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Bjorn NORDENSTROM

Electrochemical Treatment of Cancer



Dr.Bjorn Nordenstrom, a Chairman of the Nobel Assembly, discovered how to use electricity to shrink lung and breast cancer tumors with no side effects. His work was ignored.






http://www.iabc.readywebsites.com/page/page/623957.htm



INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOLOGICALLY CLOSED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS (BCEC) IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY

During the 1950's, a brilliant, inquisitive and highly innovative Swedish  radiologist and surgeon, Dr. Björn E.W. Nordenström (second photo) became interested in streaks, spikes and coronas that he saw in X-ray images of lung tumors (third photo, from: "Exploring BCEC-Systems," Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm (1998)). When Dr. Nordenström discussed his observations with other physicians, many of his colleagues saw nothing.  Others attributed the phenomena to artifacts in the image.

Dr. Nordenström was quite familiar with negative reactions from his colleagues. As his accomplishments grew, he became Head of Diagnostic Radiology at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. He also authored or co-authored more than 150 publications in radiology, electrobiology and pharmacology.  He was a member of the Nobel Assembly from 1967 through 1986, and served as President of the Assembly in 1985.  Even with these credentials, many of his ideas, such as needle biopsy and balloon catheterization were initially met with significant amounts of opposition by his peers.
       
In 1965, Dr. Nordenström began a scientific investigation into the subtle anomalies that he observed in lung tumor X-ray images. After years of very careful experimentation and analysis, he came to the conclusion that the streaks, spikes and coronas that could be seen in X-ray radiographs of lung tumors were the result of water movement, movement of ions and restructuring of certain tissues due to the influence of various electrical and electrochemical phenomena.

As his research activities progressed, Dr. Nordenström proposed a closed loop, circulatory, self regulating model for healing that was much more detailed and complete than conventional wound healing models.  Dr. Nordenström's model involves various Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC), capable of utilizing a number of physiological pathways and influencing structure and function for a variety of tissues and organs.  In essence, he described another circulatory system where continuous energy circulation and circulating electrical currents support healing, metabolism, growth, regulation, immune response, etc.

Using his BCEC theory, Dr. Nordenström developed electrochemical therapy (EChT), a minimally invasive electrotherapeutic technique for the treatment of cancer and hemangioma tumors.  EChT assists the body's normal BCEC electrochemical healing processes by complementing and assisting the naturally occurring endogenous electric fields and currents that support the process of healing.

EChT povides a low-cost, patient friendly and highly effective technique for the treatment of localized tumors.  EChT is highly complementary and can be administered with other therapeutic modalities.  EChT does not have the serious side effects associated with conventional therapies, and experience has shown that EChT does not exhibit a significant therapeutic resistance with repeated applications, as is often the case with conventional therapies.

An extensive overview of BCEC and EChT (and how they relate to wound healing and other electrotherapeutic applications), and the more appropriate designation for EChT as NEAT- EChT, can be found in the book: "Electrotherapeutic Devices: Principles, Design and Applications" (Artech House, Boston, MA (2007)) by IABC Emeritus President, Dr. George O'Clock (Also, refer to http://www.georgeoclock.readywebsites.com). Dr. O'Clock's October 23, 2008 University of Minnesota Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Colloquia Presentation titled "Electrotherapeutic Principles: Applications in Cancer, Wound Healing, and Visual System Disease can be viewed at  http://www.unite.umn.edu. A DVD of this colloquium presentation is available from the U of MN ECE Department. Dr. O'Clock appears to have written the first scientifically rigorous (yet accessible and relatively easy to understand) book on electrotherapeutic devices that combines essential technical, biological, legal and clinical background with some guidelines for treatment protocols. Two of the chapters discuss magnetotherapeutic principles and devices. This book was dedicated to Dr. Nordenström.

As indicated in the previous paragraph, Dr. Nordenström's theories and clinical results are not confined to cancer. Much of what he has done also applies to wound healing and special branches of wound healing that are associated with various forms of visual disease (macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt's disease, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, neuropathy, etc.). The results of recent FDA guided and supervised clinical trials that have been successfully completed are incorporated into the following website: http://acuitymedicalsystems.net. This website was updated during the Summer of 2009 and should have more technical information by August-September of 2009.  

From: B.E.W Nordenström, Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm (1983); B.E.W Nordenström, The American Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 12, 1989; B.E.W. Nordenström, The European Journal of Surgery, Supplement 574, 1994; G.D. O'Clock, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, October 26-29, 1997; B.E.W. Nordenström, Exploring BCEC-Systems, Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm (1998); Y.L. Xin, et. al., Journal of the IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002; G.D. O'Clock, German Journal of Oncology, Vol. 33, 2001; G.D. O'Clock, Electrotherapeutic Devices: Principles, Design and Applications, Artech House, Boston, MA (2007); G.D. O'Clock and J.B. Jarding, "Electrotherapeutic Device/Protocol Design Considerations for Visual Disease Applications," Proceedings of the 31st International IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference, EMBC '09, Minneapolis, MN September 2-9, 2009.

For more information on the books published by B.E.W. Nordenström, contact: http://www.ursus.se/ursus/publications.shtml

BIOPHYSICS OF BCEC

Understanding BCEC requires the use of some high school math and physics, along with an appreciation for history.  Over 140 years of research in wound healing has shown that an injury site has a positive electric potential with respect to the surrounding uninjured tissue.  Björn Nordenström has also determined that the electric potential at the center of most tumors is positive with respect to the normal tissue surrounding the tumor.  He realized that a wound, or tumor, had a considerable amount of cell degradation (lysis) occurring at it's center, making this region positively charged and highly acidic.  Therefore, in relation to the surrounding normal tissue, the wound or tumor site had the properties of a wet cell battery, producing a positive potential between the center and periphery of the wound or tumor.

The positive electric potential at the center of the wound or tumor can produce a current in an electrically conductive medium.  As the conductivity of the medium increases, the electrical resistance, that tends to "impede" or restrict current flow (impedance), decreases.

Thomasset provides a picture (first figure, from: Journal of the IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002) showing high frequency electrical currents flowing through cells, and the lower frequency electrical currents flowing within the interstitial fluid around various cells.  If the source of the electrical potential is an injury site or tumor, the resulting current will be more of a direct current.  In this case, most of the current will flow around the cells within the interstitial fluid medium, and the impedance will be relatively high.  Also, if the electric current consists primarily of ions in motion, the size of the ion would also be an impedance consideration with respect to it's capabilities of traveling through cell membranes, or it's limitations if it is restricted to conductive pathways within the interstitial fluid medium.

While current is flowing due to the presence of the injury site or tumor site potential, other electrically dependant functions are being influenced by the electrical potential.  Like most cells, white blood cells possess a negative surface charge.  From the standpoint of immune function, the positive potential at the center of the injury or tumor tends to assist immunological response by attracting white blood cells to that location.  The electric field produced by the positive potential of the central region of the injury site or tumor also has an effect on capillary porosity (contraction, which closes the pores of the capillary), as indicated by the second figure.

With cancer, as long as the tumor exists, lytic reactions at the center of the tumor site will promote the continued existence of the positive potential and electric field in the region of the tumor.  As indicated by the second figure, with the tumor acting as a wet cell battery; a conductive path for the flow of a variety of ions (including hydrogen and phosphate ions) exists in various electrically conductive pathways near the tumor site, through interstitial fluids between cells, to porous capillaries, to veins and arteries and back to contracted capillaries near the tumor.

The primary electrical conduction mechanism is ionic in a large part of the the electrically conductive pathway.  Electron transfer occurs in the membranes of the capillaries that are under the influence of electric field induced contraction.  Under the influence of the positively charged center of the tumor, the transport of charged ions and white blood cells continues, promoting various activities in the healing process.

As shown in the second figure (from German Journal of Oncology, Vol. 33, 2001), a closed-loop circulating current and energy flow is accomplished by the transport of charged particles (ions and electrons), producing slowly varying electric currents in the human body, utilizing various conductive pathways (interstitial fluid, blood vessels, nerve fiber, muscle, etc.).  The healing currents are slowly varying with respect to time (essentially, they are direct currents).  This fact verifies that a Biologically Closed Electric Circuit is involved.  A biologically open circuit cannot support direct current.     
        
In many of his published papers and books, Dr. Nordenström points out that BCEC activities have a profound influence on structure and function.  The influence of BCEC on function is relatively easy to describe.  Once the injury site or tumor site produces an electric field, immune system function is influenced by the attraction of white blood cells.  Capillary function (porosity reduction due to electric field induced contraction) is influenced by the presence of the electric field produced by the lytic activity near the center of the site.  Function is also influenced by the movement of ions to and from the injury or tumor site.

Structure can also be influenced by BCEC activity.  The photo marked "a" (from: Exploring BCEC-Systems, Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm (1998)) shows soft tissue radiograph of mammary fat tissue before a 10 V source is applied.  Over a 10 day period, with 10 V and 1.75 mA of current, some endogenously developed fibrosis has disappeared (arrows in "a"), while large amounts of new fibrous tissue have developed (photo "b").  In this case, the application of an electric potential, electric field and electric current have contributed to a change in the internal structure of the soft tissue.

The transport of water by electroosmosis, at the tumor site, can influence structure and function.  The movement of water around various lung tumors contributed to the structural changes Dr. Nordenström first noticed in his X-ray radiographs, that resulted in his development of BCEC theory (see Home page, third photo).  As water is drawn away from the tumor by electroosmosis, the tumor is deprived of nutrients and liquid, and the tumor cells and vascular structure of the water starved region begin to deteriorate.

Significant changes in cellular structure can also occur with the application of voltages and currents that can occur in BCEC systems.  Dr. Nordenström shows significant changes in mammalian red blood cell morphology with the application of currents at the 1 mA level.  Becker reported evidence of electrically induced dedifferentiation of immature red blood cells at current levels that were in the fraction of a nA range.  O'Clock shows photos of immature red blood cell dedifferentiation at 1 µA, where, over a period of time, the red blood cells make the transition from concave and spoked, to elliptical in shape and finally to a flat amoeboid morphology.  O'Clock and Leonard also show evidence of necrobiosis and loss of cell aggregation properties for lymphoma cells at current levels of 9 µA.

One of the reasons why BCEC theory is so important is that it predicts the fast transport times observed with immune system response.  Conventional chemotaxis models, based on diffusion, are much too slow.  For example, an estimate of the diffusion time (T) that is required for white blood cells to travel 0.2 cm. from a capillary to an injury site can be obtained from the following diffusion equation:

v = dL/dT = (D/L),

where v represents an instantaneous velocity (that is a function of distance) for the white blood cell, L is the distance traveled and D is the diffusion constant.  This relationship was taken from Mombach and Glazier, "Single Cell Motion in Aggregates of Embryonic Cells," Physics Review Letters, Vol. 76, 15 April, 1996.  Using a diffusion constant of 1/100,000 cm.cm./sec. and a distance of 0.2 cm, the estimated velocity of 0.0001 cm/sec., from the equation shown above, would result in a transport time of 2000 seconds (or, approximately 33 minutes) for a cell traveling 0.2 cm. to an injury site.  Using the cell velocity relationship involving chemotaxis coefficient, and attractant gradient, from Farrell, et. al. (Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton, Vol. 16, 1990); the cell's chemotactic velocity is even slower.  We know the immune system response is much faster than the velocities and resulting transport times predicted by these particular mathematical relationships involving standard diffusion and chemotaxis.  Therefore, another physiological/immunological model for cell motion in healing and regulation is needed, to predict more realistic cell transport velocities and transport times.

Dr. Björn Nordenström's BCEC theory provides the right mix of physiological structure and function to yield a mathematical expression that predicts more realistic cell velocities and response times for the immune system.  Referring to the second figure, the lytic activity at the tumor site can produce an electric potential of 30 mV over a distance of 1 mm.  We can assume that the surface charge density of a 20 µm diameter white blood cell is approximately - 2 Coulombs per meter squared.  Combining elecric field theory with fluid mechanics, the following BCEC cellular transport relationship can be derived:

F = (Q)(E) = n(v/d)(A),

Where F is the force on the charged cell due to the injury site electric field, Q is the product of cell surface charge and cell surface area, n is viscosity (approximately 1/1,000  kg./m-sec. for a body fluid medium), A is the cross sectional area of the cell perpendicular to the direction of travel, v is the cell velocity and d is the boundary layer thickness for the 20 µm diameter cell traveling in a fluid medium (in this case, approximately 0.3 µm for laminar flow fluid dynamics).  Applying these numbers to the BCEC cellular transport equation, the resulting velocity (v) of 0.1 cm./sec. allows the white blood cell to reach the injury site in approximately 2 sec.  This transport time is within the range of observed immune system response times for tissues and organs, and is much faster (by a factor of approximately 1,000) than the transport times predicted by chemotaxis models that rely on diffusion and physiological/immunological concepts that are more than 150 years old.      

From:  A.L. Thomasset, Lyon Médical, Vol. 21, 1962; R.O.Becker and D.G. Murray, Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 29, 1967; B.E.W. Nordenström, Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm (1983); G.D. O'Clock, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, October 26-29, 1997; B.E.W. Nordenström, Exploring BCEC-Systems, Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm (1998); G.D. O'Clock, German Journal of Oncology, Vol. 33, 2001; G.D. O'Clock and T. Leonard, German Journal of Oncology, Vol. 33, 2001; B.E.W Nordenström, Journal of the IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002; A.L. Thomasset, Journal of the IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002; P.J. Rosch and M.S. Markov (eds), Bioelectromagnetic Medicine, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY (2004); G. D. O'Clock, Electrotherapeutic Devices: Principles, Design and Applications, Artech House, Boston, MA (2007).



J. Applied Nutrition 39 ( 2 ) 1987

Andrew Marino : "Electric Man" and the work of Bjorn Nordenstrom

[ PDF ]



Videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmqTKh-CP88
Dr. Bjorn Nordenstrom - Biology, Electricity, and Cancer

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YafR1Ja6mU
Dr. Bjorn Nordenstrom - Biology, Electricity, and Cancer 2

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKXH_4PNPcQ
Biologically Closed Electric Circuits



ELECTRODE DEVICE INTENDED TO BE INTRODUCED INTO THE BODY OF LIVING BEING
CN1042838

The present invention relates to an electrode device for the temporary insertion of the organism, mainly for topical treatment of the premises or the electrical measurement of the living tissue, after the course of treatment or measurement, and then pull it out from there.

The electrode device comprises an electrode member, the electrode member has a hole leading to the center thereof, can be inserted into a living body to be treated or measured tissue; a feeder part, and the remaining parts of the body member and electrically insulating means, for supply to the electrode member, the feeding member is a flexible bendable and comprising at least one cavity.

For example, from the Swedish patent 8002772-5 although already known for the treatment of the electrode device in vivo biological tissue, but the known biometric before inserting the electrode device must be coupled by one or more electrodes on the ring size be modified to modify the size of the electrode to extend to the desired length.

And, provided on said electrode means known in relatively small openings for supply of various agents via its central point of treatment cavity, and for example, the reaction was removed from the treatment point.

The same aperture and cavity has also been used to treat the point of supply and removing agents from the treatment point of the reactants.

This situation makes the simultaneous supply and removal difficult or impossible, for example in order to provide effective treatment at the point of the case of cooling.

Object of the present invention is to provide an electrode device, which can be modified to more effectively the desired size, and better used in the treatment point, and compared with the prior known techniques, to improve the treatment of the electrode device drug delivery point and the reaction mass, the effective electrode greatly expanded surface.

To achieve the above object, the electrode device according to the beginning of the article is designed such, i.e. without restricting the number of openings leading to the center of the electrode member, which openings preferably are evenly distributed along the entire electrode part.

From the following description and the drawings, claims, more specifically know other advantages and features of the present invention.

Figure 1 shows the various components in the application or use of these components may be used according to the present invention, the electrode means;

Figure 2 shows the electrode device inserted in the living organism in the topical treatment of electricity to the invention;

Figure 3 shows the same electrode device shown in Figure 2, but adds another pipe, and are used to transport liquid and / or gas, and the cooling treatment from the point of treatment sites;

Figure 4 shows a sectional view of an end portion of the electrode device.

 
According to the present invention, an electrode member including a metal wire (or wire), the wire 3 at its end portion is wound spirally, preferably bifilar wound, the wire is preferably made of platinum made.

The end of the wire 3a, 3b bent back (apparent from Figure 4).

The wire electrode 2 through the electrically insulating tube, the insulating tube may be made for example of Teflon (trade name, teflon), the other end of the wire and extending through the cavity 4, and a loop is formed at the end portion, the wire 1 and the tube 2 are very flexible and can be bent, so the insertion is difficult or even impossible organism.

The electrode device for insertion into a living body, a tube may be inserted in the tube 27 and extending to the end of the wire 3a, 3b, for example, the sleeve 7 is constituted by a rigid pipe having a pointed end portion of the inclined .

The end of the wire lumen is disposed at a distance into said sleeve 7, the situation in Figure 4 is clearly shown.

Further, an apparatus having a screw threaded end portion 5 is inserted into the lumen of the sleeve 7 by means of the handle means to rotate the screw, so that the end with a threaded end portion 3a, 3b combine to make the 7 against the inner wall of the sleeve ends, so that the wire electrode 1 at its end 3a, 3b of the sleeve 7 is sandwiched between the screw means 5.

Thus, the assembled whole becomes a rigid whole, and therefore can be inserted to the desired treatment sites in vivo.

When inserted, one end of the wire 3a, 3b in the desired position by the in vitro pull-annular end of the electrode wire 4 can point in the treatment of an effective length of the electrode member is adapted to the required size, leaving the ends 3a, 3b still sandwiched as described above, so that the effective length of the electrode member can be a good fit to the desired size.

After the completion of the operation, by rotation of the screw device 5 to release the end 3a, 3b, let it when loosening the screw tip of the screw tip for terminal 3a, 3b from the end of the sleeve 7 launch, then, you can remove the screw device 5 and the casing 7.

Is now ready for use electrode device, as shown in Figure 2 as electricity to treat treatment sites.

From the viewpoint of the electrode seems to be noted that a relatively large effective electrode surface, and an electrode member and an electrically insulating tube 2 itself is very flexible and can be bent, so that they can be adjusted in the treatment of point and move around it.

Through the tube 2, various agents can be supplied to the point of treatment, or removed from the treatment point, the electrode member by an indefinite number of generating an alternating openings 1, the openings are located between the bifilar wire around the coils.

Required or desired, the electrode apparatus of the present invention can be attached, for example a pipe with an extra additional Teflon (trade name, teflon) made of a flexible tube 6, the additional pipe can be inserted into the inner cavity of the tube 2 .

The additional line 6 can preferably be inserted through the tube 2, and an electrode member into a relatively long distance at a position of the projecting member in the center of the electrode required, which can be supplied through a conduit 6 such as a cooling agent, and reflux can transport between the inner wall of the pipe wall 6 of the tube 2, thereby obtaining treatment point to point transportation to and from the treatment of an essentially lost walking a very effective barrier transport - cycling transport.

When the desired use of the electrode is finished, remove the additional line 6, and subsequently pulling the loop 4, the electrode member an outwardly extended, through the tube 2 without damaging surrounding tissue of the living body, and then the tube 2 out.



APPARATUS FOR SUPPLYING ELECTRIC ENERGY TO BIOLOGICAL TISSUE FOR SIMULATING PHYSIOLOGICAL HEALING PROCESS
CN1042839

The present invention relates to a device for supplying electric energy to biological tissue, the supply head in order to help support a wide variety of physiological processes, including healing of some pathological condition, and the variation of the different stages of growth, e.g., attenuation of blood flow, chronic pain , tissue fluid, etc., is also intended to affect the vitality of circumstances such as tumor tissue.

The apparatus includes at least two electrodes connected to a DC voltage source, wherein one of the electrodes to be placed on their physiological and pathological - help support the physiological cycle to be a biological tissue or a biological tissue, and the other electrode will have to be placed such that an biological tissue at a distance from a position such that the conductive loop is formed between the two electrodes, the voltage source is arranged to supply a current through the electrodes through the biological tissue.

In the prior art, we know that the electrode can function as an intermediary in the tissue portion to be treated or the outside of the biological tissue to a different power supply designs.

In the case of this prior art, the electrode system is connected to a specially designed current emitter.

This current emitter, especially known from the Swedish patent 7812092-0 of the kind which is described as being used to destroy the tumor tissue.

Can also be used in high-frequency diathermy electrotherapy high power input by radiation to make tissue coagulation.

There are also the well-known methods in applied across the electrodes inserted in the stimulation to promote fracture healing, and a method of fracture in the external circuit to apply a constant or alternating from the Helmholtz electromagnetic field.

To our knowledge, these prior art methods are not to be treated in the tissue on the basis of the physiological requirements, and those requirements in a number of key areas, is so far not known.

The main object of the present invention is to provide an apparatus, a current in this device may be adapted to transmit physiological and pathological tissue in response to the change, so as to achieve good results.

The manner described for the apparatus used to achieve the above object is designed so that, in order to simulate the physiological healing process, the amplitude of said voltage source provides an alternating current with time, the current

The absolute value of the magnitude of the extrema is smaller than the amplitude of the immediately preceding time of the absolute extreme values, and induce an alternating current in the process described above is repeated several times.

From the following brief description of the drawings and the related discussion easier to understand the nature of the invention and its various aspects.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a block diagram of an appropriate voltage source which illustrate optional;

Figure 2 is a graph of voltage as a function of time.



Referring to the drawings.

Current therapy device with different embodiments of the present invention depending on the pathological state of the power supply required to support a different or altered based on the requirements.

These requirements (must be planned in advance before making different cure) then can be used in the present invention, in one embodiment, can be prepared by different functions into a certain program.

By using these functions may be programmed with a wide range of the present invention can be applied to several different states, such as fracture or wound healing, rheumatoid arthritis, glaucoma, treatment of tumor tissue and the like.

In the present inventors have many years of practical experience and treatment of cancer patients, based on analysis of the bone where the present invention is to help support the healing of tissue healing as an example, and this fundamental fracture healing seems always in accordance with the present invention The main principle is based carried.

According to the main principle in all fractures or other tissue injury will produce the natural degradation of the organization, the organization will cause the natural degradation of electrochemical polarization with respect to its role in the damaged tissue surrounding tissue undamaged.

This polarization is positively charged at the beginning, the size of the magnitude of a few hundred millivolts, and the polarization of the electroluminescent material forming the organization of the electrical power transmission system.

The present inventors have recently applied to the main principle described in detail immediately below the glass tubes in a patient in vivo in animals and in test cases.

The main principle includes some previously unknown facts, such as a new feature of blood vessels, the blood vessel wall that is higher than the resistivity of the conductive medium (ie, plasma).

Through the capillary vessels with intermediate power transmission capacity, the role of the superposition of the electric force field, capillary partial contraction.

Therefore, the formation of ion transport through the capillary endothelial cells and the leakage orifice therebetween

Ion channels are blocked, so that ruled out the role of osmotic pressure and capillary leak worse on the impact and gravity.

On the other hand, the electric field is superimposed by delivery of the first of the globular protein with Peter Mi Xieer (Peter Mitchell) in the inner mitochondrial membrane demonstrated, and this can indicate the presence of endothelial cell membrane in a way to induce electron across the endothelial cell migration.

Thus the electron transfer in the electrode reaction to produce the equivalent of the electrophoretic phenomena of biological phenomena.

Therefore, the electric power generated in the damaged portion can drive ions in the blood vessels and the flow of conductive tissue interstitial fluid.

This is the basic principle of the material during the healing process induced damage during the transport site.

This system enables the transmission of negative ions in the tissue at the injury site stage accumulated positively charged, while the positive ion exclusion.

At a later stage, become the site of injury relative to the peripheral portion becomes negatively charged, the current transmission systems have been identified and a special plan, the current transfer reversal process, so the positive ions accumulate, ion exclusion lesion.

Characterized in that the loop, close to the surrounding tissue according to a use according to the present invention, the fluctuation of the potential difference is attenuated.

For healing the injured portion of each organization requires both anions need cations, but these ions have to be determined by the order of use.

The total amount of current to be transmitted is the key.

This can be calculated in the tissue damage is determined based on the size.

Experiment confirmed the total energy released in the injury site and can provide energy for the healing of injuries - a direct relationship between the amount of current transfer.

Simply put, in the normal healing process, the healing of the injury site itself will provide the energy needed for damaged parts.

If tissue damage is completely positive in nature, which is accumulated only in the anion, and where the cation to be rejected.

For natural reasons, the healing process requires both anions need cations.

It has been shown in animal experiments, the potential fluctuation of the site of injury slowly with time.

Thus for a given site of injury, the transmission of ions bound to be affected especially conductive properties of the surrounding tissue.

In good conductivity, the electrical power to a given site of injury may be either positively charged and in the negative phase of the stage in a short period sufficient amount of ion transfer, i.e. rapidly heal the injury site.

In poor conductivity, these processes requires a longer transmission time

Rooms may also need an adjustable current source to help support it.

Practical experiments we studied the erosion of the wave pattern of fracture healing, the graph shows the polarity, respectively, and the electromotive voltage during the healing time of a given size at the desired site of injury for transmission.

Determine the size of the lesion site before treatment can be non-invasive methods, such as X-ray, X-ray computer tomography and magnetic resonance and so on.

Since the release of decay little damage to provide the equivalent of a large voltage change injury energy, by means of determining the size of the lesion is possible to calculate the amount of the ion transfer needed for each stage of healing injuries.

This current can be calculated, and the present invention is coupled to the given points of time, or when the current path by detecting the actual voltage rise of the invention to enable one to make an appropriate stage in a predetermined time period sufficient ion transmission level to be achieved.

With the above disclosure as a background, the present invention have the following properties.

Is preferably used, but the use of rechargeable power supply can be separated from the battery charging, the voltage regulation and the use of force to the injury site of the positive and negative ions are driven stage and expelled to the fracture section.

In one embodiment, there may be a positive voltage is applied satisfactorily to the accumulation of a sufficient amount of anion during the time adaptation.

The accumulated value of current required for the calculation of near anion in determining beforehand the size of the injury site, the level of the current flow time of 0.1 to 10 days, preferably about one week, a value close to zero This undesirable after the start of the negative electric stage, so that reverse current or alternating.

In this way, in a corresponding manner the integration time of the programming current is positive.

After that, voltage fluctuations, changing voltages are attenuated down until the fracture part of clinical stability so far, in other words, until the damage part is basically healed so far.

A voltage source is selected as a suitable example of embodiment of the present invention is shown in block diagram in Figure 1.

This preferably comprises a DC voltage source used to charge a battery or AC power supply battery (not shown in detail).

After this charge from the AC power source approach is recommended because it avoids interference from AC power, and other risks transient voltage DC voltage source.

By the DC voltage source comprises a crystal controlled clock a two appropriate, is provided to control the clock

The design of the treatment process.

The measured real-time clock display at the appropriate one type of the display 3.

At the middle of a clock, for example, through a relay (not shown in detail), the two current generators acting on the reed switch 6 4 and 5 on the work to increase or decrease the connection to the patient from the two contacts 7 and 8 generates a current, the current through the tissue portion to be treated by surgical implantation technique of the electrodes (not shown) to be supplied to help support the physiological cycle of the biological tissue.

As a supplementary means of a crystal controlled clock or an alternative, of course, process control equipment may be provided (not shown) for the program used, so that by means of the devices can be previously obtained empirical data, and the treatment of such limits For the current time, voltage, current, or found during the values ??detected in an appropriate manner to the current generator 6 generates intervals, the degree of change of the initial value generating effect.

This means in particular that can be more rapidly detected result of the healing process, thereby substantially accurately determine when the phase of the introduction of the case by changing the current of the healing process.

DC voltage source further comprises a continuous or transient current from the generator 10 reads seized by the switching device 6, and displayed on the display 3 of the actual voltage and current of the instrument.

Charging meter 11 is continuously connected to the current generator 6 and its value is displayed on the display 3.

In this case, the charge meter 11 is necessary because, as mentioned above, the amount of charge to be supplied by the damaged tissue is directly related to the size of the injury itself.

After a sufficient amount of current applied to the treatment site charging the power supply can be manually reduced to zero.

On the other hand, the use of a programming device, the charge amount can be programmed with the amount of charge applied contacts 7 and 8 are compared, when these values ??are equal, the current is reduced to zero, and / or from the current generator 6 Automatic alternating power supply.

Furthermore, it should be appreciated that, as a supplement or alternative aspect, in the current generator prior to start power supply from the biological tissue using implanted electrodes to detect the direction of current physiological healing process, and a current is emitted by the current generator 6 direction to adapt to the current direction.

Typically, however, the most appropriate is the beginning corresponds to the natural healing process from the outset with

Damaged tissue sent to the current table to begin treatment.

By increasing the current, respectively, via a relay control clock 1 issued by the current generator 6 and the reduction in time can control the current to gradually increase and decrease, it is of course by means of appropriate means so that the current is continuously increased and decreased .

Figure 2 illustrates the current generator 6 by the contacts 7 and 8 are added to the ends of the voltage curve as a function of time, because (in the resistivity of the biological tissue under relatively constant conditions) compared to the corresponding current change is substantially, easy to control the voltage comparator.

Here the time axis T in FIG comprising about 3 to 4 weeks of the time, and can be clearly seen from the graph, the time interval and the end of the curve damped asymptotically tend to zero.

The initial current is applied to the first maximum of a few seconds, the longest takes a few minutes, on the other hand, the maximum value to zero by the change is gradual or continuous, which lasted from 0.1 to 2 days, up to 7 ~ 10 days, and then continue to change the current to the negative maximum and then back to zero, the time required for this section is substantially the same as described above, i.e., (when the current or voltage is typically, but not necessarily so not, zero) two alternating with each successive distance between points is about seven days.

So add contacts to the electrodes 7 and 8 of its current alternating very slow.

After alternating the direction of the current 3 to 4 times, basically cured, but there is a condition that applied to the total electricity organizational basically should correspond with the size of the wound.

The present invention should not be construed as limiting the content shown in the drawings and described above that in the present description without departing from the appended claims provided the spirit and scope of it is envisioned that many variations and modifications.



Electrode device intended to be introduced into the body of a living being.
US4974595

Also published as:   SE8704458 //  SE8704458 //  SE500798

An electrode device intended to be temporarily introduced into the body of a living being and to essentially locally treat or electrically measure biological body tissue therein in order to, after performed treatment or measurement, be removed. Said electrode device includes an electrode part (1), provided with an opening to its centre and insertable into the body tissue to be treated or measured, and a supply part (2), which electrically seen is isolated from the remaining body parts, for supply of electricity to said electrode part (1), which supply part (2) is made pliable and contains at least one channel. Said electrode part (1) has an unlimited number of openings to its centre, which openings preferably are evenly distributed along the entire electrode part (1).

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an electrode device intended to be temporarily introduced into a body of a living being to locally treat or electrically measure biological body tissue therein. After performing the treatment or measurement, the device is removed from the body.

Swedish Patent No. 8002772-5 discloses a prior art electrode device for treatment of biological tissues inside a living being. This known electrode device must--before introduction into the body--be adapted in size by adding one or more electrode rings in order to adapt the extension of the electrode to the size required.

The known electrode device of Swedish Patent No. 8002772-5 is, furthermore, provided with relatively small openings for supply of various agents via its central channel to the point of treatment and for removal of, for example, reaction products from the point of treatment. These openings and the central channel are also utilized for supply to as well as removal from the point of treatment. This makes a simultaneous supply and removal difficult or impossible to perform, for example in order to provide efficient cooling of the point of treatment.

The object of the present invention is to provide an electrode device which is more efficiently adaptable to the size required, preferably in situ at the point of treatment, and which electrode device provides improved transportation to and from the point of treatment and provides an enlarged effective electrode surface compared to previously known techniques.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows the various parts which can be used when using the electrode device according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 shows an electrode device according to the present invention during local treatment with electricity in situ in a living being;

FIG. 3 shows the same device as shown in FIG. 2 but supplemented with an additional channel for transportation of liquids and/or gases to and from and for cooling of the point of treatment, respectively; and

FIG. 4 shows a sectional view through the distal end of the electrode device of the present invention.

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

As seen in FIG. 1, the electrode part 1 according to the present invention includes one wire which at one end 3a, 3b thereof preferably is bifilar wound. The wire of electrode 1 is preferably made of platinum. The distal ends 3a, 3b of the wire are bent backwards, as is best shown in FIG. 4. The electrode wire runs through an electrically insulated tube 2, made of Teflon (trade name), for example, and the other end 4 of the wire runs through and projects out of the tube 2 and is terminated by a loop. The wire 1 as well as the tube 2 are very flexible and can be bent. Thus, they are difficult or impossible to introduce into a living being.

In order to perform introduction of the electrode device into a living being, a cannula 7 comprising, for example, a stiff steel tube with an obliquely bevelled tip is inserted into the tube 2 and extends to the distal ends 3a, 3b of said wire, as seen in FIG. 4. The distal ends 3a, 3b of the wire are arranged so as to extend into the channel of said cannula 7 by a certain distance, as is best seen in FIG. 4. Furthermore, a screw means 5 having a threaded tip (see FIGS. 1 and 4) is introduced into the channel of said cannula 7 and is turned by means of its handle 8 such that the threaded tip cooperates with said distal ends against the inner wall of said cannula 7, whereby the electrode wire 1 is clamped at the distal ends 3a, 3b thereof in relation to the cannula 7 as well as to the screw means 5.

The assembled unit as described above has become a stiff unit due to the insertion of cannula 7 and screw means 5, and can, thus, be inserted into a living being to the desired point of treatment. When introduced into the living body, the distal ends 3a, 3b of the wire 1 are located at the desired position and the effective length of the electrode part 1 at the point of treatment is adapted to the desired size by pulling the loop-shaped end 4 of the electrode wire outside said living body while the distal ends 3a, 3b are still clamped as specified above. The effective electrode part 1 is, thus, exactly adapted in length to the size desired.

When the above described manipulation has been performed, the screw means 5 can be removed to free the distal ends 3a, 3b by unscrewing said screw means 5. When the screw needle end of screw means 5 is free, the screw needle end is used for pushing out the ends 3a, 3b from the tip of said cannula 7. The screw means 5 can, then, be removed as well as the cannula 7.

The electrode device is now ready to be used, for example, for treatment of the point of treatment with electricity as indicated in FIG. 2. From the point of view of the electrode, the comparatively very large effective electrode surface is to be noted. Furthermore, it is to be noted that the electrode part 1 in itself as well as the electrically insulatng tube 2 are very flexible and pliable and they, thereby, adjust themselves to movements in and around the point of treatment.

Through the tube 2, various agents can be supplied to and removed from the point of treatment. Moreover, communication is taking place via an infinite number of openings 9 (see FIG. 4) distributed around the electrode part 1. As seen in FIG. 4, a continuous opening 9 is provided, which extends around the device along the length of the electrode part 1, which continuous opening 9 is located between the turns of the bifilar wound wire.

The electrode device according to the present invention can--if so desired or required--be supplemented with an extra additional tube or channel 6 (see FIGS. 1 and 3) in the shape of a flexible tube made from, for example, Telfon (trade name), which additional tube or channel 6 is inserted into the channel of said insulating flexible tube 2. Said additional tube or channel 6 can preferably be introduced throughout the whole length of tube 2 and also over a long distance into the electrode part 1, whereby a supply of, for example, cooling agents can be performed through said tube 6 and return transportation can be carried out between the outer wall of said tube 6 and the inner wall of said tube 2. In this manner, a very effective mode of transportation--a circulating transportation--is obtained to and from the point of treatment without any essential obstacles.

When the desired use of the electrode device is completed, the extra channel 6 is firstly removed, whereafter the loop 4 is pulled so that the electrode part 1 is straightened out towards the tube 2 without damaging surrounding tissues, whereafter the tube 2 with the electrode part 1 therein is removed by pulling it out.



An apparatus for supplying electric energy to biological tissue for simulating the physiological healing process.
US4919138

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an apparatus for supplying electric energy to biological tissue with a view to supporting different physiological processes, including various phases of healing, growth, modification of pathological states, for example deterioration in blood flow, chronic pain, fluid accumulation in tissue etc., and similarly with the view to influencing viability conditions of, for instance, tumour tissue, the apparatus essentially comprising at least two electrodes connected to a D.C. voltage source, of which one electrode is intended to be disposed in or on the bio-tissue which is to be supported in its physiological or patho-physiological cycle, and the other electrode is intended to be disposed in spaced-apart relationship from the biological tissue in such a position that electrically conductive circuits exist between said electrodes, the voltage source being arranged, via said electrodes, to supply current through the biotissue.

BACKGROUND ART

It is previously known in this art that power may be supplied to biological tissue by the intermediary of electrodes of different designs, in or outside that tissue portion which is to be treated. In this prior-art case, the electrodes are connected to a specially designed current emitter. This current emitter, known int. al. from Swedish patent No. 7812092-0 (corresponding to U.S. Pat. No. 4,289,135), is described as being employed for destruction of tumour tissue.

Diathermy instrumentation may also be employed with great power input at high frequencies for obtaining tissue coagulation by heat.

Methods are also known for so-called stimulation of fracture healing across implanted electrodes, as well as the application of electromagnetic, constant or variable fields from Helmholt's loops outside fractures. These prior-art methods have, as far as is known, not been based on the physiological requirements of tissue for healing, which, in crucial aspects, have hitherto been unknown.

OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The primary object of the present invention is to propose an apparatus, by means of which the current emission may be adapted to the varying physiological and pathological reaction conditions of the tissue for attaining a good treatment result.

The apparatus as described by way of introduction--for attaining the above-indicated object--has been designed such that the above-mentioned voltage source, for simulating the physiological healing process, supplies a current whose amplitude value alternates with time, that each maximum amplitude value is lower in absolute terms than the amplitude value immediately preceding in time, and that the above-mentioned alternation of the current is caused to be effected a plurality of times.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The nature of the present invention and its aspects will be more readily understood from the following brief description of the accompanying Drawings, and discussion relating thereto.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a suitable voltage source selected for means of exemplification; and

FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the voltage as a function of time.



DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Referring to the Drawings, the embodiment of the present invention is based--as opposed to existing treatment apparatuses-- on the varying requirements of support or modification of electric power supply as required in different pathological states. These requirements, which must be plotted before different treatments, may then be employed in the present invention, which, in one embodiment, may be programmed for different functions. By giving these functions a wide programming possibility, the present invention may be utilized for several states, for example fracture or wound healing, rheumatic arthritis, glaucoma, healing of tumour tissue etc.

The present invention, which is based on the inventor's many years' practical experiments and treatment of patients suffering from cancer, may cite fracture healing as a prototype for the support of tissue healing, which, fundamentally, always appears to take place according to the major principle on which the present invention is based.

According to this major principle, there will occur in each fracture or other tissue damage, a spontaneous degradation of tissue which gives rise to electrochemical polarization of the damaged tissue in relation to its undamaged surroundings. This polarization is initially electropositive of the order of magnitude of a few hundred millivolts and constitutes the electromotoric power in an electrogenic transport system for tissue material. This major principle has recently been employed by the inventor in the case described in detail and experimentally tested in vitro, in vivo on animals and in vivo on human patients.

This major principle includes new, previously unknown facts, for example a new function of the blood vessels, whose walls have a high degree of resistivity in relation to the conductive media, namely blood plasma. The blood vessels have an electric transmission by the intermediary of the blood capillaries, which contract segmentally under the action of the superposed electromotoric field. Hereby, ion transports are shut in ion channels through the endothel cells of the blood capillaries and the leaking stomata therebetween. Hence, influence by diffusion, pressure differences and differences in osmotic pressure across the capillaries and the effect of gravitation will be excluded. The superposed electric gradient can, on the other hand, induce electron transfer across the endothel cells via globular proteins in a manner which was first demonstrated by Peter Mitchell in inner mitochondria membranes and is here shown to be present in the membranes of the endothel cells. There will thereby be obtained, on electron transfers, a biological equivalent to the electrode reactions in electrophoresis. As a result, the electromotoric power which is generated in the injury can drive ions in the blood vessels and in the interstitial, conductive tissue liquid. This is the basis of the material transport which is induced by the injury on healing.

This transport system permits accumulation of electronegative ions and repulsion of electropositive ions during the electropositive phase of the tissue damage. In a later phase, the damage converts to becoming electronegative in relation to its surroundings. In the particular current transport system which has been identified and plotted, the current transport reverts, therefore, so that electropositive ions are accumulated and electronegative ions are repulsed from the damage. This cycle is characterized by a fluctuating, attenuating potential difference to the immediate surroundings which may be utilized according to the present invention. Every tissue injury requires, for its healing, both anions and cations, but these must be employed in determined sequences. The total current transport is of crucial importance. This is calculated on the basis of determination of the size of the tissue damage. A direct relationship has been demonstrated between the total quantity of energy which is released in an injury and the quantity of current transport this energy can deliver for healing the damage. In simple terms, the injury itself will, in a normal healing process, deliver that energy which is required for healing the damage.

If the tissue damage were solely electropositive, only anions would be accumulated therein, while cations would be repulsed thence. For natural reasons, both anions and cations are needed in the healing process. In animal experiments, it has been demonstrated that the damage potential slowly fluctuates with time. For a given injury, the ion transports must, therefore, be influenced, int. al., by the conductive properties of surrounding tissue. In good conductivity, a given electromotoric force may, in a short time, transport a sufficient quantity of ions both during the positive and the negative phase of the injury, i.e. rapidly heal the injury. In poor conductivity, these transports take longer time and may need to be supported by a variable current source. An applicable fluctuation pattern in fracture healing has been studied experimentally on rodent fractures, this pattern giving polarity, voltage and current force, respectively, for the transports during the requisite healing time for an injury of a given size.

None-invasive methods, for example X-ray, computer tomography and magnetic resonance may be utilized for determining the size of the injury before treatment. Since the degradation of a small injury releases energy which gives voltage changes equivalent to a large injury, it is possible, by means of size determination, to calculate the quantity of ion transport in the different phases which is required for healing the injury. This may be effected by either calculating and adapting the current time integral the invention is to give or by sensing the actual current passage of the invention and allowing the voltage to rise to a level which permits adequate transport of ions in suitable phases during a predetermined time.

With the above disclosures as a background, the present invention enjoys the following properties. Using an electric battery which is preferably rechargeable but is separable during use from the mains power supply, varying voltage and current force can drive ions to and from the fracture with the application of both electropositive and electronegative phase of the injury. In one embodiment, there is a possibility of applying a satisfactorily positive voltage in order, during a reasonable time, to accumulate a sufficient quantity of anions. On approaching the calculated current figure for anion accumulation, after the preceding determination of the size of the injury, the current through-flow levels out towards the zero value during a time of from 0.1 to 10 days, preferably approximately one week, whereafter the desired negative phase commences for inverting or alternation of the current. By such means, the flow time integral will be programmed in a corresponding manner to the positive. Thereafter, the voltage fluctuations, the varying voltage, are attenuated, until clinical stability is achieved in the fracture, in other words until the injury is substantially healed.

A voltage source selected by way of example as being suited for reducing the present invention into practice is illustrated in the block diagram according to FIG. 1. This D.C. voltage source preferably includes a block 12 which generally designates mains chargeable accumulators or batteries (not shown in detail on the drawing). This disconnection from the mains is to be preferred in order to avoid the risk that disturbances, transient voltages etc. deriving from the mains power affect the D.C. voltage source.

The D.C. voltage source includes a clock 1 suitably controlled by a crystal 2, the clock being arranged to control the process. The real time measured by the clock 1 is shown on a display 3 of suitable type. The clock 1 operates, by the intermediary of, for example, a relay (not shown in detail), two tongues 4 and 5 for acting on a current generator 6 to increase or reduce the current emitted from two patient connections 7 and 8, the current being, by the intermediary of electrodes (not shown on the Drawings), surgically implanted into the tissue portions which are to be treated, supplied to the biological tissue whose physiological cycle is to be supported.

As a complement or alternative to the crystal-controlled clock 1, equipment (not shown) for controlling the process may naturally be provided for programming, by means of which previously obtained experience values, limits etc.--as well as values revealed or sensed from the treatment--may be caused to act upon the initial values generated from the current generator 6 in respect of current, voltage, time alternation of current, degree of modification etc., in an appropriate manner. This refers in particular to those cases where it is possible relatively instantaneously to sense the result of the healing process and thereby establish more or less exactly when the next phase in the healing process is to be introduced by alternation of the current.

The D.C. voltage source further includes a meter 9 for continuously or instantaneously reading off the actual voltage and current which are retrieved by the intermediary of a switch device 10 from the current generator 6 and are shown on the display 3. A charging meter 11 is continuously connected to the current generator 6 and its value is also shown on the display 3. This charging meter 11 is, in this context, essential, since--as was mentioned above--the volume of charge which is to be supplied to damaged tissue is directly related to the volume of the injury itself. By manual means, the current supply is reduced to zero when sufficient charging volume has been supplied to the treatment site. If--on the other hand--equipment for programming is employed, a preprogrammed charging volume may be compared with the charging volume supplied to the connections 7 and 8, and when these values are equal, the current is reduced to zero and/or the current supply is alternated automatically from the current generator 6.

As a complement or alternative, it is further conceivable--before the current supply from the current generator is commenced--to utilize the electrodes implanted in the biological tissue for sensing the current direction of the physiological healing process and adapt the emission current direction generated from the current generator 6 in response thereto.

However, as a rule, it is most appropriate to commence the treatment from the beginning, corresponding to the onset of a natural healing process, with the current directed from the injured tissue.

Through the above-mentioned increase and decrease, respectively, of the current from the current generator 6 controlled by the clock 1 via relays, there will be obtained a time-controlled stepwise increase and reduction of the current, but, naturally, it is also possible to continually increase and reduce the current by suitable means.

FIG. 2 illustrates the potential which is impressed by the current generator 6 across the connections 7 and 8 as a function of time, since the voltage is simpler to follow than the essentially corresponding variations of the current (in reasonably constant resistivity of the biological tissue). The time axis T in the diagram here embraces approx. 3-4 weeks and--as will be apparent from the curve--is damped asymptotically towards zero at the end of this time interval. The initial current application up to the first maximum takes place within a few seconds up to a few minutes, while, on the other hand, the change thence to zero takes place stepwise or continually for a long time from 0.1 to 2 days up to 7-10 days and continued alternation of the current to the negative maximum and then further to zero takes place within approximately the same time interval as above, i.e. the distance between two mutually subsequent alternation points (when the current or voltage is, as a rule, but not necessarily, zero), is approx. 7 days. The current to the electrode connections 7 and 8 hence alternates extremely slowly. After 3-4 alternations of the current direction, healing will have essentially taken place, on condition that the total volume of charge which is supplied to the tissue substantially corresponds to the volume of the damage.

The present invention should not be considered as restricted to that described above and shown on the drawings, many modifications being conceivable without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims.


   
ELECTRODE DEVICE.
US4572214

Also published as:     EP0056801 / WO8102839 /  US4572214  /  SE8002772 /   SE8002772

An electrode device for treatment of biological tissue comprising an electrode unit (1, 3, 3') and a supply unit (4) electrically insulated against the surrounds for sup ply of electricity from a voltage source to the said electrode unit (1, 3, 3'). The supply unit (4) is designed pliable and contains at least one duct for one or a plurality of electrical conductors (5-7) and for transport and guidance of aids (12-15, etc.) to and from the electrode unit (1, 3, 3').

This invention relates to an electrode device intended to be temporarily inserted into the body of a living being and essentially locally to treat biological body tissue therein and subsequently, 5 upon completion of the treatment, to be removed, the said device incorporating an electrode unit introducable into the body tissue which it is intended to treat and a supply unit electrically insulated against other parts of the body for the supply of electricity from a voltage source to the said electrode unit. [deg.] Various electrodes are already known, for example through the U.S. patents 4 103 690 and 3 348 548 and through the German patents 577 722, 651 428 and 1 143 937.

Known electrode designs for the treatment of biological tissue are unsuitable for several reasons.

In order, for example, to treat a tumour with direct current, the electrode which is to be inserted in the tumour and which is arranged to electrically interact with a s<'>econdary electrode which is located outside the tumour must be localized with great precision in the centre of the tumour. With prior art electrodes, it is very difficult to achieve exact positioning and retention of the electrode in the tumour. One of the reasons for this is that the tissue and the tumour may move, for instance as a consequence of the respiratory motions of the patient. Moreover, the tumour, where the point of the electrode reaches to and is to be inserted into the tumour, may slide aside in surrounding softer tissue. This means that repeated attempts frequently have to be made in order for an acceptable positioning of the tumour to be obtained.

Severe problems in the treatment of tissues also arise as a con[not] sequence of gas formation, dehydration and/or material deposition on -' the surfaces of the electrode.

One of the objects of the present invention is to provide an electrode device which permits certain and exact insertion and re[not] tention as well as removal of the active electrode unit in a bio[not] logical tissue without being moved out of position, for example in a tumour. A further object of the invention is to provide an electrode device with the aid of which gases generated at the surfaces of t electrode can be sucked out and liquid and/or medication can supplied to the tumour.

These and other objects are obtained at the electrode device specified in the descriptive preamble according to the present invention in that said device is given the features as are evident fr the characterizing clause of the accompanying Claim 1.

Other essential features of the present invention are evident fr the accompanying claims. One embodiment of the invention is described below and with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein Fig. shows a cut-away view of an example of an embodiment of the electro device according to the invention, Fig. 2 shows a first stage in t introduction of the electrode device in the direction towards tumour, Fig. 3 shows the introduction of an aid, for example an anchoring device, in the tumour, Fig. 4 shows the electrode devi inserted _ with the <'>aid of the anchoring device an'd a stiffeni member, for example a cannula, and Fig. 5 shows the electrode devi with the anchoring device and cannula removed. According to Fig. the electrode device is in the treatment position in the tumour and three-way cock is connected to the supply unit for extraction of g and/or introduction of liquid or medication.

The embodiment of the electrode device shown in Fig. 1 compris an electrode unit, manufactured for example of platinum and having front section 1 with a pointed or narrowing cylindrical end 2 and one or more rear cylindrical rings 3, 3'. These parts have a diameter approx. 1.9 mm. The electrode unit is shown here to consist of thr parts to illustrate that electrode units with different axial lengt for tissue areas of different sizes can be built up from standardized front section 1 and auxiliary rings 3, 3<1> since a large electrode surface is- required in order to enable sufficiently lar current intensities to pass through the tissu "e area to be treat within reasonable time.

The front section 1 of the electrode unit, which obviously can used v/ithout auxiliary rings 3, 3', if for example a cancer tumor which is to be treated is of such a size that the length of the pa 1 is sufficient, is attached by pressure to one end section of supply unit 4 which in this case consists of a tube 4. This tube 4 is made pliable in order to be able to accompany movements in tissues and may be made for example of the plastic marketed under the trade mark Teflon. The rear rings 3 and 3' respectively are similarly attached by pressure to the tube 4. Attached to the inside of the cylindrical electrode section 1 are one or more electrical conductors 5, 6, 7, which are for example brazed or soldered. In the shown example, the conductors are three in number. The conductors 5-7 which in the same way as the electrode rings 1, 3, 3' are bright (blank) and thus uninsulated in the shown embodiment, are clamped between the cylindrical inner surfaces of the parts 3, 3' and the cylindrical jacket surface of the tube 4. By this means, good electrical contact is afforded between the electrical conductors 5-7 and the rings 3, 3'. The three conductors 5-7 are inserted into the interior of the tube 4 through a hole sited within the region for the ring 3', and are introduced via the interior of the tube 4 to, for example, one terminal 8, in the shown embodiment the positive terminal, of a direct voltage source 9. The second terminal of the latter is in this case connected to a second electrode 10 which is located at a suitable distance from the tube in a conductive medium in the body.

We have thus been able to show that the walls of the blood vessels function as insulators around a conductive medium - the blood plasma. Since a tumour is supplied by the surrounding blood vessels, a closed electrical circuit is obtained by this means, with the blood vessels acting as mutually parallel electric conductors. Other conductive media in the body may nevertheless be used, for example tissue fluid, brain fluid, gall fluid, urine, gland secretion, etc.

When an electrode which is inserted in a tumour acts as a positive electrode, a powerful emission of protones is obtained upon decomposition of water, resulting in the tissue becoming highly acidic and in destruction of the tumour close to the electrode. Tumour cells possess negative surplus charges and are therefore retained by the positive electrode. At the same time, gas - for example chlorine gas and oxygen gas - is generated at the positive electrode and the gases deposit themselves on the surface of the electrode, thus impeding the process. Further biological effects in the electrical field have been revealed and consist of electro-osmosis, electroforetic transport accumulation of white blood corpuscles around the anode and extend formation of blood clots in the capillaries around the anode, a factors contributing to the treatment.

If medications such as cytostatics or antibiotics are desired in high local concentration within a treatment area, such medicatio can be attracted towards the electrical field of an electrode if t medication is imparted an electrical polarity which permits electrophoretic attraction towards the electrode concerned. In this case, the medication can be administered in supply ducts, such blood paths, gland paths, etc. By means of the present invention, t medication can also be administered via the electrode duct. If t same polarity is given to the electrode as to the medication, this repelled in the tissue. If the opposite polarity is applied, the medication is retained in the vicinity of the electrode.

The tube 4 has an inner cylindrical duct which is largely equal as large as . the cylindrical duct 11 in the front section of t electrode unit 1. By giving a lug 23 for the end of the tube 4, slightly greater extent in the direction towards the centre than the corresponding to the wall thickness of the tube 4 in itself, additional lug is obtained against which a cylindrical body or ba (not shown) connected with a stiff but pliable thin wire can inserted in the tube 4 and act as a seal to close the opening in t end of the electrode unit 1 if necessary. A cannula with a diameter of approx. 1 mm may be introduced through the tube and through the duct 11. The said cannula is provided with, for example, an oblique ground off tip 13. The cannula 12 can be inserted into the position shown in Fig. 1, i.e. to a position beyond the end 2 of the electrode unit 1 and after insertion in the tissue together with the electro unit will form a guide device for the electrode unit 1, 3. While t cannula 12 is being inserted in a tumour, it is possibly rotated around its longitudinal axis. A wire shaped anchoring device 14, 1 which in the embodiment example has a screw-shaped end section which is terminated with a sharp point 15 is introducable into t cannula 12. The end of the anchoring device may instead be provided with other suitable means for improving the anchoring in a increasing the contact are against the tumour, for instance with hooks or barbs.

As an alternative or a complement, the shell surface of the cannula 12 and/or the electrode unit 1 may be screw-shaped to facilitate introduction into and increase the contact surface against the tumour.

The anchoring device, designated by reference numeral 16 in Figs. 1 and 3, extends throughout the entire cannula 12 and some way beyond the end of the cannula facing away from the tip 13 and is provided with a knob 17 by means of which the screw-shaped end section 14 can be rotated. The electrical conductors 5-7 emanate through a connector 18, for example in the form of a screw socket. In this position of the cannula socket 19 - see Fig. 2 - the cannula 12 is entirely inserted in the tube 4 and in the electrode unit 1 and protrudes beyond the electrode unit 1.

Fig. 2-5 illustrate various stages in application of the electrode unit' into a tumour 20 which is surrounded by body tissue 21.

Fig. 2 shows how the electrode device has been passed through the body tissue 21 as far as the tumour 20 and the cannula 12 is here in its fully inserted position, whereupon the cannula socket 19 rests against the screw socket 18. When the tip of the cannula 12 has reached as far as the tumour 20, the anchoring device 16 will be in such a position that its screw-shaped end 14 lies entirely retracted in the cannula 12. In the next stage, the anchoring device 16 is anchored by means of its tip 14, which may, for example, be screw-shaped, in the tumour 20. For this purpose, the tube <'>4 and the cannula 12 are retained in the position shown in Fig. 2 and the knob 17 - see Fig. 3 - is turned in the entry direction of the screw-shaped tip 14 under light axial pressure. The tip 15 of the crew 14 first reaches the occasionally relatively hard tumour tissue and easily penetrates the surface of the rumour without essentially disturbing the 'position of the tumour 20. As the knob 17 continues to be turned, the screw 14 is drilled into the tumour 20, forming a reliable anchorage for the entire electrode device - see Fig. 3. When the screw has reached its intended position in the tumour 20 - something which in certain cases may require repeated attempts - which position may, for example, checked by X-ray fluoroscopy, the cannula socket 19 is passed inwar in the direction towards the tumour 20, whereby the cannula 12 a the electrode section 1 are moved in over the screw 14 and the tumour cells in the threads of the latter - see Fig. 4. In th position, the anchoring device 16 serves as a guiding device for t cannula 12 and thus for the electrode unit, the cannula 12 also being rotatable during the movement in order to facilitate insertion. T electrode unit 1, 3, 3' is moved into the tumour 20 together with t cannula 12 and the cannula 12 serves during this movement as support for the pliable supply unit 4 (the tube) and when t electrode unit 1, 3, 3<1> attached to the tube 4 reaches the intend position in the tumour 20, both the cannula 12 and the anchori device 16 are withdrawn from the front section 1 of the electrode a out of the tube with accompanying tumour material, which may used to advantage for cytological check.

The anchoring device 16 - either threaded or unthreaded - may certain cases be used as a. temporary electrode for local destruction of tissue around the anchoring device 16. In this case, the device for example provided with a thin coating of electrical insulation for example the plastic marketed under the trade mark Teflon, with the exception of the portion which is intended to be inserted in the tumour. The anchoring device is then connected either to suitably sited electrode for direct current treatment or to a large plate electrode applied to the surface of the body for application high frequency alternating current. When heat develops around the non-isolated part of the anchoring device in the tumour, local tissue destruction is accomplished which has a therapeutical effect an gives a lengthwise extending tissue cavity, into which, for example the cannula 12 and the electrode unit 1, 3, 3' can thus be more easily inserted.

At this juncture, a cock 22 can now be inserted, as shown in Fig 5, to the connector unit or the screw socket 18 in order to mak possible, for example, the introduction of fluids or medication to the tumour 20 through the free duct in the tube 4 via perforations o holes (not shown) in this tube under the electrode units 1, 3, 3' and in or between the walls of the electrodes 1, 3, 3' and/or for removal of gas or fluid from the tumour 20. For example, physiological sodium chloride solution may be introduced in order to increase the conductivity of the tumour 20 around the electrode unit. It is also possible for example to introduce cell poison.

The cannula 12, which for example is made of stainless steel, should have a good fit against the electrode unit 1 and against the inside of the tube 4 but must slide easily in order to be insertable into and removable from the electrode unit 1 and the tube 4 without any greater effort. The anchoring device 16, which for example is made of stainless steel, has a good fit in the cannula 12.

The above described anchoring device 16 is made of rigid metal wire but it is also possible to use a flexible material, for instance spirally wound metal wire. Through the elaboration of the electrode device, a design is obtained which is soft, pliable and flexible and thus able to accompany tissue movements, for instance muscle movements, respiratory movements, etc. and can be introduced, for example, into a curved gall passage without being broken.

In the drawings, the electrical conductors 5-7 are shown to run inside the tube 4 but they may obviously instead be -embedded in the wall of the tube A .

The invention is primarily intended for treatment of cancer tu[not] mours in the human body but is naturally also usable in animal bodies and may similarly be used to treat other disease conditions in tis[not] sues.




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