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Jeremy MAO, et al


Tooth Regeneration









http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2010-05/new-technique-uses-bodys-stem-cells-regenerate-teeth
May 25, 2010

Stem-Cell Dental Implants Grow New Teeth Right In Your Mouth

by

Denise Ngo

Dr. Jeremy Mao has unveiled a technique that directs the body's stem cells into a scaffolding that will aid in the regeneration of a new tooth.

The loss of a tooth is a minor deformity and a major pain. Although dental implants are available, the healing process can take months on end, and implants that fail to align with the ever-growing jawbone tend to fall out. If only adult teeth could be regenerated, right?

According to a study published in the latest Journal of Dental Research, a new tissue regeneration technique may allow people to simply regrow a new set of pearly whites.

Dr. Jeremy Mao, the Edward V. Zegarelli Professor of Dental Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, has unveiled a growth factor-infused, three-dimensional scaffold with the potential to regenerate an anatomically correct tooth in just nine weeks from implantation. By using a procedure developed in the university's Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Dr. Mao can direct the body's own stem cells toward the scaffold, which is made of natural materials. Once the stem cells have colonized the scaffold, a tooth can grow in the socket and then merge with the surrounding tissue.

Dr. Mao's technique not only eliminates the need to grow teeth in a Petri dish, but it is the first to achieve regeneration of anatomically correct teeth by using the body's own resources. Factor in the faster recovery time and the comparatively natural process of regrowth (as opposed to implantation), and you have a massively appealing dental treatment.

Columbia University has already filed patent applications in regard to the technology and is seeking associates to aid in its commercialization. In the meantime, Dr. Mao is considering the best approach for applying his technique to cost-effective clinical therapies.


Dr Jeremy Mao



http://www.dental-tribune.com/articles/news/usa/4993_interview_there_seems_to_be_no_limit_to_what_tissue_we_can_regenerate.html

Interview: 'There seems to be no limit to what tissue we can regenerate'

by

Daniel Zimmermann, DTI

Research has proven that dental stem cells hold potential for the successful regeneration of dental and other body tissues. In May, experts from around the globe gathered in New York for the first time to discuss the latest concepts and scientific breakthroughs at the International Conference on Dental and Craniofacial Stem Cells. Dental Tribune Group Editor Daniel Zimmermann spoke with Columbia University professor and co-organiser Dr Jeremy Mao about the conference and when the first clinical applications might be available for dentists.

Daniel Zimmermann: Dr Mao, re-growing teeth or parts of it could mean an end to dentistry as we know it. When will this concept become reality?
Dr Jeremy Mao: Research in the area of dental tissue regeneration and engineering is developing rapidly. Different parts of the tooth like the dental pulp, dentine and cementum have been already successfully regenerated in animal models. These techniques are not ready for clinical use yet but they will be available in a few years from now, depending on approval by regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration in the US. Science is only one part of this process.

In contrast with embryonic stem cell research, there is little controversy regarding dental stem cells. Why is that?

This is true. There is not much ethical discussion because unlike embryonic stem cells, which can only be obtained by destroying the fertilised embryo, dental stem cells are harvested from what clinicians refer to as “dental waste” such as extracted teeth or teeth that have fallen out.

What fields of dentistry will probably benefit most from this research?

Theoretically, there seems to be no limit to what tissue we can regenerate, so you can expect the whole range of dentistry fields to benefit from these techniques. It is only a matter of time until we have learned enough about these cells to be able to use them to regenerate all kinds of tissues.

Can dental stem cells be used for medical applications as well?

Very likely. Earlier this year, for example, we published an article that demonstrated that clones of mononucleated stem cells of dental pulp can transform into myoblasts and help with the formation of muscle tissue. This, and other research, suggests that dental stem cells can be used to treat not only dental diseases, but also other medical conditions.

Is there collaboration between scientists that work with dental and medical stem cells?

To some degree, but not to the extent that we would like. Let me give you an example. Two years ago, I attended a conference organised by the International Society for Stem Cell Research in Barcelona in Spain, and there was not one single presentation on dental stem cells. Realising that this was an understudied area, the idea of an international conference on dental and craniofacial stem cell research was born. With it, we also hope to promote collaboration between scientists working in these areas.

How did the congress in New York turn out, in general?

Looking back, it was quite an intense conference. We had over 200 attendees and 30 presentations over the course of three days. The feedback was extremely positive and there are already plans for a second conference. However, we have not decided on a location yet.

Which regions or countries are currently leading in dental stem cell research?

As far as research is concerned, people tend to look at the US first but as the conference has shown, there are quite a number of researchers in Europe and Asia working on dental and craniofacial stem cell research, including some countries where you would not expect such research to be conducted, like Malaysia.

Stem cell tissue regeneration will obviously have a significant impact on dental practice. Do you expect dentists to be open to this concept?

I think, as dental professionals we are quite used to new inventions and innovations. I have had the opportunity to lecture to various members of the profession, such as oral surgeons and paediatric dentists, and with a few exceptions they were quite enthusiastic about the potential of dental stem cells for tissue regeneration and engineering. In acknowledging that regenerative endodontics could be the next evolution in root-canal treatment, the American Association of Endodontists has set up a special committee that will provide funding for research projects in this area in future.

Edentulism, particularly amongst the elderly, is a major problem in countries with mass populations such as India. Could dental stem cells offer the ultimate solution to this problem?

It would certainly not be right for any scientist or company working in this field to ignore these regions because there is such a strong clinical need. I am certain that as the technology develops, it will also be available to some of the populous regions in the world such as India, China or Africa. Of course, there is the problem of affordability, which was also discussed at the conference in New York. Stem cell therapies will be higher priced at the beginning but with a larger variety of products I am sure the price will come down. Considering the high costs of current restorative procedures, such as dental implants, I am sure stem cell regenerating tissue will be a strong contender.

Thank you very much for this interview.









http://www.dental-tribune.com/articles/news/usa/2182_columbia_university_announces_break-through_in_tooth_regeneration.html

Columbia University announces break-through in tooth regeneration

by

Daniel Zimmermann, DTI

NEW YORK, USA/LEIPZIG, Germany: Dental implants could soon become a secondary choice for replacing natural teeth. According to new research from the College of Dental Medicine at Columbia University in New York, three-dimensional scaffolds infused with stem cells could yield an anatomically correct tooth in as soon as nine weeks once implanted. The new technique, developed by Columbia University professor Jeremy Mao, has also shown potential to regenerate periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone, which could make way to re-grow natural teeth that fully integrate into the surrounding tissue.

Previous research on tooth regeneration has been focusing on harvesting stem cells directly on dental implants to improve osseointegration or outside the body where the tooth is grown under laboratory conditions and implanted once it has matured. Mao’s technique, which has been tested on animal-models, is moving the harvesting process directly into the socket where the tooth can be grown ‘orthotopically’.

“A key consideration in tooth regeneration is finding a cost-effective approach that can translate into therapies for patients who cannot afford or who aren’t good candidates for dental implants,” Dr Mao told Dental Tribune Asia Pacific. “Our findings represent the first report of regeneration of anatomically shaped tooth-like structures in vivo.”

Dr Mao’s study has been published in the recent Journal of Dental Research and will be presented at this year’s International Association of Dental Research congress in Barcelona. Columbia has also announced to have filed patient applications in relation to the engineered tooth and is actively seeking partners to help commercialise the technology through its technology transfer office Columbia Technology Ventures.



PATENTS

COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR DENTAL TISSUE REGENERATION
US2014302111
Provided is a method for regenerating dental tissue, which can include contacting a scaffold containing Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF, with a dental tissue so as to promote odontoblastic differentiation of a progenitor cell, promote progenitor cell migration into the dental tissue, or regenerate the dental tissue. Also provided is a composition for regeneration of dental tissue, which can include a scaffold and Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF.


COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR DENTAL TISSUE REGENERATION
WO2014153548
Provided is a method for regenerating dental tissue, which can include contacting a scaffold containing Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF, with a dental tissue so as to promote odontoblastic differentiation of a progenitor cell, promote progenitor cell migration into the dental tissue, or regenerate the dental tissue. Also provided is a composition for regeneration of dental tissue, which can include a scaffold and Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF.


PRODUCTION OF DENTIN, CEMENTUM AND ENAMEL BY CELLS
US2014093481
One aspect provides a method of forming a mineralized material by co-culturing a epithelial cell, such as ameloblasts, and mesenchymal cells, such as osteoblasts or odontoblasts, in a mineral-stimulating medium. Another aspect provides matrix seeded with epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells and infused with a mineral-stimulating medium capable of forming a mineralized material in the matrix. Methods of manufacturing such compositions and methods of treating mineralization-related conditions are also provided.


DENTAL STEM CELL REPROGRAMMING
US2013022989
Provided is dental stem cell comprising an Oct3/4 transgene. Also provided is a method of making a pluripotent stem cell. Additionally, a method of preparing an insulin-secreting cell is provided. Further provided is an insulin-secreting cell prepared by that method. A method of preparing a chondrocyte-like cell is also provided, as is a chondrocyte-like cell prepared by that method. Additionally provided is a method of preparing a myocyte-like cell. Also, a myocyte-like cell prepared by that method is provided. A method of preparing a hair follicle-like cell is additionally provided, as is a hair follicle-like cell prepared by that method. A method of preparing a neuron-like cell is additionally provided, as is a neuron-like cell prepared by that method.


TOOTH SCAFFOLDS
US8979534
Provided is an acellular mammalian tooth-shaped scaffold comprising a compound that is chemotactic, osteogenic, dentinogenic, amelogenic, or cementogenic. Also provided is a method of replacing a tooth in the mouth of a mammal, where the tooth is absent and a tooth socket is present in the mouth at the position of the absent tooth. The method comprises implanting an acellular scaffold having the shape of the missing tooth into the tooth socket. Additionally, a method of making a tooth scaffold is provided. The method comprises synthesizing an acellular scaffold in the shape of a mammalian tooth and adding at least one compound that is chemotactic, osteogenic, dentinogenic, amelogenic, or cementogenic.


DENTAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
US2011236977
Provided is a method of preparing an embryonic stem cell-like cell, a method of preparing an insulin-secreting cell or pancreatic beta-like cell, a method of preparing a chondrocyte-like cell, a method of preparing a myocyte-like cell, and a method of preparing a hair follicle-like cell. A composition comprising a dental stem cell and an insulin-secreting cell or a pancreatic beta-like cell is also provided. Further, a composition comprising (a) a dental stem cell and (b) a chondrocyte-like cell, a myocyte-like cell, or a hair follicle-like cell is provided. Additionally provided is an insulin-secreting cell or a pancreatic beta-like cell differentiated from a dental stem cell. Further provided is a chondrocyte-like cell, a myocyte-like cell, or a hair follicle-like cell, derived from a dental stem cell.


HOLLOW AND POROUS ORTHOPAEDIC OR DENTAL IMPLANT THAT DELIVERS A BIOLOGICAL AGENT
US8337873
New teeth or bone are produced in vivo from an encapsulated biological agent such as a growth factor and/or stem cells contained within a hollow and porous biocompatible vehicle, for example, a titanium implant placed within the body of a host animal such as a human, wherein the agents are delivered by controlled release.


MICROSPHERE SKIN TREATMENT
US2015037382
This application provides a microsphere suitable for tissue engineering that comprises connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Also provided is a matrix, material or scaffold suitable for tissue engineering that comprises connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Additionally, methods of treating skin of a human are provided. The methods comprise administering to the skin microspheres comprising a growth factor that increases fibroblast proliferation or collagen, elastin, or glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Further provided are the use of the above microspheres for the treatment of the skin of a human. Additionally, this application proves the use of the above microsphere for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of the skin of a human.


COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR DENTAL TISSUE REGENERATION
US2014302111
Provided is a method for regenerating dental tissue, which can include contacting a scaffold containing Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF, with a dental tissue so as to promote odontoblastic differentiation of a progenitor cell, promote progenitor cell migration into the dental tissue, or regenerate the dental tissue. Also provided is a composition for regeneration of dental tissue, which can include a scaffold and Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF.


COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR DENTAL TISSUE REGENERATION
WO2014153548
Provided is a method for regenerating dental tissue, which can include contacting a scaffold containing Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF, with a dental tissue so as to promote odontoblastic differentiation of a progenitor cell, promote progenitor cell migration into the dental tissue, or regenerate the dental tissue. Also provided is a composition for regeneration of dental tissue, which can include a scaffold and Wnt3a and BMP-7, and optionally VEGF, bFGF, or NGF.


APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR DEPLOYMENT OF LINKED PROSTHETIC SEGMENTS
US8652198
A luminal prosthesis comprises a plurality of radially expandable prosthetic stent segments arranged axially. Two or more of the prosthetic stent segments are separable upon expansion from the remaining prosthetic stent segments and a coupling structure connects at least some of the adjacent prosthetic stent segments to each other. The coupling structure permits a first group of the adjacent prosthetic stent segments to separate from a second group of the prosthetic stent segments upon differential radial expansion of the first group relative to the second group and the coupling structure maintains or forms an attachment between the adjacent prosthetic stent segments in the first group which have been expanded together. A delivery system and methods for deploying the multiple coupled prosthetic stent segments are also disclosed.


PRODUCTION OF DENTIN, CEMENTUM AND ENAMEL BY CELLS
US2014093481
One aspect provides a method of forming a mineralized material by co-culturing a epithelial cell, such as ameloblasts, and mesenchymal cells, such as osteoblasts or odontoblasts, in a mineral-stimulating medium. Another aspect provides matrix seeded with epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells and infused with a mineral-stimulating medium capable of forming a mineralized material in the matrix. Methods of manufacturing such compositions and methods of treating mineralization-related conditions are also provided.


DERIVATION OF FIBROCHONDROCYTES FROM PROGENITOR CELLS
US2014079739
Provided herein are compositions and methods for forming fibrochondrocytes or fibrochondrocyte-like cells from progenitor cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells. One aspect provides a fibrochondrocyte culture medium including CTGF and TGF[beta]3, optionally encapsulated by microspheres having different release profiles. Another aspect provides a method for forming fibrochondrocytes or fibrochondrocyte-like cells from progenitor cells by culturing with CTGF and TGF[beta]3.


TREATMENT FOR BONE FORMATION DISORDERS BY GROWTH FACTOR DELIVERY
US2014072637
It has been discovered that that certain growth factors can delay the ossification of a tissue site, such as a cranial suture, via the promotion of fibroblast differentiation and/or inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Provided herein are methods for treating bone formation conditions or disorders, such as synostotic conditions, or ectopic mineralization conditions, via administration of compositions comprising connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and optionally other growth factors or fibroblast or progenitor cells, to a tissue site of a subject in need thereof.


COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CELL HOMING AND ADIPOGENESIS
US2014057842
Provided is a method of causing a cell to migrate to a scaffold and there differentiate to form adipose or adipose-like cells or tissue. Also provided is a method of treating a mammal that has a tissue defect. Further provided is a tissue scaffold comprising a cell homing composition and an adipogenic composition. Additionally, a method of making a tissue scaffold capable of recruiting a cell and differentiating the recruited cell to form adipose or adipose-like cells or tissue is provided.


PDGF INDUCED CELL HOMING
US2014050771
Provided is a method of causing a cell to migrate to a scaffold. Also provided is a method of treating a mammal that has a tissue defect. Further provided is a tissue scaffold comprising platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Additionally, a method of making a tissue scaffold capable of recruiting a cell is provided.


COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR WOUND TREATMENT
US2013028978
Provided herein are compositions, methods, systems, and kits for wound healing. As shown herein, CCN2/CTGF stimulated mesenchymal progenitor cells can form [alpha]SMA- fibroblasts. Further, TGF[beta] was shown to stimulate further differentiation of [alpha]SMA- fibroblasts to myofibroblasts associated with fibrosis. One aspect provides a composition including CCN2/CTGF and a TGF[beta] inhibitor, a P38 inhibitor, or a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Another aspect provides a method of treating tissue wounds with CCN2/CTGF-containing compositions. Also provided are systems and kits for wound healing. Also provided are methods for forming [alpha]SMA- fibroblasts mesenchymal progenitor cells.


DENTAL STEM CELL REPROGRAMMING
US2013022989
Provided is dental stem cell comprising an Oct3/4 transgene. Also provided is a method of making a pluripotent stem cell. Additionally, a method of preparing an insulin-secreting cell is provided. Further provided is an insulin-secreting cell prepared by that method. A method of preparing a chondrocyte-like cell is also provided, as is a chondrocyte-like cell prepared by that method. Additionally provided is a method of preparing a myocyte-like cell. Also, a myocyte-like cell prepared by that method is provided. A method of preparing a hair follicle-like cell is additionally provided, as is a hair follicle-like cell prepared by that method. A method of preparing a neuron-like cell is additionally provided, as is a neuron-like cell prepared by that method.


Poly (ethylene glycol) - diacrylate- (PEGDA) - crosslinked hydrogels comprising adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells
AU2011265508
Poly (ethylene glycol)- diacrylate - (PEGDA) - Crosslinked Hydrogels Comprising Adipogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Abstract Methods and compositions for de novo and in vivo synthesis of soft tissue in predefined shape and dimensions from adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a biocompatible scaffold are described. Scaffolds are implanted in vivo in a host animal and fabricated therein, or maintained ex vivo. Inducing angiogenesis enhances success of soft tissue implants.


COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF FORMING CARDIAC PROGENITOR CELLS
WO2012045096
Provided herein are compositions and methods for forming cardiac progenitor cells from progenitor cells, such as embryonic stem cells. One aspect provides a cardiogenic culture medium including interleukin-3, interleukin-1, insulin, or transferin. Another aspect provides a method for forming cardiac progenitor cells from progenitor cells by culturing in the cardiogenic culture medium. Another aspect provides a method for forming cardiac progenitor cells from progenitor cells by modulating levels of Oct-4.


CARTILAGE REGENERATION WITHOUT CELL TRANSPLANTATION
US2011300203
Provided is a method of causing a cell to migrate to a scaffold. Also provided is a method of treating a mammal that has a cartilage defect. Further provided is a tissue scaffold comprising stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and transforming growth factor-[beta] (TGF-[beta]). Additionally, a method of making a tissue scaffold capable of recruiting a cell is provided.

SHAPE AND DIMENSION MAINTENANCE OF SOFT TISSUE GRAFTS BY STEM CELLS
CR8878
Methods and compositions for de novo and in vivo synthesis of soft tissue in predefined shape and dimensions from adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a biocompatible scaffold are described. Scaffolds are implanted in vivo in a host animal and fabricated therein, or maintained ex vivo. Inducing angiogenesis enhances success of soft tissue implants.


Progenitor cell replication and differentiation in 3D
TW200825176
The present invention is directed to a new approach towards in situ differentiation of tissue progenitor cells, without the coventional requirements of weeks of cellular manipulation and treatment. Such approach circumvents the need for 2D culturing and differentiation of tissue progentor cells before implanting in a 3D biocompatible matrix, thus providing convenience, cost savings, and time savings. One aspect of the invention provides an engineered tissue composition comprising substantially undifferentiated tissue progenitor cells in a biphasic matrix material, along with growth factors or encapsulated growth factors. Another aspect of the invention includes methods for making the compositions described herein. Nother aspect of the invention includes methods of therapeutic treatment using the compositions described herein.


De novo formation and regeneration of vascularized tissue from tissue progenitor cells and vascular progenitor cells
TW200817019
It has been discovered that vascularized tissue or organs can be engineered by combined actions of tissue progenitor cells and vascular progenitor cells. Provided herein are compositions and methods directed to engineered vascularized tissue or organs formed by introducing tissue progenitor cells and vascular progenitor into or onto a biocompatible scaffold of matrix material. Also provided are methods of treating tissue defects via grafting of such compositions into subjects in need thereof.


DENTAL STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION
US2011236977
Provided is a method of preparing an embryonic stem cell-like cell, a method of preparing an insulin-secreting cell or pancreatic beta-like cell, a method of preparing a chondrocyte-like cell, a method of preparing a myocyte-like cell, and a method of preparing a hair follicle-like cell. A composition comprising a dental stem cell and an insulin-secreting cell or a pancreatic beta-like cell is also provided. Further, a composition comprising (a) a dental stem cell and (b) a chondrocyte-like cell, a myocyte-like cell, or a hair follicle-like cell is provided. Additionally provided is an insulin-secreting cell or a pancreatic beta-like cell differentiated from a dental stem cell. Further provided is a chondrocyte-like cell, a myocyte-like cell, or a hair follicle-like cell, derived from a dental stem cell.


BIOLOGICALLY DERIVED COMPOSITE TISSUE ENGINEERING
US2011202142
The present application is directed to engineering of tissues, especially composite tissues such as a joint. Various aspects of the application provide tissue modules and methods of fabrication and use thereof. Some embodiments provide a tissue module that can be fabricated to be substantially similar in anatomic internal and external shape as a target tissue. Some embodiments provide a composite tissue module having a plurality of layers, each of which simulate a different tissue (e.g., bone and cartilage of a joint).


BIOPULP
US2011171607
Provided are methods for performing a dental, endodontic or root canal procedure on a mammalian tooth in need thereof. Also provided are matrices, materials or scaffolds suitable for insertion into a tooth pulp chamber. Additionally provided are uses of any of the above matrix, material or scaffolds in a dental, endodontic or root canal procedure. Further provided are uses of any of the above matrices, materials or scaffolds for the manufacture of a medicament for a dental, endodontic or root canal procedure.


POROUS IMPLANTS AND STENTS AS CONTROLLED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY CARRIERS
US2011027339
The common premise of synthetic implants in the restoration of diseased tissues and organs is to use inert and solid materials. Here, a porous titanium implant enables the delivery of microencapsulated bioactive cues. Control-released TGF[beta]1 promoted the proliferation and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells into porous implants in vitro. Upon 4-wk implantation in the rabbit humerus, control-released TGF[beta]1 from porous implants significantly increased BIC by 96% and bone ingrowth by 50% over placebos. Control-released 100 ng TGF[beta]1 induced equivalent BIC and bone ingrowth to adsorbed 1 [mu]g TGF[beta]1, suggesting that controlled release is effective at 10-fold less drug dose than adsorption. Histomorphometry, SEM and [mu]T showed that control-released TGF[beta]1 enhanced bone ingrowth in the implant's pores and surface. These findings suggest that solid prostheses can be transformed into porous implants to serve as drug delivery carriers, from which control-released bioactive cues augment host tissue integration.


HYBRID SOFT TISSUE IMPLANTS FROM PROGENITOR CELLS AND BIOMATERIALS
US2010305696
Provided are hybrid soft tissue constructs comprising a core material, a biomaterial matrix and mammalian cells. Also provided are methods of augmenting or reconstructing a soft tissue of a mammal. Additionally, methods of forming a hybrid soft tissue construct are provided. The use of the above constructs for augmenting or reconstructing a soft tissue of a mammal are further provided. Additionally provided is the use of the above constructs for the manufacture of a medicament for augmenting or reconstructing a soft tissue of a mammal.


VIVO SYNTHESIS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES
US7709442
The in vivo synthesis of connective tissue by fibroblast or fibroblast precursor cells ensconced within a biocompatible scaffold is disclosed. The cells are preferably present in a biocompatible scaffold such as gelatin and placed between two other biocompatible scaffolds such as collagen sponges soaked with a collagenic amount of a member of the TGF-beta family of proteins. This composition is then implanted in a host to produce cranial sutures, periodontal ligament or other fibrous tissue structures in vivo.

   
DIFFERENTIATION OF PROGENITOR CELLS INTO FIBROBLASTS
WO2008024447
Disclosed herein is a new approach towards differentiation of progenitor cells, for example human mesenchymal cells (hMSCs), into fibroblasts using chemical factors, such as by the treatment of recombinant human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ascorbic acid. One aspect of the invention provides an ex vivo culturing protocol for fibroblastic differentiation of tissue progenitor cells (e.g., human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)) using bioactive factors such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Approaches described herein can provide for significant increases in collagen production from cultured fibroblast progenitor cells.


HOLLOW AND POROUS ORTHOPAEDIC OR DENTAL IMPLANT THAT DELIVERS A BIOLOGICAL AGENT
WO2006047310
New teeth or bone are produced in vivo from an encapsulated biological agent such as a growth factor and/or stem cells contained within a hollow and porous biocompatible vehicle, for example, a titanium implant placed within the body of a host animal such as a human, wherein the agents are delivered by controlled release.


BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING OF ARTICULAR STRUCTURES CONTAINING BOTH CARTILAGE AND BONE
WO2005025493
De novo organogenesis of a joint or portion thereof by osteochondral constructs comprising adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulated on a scaffold is disclosed. MSCs-derived chondrogenic and osteogenic cells can be loaded in hydrogel monomer suspensions in distinct stratified and yet integrated layers that are sequentially photopolymerized in a mold. Constructs can be then implanted in vivo in a host and fabricated therein or, alternatively, the constructs can be incubated ex vivo, both procedures producing a functional joint or portion thereof.


Use of cyclic forces to expedite remodeling of craniofacial bones
US6648639
Methods of treating malocclusion and inducing osteogenesis as well as an apparatus for treating malocclusion are described. The methods and apparatus utilize cyclic forces as compared to static forces to achieve their results.Methods of treating malocclusion and inducing osteogenesis as well as an apparatus for treating malocclusion are described. The methods and apparatus utilize cyclic forces as compared to static forces to achieve their results.




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