Moringa oleifera

Moringa Documentary - the 'miracle' tree

Best Way to Eat Moringa is to Drink It - How to Juice Fresh Moringa Oleifera Leaves

Arango, Árbol de las Perlas, Behen, Ben Ailé, Ben Nut Tree, Ben Oléifère, Benzolive, Canéficier de l’Inde, Chinto Borrego, Clarifier Tree, Drumstick Tree, Horseradish Tree, Indian Horseradish, Jacinto, Kelor Tree, Malunggay, Marango, Mlonge, Moringa oleifera, Moringa pterygosperma, Moringe de Ceylan, Mulangay, Murungakai, Narango, Nebeday, Paraíso Blanco, Perla de la India, Pois Quénique, Sahjna, Saijan, Saijhan, Sajna, San Jacinto, Shagara al Rauwaq, Shigru, Terebinto.

Overview Information
Moringa is a plant that is native to the sub-Himalayan areas of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. It is also grown in the tropics. The leaves, bark, flowers, fruit, seeds, and root are used to make medicine.

Moringa is used for “tired blood” (anemia); arthritis and other joint pain (rheumatism); asthma; cancer; constipation; diabetes; diarrhea; epilepsy; stomach pain; stomach and intestinal ulcers; intestinal spasms; headache; heart problems; high blood pressure; kidney stones; fluid retention; thyroid disorders; and bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.

Moringa is also used to reduce swelling, increase sex drive (as an aphrodisiac), prevent pregnancy, boost the immune system, and increase breast milk production. Some people use it as a nutritional supplement or tonic.

Moringa is sometimes applied directly to the skin as a germ-killer or drying agent (astringent). It is also used topically for treating pockets of infection (abscesses), athlete’s foot, dandruff, gum disease (gingivitis), snakebites, warts, and wounds.

Oil from moringa seeds is used in foods, perfume, and hair care products, and as a machine lubricant.

Moringa is an important food source in some parts of the world. Because it can be grown cheaply and easily, and the leaves retain lots of vitamins and minerals when dried, moringa is used in India and Africa in feeding programs to fight malnutrition. The immature green pods (drumsticks) are prepared similarly to green beans, while the seeds are removed from more mature pods and cooked like peas or roasted like nuts. The leaves are cooked and used like spinach, and they are also dried and powdered for use as a condiment.

The seed cake remaining after oil extraction is used as a fertilizer and also to purify well water and to remove salt from seawater....

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014 May;4(Suppl 1):S353-8.
doi: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B44.

Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice.
Sheikh A,
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice... RESULTS: It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity.

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Aug;142(2):200-12. doi: 10.1007/s12011-010-8761-7. Epub 2010 Jul 27.

Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats.
Chattopadhyay S
In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic.

Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 20, Issue 3, November 2005, Pages 456-464

Therapeutic effects of Moringa oleifera on arsenic-induced toxicity in rats
Richa Guptaa
Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree; Hindi: Saijan; Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities, including hypocholesterolemic agent, regulation of thyroid hormone status, anti-diabetic agent, gastric ulcers, anti-tumor agent and hypotensive agent, used for treating various diseases such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. Therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of seed powder of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, orally, once daily) post arsenic exposure (100 ppm in drinking water for 4 months) was investigated in rats. Animals exposed to arsenic(III) showed a significant inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood. On the other hand, a significant decrease in hepatic ALAD, and an increase in δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase (ALAS) activity was noted after arsenic exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increase in thiobarbiturc acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in liver and kidney. Activities of liver, kidney and brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase also showed a decrease on arsenic exposure. Administration of M. oleifera seed powder post arsenic exposure, exhibited significant recovery in blood ALAD activity while, it restored blood GSH and ROS levels. Most of the other blood biochemical variables remained unchanged on M. oleifera supplementation. A significant protection in the altered ALAD and ALAS activities of liver and TBARS level in liver and kidney was however, observed after M. oleifera administration. Interestingly, there was a marginal but significant depletion of arsenic from blood, liver and kidneys. The results, thus lead us to conclude that post arsenic exposure administration with the seed powder of M. oleifera has significant role in protecting animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress and in the depletion of arsenic concentration. Further studies thus can be recommended for determining the effect of co-administrating seed powder of M. oleifera during chelation therapy with a thiol chelator.

Moringa oleifera

Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Moringa, the only genus in the plant family Moringaceae. Common names include moringa, drumstick tree, horseradish tree, and ben oil tree or benzoil tree.

M. oleifera is a fast-growing, deciduous tree[5] that can reach a height of 10–12 m (32–40 ft) and trunk diameter of 45 cm (1.5 ft).[6] The bark has a whitish-grey colour and is surrounded by thick cork. Young shoots have purplish or greenish-white, hairy bark. The tree has an open crown of drooping, fragile branches and the leaves build up a feathery foliage of tripinnate leaves.

The flowers are fragrant and asexual, surrounded by five unequal, thinly veined, yellowish-white petals. The flowers are about 1.0-1.5 cm (1/2") long and 2.0 cm (3/4") broad. They grow on slender, hairy stalks in spreading or drooping flower clusters which have a length of 10–25 cm.[6]

Flowering begins within the first six months after planting. In seasonally cool regions, flowering only occurs once a year between April and June. In more constant seasonal temperatures and with constant rainfall, flowering can happen twice or even all year-round.[6]

The fruit is a hanging, three-sided brown capsule of 20–45 cm size which holds dark brown, globular seeds with a diameter around 1 cm. The seeds have three whitish papery wings and are dispersed by wind and water.[6]

In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1–2 m (3–6 ft) and allowed to regrow so the pods and leaves remain within arm's reach.[6]

The moringa tree is grown mainly in semiarid, tropical, and subtropical areas, corresponding in the United States to USDA hardiness zones 9 and 10. It tolerates a wide range of soil conditions, but prefers a neutral to slightly acidic (pH 6.3 to 7.0), well-drained sandy or loamy soil.[7] In waterlogged soil, the roots have a tendency to rot.[7] Moringa is a sun- and heat-loving plant, thus does not tolerate freezing or frost. Moringa is particularly suitable for dry regions, as it can be grown using rainwater without expensive irrigation techniques.
Parameter     Requirement/range
Climate     Grows best in tropical or subtropical
Altitude     0 – 2000 m
Rainfall     250 – 3000 mm
Irrigation needed for leaf production if rainfall < 800 mm
Soil Type     Loamy, sandy, or sandy-loam
Soil pH     pH 5 - 9

Production area
India is the largest producer of moringa,[7] with an annual production of 1.1 to 1.3 million tonnes of fruits from an area of 380 km².[citation needed] Among Indian states, Andhra Pradesh leads in both area and production (156.65 km²) followed by Karnataka (102.8 km²) and Tamil Nadu (74.08 km²).[citation needed]

Moringa is grown in home gardens in West Bengal and Odisha and as living fences in southern India and Thailand, where it is commonly sold in local markets. In the Philippines and Indonesia, it is commonly grown for its leaves which are used as food. Moringa is also actively cultivated by the World Vegetable Center in Taiwan, a center for vegetable research. In Haiti, it is grown as windbreaks and to help reduce soil erosion.

More generally, moringa grows in the wild or is cultivated in Central America and the Caribbean, northern countries of South America, Africa, Southeast Asia and various countries of Oceania.

As of 2010, cultivation in Hawaii, for commercial distribution in the United States, is in its early stages.[7]

Soil preparations
In tropical cultivation, soil erosion is a major problem. Therefore, the soil treatment has to be as shallow as possible. Plowing is required only for high planting densities. In low planting densities, "it is better to dig pits and refill them with the soil. This ensures good root system penetration without causing too much land erosion. The pits must be 30 to 50 cm deep, and 20 to 40 cm wide."[citation needed]

Moringa can be propagated from seed or cuttings. Direct seeding is possible because the germination rate of M. oleifera is high. Moringa seeds can be germinated year-round in well-draining soil. Cuttings of 1 m length and at least 4 cm diameter can be used for vegetative propagation.

For intensive leaf production, "the spacing of plants should be 15 x 15 cm or 20 x 10 cm, with conveniently spaced alleys (for example: every 4 m) to facilitate plantation management and harvests."[8] Weeding and disease prevention are difficult because of the high density. In a semi-intensive production, the plants are spaced 50 cm to 1 m apart. This gives good results with less maintenance.

Moringa trees can also be cultivated in alleys, as natural fences and associated with other crops. The distance between Moringa rows in an agroforestry cultivation is usually between 2 and 4 meters.

In India, from where moringa most likely originated, the diversity of wild types is large. This gives a good basis for breeding programs. In countries where moringa has been introduced, the diversity is usually much smaller among the cultivar types. Locally well-adapted wild types, though, can be found in most regions.

Because moringa is cultivated and used in different ways, there are different breeding aims. The breeding aims for an annual or a perennial plant are obviously different. The yield stability of fruits is an important breeding aim for the commercial cultivation in India, where moringa is cultivated as an annual. On less favorable locations, perennial cultivation has big advantages. Erosion is much smaller with perennial cultivation. In Pakistan, varieties have been tested for their nutritional composition of the leaves on different locations.[9] The different breeding aims result in a different selection. India selects for a higher number of pods and dwarf or semidwarf varieties. Breeders in Tanzania, though, are selecting for higher oil content.

Yield and harvest
M. oleifera can be cultivated for its leaves, pods, and/or its kernels for oil extraction and water purification. The yields vary widely, depending on season, variety, fertilization, and irrigation regimen. Moringa yields best under warm, dry conditions with some supplemental fertilizer and irrigation.[7] Harvest is done manually with knives, sickles, and stabs with hooks attached.[7] Pollarding, coppicing and lopping or pruning are recommended to promote branching, increase production and facilitate harvesting.[10]

When the plant is grown from cuttings, the first harvest can take place 6–8 months after planting. Often, the fruits are not produced in the first year, and the yield is generally low during the first few years. By year two, it produces around 300 pods, by year 3 around 400–500. A good tree can yield 1000 or more pods.[11] In India, a hectare can produce 31 tons of pods per year.[7] Under North Indian conditions, the fruits ripen during the summer. Sometimes, particularly in South India, flowers and fruit appear twice a year, so two harvests occur, in July to September and March to April.[12]

Average yields of 6 tons/ha/year in fresh matter can be achieved. The harvest differs strongly between the rainy and dry seasons, with 1120 kg/ha per harvest and 690 kg/ha per harvest, respectively. The leaves and stems can be harvested from the young plants 60 days after seeding and then another seven times in the year. At every harvest, the plants are cut back to within 60 cm of the ground.[13] In some production systems, the leaves are harvested every 2 weeks.

The cultivation of M. oleifera can also be done intensively with irrigation and fertilization with suitable varieties.[8] Trials in Nicaragua with 1 million plants per hectare and 9 cuttings/year over 4 years gave an average fresh matter production of 580 metric tons/ha/year, equivalent to about 174 metric tons of fresh leaves.[8]

One estimate for yield of oil from kernels is 250 l/ha.[7] The oil can be used as a food supplement, as a base for cosmetics, and for hair and the skin.

Pests and diseases
The moringa tree is not affected by any serious diseases in its native or introduced ranges. In India, several insect pests are seen, including various caterpillars such as the bark-eating caterpillar, the hairy caterpillar or the green leaf caterpillar. The budworms Noctuidae are known to cause serious defoliation. Damaging agents can also be aphids, stem borers, and fruit flies. In some regions, termites can also cause minor damage. If termites are numerous in soils, insects management costs are not bearable.[6]

The moringa tree is a host to Leveillula taurica, a powdery mildew which causes damage in papaya crops in south India. Cultivation management should therefore be checked.
Nutritional content of 100 g of fresh M. oleifera leaves (about 5 cups) is shown in the table (right; USDA data), while other studies of nutrient values are available.

The leaves are the most nutritious part of the plant, being a significant source of B vitamins, vitamin C, provitamin A as beta-carotene, vitamin K, manganese, and protein, among other essential nutrients.[3][15][16] When compared with common foods particularly high in certain nutrients per 100 g fresh weight, cooked moringa leaves are considerable sources of these same nutrients. Some of the calcium in moringa leaves is bound as crystals of calcium oxalate[17] though at levels 1/25th to 1/45th of that found in spinach, which is a negligible amount.

The leaves are cooked and used like spinach and are commonly dried and crushed into a powder used in soups and sauces.

The immature seed pods, called "drumsticks", are commonly consumed in South Asia. They are prepared by parboiling, and cooked in a curry until soft.[18] The seed pods/fruits, even when cooked by boiling, remain particularly high in vitamin C[19] (which may be degraded variably by cooking) and are also a good source of dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, and manganese.[19]

The seeds, sometimes removed from more mature pods and eaten like peas or roasted like nuts, contain high levels of vitamin C and moderate amounts of B vitamins and dietary minerals.

Seed oil
Mature seeds yield 38–40% edible oil called ben oil from its high concentration of behenic acid. The refined oil is clear and odorless, and resists rancidity. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer or as a flocculent to purify water.[20] Moringa seed oil also has potential for use as a biofuel.[21]

The roots are shredded and used as a condiment with sharp flavor qualities deriving from significant content of polyphenols.[22]

Malnutrition relief
Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers.[3][23] Since moringa thrives in arid and semiarid environments, it may provide a versatile, nutritious food source throughout the year.[24] Moringa leaves have been proposed as an iron-rich food source (31% Daily Value per 100 g consumed, table) to combat iron deficiency.[25] However, further study is needed to test practical applications of using this dietary source and its iron bioavailability.

Water purification
Moringa seed cake, obtained as a byproduct of pressing seeds to obtain oil, is used to filter water using flocculation to produce potable water for animal or human consumption.[36][37] Moringa seeds contain dimeric cationic proteins[38] which absorb and neutralize colloidal charges in turbid water, causing the colloidal particles to clump together, making the suspended particles easier to remove as sludge by either settling or filtration. Moringa seed cake removes most impurities from water. This use is of particular interest for being nontoxic and sustainable compared to other materials in moringa-growing regions where drinking water is affected by pollutants.[37]







How to Produce Moringa Leaves Efficiently (PDF).
Amaglo, N.


 Moringa Leaf Farming Systems: Conditions for Profitability and Sustainability (PDF).
Sogbo, K. A.

Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Jun; 16(6): 12791–12835.
doi:  10.3390/ijms160612791 // PMCID: PMC4490473 // PMID: 26057747

Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview
Alessandro Leone, et al.
Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended.

This species is a fast growing soft wood tree that can reach 12 m in height and is indigenous to the Himalayan foothills (northern India Pakistan and Nepal) [2,3]. Its multiple uses and potential attracted the attention of farmers and researchers in past historical eras. Ayurvedic traditional medicine says that Moringa oleifera can prevent 300 diseases and its leaves have been exploited both for preventive and curative purposes [4]. Moreover, a study in the Virudhunagar district of Tamil Nadu India reports Moringa among the species utilized by traditional Siddha healers [5]. Ancient Egyptians used Moringa oleifera oil for its cosmetic value and skin preparation [6]; even if the species never became popular among Greeks and Romans, they were aware of its medical properties [7]. Moringa oleifera has been grown and consumed in its original areas until recently (the 1990s) when a few researchers started to study its potential use in clarifying water treatments, while only later were its nutritional and medical properties “discovered” and the species was spread throughout almost all tropical countries. In 2001, the first international conference on Moringa oleifera was held in Tanzania and since then the number of congresses and studies increased disseminating the information about the incredible properties of Moringa oleifera. Now this species has been dubbed “miracle tree”, or “natural gift”, or “mother’s best friend”.

Moringa oleifera grows in any tropical and subtropical country with peculiar environmental features, namely, dry to moist tropical or subtropical clime, with annual precipitation of 760 to 2500 mm (it requires less than 800 mm irrigation) and temperature between 18 and 28 °C. It grows in any soil type, but heavy clay and waterlogged, with pH between 4.5 and 8, at an altitude up to 2000 m [8,9].

A study on local uses and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera [10] that covers the major agro-ecological region in Nigeria, clearly established that “though considered a not indigenous species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance among various ethnic Nigeria, who have exploited different uses (e.g., food, medicine, fodder etc.).

Nowadays, Moringa oleifera and its derivatives are distributed mainly in Middle East, African and Asian countries [11] and are still spreading to other areas.

2. Cultivation and Production
Moringa oleifera development is achieved in two main ways: sowing and cutting.

Traditionally in Sudan the seeds are preferred while vegetative propagation is common in India, Indonesia and in some areas of West Africa [8].

Sowing requires selection of the seeds, when they are easily available and human labor is limited, while the possibility to transplant seedlings allows flexibility in field planting even if it requires extra labor and costs.

Seeds germinate within two weeks, at a maximum 2 cm depth. When sowing is planned in nursery, the seedlings can be transplanted when they reach about 30 cm (3–6 weeks after germination) [12].

The number of seeds per kilogram ranges from 3000 to 9000, depending on the variety, with a germination rate of 80%–90% for ideal storage conditions (3 °C, 5%–8% moisture). However, the viability decreases if seeds remain at ambient temperature and high relative humidity, their germination rate dropping to 7.5% after three months

Cutting is preferred when seeds availability is scarce and/or when labor is not a limiting factor. Ramachandran et al. [14] reports that plants raised from seeds produce fruits of poorer quality, while Animashaun et al. [15] suggest that trees grown from seeds develop longer roots (an advantage for stabilization and access to water) compare to that grown from cuttings that have much shorter roots.

When hard woodcuttings (1–2 m long 4–16 cm diameter [8,15]) from adult trees are planted during the rainy season burying one third in the soil, they readily develop roots that in few months reach a considerable size [16]. Moringa oleifera is an exceptionally fast growing tree, in three months it can be 3 m high and in few years reaches 12 m if it is left to growth naturally. Since the tree vigorously re-sprouts after cutting, pruning or pollarding are usually practiced to enhance lateral branching and give the tree a bush shape in order to facilitate the harvest. Nevertheless, since literature reports about the good practice management of Moringa oleifera are scant, practical trials are needed [12]. Leaves and seeds are the parts of the plant of interest. Accordingly, the spatial distribution in planting Moringa oleifera trees is designed to facilitate the relevant harvest and the management practices.

For production of leaves, Moringa oleifera plantation can be designed as follows:

(i) intensive production with spacing ranging from 10 cm × 10 cm to 20 cm × 20 cm, harvest interval between 35 to 45 days, irrigation and fertilization are needed;
(ii) semintensive production with spacing about 50 cm × 100 cm, harvest interval between 50 to 60 days, irrigation and fertilization suggested;
(iii) integrate in an agroforestry system with spacing distance of 2–4 m between rows, harvest interval around 60 days, fertilization and irrigation not strictly necessary.

Production decreases from intensive production to less dense spacing (agroforestry system), although a tremendous variability can be observed for a given spatial distribution and the same cultivation management. For example, the yield of an intensive plantation can range from 580 to 40 m/ha/year [15], being season dependent with the largest yield in wet or cold season. There is a need for further studies to assess optimum spacing and harvest intervals that comply with the different climates and production systems [17,18,19]. Harvest can be mechanical or manual. Shoots are cut at a 0.5–1 m height above the ground; but leaves can be picked directly off the tree; this practice, however, albeit quicker, leads to a less vigorous re-growth.

For the production of seed a low density plantation has a positive effect on yields: typically 2.5 × 2.5 m or 3 × 3 m triangular pattern [20]. Fruits (trilobite capsule), referred as pods (brown color and dry and split longitudinally), ripen about three months after flowering and must be harvested as soon as possible. Each pod usually contains about 26 1-cm diameter seeds lined by three whitish papery leaflets on the edge. Like for leaves, also the production of seed shows a tremendous variability. A single tree can produce from 15.000 to 25.000 seeds with an average weight of 0.3 gr per seed [21]; moreover early flowering varieties produce pods in six month, while other varieties require more than one year. After pruning, branches develop new pods within 6 months [1].

3. Genetic and Breeding
The major Moringa oleifera producer is India with an annual production of 1.1 to 1.3 million tons of tender fruits from an area of 380 km2 [22]. Information about the production in other countries is scarce. The great interest in Moringa oleifera does not concern its commercial value, being mainly related to its multipurpose uses and its ability to guarantee a reliable yield, while other crops cannot, in countries where people are mostly at risk of suffering from nutritional deficiencies. Indeed its cultivation is localized in developing countries where different parts of the plant are utilized: seeds for oil and water purification; leaves, seeds and fruits for their high nutritional value (nutritional integrator); leaves and seeds for biomass and animal feeding; different parts in traditional medicine. Moreover, Moringa has been planted around the world and is naturalized in many areas (i.e., almost the entire tropical belt) increasing the variability of the species.

As Moringa is a cross-pollinated tree, high heterogeneity in form and yield is expected. Several works indeed report variability in flowering time [23] (from annual type to perennial type), tree nature (from deciduous to evergreen), tree shape (from semi spread to upright), resistance to hairy caterpillar [22,23,24], flowering time (i.e., some tree flowering throughout the year while others flower in two distinct season) [14]....

4. Traditional Uses
All plant parts of Moringa oleifera are traditionally used for different purposes, but leaves are generally the most used [10,41]. In particular, they are used in human and animal nutrition and in the traditional medicine. Leaves are rich in protein, mineral, beta-carotene and antioxidant compounds, which are often lacking among the populations of underdeveloped or developing countries. Moringa leaves are added to food preparations as integrators of the diet. In traditional medicine, these leaves are used to treat several ailments including malaria, typhoid fever, parasitic diseases, arthritis, swellings, cuts, diseases of the skin, genito-urinary ailments, hypertension and diabetes. They are also used to elicit lactation and boost the immune system (to treat HIV/AIDS related symptoms) [10,41,42,43,44,45], as well as cardiac stimulants and contraceptive remedy. One can directly consume either raw and dried leaves or the extract of an aqueous infusion.

Similarly, the use of seeds concerns both human nutrition and traditional medicine. Barks are boiled in water and soaked in alcohol to obtained drinks and infusions that can be used to treat stomach ailments (ease stomach pain, ulcer and aiding digestion), poor vision, joint pain, diabetes, anemia and hypertension [10,43], toothache, hemorrhoids, uterine disorder [10,44]. In a well known practice, Moringa seeds are used to sediment impurities of water [10].

Roots are soaked in water or alcohol and boiled with other herbs to obtained drinks and infusions as remedies for toothache, as anthelmintic and antiparalytic [10,41,42] drugs and as sex enhancers.

Finally, flowers are used to produce aphrodisiac substances and to treat inflammations, muscle diseases, hysteria, tumors and enlargement of the spleen [42,44].
5. Non Food or Medicinal Uses
Beyond the uses of Moringa as a food and for human health, other possible uses exist. It can be used as a natural plant growth enhancer; indeed leaves are rich in zeatin (a plant hormone belong to the cytokinin group). Leaf extracts can stimulate plant growth and increasing crop yield. Researches performed using a spray based on leaf extracts of wheat, maize and rice support the wide range of beneficial effect on crops [46].

Moringa seed powder can be used for water purification, replacing dangerous and expensive chemicals such as aluminum sulfate [10].

Interestingly, leaf extracts and also seed extracts show biopesticide activity, effective against larvae and adults of Trigoderma granarium and can reduce the incidence of fungi on groundnut seeds [46].

One of the interesting applications of Moringa seeds is their utilization as biomass for biodiesel production.

Due to the increasing energy demand and environmental problems associated with fossil fuels, the improvement of alternative fuels and renewable sources of energy is required. Biodiesel can replace petroleum-derived oil (petrodiesel), without any sulphur or aromatic compound and with lower emission of monoxides, hydrocarbons and particulates. Furthermore, biodiesel can reduce dependence on imported fuels: a crucial problem in developing countries [47].

Moringa seeds have an oil content of 30%–40%, with a high-quality fatty acid composition i.e., high oleic acid (>70%) [48]. In addition they posses significant resistance to oxidative degradation. These proprieties make Moringa oil a good candidate to produce biodiesel after transesterificaton [48,49,50]. Biswas and John [51], in a study conducted in Australia, report that approximately 3030 kg of oil are required to produce 1000 liters of biodiesel. Furthermore, an equivalent of 3.03 tonnes/ha of oil seeds can be harvested from dry land, and 6.06 tonnes/ha can be harvested from irrigated land. Since biodiesel production with Moringa seed oil is a second generation production (i.e., not in direct competition with existing farmland and with food crops) and as Moringa can grown on degraded land, studies suggest that Moringa biodiesel is an acceptable substitute to fossil fuels, even when compared against biodiesel derived from vegetable oil of other species.....


A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed
Kebreab A, et al.
Use of extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO) is of great interest for low-cost water treatment. This paper discusses water and salt extraction of a coagulant protein from the seed, purification using ion exchange, its chemical characteristics, coagulation and antimicrobial properties. The coagulant from both extracts is a cationic protein with pI greater than 9.6 and molecular mass less than 6.5 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis of the purified water extract indicated that it contained at least four homologous proteins, based on MS/MS peptide sequence data. The protein is thermoresistant and remained active after 5 h heat treatment at 95 °C. The coagulant protein showed both flocculating and antibacterial effects of 1.1–4 log reduction. With samples of high turbidity, the MO extract showed similar coagulation activity as alum. Cecropin A and MO extract were found to have similar flocculation effects for clay and microorganisms. Simple methods for both the purification and assay of MO coagulating proteins are presented, which are necessary for large-scale water treatment applications.

Select Patents : Moringa Cultivation


Medium for culturing plantlets in vitro of moringa plant
The present invention relates to a growth medium for use to grow differentiated Moringa plant tissues into whole plantlets. According to the present invention, the growth medium comprises a basal medium containing 30-40 g/L of sucrose, 30 g/L of D-sorbitol, 0.1 g/L of inositol, and 8-10 g/L of agar. The growth medium induces a plant system that has been differentiated from plant bodies cultured from plant tissues harvested from stems, roots, and leaves, to grow into plantlets over a short period of time, and makes it possible to conveniently culture Moringa in a large quantity by directly using tissues of Moringa being cultured in vitro. Further, due to a high growth rate, the growth medium can form an increased number of plantlets and cause the entire plantlets to grow within a short period time of four weeks during a propagation culture process that expands the culture scale. Accordingly, the growth medium enables the supply of Moringa in a large quantity to farms, allowing the farms to harvest leaves, stems, and roots of Moringa even in the Korean climate which permits a rather short cultivation period from May to October, and thus contributes to increased income of the farms and replacement of imported Moringa.

Multiple propagation methods of Moringa Oleifera in vitro plantlets using callus culture
The present invention relates to a method of forming in vitro plantlets of moringa. The method comprises: a step of forming a callus and inducing multiple shoots in growth medium, and redifferentiating plantlets formed; a step of growing the redifferentiated plantlets; and a step of acclimatizing the plantlets, wherein the step of growing plantlets comprises growing plantlets that have been cultured during the step of forming plantlets and redifferentiating plant bodies, in a medium prepared by adding, to a basal medium, 30-40 g/L of sucrose, 30g/L of D-sorbitol, 0.1 g/L of inositol, and 8-10 g/L of agar. Accordingly, the method of the present invention is advantageous in increasing the number of plantlets by increasing biological activities without causing abscission of leaves in a proliferating culture process that expands the culture scale, and can shorten the total plantlet formation period to 3-4 months, thereby enabling the supply of moringa in a large quantity to farms. Further, even in the Korean climate which permits a rather short cultivation period from May to October, the method of the present invention allows harvesting of leaves, stems, and roots in the farms, which leads to increased income of the farms and serves to replace imported moringa.

The present invention relates to a moringa cultivation method which enables year-round continuous production of moringa. More specifically, the moringa cultivation method comprises: (S1) a pretreatment step in which large and robust moringa plantlet seedlings are selected and sterilized, and explants are placed on a growth medium, and cultured and grown, in a cultivation room, to produce nursery seedlings; (S2) an initial callus formation and multiple shoot induction culture and growth step in which tissues are collected from leaves of moringa that has been pretreated in the pretreatment step (S1) and cultured in vitro, and the tissues are placed on an initial callus formation medium; (S3) a moringa plantlet formation and differentiation step in which stems, leaves, and roots of moringa plantlets grown in the step (S2) are collected, differentiated, and cultured on a growth medium to propagate the plantlets; (S4) a plantlet redifferentiation and growth step in which plantlets, which are produced in a large quantity by differentiating and propagating plant tissues collected from stem nodes, axillary buds, leaves, and roots of plantlets propagated in the step (S3), are grown to be used as moringa seedlings; (S5) a plant body acclimatization step in which tissue cultures propagated and cultured in a large quantity in the growth medium in the step (S4) are acclimatized so as to adapt to an external environment, thereby producing tissue culture seedlings of moringa; and (S6) a permanent field transplant and cultivation step in which moringa seedlings having undergone the acclimatization process in the step (S5) are transplanted and cultivated in a permanent field provided in a plant factory with a greenhouse or aquaponics facility. Accordingly, moringa, which is typically difficult to cultivate in Korean climatic conditions, can be continuously produced all year around.

Cultivation method of moringa oleifera replacing fast-growing eucalyptus
The invention discloses a cultivation method of moringa oleifera replacing fast-growing eucalyptus, and belongs to the technical field of moringa oleifera planting. The cultivation method of moringa oleifera replacing fast-growing eucalyptus comprises the steps of replanted land treatment, seed treatment, sowing, water and fertilizer management in the field, pest and disease control, forest cultivation and the like. According to the method, through rational combination and use of nutrient soil and organic bacterial fertilizer, the planting effect is obvious; moreover, by means of cultivation of moringa oleifera replacing fast-growing eucalyptus, soil hardening can be improved, the soil texture is repaired, the added value of the land is improved, and the method is worth application and popularization.

Cultivation method of selenium-rich moringa oleifera
The invention provides a cultivation method of selenium-rich moringa oleifera. The cultivation method includes the three steps of moringa oleifera planting, fertilization management, and moringa oleifera management; ventilation is facilitated through suitable planting spacing, and fertilizer battling between moringa oleifera is avoided. The selenium-rich fertilizer used in the cultivation method contains a variety of trace elements needed for the plant, the planted moringa oleifera is rich in nutrition value, the content of selenium is high, so that the original ordinary moringa oleifera withnutrient enrichment is turned into a functional moringa product with special feature, the quality of moringa oleifera is significantly improved, moringa oleifera is value-added accordingly, and the benefits are quite obvious.

Method for planting potted moringa oleifera at home
The invention discloses a method for planting potted moringa oleifera at home. The method comprises the steps of container selection, substrate preparation, seed treatment, germination acceleration, sowing, management after sowing, picking and management after picking; appropriate containers and substrates are selected, and then seeds which sprout after germination acceleration are sowed; by taking measures such as control of fertilizer and water, shaping cultivation, control and prevention of diseases and pests and management after picking, fresh and tender moringa oleifera sprouts capable of meeting family cooking demands can be obtained, and ornamental potted moringa oleifera can also be obtained. The method for planting potted moringa oleifera at home is not limited by seasons, moringa oleifera can be planted at home all year round, the materials are easy to obtain and low in cost, and the method is simple and convenient to operate and suitable for popularization among a lot of families.

Cultivation method interplanting moringa oleifera and mung beans
The invention relates to the technical field of economic crop cultivation, in particular to a cultivation method interplanting moringa oleifera and mung beans. The cultivation method includes the steps of firstly, selecting land and preparing soil; secondly, sowing; thirdly, performing field management; fourthly, performing water management; fifthly, spraying a nutrient solution; sixthly, harvesting. The cultivation method interplanting the moringa oleifera and the mung beans has the advantages that the growth of the moringa oleifera and the mung beans is unaffected, land bareness time can be reduced, weed growth can be hindered, environments are protected while production cost is lowered, farmer income is increased, and the method is promising in market prospect.

Planting method of moringa oleifera rich in SOD
The invention discloses a planting method of moringa oleifera rich in SOD. The method includes: moringa oleifera tissue culture, tissue culture seedling transplanting and management, field transplanting, cultivation management, disease and pest control, frame pruning, pruning and picking and is characterized in that moringa oleifera leaves are processed into moringa oleifera powder through the superfine grinding and cell wall breaking technology, the moringa oleifera powder is mixed with papaya, roxburgh rose and brown sugar to perform fermentation so as to obtain SOD increasing fertilizer III, and the SOD increasing fertilizer III is sprayed in the last stage to further promote the growth of the moringa oleifera and guarantee that the moringa oleifera is rich in SOD. The method has the advantages that different SOD fertilizer is applied according to the growth features of the tissue culture process and the growth periods of the moringa oleifera to promote the SOD synthesizing during moringa oleifera growth so as to obtain the moringa oleifera rich in SOD, and the activity of SOD in moringa oleifera powder obtained by the planting method reaches above 200U/mg.

Method for accelerating aging of wine with moringa seeds
The invention relates to a method for accelerating aging of wine with moringa seeds and belongs to the production and processing technology of wine. The method comprises the steps as follows: moringa seeds which are obtained through cultivation, are not baked, have bioactivity and can germinate are shelled, and seed kernels are obtained; 2, the seed kernels are crushed to coarse powder of 20-40 meshes, and degreasing treatment is performed with a supercritical CO2 extraction method; 3, 3-6 g of moringa powder is added to each liter of wine, the degreased moringa powder is added to the wine requiring aging acceleration; 4, the wine is left to stand for 24-60 h in an open manner after uniform mixing and can be stirred once after being left to stand for 24 h; steps 3 and 4 can be performed 1-2 times, and the total amount of moringa powder added to each liter of wine cannot exceed 10 g if the steps 3 and 4 are performed more than one time; 5, wine liquor subjected to aging acceleration is obtained after solids are filtered out. The treated wine does not chock throats, is obviously soft, fragrant, mellow, clear and odorless and has no moringa flavor. The novel method for accelerating aging of the wine is safe, convenient and effective, takes short time and has low cost.

Fertilizing method for improving selenium content of moringa oleifera
The invention discloses a fertilizing method for improving the selenium content of moringa oleifera. Aiming at growing moringa oleifera, applying a selenium-rich organic fertilizer for 1 to 2 times on November to December every year, and spraying a selenium-rich foliage fertilizer for 1 to 2 times every month from April to November. Compared with the prior art, according to the method provided by the invention, a selenium fertilizer is added into an organic fertilizer and a foliage fertilizer, and the selenium-rich organic fertilizer and the selenium-rich foliage fertilizer are sprayed for timely supplementing the selenium content in a moringa oleifera cultivation environment, so that the selenium content of moringa oleifera leaves, seeds and stems is remarkably improved, and a heath care effect of a moringa oleifera product is improved; in addition, the selenium-rich organic fertilizer and the selenium-rich foliage fertilizer can be simply sprayed on the moringa oleifera, are less in dosage and low in cost, and have a higher application value on moringa oleifera cultivation.

Cultivation method capable of increasing emergence rate of moringa oleifera
The invention belongs to the technical field of tree planting and provides a cultivation method capable of increasing emergence rate of moringa oleifera. The cultivation method comprises following steps: (1), land selection; (2), land plowing, raking and improvement: A, soil preparation: a planting site is subjected to crushing, plowing and harrowing2 months before planting; B, soil improvement: a layer of organic fertilizer and mineral fertilizeris applied to the soil before plowing; (3), bed arrangement: A, bedarrangement and furrowing: planting beds which are 140-160 cm wide are made, furrows are 40-50 cm wide, and furrow depth is 20-25 cm; B, underground insect prevention: 50 kg/mu of marigold stalk powder is broadcast to the planting bed surfaces to control underground insects; (4), sowing: A, seed selection; B, germination acceleration of seeds; C, sowing: a mixed material promoting seed germination is scattered in the planting site before sowing; D, covered watering; (5), management. With the adoption of the method, the emergence rate can be increased to 81%, and themoringa oleiferayield can be increased to 0.40 kg/m<2> and is greatly increased, so that great economic benefitis obtained formoringa oleifera cultivation.

Method for interplanting purple sweet potatoes under moringa oleifera forest
The invention discloses a method for interplanting purple sweet potatoes under a moringa oleifera forest. The method comprises the steps of choosing a land block with a slope of 5-10 degrees, opening moringa oleifera planting furrows according to the slope direction and the terrain, enough width is reserved between two lines of moringa oleifera so as to make it convenient to plant purple sweet potatoes, firstly planting moringa oleifera in the field, planting purple sweet potatoes after moringa oleifera survives and turns green, conducting daily management and pest and disease control on moringa oleifera and the purple sweet potatoes, and conducting harvesting and processing in time. According to the method for interplanting the purple sweet potatoes under the moringa oleifera forest, green cultivation of moringa oleifera is achieved through cultivating measures, the space is reasonably utilized, the land is made full use of, and green prevention and control are conducted by utilizing agricultural measures, physical methods and biological diversity. Moreover, through the method for interplanting the purple sweet potatoes under the moringa oleifera forest, the work cost is drastically saved, and the output value per mu (a Chinese area unit and is equal to 666.67 m<2>) is also increased.

Planting technology for Moringa oleifera Lam. in northeastern Sichuan
The invention discloses a planting technology for Moringa oleifera Lam. in northeastern Sichuan. The complete planting technology for Moringa oleifera Lam. in northeastern Sichuan is obtained through carrying out systematic study in the five aspects of planting field selection for Moringa oleifera Lam. and soil conditions, seedling breeding, cultivation for Moringa oleifera Lam., irrigation and drainage for Moringa oleifera Lam., and a comprehensive supporting management technology for Moringa oleifera Lam., and the Moringa oleifera Lam. planted by virtue of the technology is vigorous in growth, high in yield, and worthy of popularization and application in northeastern Sichuan regions.

Moringa oleifera cultivation method
The invention discloses a moringa oleifera cultivation method. According to the creative cultivation mode, fertilizer is supplied to moringa oleifera growth, rare earth is fully utilized, therefore, absorption of crops to fertilizer nutrients can be promoted, photosynthesis of the crops can be improved, the fruit quality of the crops can be improved, the drought resistance, the cold resistance and the disease and pest damage resistance of the crops can be enhanced, and the characteristics such as plant root system development, biomass, quality and stress resistance can be promoted; by combining the advantages that a biological organic fertilizer is convenient to prepare, low in cost, capable of improving the soil quality, free of pollution and the like, zero addition of chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides in the whole moringa oleifera cultivation process is achieved, and no pesticide residue is generated; meanwhile, through action of the organic fertilizer and whole-process comprehensive and scientific management, the fruit setting rate can be significantly increased, the fruit size can be significantly increased, fruit cracking can be significantly reduced, the fruit quality can be significantly improved, and good social benefits and economic benefits are achieved.

Planting method for improving yield of moringa
The invention discloses a planting method for improving the yield of moringa. The method comprises the steps of selecting moringa seeds with milk-white embryo and endosperm, drying in the sun, putting the moringa seeds into a root growth promoting agent, and accelerating germination in a germination accelerating chamber; planting the moringa seeds in a nutrition cup with mixed organic soil, red soil and calcium phosphate fertilizer, and applying potassium fertilizer when a seedling grows to 14 to 16cm; starting to transplant when the seedling grows to 19 to 22cm; topdressing and harvesting in final-period management. The sprouting rate of the moringa seeds and the yield of the moringa are improved, so that the huge economic benefit is brought for the cultivation of the moringa. The defect that moringa trees must grow under the environment with high temperature and low humidity is overcome, the growth of the moringa trees is not affected by weather, the seedling time is greatly shortened, the moringa seedlings grow quickly, the heading time is early, a large amount of manpower and material resources is saved, and the yield of moringa leaves is higher; the benign ecology development of the moringa trees in China and other non-tropic and subtropical zones is promoted favorably, the higher economic value is converted, and the development of related industries of the moringa is driven.

Method for cultivating moringa oleifera and wood ear mycelia
The invention relates to a method for cultivating moringa oleifera and wood ear mycelia. The method comprises the following steps: taking a moringa oleifera branch section as a main raw material to be served as a culture medium, sterilizing the culture medium, inoculating wood ear strains into the culture medium, then performing cultivating until the culture medium is full of the mycelia, airing the culture medium which is full of the mycelia, and performing crushing. By implementing the method, the moringa oleifera and wood ear are cultivated through biotechnology to form another special combination body, namely moringa oleifera and wood ear mycelia, and the nutrition, the function and the efficacy of the moringa oleifera and wood ear mycelia are more prominent, so that the value of the common moringa oleifera is also increased by hundreds of times; meanwhile, by implementing the method, the production and preparation process of the moringa oleifera and wood ear mycelia has the characteristics of short cultivation period, simple production and preparation process, low production cost, high production efficiency, and high stability, and the cultivated product is unique in feature, novel, high in nutritive value, good in health-care effects and the like. The moringa oleifera and wood ear mycelia become new favorite of novel health-care products and novel medicines, and are very good in market prospects, and moreover, the produced economic benefits are very significant.

Cultivation method of Moringa oleifera interline interplanting with Orthosiphon aristatus
The invention discloses a cultivation method of Moringa oleifera interline interplanting with Orthosiphon aristatus and belongs to the technical field of crop planting. The method includes the following steps: (1), preparing a land, (2), transplanting Moringa oleifera, (3), planting Orthosiphon aristatus, (4), topdressing, (5), managing a field, and (6), harvesting. The method described herein enables increased yield and quality of Moringa oleifera and Orthosiphon aristatus, and improved disease and pest damage resistance of Moringa oleifera.

Method for raising moringa seedlings through cutting
The invention discloses a method for raising moringa seedlings through cutting, and belongs to the technical field of forest seedling raising.The method comprises the six specific steps of branch collection and pruning, soaking in hormone, cutting, water management, scaffold erection for shading and removal of a sunshade net.The defects that effective ingredients are reduced and growth is slow when artificial moringa cultivation is carried out are effectively overcome.The method has the advantages that material obtaining is convenient, working procedures are simple, the rooting rate reaches 85-95%, genetic gene variation is avoided, fast growth, stable production and high yield are achieved after transplanting, and sufficient high-quality clone seedlings can be provided for large-area artificial moringa cultivation.

High-yield and high-quality method for cultivating moringa oleifera
The invention discloses a high-yield and high-quality method for cultivating moringa oleifera. The high-yield and high-quality method includes six operation steps of seedling cultivation, temporary planting and seedling arrangement, transplanting, field management, pruning and straightening and tender shoot picking. The step of seedling cultivation includes three working procedures of seed selection, germination accelerating and seed sowing and seedling cultivation. The high-yield and high-quality method has the advantages that growth environments for the moringa oleifera and living habit of the moringa oleifera are sufficiently combined with one another, accordingly, the germination rate of seeds and the transplanting survival rate of seedlings can be increased, the bud ratio of the seeds can reach 95% at least, and the survival rate of the transplanted seedlings can reach 98%; fertilizers and water are easy to control, moringa oleifera plants in fertilizer and water balanced states are healthy and strong and can grow rapidly, the quality of the moringa oleifera can be obviously improved, and the yield of the moringa oleifera can be obviously increased; excessive pesticide and chemical fertilizer consumption is prevented, and accordingly the method is safe for medicinal performance of the moringa oleifera and soil environments and can have excellent economic and social benefits.

Moringa oleifera seedling culturing method
The invention discloses a moringa oleifera seedling culturing method and belongs to the technical field of forest-tree cultivation. The problem that when moringa oleifera artificial afforestation is carried out, no seedlings exist is effectively solved. The method specifically includes the eight steps of nursery field selection, soil preparation, base fertilizer applying, soil sterilization, sowing, shading, weeding and fertilizer application. The method has the advantages that seedlings are cultured and cultivated, moringa oleifera cultivation can be performed on a large area, industrialization is achieved, the seed germination rate reaches 95% or above, the percentage of seedling emergency reaches 90% or above, the seedling stage is 9-12 months, the average height reaches 50 cm or above, and moringa oleifera seedlings can be taken out of a nursery garden and transplanted to mountains for afforestation.

Moringa tree cultivation method
The invention discloses a moringa tree cultivation method, and belongs to the technical field of forest tree cultivation. The method particularly comprises the five steps of cultivation land selecting, grass cutting and mountain hardening, land preparing, transplanting and tending and managing. The problems that in artificial moringa tree cultivation, the survival rate is low, and forest trees grow slowly are effectively solved. The moringa tree cultivation method has the advantages that the cultivation survival rate reaches 95% or above, tree seedlings grow quickly after being transplanted, and the moringa tree seedlings can grow to 3.5 meters after being transplanted for one year; moringa tree cultivation can be developed in a large area to form industrialization, and the good ecological benefit and economic benefit are achieved.

Cultivation method for selenium-enriched moringa oleifera
A cultivation method for selenium-enriched moringa oleifera specifically includes the steps of selecting organic selenium as a raw material, preparing the raw material into an organic selenium solution, pouring and applying the organic selenium solution to selenium-enriched moringa oleifera plants in a staged mode in all growth cycles of moringa oleifera, and spraying and applying the organic selenium solution to moringa oleifera plants one month before moringa oleifera appears on the market. The selenium raw material is organic selenium, is rich in various medium trace elements such as amino acid, humic acid, organic selenium, zinc, magnesium and boron which are necessary for plants, and further contains nutrient elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and the like which are necessary for plants. The selenium raw material is used both in the medium period and the rear period of moringa oleifera cultivation, the amount of the selenium raw material which is used is small, and therefore the whole production process is low in cost, produced moringa oleifera is abundant in nutritional value and high in selenium content, existing ordinary moringa oleifera which is rich in nutrition is changed into a extremely-characteristic functional moringa oleifera product, and therefore quality of moringa oleifera is greatly improved, value of moringa oleifera is accordingly added, and benefits are quite remarkable.

Cultivation method of view-edible moringa oleifera potted landscape
he invention discloses a cultivation method of a view-edible moringa oleifera potted landscape, and belongs to the technical field of potted plants. The cultivation method mainly comprises the following steps: (1) selecting and cultivating a seedling; (2) cultivating a stump and an expanded taproot; (3) treating the taproot; (4) cultivating new branches; (5) managing the seedling; (6) shaping and trimming. The method is simple, convenient and easy, and a production period is short; the cost is low, and the mass production is facilitated; the cultivated moringa oleifera potted landscape has the art taste, is suitable for being viewed, capable of providing more fresh leaves and suitable for being eaten, and completely satisfies the product positioning of the view-edible moringa oleifera potted landscape.

Method for cultivating and producing moringa polysaccharide through moringa non-embryonic cell suspension
The invention relates to the technical field of natural product biochemistry and particularly discloses a method for cultivating and producing moringa polysaccharide through moringa non-embryonic cell suspension. According to the method, the moringa polysaccharide is produced through moringa non-embryonic cells, the obtained non-embryonic cells are single in type and are fully diffused, the proliferation efficiency is extremely high, the growth period is consistent, and the yield is easy to adjust and control; after moringa explants are subjected to induced proliferation cultivation and suspension cells are obtained, the high-temperature and high-illumination natural growth environment of moringa is further simulated, a liquid composite high-sugar proliferation culture medium is preferentially selected, high-concentration brown sugar is selected to replace saccharose, moringa cells are stimulated in the cultivating process so that the moringa polysaccharide can be synthesized, and the polysaccharide yield is increased. By means of the method, the moringa polysaccharide can be produced in a factory-like mode, no farmland is occupied, the yield is stable, the content of effective contents is high, and natural sources are not damaged; compared with planting of moringa (the production cycle is 3-5 years), by means of the method, the production cycle is shortened to 7-10 days, production scales can be controlled easily, and investment risks are small.

Method for increasing germination rate of aged moringa oleifera seeds
The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural cultivation, and in particular relates to a method for increasing the germination rate of aged moringa oleifera seeds. The method comprises the following steps of (1) selecting seeds which are developed normally and matured sufficiently, and removing moringa oleifera seeds having impurities, such as different seeds, scraps and dust; (2) putting the seeds in a self-sealing bag, and refrigerating at minus 15 to minus 20 DEG C for 5-10 days; (3) removing white peels at the edges of the refrigerated seeds, and soaking the seeds in warm water at 40 DEG C for 12 h; and (4) taking out the seeds after soaking, putting the seeds in a culture dish having a piece of filter paper, which is moist or contains little accumulated water, and then, accelerating germination by putting in a constant-temperature box at 20-27 DEG C, wherein the germination time is 5-25 days. The germination rate of the aged moringa oleifera seeds stored for two years and processed according to the invention can be increased by 30% or more; the germination rate of the aged moringa oleifera seeds stored for three years can be increased by 20% or more. The method disclosed by the invention is simple, high-efficiency and low in cost, and is applied to popularization.

Tissue culture rapid propagation technique of moringa oleifera Lam.
The invention discloses a tissue culture rapid propagation technique of moringa oleifera Lam. and relates to a seedling growing method for obtaining strain property stable moringa oleifera Lam. seedlings from the moringa oleifera Lam. by use of a vegetative rapid propagation technique. According to the method, the axillary buds of the moringa oleifera Lam. are taken as the explants, and the rapid propagation of the moringa oleifera Lam. seedlings is realized by virtue of the processes of bud induction, bud proliferation, rooting culture, acclimatization and transplanting and the like; the tissue culture rapid propagation technique has important practical significance on acceleration of the introduction and the artificial cultivation of the moringa oleifera Lam. and culturing of high-quality moringa oleifera Lam. seedlings.

Moringa tree cultivation method
The invention discloses a moringa tree cultivation method. The moringa tree cultivation method includes sowing and seedling raising, field planting, topdressing and harvesting, wherein before sowing, moringa tree seeds are immersed in a root growth promoting agent with mass concentration of 0.5-1.5% for 3 to 7 hours. According to the moringa tree cultivation method, the moringa tree seeds are immersed in the root growth promoting agent to increase a sprouting rate of the moringa tree seeds and the yield of moringa trees; compared with conventional planting methods, the moringa tree cultivation method has the advantages that the sprouting rate of the moringa tree seeds can be increased to 78%, and the yield of the moringa trees can be increased to 0.32kg/m<2>, so that the yield of the moringa trees is greatly increased, and great economic benefit is brought to cultivation of the moringa trees.

Moringa tree planting method
The invention discloses a moringa tree planting method, and the method comprises the following steps of: selecting and soaking seeds: before sowing the seeds, drying the seeds for 2-3 hours under sunlight, and soaking the seeds for no less than 20 hours in 50 degrees centigrade warm water; accelerating germination: performing accelerating germination for 96 hours at the temperature of 25-32 degrees centigrade and the dryness and humidity of 86-92%; growing seedlings: adopting one of two methods: in the first method, growing the greenhouse seedlings in a nutritive soil cup, in the second method, growing the seedlings by accelerating germination; moringa tree cultivation: transplanting the seedlings to a garden plot. Through the moringa tree planting method, the moringa tree can be planted in the cold environment of China, such as northeast of Sichua, the moringa tree cannot be affected by climate, by the method, the success rate of growing the seedlings is high, the seedling growing speed is quick, and the seedlings have many leaves and branches after growing up, thus the moringa tree planting method is beneficial to positively develop the moringa tree in China and non-tropical and subtropical zones and generate the higher economic value so as to promote the healthy and quick development of relevant moringa tree industries.

Moringa oleifera dwarfing modified fast growing method
The invention belongs to the technical field of plant cultivation and relates to a Moringa oleifera dwarfing modified fast growing method. The method includes: 1, raising seedlings, namely, selecting seeds of Moringa oleifera, soaking the seeds with water to sterilize the seeds, and sowing the seeds into nutrition pots; 2, transplanting, namely starting to transplant seedlings which grow to 20cm high, determining specifications of beds made on a flat land, performing prism form planting, with 1000 plants per mu, digging 20cm deep holes, applying sufficient base fertilizer, placing a wood sheet or paper in the middle of each hole, placing the seedlings on the wood boards or paper, backfilling, and slightly compacting the earth; 3, core removing and branching, namely performing first core removal when plants of Moringa oleifera grow to 25cm, keeping four branches on each plant, performing second core removal when 22cm long shoots grow from openings of the branches, keeping 3 branches, up to 12 branches for each plant, performing third core removal, keeping 2 branches, up to 24 branches for each plant, and making use the plants grow to 60cm high; 4, picking tender shoots, namely when the trees of Moringa oleifera grow to about 1.5cm high, shearing the tender shoots as food material, keeping the trees 60cm high, picking once every 15-20 days in the future, and allowing the trees of Moringa oleifera to naturally grow into crowned trees. The modified Moringa oleifera also provides a fortune, namely the roots; after 3-4 years, the trees of Moringa oleifera can be pulled out with the roots, and the roots are used as medicine.

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