Fuel Reformer
[ Google machnien translation from French ]


Archive files contributed by Thierry Saint-G., & Serge G. Montpellier : "The Mystery Makhonine"

The invention of Ivan Makhonine who made use of it as a business Makhonine, was the subject of numerous articles and reviews in national and international press, as well as in political circles, the army, and business world.

As always, there were those who understood that this invention could make France free from oil speculation, major groups that govern the planet. But it was not counting on their power and their Lies which unfortunately diverted policy makers from this fuel.

Our site aims to make known to all inventions which concern mainly energy and pollution problems.

We always try as much as possible to give you the maximum information about these inventions and their inventors.

In many cases we do not have conclusive evidence that these inventions provide the results described by their inventors and we often stay on our hunger, but there are some whose results are indisputable because they have been thoroughly checked, recorded officially, and have resulted in successful applications. Despite this interest, they fell or were pushed into oblivion for reasons wholly beyond their technical or utilities.

Thus it is impossible to ignore one of those inventions made at the beginning of the century by Mr Ivan Makhonine, Russian engineer.

In 1981 we became aware of the issue... and today, 20 years later, and more than 80 years after the time when Makhonine lived, we think it useful to publish the most of our documents for reflection of our readers.

So much time, energy and lives ruined by the chosen orientation for supplying fuel to the transport means for all these years, and all that to come to requisition (almost) today good agricultural land that could produce anything other than fuel. History repeats itself, the choice is unfortunately also biased as it was time Makhonine. We see every day what to means of production such choices steer humanity...

An overview of the life and inventions of Mr Ivan Makhonine


Michel David
Mr. Makhonine had simply found a way to make an ideal fuel ranging from gasoline and diesel, with the advantages of each without its flaws.

Born in Russia in 1895, Yvan Makhonine, finds himself in the war of 14/18 in a state research center to invent weapons and ammunition of all kinds, which brings him fortune.

Around 1917, he invented a way to produce synthetic fuel, able to run without noticeable changes, all types of combustion engines typically powered by gasoline or other fuels.

Unlike gasoline, his fuel can not be ignited in the cold, but only when hot as fuel. But though it can only be ignited  with difficulty by auto ignition, unlike gasoline, it can help to significantly increase the efficiency of combustion engines by simply raising their compression rate.

This fuel, a little fatter than gasoline, with the appearance of diesel, is easily sprayable by carburetor engines, provided you bring the electric air preheating systems to facilitate cold starts and to increase the efficiency of the usual means of heating the body of the carburettor.

Some adjusting the weight floats and sizes of the nozzles are to be made because of the density of the product, markedly higher than gasoline, and close to 1.0.

Around 1918, Mr. Makhonine built an electric-powered locomotive with motors driving the wheel axles are powered by a power generator itself driven by an internal combustion engine with a high compression ratio. The cars of this train were also equipped with electric motors.

According to witnesses, it leaves a vapor with the appearance of a thick smoke, which feeds directly into the combustion engine electric generator.

If this "smoke" is sent to a conventional distillation apparatus, it condenses as fuel that can be stored for later use.

This electric powered locomotive, ultra modern for its time compared to intensive steam engines, was used in Russian cars until 1920 or 1921.

Beginning 1922, Mr. Makhonine with his wife (the singer Nathalie Ermolenko) and fortune, arrived in France, and decided to sell his invention to the French State.

For many years the fuel was used successfully in all vehicles equipped with an internal combustion engine, automobiles, trucks, boats, planes etc.

One could write books about what happened during these years, finally everything stopped around 1927, when he found himself almost ruined after suffering the fate of many inventors.

After the 39/40 war, with energy problems and addictiveness, he found hope to interest French politicians and other decision-makers and power brokers again to his invention. This would have resulted in  incalculable positive economic consequences for our country.

We actually noticed a few bursts of interest over the years for its fuel, years in which he sought to develop one or two other inventions, including his invention of an airplane with variable geometry. The invention on which he obstinately persisted at his own expense would eventually ruin him completely.

Mr. Ivan Makhonine, engineer, Russian inventor, died in France in 1973 in a retirement home for needy Russian emigrants, without disclosing the precise secret of his invention, i.e., the exact technology that transformed the machine hydrocarbon vapors and other carbon products in a "smoke" condensable giving this famous fuel and this with tremendous efficiency, which we are unable to achieve with our current science.

In conclusion, Mr. Makhonine knew just make an ideal fuel that was neither petrol nor diesel, but an intermediate product.

He could manufacture this fuel from raw materials most unfit for this, i.e., coal tars, the worst coal, crude oil, vegetable oils and all hydrocarbon or carbonaceous waste.

What we know is that it was preparing the base product with means that differed product (see French Patent No. 622036 below), so as to extract a steam that was posing in a kind large insulated tube externally - not described in the patent system - whose other end is connected directly to an engine, or a conventional distillation apparatus where the fuel comes out.

These are obviously the details of this device, absent from the patent, which are unknown to us.

We know that production of this exceptional fuel yields were approximately 95% crude oils and coal tars. These results are not comparable with that obtained in quantity and quality by conventional methods which are known to us.

We also know that the engines burning the fuel, in addition to their exceptional performance, did not pollute, produced no smoke or the usual unpleasant smell, but only a sort of hot gas with a slight pleasant odor.

Procédé mécanique de transformation des combustibles liquides...

Mechanical Process for Transformation of Combustible Liquides

[ PDF ]


A method of mechanical processing heavy liquid fuels, coal tars and in light liquid fuels, can be employed for feeding internal combustion engines.


The present invention and improvements and modifications to the process, feeding internal combustion engines, manufacturing and hydrogenation of fuel required for the operation of these motors and devices for the implementation of this method in internal combustion machinery.

In addition, the present invention is applicable to feeding internal combustion engines using solid fuels such as shale, coal, peat, lignite, etc., by their dissociation under high pressures and at elevated temperatures.

The separation of liquid or solid fuels will be carried out as follows:

The heavy liquid fuel, mixed with any gas, is introduced into a cylinder and compressed adiabatically until a certain pressure and, therefore, subject to corresponding temperature, then reformed in a refrigerant, products which have undergone this elevation of temperature and pressure (that is to say, the factors promoting their decomposition and their cleavage) will be condensed.

We obtain for the oils from petrol and having undergone such an operation, a dissociation of their elements, that is to say that one will find in the resulting products, products heavier than before the operation and the slight species.

There may also be introduced into the cylinder or cylinders (the compression operation can be performed in one or more stages) the liquid fuel mixed with hydrogen gas at a pressure and a temperature determined in advance; hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen, that is to say unsaturated, absorb, in addition to the hydrogen they already contain a determined amount of hydrogen.

These hydrocarbons driven into a condenser and condensed, with or without pressure, in the presence or absence of a catalyst, will be  hydrogenated and contain minor species in abundance.

By performing the same operations on fat, one can break them down into small essences.

Similar results will be obtained by separating the oils by the use of gas or air expelled at high pressures and corresponding temperatures across a certain mass of the selected fuel. The resulting products will be passed, if necessary in the presence of a catalyst, or a refrigerant or condensable gas, with or without pressure, are condensed with or without pressure; as products to condensable gases, such as coal gas or other, they will be recovered to be used for purposes other than those indicated by the present invention.

The Description which will follow, to the accompanying drawing, given by way of example, will explain how the invention will be realized.

Figure 1 and 2 are an elevation partially cut away and in plan, of an apparatus for the treatment of liquid fuels.

FIG. 3 is a sectional view of the apparatus for processing solid fuels.

A compressor ( Fig. 1 and 2 ) sucks through an ordinary carburetor 1 the mixtures of selected gas and heavy liquid fuels, the gas flowing through the pipe 3. This compressor will consist in principle of two cylinders 4 and 5 of the first compression stage, a cylinder 6 of the second compression stage and a cylinder 7, compression of the third stage; it is provided with suction valves 8 and 9 and delivery valves 10 and 11, 12, and 13, separating them in the different phases of compression and conveniently disposed to assure the good functioning of the apparatus.

On the body of these valves will set a piping for aspirating the mixture gas and liquid to be hydrogenated, the passing this mixture in the various compression chambers, and finally the compressor communicating with the condenser 14 to through the control valve 15.

There exist in the path of this piping two similar cooling coils 16 and 17, the coil 16 between the second and the third compression stages, and the other between the third 17 and the refrigerant compression; each of these coils will have a special installation to meet at each instant, with a pyrometer and through the inner tubes 18 and 19, the temperature of gases and vapors through these coils; these will be naturally cooled as required for the operation and the results to be obtained.

In addition, the compressor will have three manometers 20, 21, and 22 as indicated; 20 is the pressure gauge in the first compression chamber, 21 in the second compression chamber, and 22 the gauge in the third compression chamber; in addition, three suction valves located one on each of the three compression stages.

The number of compression stages is not essential and may even be one, resulting, of course, the forms of construction of compressors and other data as described above.

A water manometer will be installed on the suction piping of gas, in order to measure every moment the pressure or vacuum in this part of the piping.

This compressor can be controlled directly or indirectly by any force: steam, electricity, gasoline engine, transmission belt, etc. A refrigerant compressor may be mounted on the same base, or separately.

The operation is as follows: The compressor suction (Fig 1 and 2) being felt in the carburetor 1 by the intermediary of aspiration valves 8 and 9, a depression is produced in the chamber of the carburetor; the liquid, acted upon by this relative vacuum, comes through the pipe 3, the nozzle will pass through the carburetor and by spraying, will mix into droplets of tenuous gas supplied through pipe 2.

This liquid and gas mixture pass through the filling valves 8 and 9 and répandra in the cylinders 4 and 5, where it will undergo a first compression and hence, a processing liquid particles in vapor, caused by the increase in temperature corresponding to this pressure.

The gas mixture and the released vapors of the cylinders 4 and 5, after the first compression through the discharge valves 10 and 11 of these cylinders will cover a first portion of pipes arranged for this purpose and on the route which is a manometer 20 of first compression chamber, then into the cylinder 6 through a pipe arranged thereto and undergo the second compression.

The gas mixture and then vapor will penetrate into the cylinder 7 to be compressed there a third time and undergo there, therefore, a further increase in pressure and cooling, then the output gas and vapors are highly compressed and heated to a high temperature, then cross the third and final part of the piping, also with a manometer in the third compression chamber and valve to the coil 17 (or,if deemed necessary, a further reduction) and be finally collected by the light liquid outlet pipe of the coolant, which may moreover be provided with a flow valve.

A similar operation is reserved for the treatment of solid fuels by the process of reducing them to a very fine powder.

In fact, as regards the processing in subjecting these solid fuels, such as coal usually a means envisaged for the embodiment of the present invention will be excessively fine grinding and pulverizing of coal to be treated, mixing this with a heavy coal liquid fuel and the passage of this mixture sufficiently liquid, mixing with gas or air through a compressor of a type somewhat similar to that already described, and then condensation vapors and gases obtained in the compressor under high pressure and at corresponding temperatures, through a similar coolant to that used for the treatment of heavy liquid fuels described above.

Condensable gases, such as coal gas, for example, from the dissociation of coal will be recovered to be used for purposes other than those specified by the present invention.

Another embodiment of the solid fuel treatment embodiment is to carry out the separation of coal, by subjecting them to the action of gas or air expelled at high pressures and corresponding temperatures, using an apparatus Special arranged for this purpose.

This device (Fig. 3) will consist of a fuel tank, cylindrical tube 26, having on its perimeter tubing 27; on arrival of the gas or compressed air in this pipe, the valve 28 will be set to discharge the compressor.

The upper part is closed by a hemispherical cover 29 carrying a manometer 30 and a safety valve 31; the lid on the reservoir body will be tightened using bolts 32, equipped with wing nuts.

The lower part of the apparatus ends by a hemispherical bottom 33 forming a pipe on the flange of which will bind a control valve 34 which, via the pipe 35, allow access to the refrigerant vapor and gas products.

At the bottom, the obstruction of the outlet pipe is avoided by adding a movable strainer 36 arranged for this purpose.

As for the top, the bottom be fastened with bolts to eye 37, equipped with wing nuts.

The vertical position of the fuel tank is not required; the latter may be more or less tilted and even be placed horizontally.

One compressor may by an intermediary a delivery manifold, forcing simultaneously in several fuel tanks arranged on ad hoc sites, or vice versa, several compressors...

Procédé pour le traitement des combustibles hydrocarburés destinés à être employés dans les moteurs à combustion interne ou à explosion

A method for treating hydrocarbonaceous fuels for use in internal combustion engines

[ PDF ]

It is known that when the hydrocarbons are subjected to pressures and temperatures higher than those which correspond to their normal boiling, they undergo complex processes of transformation that is designated by the name of cracking or cracking and which consist in particular in the production of hydrocarbons having a lower boiling point than the hydrocarbons from which we started.

It has already been proposed to subject the liquid fuels (especially heavy oils) vaporized in a heat treatment under a high  pressure, prior to entering the engine.

Now the Applicant has found that, to obtain a liquid fuel suitable for a particular motor, it is necessary to submit the liquid fuel, which is, more particularly, a heavy oil, after vaporization and before its introduction into the engine, the temperature and the maximum pressure to which it will be submitted in the engine during the cycle.

The treatment may be in a facility associated with the engine. The fuel is then introduced directly into the engine or in the vapor state or in a reliquefied state. According to a variant the fuel can be obtained separately to be used thereafter.

The applicant has found that by adjusting the fuel processing to the type of engine used, we get various technical and economic benefits.

If, for example, in an engine which operates with a high pressure and high temperature pressing, for example with a pressure of 8 kg. per cm and a temperature of 350 [deg] C., use is made of a fuel that has been subjected to the vaporized state, at a pressure and a temperature significantly lower, for example at a pressure of 4 kg per cm and a temperature of 250 C., the product auto-ignites, therefore, is likely to autoxidation, and forms carbon deposits which rapidly contaminate the engine.

If however a motor which operates with a low pressure and a low compression temperature, for example with a pressure of 4 kg. per cm and a temperature of 250 [deg] C. is provided a vaporized fuel that has been subjected to a pressure and at a significantly higher temperature, for example at a pressure of 8 kg. per cm and at a pressure of 350 [deg] C., the operation of the engine is perfect but during processing it eliminates some amount of the combustion products which would be effective, and therefore the fuel efficiency is considerably reduced.

It is thus seen that the method according to the present invention provides a hydrocarbon fuel which gives the best results for the particular engine in which it is used.

This fuel does not react with air and is no longer producing autoxidation phenomena during compression, which eliminates self-ignition; it causes no carbon deposit, nor the phenomena known as knocking.

The method may be implemented in any suitable manner and using any suitable installation.

For example, the oil may be subjected to the temperature and the pressure mentioned above in a suitable boiler and vapors can be either introduced directly into the engine where they are mixed with the combustion air, is conducted in a cooling apparatus, and the obtained liquid can be adjusted and if necessary, filtered.

In another embodiment, the oil is sucked via a suitable carburetor, with a small amount of an inert gas or a hydrogen-rich gas in a cylinder, where it is subjected to the desired compression and temperature, with the temperature or not, totally or partially, due to compression.

The vapors are then either supplied directly to the engine, where they mix with the combustion air, is fed to a cooling device, the liquid obtained being rectified, and cooled if necessary.

The following figures are given for explanatory purposes regarding the pressure and the maximum temperature to be employed.

Compression pressure. -- The moment or end of its admission, the gas occupies at atmospheric pressure po, volume aq + e, q being the volume of the cylinder, a the coefficient compression, and e the remaining volume when the piston is at its top dead center.

At the end of the compression volume is e and the pressure p.

Following the laws of adiabatic compression we have:

This formula gives p1 in kg per cm^2.

When the load factor is not known, it can take the value a = 0.88.

The gases are heated in contact with the walls, especially at the end of the compression the compression heat increases and decreases n.

In the calculation of the cycle, take 1.3 as the coefficient for  compression and detente.the different values pf p1 for n = 1.3 and n = 1.4, the coefficient 1.4 being closest to practical conditions concerning compression :


Temperature of Compression -- St T1 is the absolute temperature of the gas at the end of the 'Compression, and To their temperature at the end of the admission. The known formula of gas expansion gives...


Related : Harry ELMER -- 300 MPG Oil Engine

Harry Elmer: US Patent # 1,484,554; "IC Engine & Method of Operating Same"

Popular Science (August 1922)

"Will Mystery Engine Run 300 Miles on a Gallon of Oil?"

Three hundred miles on a gallon of oil -- 10 times the mileage possible for the usual present-day motor!

Such is the astounding record claimed for a crude-oil engine developed by Harry H. Elmer, of Syracuse NY for use in automobiles, airplanes, ships, and lighting systems. In experiments, the engine has generated sufficient power to run a battery of 18 incandescent lamps on 1-1/4 pints of oil, costing less than a cent.

Because this mechanical marvel does not require a cooling system, government officials, it is reported, are studying the possibility of its use in dirigibles.

Among more than 300 radically new features claims for the engine, the most important are these:

It contains only 64 parts and has only three adjustments.

It has no spark, carburetor, wiring, nor any sort of ignition.

The cylinder has a bore of 3-3/4 inches and a 6-inch stroke, yet the engine, it is said, has developed 200% more power than internal combustion engines of the same size, and will pick up almost instantaneously from 100 to 2800 revolutions a minute.

How the Motor Operates ~

The new engine is described as a 4-cycle motor, the cycles being suction, combustion, expansion, and exhaust. The crude oil is led through needle valves into mechanism, where it is compressed by the upward stroke of the piston. On compression the oil is "cracked" by chemical process and the expansion of gases takes place. As the piston is forced down, the exhaust port is opened, and the incoming charge forces out the expanded gases

There is no combustion in the cylinder, though hydrocarbon gas, escaping the exhaust, explodes on uniting with atmosphere.

The engine has been operated with equal success on mineral, animal, and vegetable oils

Perfectionnements à l'alimentation des moteurs à combustion interne

Improvements in the supply of internal combustion engines

[ PDF ]

The present invention relates to improvements intended to permit feeding of heavy oils of internal combustion engines, particularly those operating according to a cycle Beau de Rochas.

Until now, heavy oils were unusable in combustion engines.

Indeed, we sought the opportunity to bring these oils and their mixture with air at a temperature allowing their inflammation by ordinary candles in combustion engines, but the results have been very limited.

The fuel truck is not suitable for modern engines which have a high compression, and one is led to prevent self-ignition, knocks and other drawbacks, decompressing the engine, which has the effect of reduce power and increase its consumption, which is a function of the volumetric compression.

This is due to their molecular structure as heavy oils are difficult to use.

According to the invention, the fuel is changed so that it no longer has the disadvantages indicated above.

According to a feature of the invention, there is added to the heavy oil carburetor carburetor continuously debiting a special fuel, with heavy oil, is an anti-knock mixture inside the engine, without the mixture is performed before the introduction into the engine.

According to another feature of the invention is modified and warmed fuel in admixture with air, so that they can be consumed in the most modern engines regardless of their compression.

Supercharging, however, decreases the specific consumption and, given the lower price of heavy fuel, the user benefits from a considerable saving.

Preferably is carried out as close as possible heating of the engine, that is to say between the carburettor and intake manifold.

This preheating may be achieved by heat exchange with the exhaust gas by electrical means, or by an auxiliary combustion with a burner fed optionally by another fuel.

By way of non-limiting example, there is shown schematically an embodiment of the invention in the single figure of the accompanying drawing.

The apparatus of the invention comprises a small tube boiler A heated in any suitable manner and advantageously by the hot exhaust gas arriving at B and departing cooled in C. However, it could use any other heat source.

Above this unit is attached H carburetor for the vaporization of heavy oil.

Instead of a single carburetor, it may also be more than one each for the use of a different fuel.

Moreover, on the same apparatus there is another carburetor M which supplies a special fuel facilitating, through its catalytic action, processing of heavy fuels, and thereby avoid knocking and auto-ignition.

Finally, an ordinary carburetor, E, gasoline fueled can be used either for commissioning or for powering the motor in the case where it would not have heavy oil.

Starting the engine and pre-heating of the device can be normally obtained by the fuel supply.

However, if the lack of fuel, or if one is in an environment where gasoline is prohibited, preheating can be provided by an electric heater.

It would then be linked to a thermostat coming into action whenever the temperature of the unit will be lowered as a result of prolonged idling or after an engine shutdown, if it can not serve as essence.

To use any heavy oil, we can have another auxiliary electric heater with thermostat that will maintain the fuel to the desired density.

As the calorific value is substantially proportional to the density, and the density proportional to the temperature, it is possible to ensure that the fuel of any kind, always at the same density, which will run the engine always in identical conditions.

Nouveau carburateur à gicleurs multiples, à grande puissance de pulvérisation permettant un meilleur rendement des moteurs à explosions

Novel Carburetor with Multiple Jets, with great spraying power enabling better power for motors

[ PDF ]

Other Patents by Ivan Makhonine :

Airplane with supporting surfaces of variable area

Dispositif moteur destiné aux appareils aériens et appareils aériens munis de ce dispositif

Amplificateur d'harmonie musicale

Avion à surfaces portantes variables

Avion à surfaces portantes variablesAvion à surfaces portantes variables

Avion à surfaces portantes variables

Avion à surfaces portantes variables

Avion à surfaces portantes variables

Hohles Flugzeug-Tragdeck mit beiderends seitlich ein- und ausschiebbaren Hilfstragflügeln.

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