: This difficulty, therefore, has to be avoided. The Burning-Glass promptly brings on a decomposition of the salt, evolving, on the one hand, Chlorine, and disengaging a metal on the other. Supposing the experiment to last two or three entire hours, the effect will then be equal to a continuous midday sun of some 72 hours. The Metal becomes disengaged very well. But what is it? It cannot be silver, since Nitric acid has no action on it. It burnishes in an Agate Mortar, but its reflection is not like that of silver, for it is yellowish, like that of Gold.
"The Light must therefore have so transmuted the original silver as to enable it to exist in the presence of Nitric Acid."
FulcanelliThe renowned 20th century master alchemist "Fulcanelli", whose real name remains unknown, published a simple transmutation of silver in "Les Demeures Philosophales" (1964):
"The simplest alchemic procedure consists in utilizing the effect of violent reactions -- those of acids on the bases -- to provoke in the midst of the effervesence the reunion of pure parts, their new arrangement being irreducible. In this manner, starting from a metal close to gold -- preferably silver -- it is possible to produce a small quantity of the precious metal. Here is, in this order of research, an elementary operation whose success we guarantee, providing the instructions are carefully followed.
"Empty into a glass retort, tall and tubular, one-third of its capacity in pure nitric acid. Adapt to the receiver an escape tube and arrange the apparatus in a sand bath.
"Gently heat the apparatus short of reaching the boiling point for the acid (83o C). Turn off the fire, open the tube, and introduce a small portion of virgin silver, or of cupel, free from gold traces. When the emission of peroxide of azote has stopped and when the effervesence has quieted, let drop into the liquor a second portion of pure silver. Repeat introducing metal, with no hurry, until the boiling and issuing of red vapors manifest little energy, which is indicative of the property of saturation. Add nothing more. Let it rest for half an hour, then cautiously decant your clear solution into a beaker while it is still warm. You will find a thin deposit in the form of black sand. Wash this with lukewarm water, and let it fall into a small porcelain capsule. You will recognize by making the assays that the precipitate is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, just as it also is in nitric acid. Aqua regia will dissolve it and yields a magnificent yellow solution, exactly like gold trichloride. Use distilled water to dilute this liquor; precipitate from a zinc blade. An amorphous powder will be obtained, very fine, matte, of reddish brown coloration, identical to that given by natural gold reduced in the same manner. Wash well and dessicate this pulvurent precipitate. By compression on a sheet of glass or marble, it will give you a brilliant, coherent lamina with a beautiful yellow sheen by reflection, green by transparence, having the look and superficial characteristics of the purest gold.
"To increase with a new quantity this miniscule deposit, you may repeat the operation as many times as you please. In this case, take up again the clear solution of silver nitrate diluted from the first washing water; reduce the metal with zinc or copper. Decant this silver into a powder and use it for your second dissolution."
Francois Jollivet-CastelotFrancois Jollivet-Castelot (1974-1937) was an eminent French alchemist who developed a system of chemical methods of transmutation for which he coined the term "hyperchemistry". He presented a detailed report of his "wet" and "dry" methods in "La Fabrication Chimique de L'Or" (1920):
[ Click to enlarge ]
"By means of catalytic action I have succeeded in manufacturing gold chemically by acting on silver with arsenic and antimony sulfides, tellurium, and tin.
"This process gives a very high yield which has already been confirmed by several chemists…
"I made a mixture composed of 3 gr of chemically pure silver and 1 gr of chemically pure orpiment and placed it in 36º nitric acid for several months cold and then brought it to ebullition. The liquid was kept at the boiling point for several days. A small quantity of the material became detached at this moment and formed a pulvurent black deposit. When no further action took place, I decanted off the solution and collected the insoluble residue. This residue was attacked by aqua regia at the boiling point until it was almost completely dissolved; the liquor when decanted and filtered was analyzed and gave all the characteristic reactions for gold."
The "dry" method resembles that described by Martin Ruland:
"I acted on 22 gr of chemically pure silver ... and on 3.5 gr of chemically pure orpiment... The mixture was heated to about 1600º C in a metal smelting furnace for about three quarters of an hour. The residue obtained was again melted with the addition of orpiment. After having hammered for half an hour and remelted with the addition of small quantities of orpiment every ten minutes, it was withdrawn.
"After cooling and the addition of chemically pure antimony sulfide, it was again put back into the furnace, small quantities of orpiment being thrown in every five minutes. The residue obtained had a dark metallic tint. After hammering it became slightly golden.
"The reactions of gold were quite characteristic; the reactions of platinum also seemed to reveal its presence.
"The quantity of gold obtained in this experiment was about one gramme.
"I submit the hypothesis that the arsenic acts as a catalyst and the sulfur as a ferment in this transmutation."
"As a sequel to my previous work on the artificial synthesis of gold, I have introduced tin into these new tests as it is also often associated with gold in Nature. The following is a description of this new process, thanks to which the percentage of gold obtained destroys all the objections that are raised with regard to impurities.
"I made an intimate mixture of 6 gr of chemically pure silver... 2 gr of antimony sulfide, 1 gr of orpiment, and one gr of tin... I then added the usual fluxes and then heated the whole in a crucible in the furnace to about 1100º C for about one hour, twice adding a small quantity of antimony sulfide.
"The residue obtained was treated for a long time in nitric acid... The liquor when filtered and subjected to the reagents of gold showed the presence of this metal in the form of abundant deposits which may be estimated at 0.05 gr in all, which is very high considering the 6 gr of silver employed. The deposits when collected and dried had a yellow green metallic color and possessed all the characteristics of gold...
"It would be very easy to show that, given the respective prices of gold and of the other substances that are used in my process to produce it, a profit could be obtained if the process were worked industrially, all the more so as the greater part of the silver employed can be recovered at each test..
"I believe I now hold the key to the regular and even industrial manufacture of gold.
"But the industrial question is voluntarily put aside from my thoughts, for my only object is the search for pure scientific truth."
In a correspondence, a Mr. Ballandras reported on "How I Succeeded In Making Gold According To The Process of Mr. Jollivet-Castelot: Dosage of Gold Obtained by the Second Method", using 10 gr silver and 3 gr each of tin, orpiment, and antimony sulfide:
"I will not conceal the fact that I have often heard ironical remarks about processes by which he succeeded in manufacturing gold. I determined to check his tests with the greatest possible accuracy...
"These reactions are sufficiently characteristic and clearly prove the existence in the last liquor of a metal which, even if it is not gold, must nevertheless be placed very close to the latter... the metal obtained and gold must be perfectly isotopic.
"I have repeated this test several times and I have observed: 1) That the production of gold is a function of the rapidity with which the necessary heat is obtained; 2) That it is also a function of the degree of tightness of the crucible. A crucible that is closed as tightly as possible gives better results; 3) That the amount of gold obtained was not always uniform; some of the tests were absolutely sterile and I inferred that this was due to some defect in the mounting.
"I think there must be a certain temperature that should not be exceeded and that the external conditions of pressure and electricity must be of considerable importance."
"After having operated as previously, I obtained a quantity of gold corresponding to 0.05 gr per gram of silver employed... This I consider to be a highly interesting result."
"The quantity of gold which was obtained was 0.476 gr for 10 gr of silver employed, or 0.0476 gr of gold per gr of silver."
On 6 June 1926, Jollivet-Castelot read a memorandum about "A Recent Experiment In Transmutation" to the Academie Royal des Sciences (Belgium):
"All my research work on transmutation since 1908 has started from the fact that gold is found in nature associated with antimony and arsenic sulfides as well as with tellurium, which is considered as a mineralizer of gold. I therefore considered that it was logical to introduce tellurium into the artificial combination of silver and arsenic and antimony sulfides that I make...
Mr. Louis Outon, a pharmaceutical chemist in Buenos Aires, also confirmed the method in a letter dated 26 July 1927:
"Dear Sir... I have repeated the experiments... in my laboratory and am amazed at the results. For the moment, it is only the scientific side which interests me, since the cost of the gold obtained is often greater than the value of the metal..."
Stephen H. EmmensEarly in 1897, the British inventor Stephen Henry Emmens, then residing in New York, announced the discovery of a new element which fills the "vacant space existing in the sub-group of Group I", and which he thought to be the intermediate matter from which silver and gold are formed:
"Our claim is that the element in question is therefore neither silver nor gold, but which may, by our new physical methods, be converted into gold."
Emmens' process comprised stages of mechanical treatment, fluxing and granulation, more mechanical treatment, "modified nitric acid", and refining. The mechanical treatment was accomplished by means of his "Force Engine", which exerted pressures in excess of 500 tons psi at very low temperatures.
His Argentaurum Laboratory on Staten Island produced over 660 ounces of gold from silver and sold it to the U.S. Assay Office in 1897. He revealed a few historical and technical details of his transmutation process in his book "Argentaurum Papers #1: Some Remarks Concerning Gravitation":
"Our work, which converts silver into gold, had its origin in the course of certain investigations which I undertook for the purpose of preparing chemically pure nickel... in 1892...
"Our starting point, so far as silver and gold were concerned, was afforded by the remarkable discoveries of Mr. Carey Lea with regard to [colloidal silver]... It was found that... this subdivision of metallic silver was attended by very considerable changes in the physical properties of the substance...By certain physical methods and by the aid of a certain apparatus, we succeeded in bringing about a further subdivision of the silver. We were not surprised to find that the substance obtained differed so far from ordinary silver that it could no longer be regarded as the same elementary substance. It seemed to require a new name and a new chemical symbol. Inasmuch, therefore, as our theory was that this substance was common to both gold and silver, and in reality was the raw material out of which both gold and silver were constructed by the hand of nature, we named the substance Argentaurum...
"The next step was to ascertain whether this substance could be so treated as to be grouped into molecules of greater density than those of silver... We found that... Argentaurum can be aggregated into molecules having a density considerably superior to that of ordinary gold molecules. Whether we are right as to this or not, the condensed Argentaurum presents the appearance and is endowed with the properties of ordinary metallic gold...
"We do not consume any chemicals and other costly materials in our process; what we use is mainly energy in some of its various forms, such as heat, electricity, magnetism, gravity, cohesion, chemical affinity, x-rays and the like... Our chief source of expense is the time required for bringing about the desired molecular changes... One ounce of silver will produce three-quarters of an ounce of gold..."
"I regard the mechanical treatment as the causa causans. The fluxing and granulation serve, I think, merely to render the molecular aggregate susceptible of displacement and rearrangement."
In May 1897, Dr. Emmens sent a sample of Argentaurum and instructions for its preparation to Sir William Crookes:
"Take a Mexican dollar and dispose it in an apparatus which will prevent expansion or flow. Then subject it to heavy, rapid, and continuous beating under conditions of cold such as to prevent even a temporary rise of temperature when the blows are struck. Test the material from hour to hour, and at length you will find more than the trace (less than one part in 10,000) of gold which the dollar originally contained."
Sir Crookes was unable to replicate the experiment to his satisfaction. He reported:
"A specimen of Argentaurum sent me by Dr. Emmens has been examined with the spectrograph. It consists of gold with a fair proportion of silver and a little copper. No lines belonging to any other known elements, and no unknown lines, were detected."
Ordinary bullion gold contains silver and copper to make it harder and more fusible than pure gold. Hmmm...
In 1898, Emmens floated the syndicated Argentaurum Company, promising that for one ounce of silver (then worth about 50 cents) and payment of $4.50 per ounce for conversion costs, the investor would be repaid with 3/5 ounce of gold (then worth about $11). Dr. Emmens' application for a patent on his process was rejected, however, so production never began, since he would not have been able to protect his methods from unscrupulous competitors.
The German alchemist Franz Seraph Tausend (1884-1942) began to produce gold from mercury in the 1920s under the auspices of General Ludendorff. The fledgling Nazi Party invested heavily in the enterprise, which had great appeal during that period of hyper-inflation, but his partners wasted most of the money on extravagant lifestyles. Tausend himself had a penchant for castles and bought a few. In 1929 he was forced to demonstrate his process in a sensational court trial, and it proved true, though ultimately it was determined to be unprofitable. Tausend was convicted for misappropriation of investment funds and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment. After his release, he was arrested again in 1937 for check fraud, and he died in prison.
Tausend's work was based on a circular table of 180 elements arranged according to a system of harmonic frequencies and atomic weights.
The ingredients of his formula are known to be: Part 1) 111 gr lead chloride, 60 gr potassium hydroxide; Part 2) 76 gr potassium, 55 gr sodium amalgamated with 131 gr of mercury, melted under paraffin. Reaction of 17.4 gr Part 1 with 5.4 gr Part 2 yielded 5.4 gr of gold.
In 1931, Polish engineer Roman [?] Dunikovski announced that he could produce artificial gold by the action of "Z-rays" on a mixture of silica and feldspar melted in bronze crucibles under the influence of 110 kilovolts. Dunikovski claimed to have inherited the process from his father and grandfather who had developed it. He also theorized that all minerals contain "embryonal atoms" or "mineralites" that can be artificially matured in minutes.
Several French investors syndicated and subscribed 2,000,000 francs which Dunikovski used to build a laboratory in Paris. But when no gold was produced, he was charged with fraud. He demonstrated his process to the court, but the results were ambiguous and insufficient to prove his innocence. Dunikovski was sentenced to four years imprisonment, but his attorney secured his release after two years. He relocated to San Remo and renewed his experiments, improving the process and gaining significant increases in yields.
When rumors began to spread that Dunikovski was selling small amounts of gold, his attorney Jean Legrand visited Dunikovski with the eminent chemist Albert Bonn to investigate. M. Bonn witnessed the process and repeated it himself. One type of sand, which contained 11 gr golg/ton before treatment, assayed 859 gr/ton after treatment with the improved apparatus.
Dunikovski later established "Metallex, Societe Anonyme" with Belgian stockholders and built a factory on Lake Neuchatel. Nothing more is known about the affair because its proceedings were kept secret.
Circa 1937, an Austrian chemist named Adalbert Klobasa claimed to have synthesized gold using an electromagnet and induction coil with which he treated a mixture of 36 gr titanium-potassium-oxalate, 84 gr ferrous sulfate, 50 gr copper sulfate, 50 gr sodium sulfide, 100 gr ammonium chloride, 100 gr ammonia, 20 ml waterglass, and 440 gr silica. The reaction was catalyzed with 100 mg of silver. Two hours of treatment afforded a 1% yield of gold which appeared as brown-red scales.
Klobasa claimed that gold is built up from iron, titanium, and sodium. He wisely declined to enter into business:
"I am too old, and not fit enough to worry myself chasing around after capitalists."
Thomas H. Moray
At the 68th National Western Mining Conference in Denver CO (4 February 1965), Dr Thomas Henry Moray presented a progress report on the "Recovery of Minerals from Low Grade Ore by High Energy Bombardment" being studied at his Research Institute in Salt Lake City, UT:
"From 1950 to 1953, our attention turned to the reactions involved in working with uranium ores... It was observed that as the raw uranium ore was irradiated and otherwise processed under proper conditions, fairly large amount of uranium could be recovered. For instance, on May 16, 1958, using a sample that ran 0.29% uranium oxide before irradiation, the assay was 21.9% after... After Dr Marvin of the AEC spent several months investigating the sample we supplied, it was reported that no ore of the type we presented existed in the United States except by the process of aging which they admitted we seemed able to do. We proposed that a breeding type reaction could be accomplished by the bombardment of low grade ores with high energy particles or x-rays in the presence of a proper environment. At this time we were unsuccessful in obtaining a contract from the AEC. It was disclosed later that breeding reaction investigations were being conducted by the AEC in Arc, Idaho (Scientific American, January 1960). We still feel our method is cheaper and more efficient that the process used at Arco.
"The study of uranium oxide, however, paid for itself in that it opened up new ideas in an approach top breeder reactions for other types of mineral bearing ores. In 1958 we altered the uranium breeding reaction process and specifically adapted it to the recovery of gold, silver and platinum ores..."
Moray had rented time on the Varian Associates 8 MeV Linac (linear accelerator) and conducted a series of tests to determine the optimal conditions for their process. In her "History of the Research Project" (1966), Ruth L. Hendricks reported:
"These tests gave yields of from 50 to 100 ounces of gold per ton and as much as several hundred ounces of silver per ton. It must be mentioned at this time that when virtually no gold or silver values can be determined in the raw ore (i.e., they assay from trace to a few hundredths of an ounce of gold per ton), after irradiation and drying the gold and silver can be identified by standard fire assay or any other normal determination method...
"The ores we have used fall into three main categories. All contain from trace to a few hundredths of an ounce of gold per ton. Although we have tried higher grade ores, they seem less adaptable to this process. The increase in values is much less than in low grade ores. One type of ore is simply low grade unprocessed gold ore. The second is mill tailings. This type has a number of advantages such as being inexpensive, available in large quantities, and already ground. For these reasons a great deal of work has been done with this type of ore with excellent results. The third variety of ore is natural sand. Although fewer different ores of this type have been tried, they also have usually given good yields...
"These calculations show that with a small risk involved, a yield of around 15 ounces of gold per ton can be anticipated. We also found that a dose of 0.16, 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 megarads gave the peaks on the sine curve for dose. A dose rate of 4 megarads per minute gave the highest peak on the dose rate curve..."
In a telephone interview with Ken Jones (September 1981), Thomas Moray's son John said:"The environmental material consists of a combination of chemicals whose atomic numbers add up to the atomic number of silver or gold and yield silver and gold upon irradiation [The formulas include arseno- and iron-pyrites in alkaline solution]. Antimony has peculiar properties -- it has floating electrons which come in very handy. It is believed that this environment furnishes particles similar to the cosmic ray reaction on the atmosphere. Research work indicates that the radiation must be composed of both high-speed electrons and x-rays. Consistent results under controlled methods were obtained with the addition of a catalyst (a flux or reduction agent, an environment) combined with bombardment of the material ... by an energy bombardment tube developed for the Research Institute."The "bombardment tube" might be a preferred embodiment of Dr. T.H. Moray's US Patent US2460707 (Electro-Therapeutic Apparatus):
"The invention has been described in the foregoing with sole reference to its use for therapeutic purposes. It should be noted, however, that inorganic matter may also be treated to advantage pursuant to the methods and with the apparatus... It has been found that metals, for example, lead, have changed physical properties after treatment in accordance with the above..."
T.R. Dolph published an article about the Moray process in Fate magazine (February 1976), wherein he stated:"Dr. Moray engaged my father-in-law, attorney Victor G. Sagers, Midvale, Utah, to represent him in offering the device to the US Government... Transmutation of metals (yes, turning lead into gold) was demonstrated several times; the government supplied the lead and kept the gold."John Moray denied this in a letter to Ken Jones (18 January 1982):
"The article by T.R. Dolph is one of those articles written by a crackpot that has in fact mixed together a number of unrelated facts. There is no such device as described in Fate magazine... The bombardment tube does exist. However, this has nothing to do with the recovery of minerals from low grade ore. The bombardment tube is a part of the therapy device..." (Thomas Moray also invented a marvelous therapeutic device and an extremely powerful radiant energy receiver, now lost).
Joe ChampionDuring the 1990s the modern alchemist Joe Champion developed a variety of novel techniques to produce gold, based on concepts originated by geologist Walter Lussage (1967).
Dr Bockris at Texas A.M. University replicated one of the experiments using this formula: 300 gr carbon, 900 gr potassium nitrate, 80 gr sulfur, 100 gr iron sulfate, 30 gr cadmium, 100 gr mercury chloride, 50 gr lead oxide, 5 gr silver, and 30 gr calcium oxide. The ingredients were mixed and ignited with a torch. The silver content increased from 5 to 8.7 gr, and a small amount of gold also was produced. X-ray flourescence and mass spectrometry examinations were made of the materials before and after the ignition. Though workable, the technique has little to recommend it due to the expense and danger, but greed, lawyers, and technocratic hubris can easily bypass such obstacles.
In 1993, Joe Champion received patent WO9403905 (Method for Transmutation of Select Isotopes of Individual Elements from Compositions Containing Such). If you must know already, here is the formula given in Example 1: Heat Generator -- 100 gr ferrous sulfate, 80 gr sulfur, 300 gr carbon, 900 gr potassium nitrate; Resonance Generator -- 120 gr silica, 30 gr calcium oxide; Basic Metals -- 5 gr silver, 100 gr mercury chloride, 50 gr lead oxide, 30 gr cadmium. The mixture is ignited in a steel vessel; the fire lasts about 3 minutes. The residue contains gold, platinum, palladium, and rhodium, which are separated by conventional means.
Champion's research associate Greg Iseman used a microwave digestion process to perform analyses of the formula, and this method also produced transmutations.
"If the reaction mixture exceeds 15 kg, the yield is reduced because the transmutation cycle is too long and begins to produce base elements instead of precious metals. It was found necessary to add traces of the target elements to the starting mixture in order for the resonance of those elements (i.e., Au) to act as a "stopping agent".
"The following reagents were required to produce synthetic precious metals by this process: silica, ferrous sulfate, lead oxide, calcium oxide, mercury sulfide, and cadmium. The mixture was combined with carbon, sodium or potassium nitrate, sulfur, mercury chloride, and silver. The formula produced synthetic gold, iridium, platinum, palladium, and rhodium...
"When the chemical mixture is properly prepared, it has a reproductive factor of over 60%. This was later increased to 90-plus percent when an error was determined in the crystalline structure of the ferrous sulfate. The differences dealt with a magnetic susceptibility at high temperature, i.e., greater than 750° C..."
Mr. Champion also discovered an application of combined phonon resonance, magnetic moment, and exact temperatures to effect transformations:
"The isotope to be transmuted... is heated and subjected to a resonant frequency unique to the nucleus of the isotope for a time sufficient for the isotope to undergo an alpha fission to a new element of lower mass and atomic number...
"In the formation of silver (or other elements) from a dimensional reaction, the conversion will occur without excess energies or nuclear signatures. The principle is straightforward and simple without toxicity, by utilizing a heat source that is stable and capable of heating in the range of 100-120° C. Allow the temperature of the silver to stabilize at 43.2° C.
"Achievement of the maximum conversion of Ag to Au will depend on the dwell time at resonance temperature. Conversion of Ag to Au can occur in as little as six hours; 2% conversion takes up to 24 hours.
"The conversion of one element (specifically one isotope) to another through a dimensional reaction occurs under select conditions of phonon resonance. Dimensional phonon resonance occurs when the space occupied by one isotope is exactly the same as that of another isotope in its rest state. This event only occur under the following two conditions: (1) the expansion of an isotope by heating; or, (2) the contraction of an isotope by cooling...
"The conversion of Al to Au is an absolute application of dimensional science. In this reaction, gold is produced in its ultra-pure state on a continuous basis. This procedure may be utilized for most elements. The basis of this dimensional occurs in the collection of atomic size particles that form near the resonant metal (in this case aluminum). Due to the size of the particles they appear in what normal chemistry would consider a gas phase. The targeted element (isotope) forms in its singular state and due to the lack of energies present. There are insufficient energies to bind the atoms into a colloidal state...
"In the production of gold from aluminum, the ideal temperature is 302.9° C. These temperatures are optimum for the Al (the Al must be allowed to come into equilibrium with the furnace). Once resonance is established, production is continuous. The Au is captured in the water as it is removed from a negative pressure applied to the furnace established by the vacuum pump. However, please be aware that Al will also convert to Ag107 at a temperature of 283.7° C."
A third method devised by Joe Champion involves biological transmutation performed by mutant strains of yeast, which he describes in his US Patent Application US2008081359 (Methods for Producing Mutant Microbes Useful for Precious Metal and Bioenergy Production):
"A mutant microbe that generates trace amounts of gold on silver, and uses of the mutant microbe for recovering precious metals and producing biofuels and oil products are described. According to an exemplary embodiment, the mutant microbe is produced by placing metallic silver in an aqueous solution, and adding a species of Saccharomyces to the aqueous solution such that when the species of Saccharomyces comes in contact with the metallic silver, at least a portion of the species of Saccharomyces transforms into the mutant microbe that interacts with the metallic silver and forms a layer comprising a trace amount of nano gold particles on the metallic silver."
His USP Application US2009087892 (same title) rephrases the concept:
"The present invention relates to methods of mutation of yeast of the genus Saccharomyces with metallic silver and nano silver atoms. The mutant microbes carry out biological transmutation in coating silver with a yellow material comprising trace amounts of nano gold particles... [and] are also useful for aggregating and coalescing nano precious metal atoms into clusters of bulk precious metals where the nano atoms are produced by the resonance of an aluminum or a silver tube in an electromagnetic field."
He also offers these instructions on his website:
"Making Gold -- Requirements include the following: 5 gallon bucket purchased at a hardware store, 10 to 15 ounces of silver shot which can be ordered from any jewelry store, one gallon of distilled water, one kilogram of yeast (Fleischmann’s).
"Place the silver yeast and water in the bucket and place the bucket in a area that is warm. I use the sun as my heater but sunlight is not required.
"The preferred temperature is near 100° C. but the process will work at lower temperatures, though slower. Stir the bucket at least three times a day. During the first two days you may see the yeast rise. Just stir in back into the water. It will take between four and seven days for you to start seeing the first gold color on top of your silver shot. Depending on conditions it may take upwards to twenty days..."
The yeast can be mutated in several ways, such as by silver particles, UV light, electromagnetic fields, and nutrients should be added to the brew.
Alexander Putney has further researched and developed Champion's yeast process, and he claims:
"Essential atomic conversion processes are now achievable in simpler digitally-controlled abiotic phonon reactors requiring only heated water and carbon dioxide nanobubbles to convert bulk silver nanopowder into pure gold."
O, what joyous vindication of Don Ho! Nanobubble generators are a highly promising emerging technology with many possible applications besides transmutations, including treatment of water, gingivitis, cancer, and garbage.
Dr. John V. Milewski (Superkinetic, Inc., Albuquerque NM) discovered a way to make gold from "ORMEs" in common glass with the help of a microwave. According to his statement in a YouTube video demonstration, "Any 600 to 900 watt kitchen microwave will do to illustrate melting and casting metals in a microwave. The gold process takes three to four iterations..." Profitable operation of the process would require a powerful industrial microwave furnace.
Milewski found (statistically) that he could produce over $100 worth of gold from 100 grams of common brown glass. Furthermore, he states that any cubic crystal can "grow" gold, even if analysis shows the material to be barren of any precious elements.
Gold and several other elements allegedly exist in a gaseous "monoatomic" form called ORME (Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements), or ORMUS, discovered by David Hudson in 1975. Such isotopes have been stripped of electrons and collapsed into a smaller, gaseous form exhibiting unique properties such as room temperature superconductivity and miraculous healing.
Hudson's British Patent GB2219995 (Non-Metallic, Monoatomic Forms of Transitional Elements) describes ORMEs thus:
"...stable, substantially pure, non-metallic-like forms of [gold, silver, copper, cobalt and nickel, and the six platinum group elements having] a hereto unknown electron orbital rearrangement in the "d", "s", and vacant "p" orbitals. The electron rearrangement bestows upon the monoatomic elements unique electronic, chemical, magnetic, and physical properties which have commercial application."
The proper preparation of ORMEs is technically difficult, but many shameless entrepreneurs have adopted the name and applied it to dubious products made by crude processes larded with magical thinking, scientific method be damned. Such materials bear no resemblance to the ORMEs described in Hudson's patent.
Milewski posits that the gaseous ORMEs can be released from crystal forms by heating and reconstituted in their solid form as they absorb electrons in the process.
To summarize: Lacking the Philosophers' Stone, it is nevertheless possible to manufacture gold from other elements, particularly silver, catalyzed by arsenic sulfide, in nitric acid, under UV light, at resonant frequencies, with nanobubbles, in a microwave oven!
For good measure, please consider too the equally improbable Sprink "Space Activator", which can reduce the time required for chemical reactions by 80% while using only half the calories (!).
Leon Sprink was a Russian engineer who operated a cement manufacturing plant in France during the 1950s. He received several patents for a simple method to create a torsional form of electric field that accelerates chemical reactions. He mentions this example in his British Patent GB685522 (Method of and Apparatus for Carrying out Chemical Reactions):
“One month after the setting in operation of the apparatus, the duration of the reaction, which normally is 24 hours, had fallen down to 3 hours and the saving in calories to be supplied for the reaction was 50%… The field also affects the states of matter such as solubility and crystallization, distillation, reduction of metallic ores, etc..."
Leon Sprink died in poverty, but a 16-fold saving of time and energy in the "reduction of metallic ores, etc." might be profitable for another pioneering entrepreneur if applied to transmutation.
"Spectral Catalysts" also could enhance the engineering of this new industry. The term (coined by Juliana Brooks) refers to specialized applications of electric and magnetic fields, select frequencies, and waveforms, etc. -- the usual suspects -- imposed upon chemical reactions at low levels of energy input to improve yields and quality.
Surmising from this compilation of factoids, the manufacture of gold by transmutation of silver could become an established industry within a few decades, if civilization and the biosphere don't collapse first.
And there you have it -- a dazzling glimpse at The Next Bigly Thing in the Wonder World of WheneverLand !!!
About the Author: Robert A. Nelson is a 10th grade dropout with no credentials. He established Rex Research in 1982 to archive hard-to-find information about suppressed, dormant, and emerging inventions. He persists...