Electrochemical Treatment of Cancer
Dr.Bjorn Nordenstrom, a Chairman of the
Nobel Assembly, discovered how to use electricity to shrink
lung and breast cancer tumors with no side effects. His work
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOLOGICALLY
CLOSED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS (BCEC) IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
During the 1950's, a brilliant, inquisitive and highly innovative
Swedish radiologist and surgeon, Dr. Björn E.W. Nordenström
(second photo) became interested in streaks, spikes and coronas
that he saw in X-ray images of lung tumors (third photo, from:
"Exploring BCEC-Systems," Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm
(1998)). When Dr. Nordenström discussed his observations with
other physicians, many of his colleagues saw nothing. Others
attributed the phenomena to artifacts in the image.
Dr. Nordenström was quite familiar with negative reactions from
his colleagues. As his accomplishments grew, he became Head of
Diagnostic Radiology at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
He also authored or co-authored more than 150 publications in
radiology, electrobiology and pharmacology. He was a member
of the Nobel Assembly from 1967 through 1986, and served as
President of the Assembly in 1985. Even with these
credentials, many of his ideas, such as needle biopsy and balloon
catheterization were initially met with significant amounts of
opposition by his peers.
In 1965, Dr. Nordenström began a scientific investigation into the
subtle anomalies that he observed in lung tumor X-ray images.
After years of very careful experimentation and analysis, he came
to the conclusion that the streaks, spikes and coronas that could
be seen in X-ray radiographs of lung tumors were the result of
water movement, movement of ions and restructuring of certain
tissues due to the influence of various electrical and
As his research activities progressed, Dr. Nordenström proposed a
closed loop, circulatory, self regulating model for healing that
was much more detailed and complete than conventional wound
healing models. Dr. Nordenström's model involves various
Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC), capable of utilizing
a number of physiological pathways and influencing structure and
function for a variety of tissues and organs. In essence, he
described another circulatory system where continuous energy
circulation and circulating electrical currents support healing,
metabolism, growth, regulation, immune response, etc.
Using his BCEC theory, Dr. Nordenström developed electrochemical
therapy (EChT), a minimally invasive electrotherapeutic technique
for the treatment of cancer and hemangioma tumors. EChT
assists the body's normal BCEC electrochemical healing processes
by complementing and assisting the naturally occurring endogenous
electric fields and currents that support the process of healing.
EChT povides a low-cost, patient friendly and highly effective
technique for the treatment of localized tumors. EChT is
highly complementary and can be administered with other
therapeutic modalities. EChT does not have the serious side
effects associated with conventional therapies, and experience has
shown that EChT does not exhibit a significant therapeutic
resistance with repeated applications, as is often the case with
An extensive overview of BCEC and EChT (and how they relate to
wound healing and other electrotherapeutic applications), and the
more appropriate designation for EChT as NEAT- EChT, can be found
in the book: "Electrotherapeutic Devices: Principles, Design and
Applications" (Artech House, Boston, MA (2007)) by IABC Emeritus
President, Dr. George O'Clock (Also, refer to
http://www.georgeoclock.readywebsites.com). Dr. O'Clock's October
23, 2008 University of Minnesota Electrical and Computer
Engineering (ECE) Colloquia Presentation titled
"Electrotherapeutic Principles: Applications in Cancer, Wound
Healing, and Visual System Disease can be viewed at
http://www.unite.umn.edu. A DVD of this colloquium presentation is
available from the U of MN ECE Department. Dr. O'Clock appears to
have written the first scientifically rigorous (yet accessible and
relatively easy to understand) book on electrotherapeutic devices
that combines essential technical, biological, legal and clinical
background with some guidelines for treatment protocols. Two of
the chapters discuss magnetotherapeutic principles and devices.
This book was dedicated to Dr. Nordenström.
As indicated in the previous paragraph, Dr. Nordenström's theories
and clinical results are not confined to cancer. Much of what he
has done also applies to wound healing and special branches of
wound healing that are associated with various forms of visual
disease (macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt's
disease, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, neuropathy, etc.). The
results of recent FDA guided and supervised clinical trials that
have been successfully completed are incorporated into the
following website: http://acuitymedicalsystems.net. This website
was updated during the Summer of 2009 and should have more
technical information by August-September of 2009.
From: B.E.W Nordenström, Biologically Closed Electric Circuits,
Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm (1983); B.E.W Nordenström,
The American Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 12, 1989; B.E.W.
Nordenström, The European Journal of Surgery, Supplement 574,
1994; G.D. O'Clock, Proceedings of the Fourth International
Symposium on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, October 26-29,
1997; B.E.W. Nordenström, Exploring BCEC-Systems, Nordic Medical
Publications, Stockholm (1998); Y.L. Xin, et. al., Journal of the
IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002; G.D. O'Clock, German Journal
of Oncology, Vol. 33, 2001; G.D. O'Clock, Electrotherapeutic
Devices: Principles, Design and Applications, Artech House,
Boston, MA (2007); G.D. O'Clock and J.B. Jarding,
"Electrotherapeutic Device/Protocol Design Considerations for
Visual Disease Applications," Proceedings of the 31st
International IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Conference, EMBC '09, Minneapolis, MN September 2-9, 2009.
For more information on the books published by B.E.W. Nordenström,
BIOPHYSICS OF BCEC
Understanding BCEC requires the use of some high school math and
physics, along with an appreciation for history. Over 140
years of research in wound healing has shown that an injury site
has a positive electric potential with respect to the surrounding
uninjured tissue. Björn Nordenström has also determined that
the electric potential at the center of most tumors is positive
with respect to the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. He
realized that a wound, or tumor, had a considerable amount of cell
degradation (lysis) occurring at it's center, making this region
positively charged and highly acidic. Therefore, in relation
to the surrounding normal tissue, the wound or tumor site had the
properties of a wet cell battery, producing a positive potential
between the center and periphery of the wound or tumor.
The positive electric potential at the center of the wound or
tumor can produce a current in an electrically conductive
medium. As the conductivity of the medium increases, the
electrical resistance, that tends to "impede" or restrict current
flow (impedance), decreases.
Thomasset provides a picture (first figure, from: Journal of the
IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002) showing high frequency
electrical currents flowing through cells, and the lower frequency
electrical currents flowing within the interstitial fluid around
various cells. If the source of the electrical potential is
an injury site or tumor, the resulting current will be more of a
direct current. In this case, most of the current will flow
around the cells within the interstitial fluid medium, and the
impedance will be relatively high. Also, if the electric
current consists primarily of ions in motion, the size of the ion
would also be an impedance consideration with respect to it's
capabilities of traveling through cell membranes, or it's
limitations if it is restricted to conductive pathways within the
interstitial fluid medium.
While current is flowing due to the presence of the injury site or
tumor site potential, other electrically dependant functions are
being influenced by the electrical potential. Like most
cells, white blood cells possess a negative surface charge.
From the standpoint of immune function, the positive potential at
the center of the injury or tumor tends to assist immunological
response by attracting white blood cells to that location.
The electric field produced by the positive potential of the
central region of the injury site or tumor also has an effect on
capillary porosity (contraction, which closes the pores of the
capillary), as indicated by the second figure.
With cancer, as long as the tumor exists, lytic reactions at the
center of the tumor site will promote the continued existence of
the positive potential and electric field in the region of the
tumor. As indicated by the second figure, with the tumor
acting as a wet cell battery; a conductive path for the flow of a
variety of ions (including hydrogen and phosphate ions) exists in
various electrically conductive pathways near the tumor site,
through interstitial fluids between cells, to porous capillaries,
to veins and arteries and back to contracted capillaries near the
The primary electrical conduction mechanism is ionic in a large
part of the the electrically conductive pathway. Electron
transfer occurs in the membranes of the capillaries that are under
the influence of electric field induced contraction. Under
the influence of the positively charged center of the tumor, the
transport of charged ions and white blood cells continues,
promoting various activities in the healing process.
As shown in the second figure (from German Journal of Oncology,
Vol. 33, 2001), a closed-loop circulating current and energy flow
is accomplished by the transport of charged particles (ions and
electrons), producing slowly varying electric currents in the
human body, utilizing various conductive pathways (interstitial
fluid, blood vessels, nerve fiber, muscle, etc.). The
healing currents are slowly varying with respect to time
(essentially, they are direct currents). This fact verifies
that a Biologically Closed Electric Circuit is involved. A
biologically open circuit cannot support direct
In many of his published papers and books, Dr. Nordenström points
out that BCEC activities have a profound influence on structure
and function. The influence of BCEC on function is
relatively easy to describe. Once the injury site or tumor
site produces an electric field, immune system function is
influenced by the attraction of white blood cells. Capillary
function (porosity reduction due to electric field induced
contraction) is influenced by the presence of the electric field
produced by the lytic activity near the center of the site.
Function is also influenced by the movement of ions to and from
the injury or tumor site.
Structure can also be influenced by BCEC activity. The photo
marked "a" (from: Exploring BCEC-Systems, Nordic Medical
Publications, Stockholm (1998)) shows soft tissue radiograph of
mammary fat tissue before a 10 V source is applied. Over a
10 day period, with 10 V and 1.75 mA of current, some endogenously
developed fibrosis has disappeared (arrows in "a"), while large
amounts of new fibrous tissue have developed (photo "b"). In
this case, the application of an electric potential, electric
field and electric current have contributed to a change in the
internal structure of the soft tissue.
The transport of water by electroosmosis, at the tumor site, can
influence structure and function. The movement of water
around various lung tumors contributed to the structural changes
Dr. Nordenström first noticed in his X-ray radiographs, that
resulted in his development of BCEC theory (see Home page, third
photo). As water is drawn away from the tumor by
electroosmosis, the tumor is deprived of nutrients and liquid, and
the tumor cells and vascular structure of the water starved region
begin to deteriorate.
Significant changes in cellular structure can also occur with the
application of voltages and currents that can occur in BCEC
systems. Dr. Nordenström shows significant changes in
mammalian red blood cell morphology with the application of
currents at the 1 mA level. Becker reported evidence of
electrically induced dedifferentiation of immature red blood cells
at current levels that were in the fraction of a nA range.
O'Clock shows photos of immature red blood cell dedifferentiation
at 1 µA, where, over a period of time, the red blood cells make
the transition from concave and spoked, to elliptical in shape and
finally to a flat amoeboid morphology. O'Clock and Leonard
also show evidence of necrobiosis and loss of cell aggregation
properties for lymphoma cells at current levels of 9 µA.
One of the reasons why BCEC theory is so important is that it
predicts the fast transport times observed with immune system
response. Conventional chemotaxis models, based on
diffusion, are much too slow. For example, an estimate of
the diffusion time (T) that is required for white blood cells to
travel 0.2 cm. from a capillary to an injury site can be obtained
from the following diffusion equation:
v = dL/dT = (D/L),
where v represents an instantaneous velocity (that is a function
of distance) for the white blood cell, L is the distance traveled
and D is the diffusion constant. This relationship was taken
from Mombach and Glazier, "Single Cell Motion in Aggregates of
Embryonic Cells," Physics Review Letters, Vol. 76, 15 April,
1996. Using a diffusion constant of 1/100,000 cm.cm./sec.
and a distance of 0.2 cm, the estimated velocity of 0.0001
cm/sec., from the equation shown above, would result in a
transport time of 2000 seconds (or, approximately 33 minutes) for
a cell traveling 0.2 cm. to an injury site. Using the cell
velocity relationship involving chemotaxis coefficient, and
attractant gradient, from Farrell, et. al. (Cell Motility and the
Cytoskeleton, Vol. 16, 1990); the cell's chemotactic velocity is
even slower. We know the immune system response is much
faster than the velocities and resulting transport times predicted
by these particular mathematical relationships involving standard
diffusion and chemotaxis. Therefore, another
physiological/immunological model for cell motion in healing and
regulation is needed, to predict more realistic cell transport
velocities and transport times.
Dr. Björn Nordenström's BCEC theory provides the right mix of
physiological structure and function to yield a mathematical
expression that predicts more realistic cell velocities and
response times for the immune system. Referring to the
second figure, the lytic activity at the tumor site can produce an
electric potential of 30 mV over a distance of 1 mm. We can
assume that the surface charge density of a 20 µm diameter white
blood cell is approximately - 2 Coulombs per meter squared.
Combining elecric field theory with fluid mechanics, the following
BCEC cellular transport relationship can be derived:
F = (Q)(E) = n(v/d)(A),
Where F is the force on the charged cell due to the injury site
electric field, Q is the product of cell surface charge and cell
surface area, n is viscosity (approximately 1/1,000
kg./m-sec. for a body fluid medium), A is the cross sectional area
of the cell perpendicular to the direction of travel, v is the
cell velocity and d is the boundary layer thickness for the 20 µm
diameter cell traveling in a fluid medium (in this case,
approximately 0.3 µm for laminar flow fluid dynamics).
Applying these numbers to the BCEC cellular transport equation,
the resulting velocity (v) of 0.1 cm./sec. allows the white blood
cell to reach the injury site in approximately 2 sec. This
transport time is within the range of observed immune system
response times for tissues and organs, and is much faster (by a
factor of approximately 1,000) than the transport times predicted
by chemotaxis models that rely on diffusion and
physiological/immunological concepts that are more than 150 years
From: A.L. Thomasset, Lyon Médical, Vol. 21, 1962;
R.O.Becker and D.G. Murray, Transactions of the New York Academy
of Sciences, Vol. 29, 1967; B.E.W. Nordenström, Biologically
Closed Electric Circuits, Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm
(1983); G.D. O'Clock, Proceedings of the Fourth International
Symposium on Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, October 26-29,
1997; B.E.W. Nordenström, Exploring BCEC-Systems, Nordic Medical
Publications, Stockholm (1998); G.D. O'Clock, German Journal of
Oncology, Vol. 33, 2001; G.D. O'Clock and T. Leonard, German
Journal of Oncology, Vol. 33, 2001; B.E.W Nordenström, Journal of
the IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002; A.L. Thomasset, Journal
of the IABC, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002; P.J. Rosch and M.S.
Markov (eds), Bioelectromagnetic Medicine, Marcel Dekker, New
York, NY (2004); G. D. O'Clock, Electrotherapeutic Devices:
Principles, Design and Applications, Artech House, Boston, MA
J. Applied Nutrition 39 ( 2 ) 1987
Andrew Marino : "Electric Man" and the
work of Bjorn Nordenstrom
[ PDF ]
ELECTRODE DEVICE INTENDED TO BE INTRODUCED
INTO THE BODY OF LIVING BEING
The present invention relates to an electrode device for the
temporary insertion of the organism, mainly for topical treatment
of the premises or the electrical measurement of the living
tissue, after the course of treatment or measurement, and then
pull it out from there.
The electrode device comprises an electrode member, the electrode
member has a hole leading to the center thereof, can be inserted
into a living body to be treated or measured tissue; a feeder
part, and the remaining parts of the body member and electrically
insulating means, for supply to the electrode member, the feeding
member is a flexible bendable and comprising at least one cavity.
For example, from the Swedish patent 8002772-5 although already
known for the treatment of the electrode device in vivo biological
tissue, but the known biometric before inserting the electrode
device must be coupled by one or more electrodes on the ring size
be modified to modify the size of the electrode to extend to the
And, provided on said electrode means known in relatively small
openings for supply of various agents via its central point of
treatment cavity, and for example, the reaction was removed from
the treatment point.
The same aperture and cavity has also been used to treat the point
of supply and removing agents from the treatment point of the
This situation makes the simultaneous supply and removal difficult
or impossible, for example in order to provide effective treatment
at the point of the case of cooling.
Object of the present invention is to provide an electrode device,
which can be modified to more effectively the desired size, and
better used in the treatment point, and compared with the prior
known techniques, to improve the treatment of the electrode device
drug delivery point and the reaction mass, the effective electrode
greatly expanded surface.
To achieve the above object, the electrode device according to the
beginning of the article is designed such, i.e. without
restricting the number of openings leading to the center of the
electrode member, which openings preferably are evenly distributed
along the entire electrode part.
From the following description and the drawings, claims, more
specifically know other advantages and features of the present
Figure 1 shows the various components in the application or use
of these components may be used according to the present
invention, the electrode means;
Figure 2 shows the electrode device inserted in the living
organism in the topical treatment of electricity to the
Figure 3 shows the same electrode device shown in Figure 2,
but adds another pipe, and are used to transport liquid and / or
gas, and the cooling treatment from the point of treatment
Figure 4 shows a sectional view of an end portion of the
According to the present invention, an electrode member
including a metal wire (or wire), the wire 3 at its end portion is
wound spirally, preferably bifilar wound, the wire is preferably
made of platinum made.
The end of the wire 3a, 3b bent back (apparent from Figure 4).
The wire electrode 2 through the electrically insulating tube, the
insulating tube may be made for example of Teflon (trade name,
teflon), the other end of the wire and extending through the
cavity 4, and a loop is formed at the end portion, the wire 1 and
the tube 2 are very flexible and can be bent, so the insertion is
difficult or even impossible organism.
The electrode device for insertion into a living body, a tube may
be inserted in the tube 27 and extending to the end of the wire
3a, 3b, for example, the sleeve 7 is constituted by a rigid pipe
having a pointed end portion of the inclined .
The end of the wire lumen is disposed at a distance into said
sleeve 7, the situation in Figure 4 is clearly shown.
Further, an apparatus having a screw threaded end portion 5 is
inserted into the lumen of the sleeve 7 by means of the handle
means to rotate the screw, so that the end with a threaded end
portion 3a, 3b combine to make the 7 against the inner wall of the
sleeve ends, so that the wire electrode 1 at its end 3a, 3b of the
sleeve 7 is sandwiched between the screw means 5.
Thus, the assembled whole becomes a rigid whole, and therefore can
be inserted to the desired treatment sites in vivo.
When inserted, one end of the wire 3a, 3b in the desired position
by the in vitro pull-annular end of the electrode wire 4 can point
in the treatment of an effective length of the electrode member is
adapted to the required size, leaving the ends 3a, 3b still
sandwiched as described above, so that the effective length of the
electrode member can be a good fit to the desired size.
After the completion of the operation, by rotation of the screw
device 5 to release the end 3a, 3b, let it when loosening the
screw tip of the screw tip for terminal 3a, 3b from the end of the
sleeve 7 launch, then, you can remove the screw device 5 and the
Is now ready for use electrode device, as shown in Figure 2 as
electricity to treat treatment sites.
From the viewpoint of the electrode seems to be noted that a
relatively large effective electrode surface, and an electrode
member and an electrically insulating tube 2 itself is very
flexible and can be bent, so that they can be adjusted in the
treatment of point and move around it.
Through the tube 2, various agents can be supplied to the point of
treatment, or removed from the treatment point, the electrode
member by an indefinite number of generating an alternating
openings 1, the openings are located between the bifilar wire
around the coils.
Required or desired, the electrode apparatus of the present
invention can be attached, for example a pipe with an extra
additional Teflon (trade name, teflon) made of a flexible tube 6,
the additional pipe can be inserted into the inner cavity of the
tube 2 .
The additional line 6 can preferably be inserted through the tube
2, and an electrode member into a relatively long distance at a
position of the projecting member in the center of the electrode
required, which can be supplied through a conduit 6 such as a
cooling agent, and reflux can transport between the inner wall of
the pipe wall 6 of the tube 2, thereby obtaining treatment point
to point transportation to and from the treatment of an
essentially lost walking a very effective barrier transport -
When the desired use of the electrode is finished, remove the
additional line 6, and subsequently pulling the loop 4, the
electrode member an outwardly extended, through the tube 2 without
damaging surrounding tissue of the living body, and then the tube
APPARATUS FOR SUPPLYING ELECTRIC ENERGY TO
BIOLOGICAL TISSUE FOR SIMULATING PHYSIOLOGICAL HEALING PROCESS
The present invention relates to a device for supplying electric
energy to biological tissue, the supply head in order to help
support a wide variety of physiological processes, including
healing of some pathological condition, and the variation of the
different stages of growth, e.g., attenuation of blood flow,
chronic pain , tissue fluid, etc., is also intended to affect the
vitality of circumstances such as tumor tissue.
The apparatus includes at least two electrodes connected to a DC
voltage source, wherein one of the electrodes to be placed on
their physiological and pathological - help support the
physiological cycle to be a biological tissue or a biological
tissue, and the other electrode will have to be placed such that
an biological tissue at a distance from a position such that the
conductive loop is formed between the two electrodes, the voltage
source is arranged to supply a current through the electrodes
through the biological tissue.
In the prior art, we know that the electrode can function as an
intermediary in the tissue portion to be treated or the outside of
the biological tissue to a different power supply designs.
In the case of this prior art, the electrode system is connected
to a specially designed current emitter.
This current emitter, especially known from the Swedish patent
7812092-0 of the kind which is described as being used to destroy
the tumor tissue.
Can also be used in high-frequency diathermy electrotherapy high
power input by radiation to make tissue coagulation.
There are also the well-known methods in applied across the
electrodes inserted in the stimulation to promote fracture
healing, and a method of fracture in the external circuit to apply
a constant or alternating from the Helmholtz electromagnetic
To our knowledge, these prior art methods are not to be treated in
the tissue on the basis of the physiological requirements, and
those requirements in a number of key areas, is so far not known.
The main object of the present invention is to provide an
apparatus, a current in this device may be adapted to transmit
physiological and pathological tissue in response to the change,
so as to achieve good results.
The manner described for the apparatus used to achieve the above
object is designed so that, in order to simulate the physiological
healing process, the amplitude of said voltage source provides an
alternating current with time, the current
The absolute value of the magnitude of the extrema is smaller than
the amplitude of the immediately preceding time of the absolute
extreme values, and induce an alternating current in the process
described above is repeated several times.
From the following brief description of the drawings and the
related discussion easier to understand the nature of the
invention and its various aspects.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a block diagram of an appropriate voltage source
which illustrate optional;
Figure 2 is a graph of voltage as a function of time.
Referring to the drawings.
Current therapy device with different embodiments of the present
invention depending on the pathological state of the power supply
required to support a different or altered based on the
These requirements (must be planned in advance before making
different cure) then can be used in the present invention, in one
embodiment, can be prepared by different functions into a certain
By using these functions may be programmed with a wide range of
the present invention can be applied to several different states,
such as fracture or wound healing, rheumatoid arthritis, glaucoma,
treatment of tumor tissue and the like.
In the present inventors have many years of practical experience
and treatment of cancer patients, based on analysis of the bone
where the present invention is to help support the healing of
tissue healing as an example, and this fundamental fracture
healing seems always in accordance with the present invention The
main principle is based carried.
According to the main principle in all fractures or other tissue
injury will produce the natural degradation of the organization,
the organization will cause the natural degradation of
electrochemical polarization with respect to its role in the
damaged tissue surrounding tissue undamaged.
This polarization is positively charged at the beginning, the size
of the magnitude of a few hundred millivolts, and the polarization
of the electroluminescent material forming the organization of the
electrical power transmission system.
The present inventors have recently applied to the main principle
described in detail immediately below the glass tubes in a patient
in vivo in animals and in test cases.
The main principle includes some previously unknown facts, such as
a new feature of blood vessels, the blood vessel wall that is
higher than the resistivity of the conductive medium (ie, plasma).
Through the capillary vessels with intermediate power transmission
capacity, the role of the superposition of the electric force
field, capillary partial contraction.
Therefore, the formation of ion transport through the capillary
endothelial cells and the leakage orifice therebetween
Ion channels are blocked, so that ruled out the role of osmotic
pressure and capillary leak worse on the impact and gravity.
On the other hand, the electric field is superimposed by delivery
of the first of the globular protein with Peter Mi Xieer (Peter
Mitchell) in the inner mitochondrial membrane demonstrated, and
this can indicate the presence of endothelial cell membrane in a
way to induce electron across the endothelial cell migration.
Thus the electron transfer in the electrode reaction to produce
the equivalent of the electrophoretic phenomena of biological
Therefore, the electric power generated in the damaged portion can
drive ions in the blood vessels and the flow of conductive tissue
This is the basic principle of the material during the healing
process induced damage during the transport site.
This system enables the transmission of negative ions in the
tissue at the injury site stage accumulated positively charged,
while the positive ion exclusion.
At a later stage, become the site of injury relative to the
peripheral portion becomes negatively charged, the current
transmission systems have been identified and a special plan, the
current transfer reversal process, so the positive ions
accumulate, ion exclusion lesion.
Characterized in that the loop, close to the surrounding tissue
according to a use according to the present invention, the
fluctuation of the potential difference is attenuated.
For healing the injured portion of each organization requires both
anions need cations, but these ions have to be determined by the
order of use.
The total amount of current to be transmitted is the key.
This can be calculated in the tissue damage is determined based on
Experiment confirmed the total energy released in the injury site
and can provide energy for the healing of injuries - a direct
relationship between the amount of current transfer.
Simply put, in the normal healing process, the healing of the
injury site itself will provide the energy needed for damaged
If tissue damage is completely positive in nature, which is
accumulated only in the anion, and where the cation to be
For natural reasons, the healing process requires both anions need
It has been shown in animal experiments, the potential fluctuation
of the site of injury slowly with time.
Thus for a given site of injury, the transmission of ions bound to
be affected especially conductive properties of the surrounding
In good conductivity, the electrical power to a given site of
injury may be either positively charged and in the negative phase
of the stage in a short period sufficient amount of ion transfer,
i.e. rapidly heal the injury site.
In poor conductivity, these processes requires a longer
Rooms may also need an adjustable current source to help support
Practical experiments we studied the erosion of the wave pattern
of fracture healing, the graph shows the polarity, respectively,
and the electromotive voltage during the healing time of a given
size at the desired site of injury for transmission.
Determine the size of the lesion site before treatment can be
non-invasive methods, such as X-ray, X-ray computer tomography and
magnetic resonance and so on.
Since the release of decay little damage to provide the equivalent
of a large voltage change injury energy, by means of determining
the size of the lesion is possible to calculate the amount of the
ion transfer needed for each stage of healing injuries.
This current can be calculated, and the present invention is
coupled to the given points of time, or when the current path by
detecting the actual voltage rise of the invention to enable one
to make an appropriate stage in a predetermined time period
sufficient ion transmission level to be achieved.
With the above disclosure as a background, the present invention
have the following properties.
Is preferably used, but the use of rechargeable power supply can
be separated from the battery charging, the voltage regulation and
the use of force to the injury site of the positive and negative
ions are driven stage and expelled to the fracture section.
In one embodiment, there may be a positive voltage is applied
satisfactorily to the accumulation of a sufficient amount of anion
during the time adaptation.
The accumulated value of current required for the calculation of
near anion in determining beforehand the size of the injury site,
the level of the current flow time of 0.1 to 10 days, preferably
about one week, a value close to zero This undesirable after the
start of the negative electric stage, so that reverse current or
In this way, in a corresponding manner the integration time of the
programming current is positive.
After that, voltage fluctuations, changing voltages are attenuated
down until the fracture part of clinical stability so far, in
other words, until the damage part is basically healed so far.
A voltage source is selected as a suitable example of embodiment
of the present invention is shown in block diagram in Figure 1.
This preferably comprises a DC voltage source used to charge a
battery or AC power supply battery (not shown in detail).
After this charge from the AC power source approach is recommended
because it avoids interference from AC power, and other risks
transient voltage DC voltage source.
By the DC voltage source comprises a crystal controlled clock a
two appropriate, is provided to control the clock
The design of the treatment process.
The measured real-time clock display at the appropriate one type
of the display 3.
At the middle of a clock, for example, through a relay (not shown
in detail), the two current generators acting on the reed switch 6
4 and 5 on the work to increase or decrease the connection to the
patient from the two contacts 7 and 8 generates a current, the
current through the tissue portion to be treated by surgical
implantation technique of the electrodes (not shown) to be
supplied to help support the physiological cycle of the biological
As a supplementary means of a crystal controlled clock or an
alternative, of course, process control equipment may be provided
(not shown) for the program used, so that by means of the devices
can be previously obtained empirical data, and the treatment of
such limits For the current time, voltage, current, or found
during the values ??detected in an appropriate manner to the
current generator 6 generates intervals, the degree of change of
the initial value generating effect.
This means in particular that can be more rapidly detected result
of the healing process, thereby substantially accurately determine
when the phase of the introduction of the case by changing the
current of the healing process.
DC voltage source further comprises a continuous or transient
current from the generator 10 reads seized by the switching device
6, and displayed on the display 3 of the actual voltage and
current of the instrument.
Charging meter 11 is continuously connected to the current
generator 6 and its value is displayed on the display 3.
In this case, the charge meter 11 is necessary because, as
mentioned above, the amount of charge to be supplied by the
damaged tissue is directly related to the size of the injury
After a sufficient amount of current applied to the treatment site
charging the power supply can be manually reduced to zero.
On the other hand, the use of a programming device, the charge
amount can be programmed with the amount of charge applied
contacts 7 and 8 are compared, when these values ??are equal, the
current is reduced to zero, and / or from the current generator 6
Automatic alternating power supply.
Furthermore, it should be appreciated that, as a supplement or
alternative aspect, in the current generator prior to start power
supply from the biological tissue using implanted electrodes to
detect the direction of current physiological healing process, and
a current is emitted by the current generator 6 direction to adapt
to the current direction.
Typically, however, the most appropriate is the beginning
corresponds to the natural healing process from the outset with
Damaged tissue sent to the current table to begin treatment.
By increasing the current, respectively, via a relay control clock
1 issued by the current generator 6 and the reduction in time can
control the current to gradually increase and decrease, it is of
course by means of appropriate means so that the current is
continuously increased and decreased .
Figure 2 illustrates the current generator 6 by the contacts 7 and
8 are added to the ends of the voltage curve as a function of
time, because (in the resistivity of the biological tissue under
relatively constant conditions) compared to the corresponding
current change is substantially, easy to control the voltage
Here the time axis T in FIG comprising about 3 to 4 weeks of the
time, and can be clearly seen from the graph, the time interval
and the end of the curve damped asymptotically tend to zero.
The initial current is applied to the first maximum of a few
seconds, the longest takes a few minutes, on the other hand, the
maximum value to zero by the change is gradual or continuous,
which lasted from 0.1 to 2 days, up to 7 ~ 10 days, and then
continue to change the current to the negative maximum and then
back to zero, the time required for this section is substantially
the same as described above, i.e., (when the current or voltage is
typically, but not necessarily so not, zero) two alternating with
each successive distance between points is about seven days.
So add contacts to the electrodes 7 and 8 of its current
alternating very slow.
After alternating the direction of the current 3 to 4 times,
basically cured, but there is a condition that applied to the
total electricity organizational basically should correspond with
the size of the wound.
The present invention should not be construed as limiting the
content shown in the drawings and described above that in the
present description without departing from the appended claims
provided the spirit and scope of it is envisioned that many
variations and modifications.
Electrode device intended to be introduced
into the body of a living being.
Also published as: SE8704458 // SE8704458 //
An electrode device intended to be temporarily introduced into the
body of a living being and to essentially locally treat or
electrically measure biological body tissue therein in order to,
after performed treatment or measurement, be removed. Said
electrode device includes an electrode part (1), provided with an
opening to its centre and insertable into the body tissue to be
treated or measured, and a supply part (2), which electrically
seen is isolated from the remaining body parts, for supply of
electricity to said electrode part (1), which supply part (2) is
made pliable and contains at least one channel. Said electrode
part (1) has an unlimited number of openings to its centre, which
openings preferably are evenly distributed along the entire
electrode part (1).
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to an electrode device intended to be
temporarily introduced into a body of a living being to locally
treat or electrically measure biological body tissue therein.
After performing the treatment or measurement, the device is
removed from the body.
Swedish Patent No. 8002772-5 discloses a prior art electrode
device for treatment of biological tissues inside a living being.
This known electrode device must--before introduction into the
body--be adapted in size by adding one or more electrode rings in
order to adapt the extension of the electrode to the size
The known electrode device of Swedish Patent No. 8002772-5 is,
furthermore, provided with relatively small openings for supply of
various agents via its central channel to the point of treatment
and for removal of, for example, reaction products from the point
of treatment. These openings and the central channel are also
utilized for supply to as well as removal from the point of
treatment. This makes a simultaneous supply and removal difficult
or impossible to perform, for example in order to provide
efficient cooling of the point of treatment.
The object of the present invention is to provide an electrode
device which is more efficiently adaptable to the size required,
preferably in situ at the point of treatment, and which electrode
device provides improved transportation to and from the point of
treatment and provides an enlarged effective electrode surface
compared to previously known techniques.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 shows the various parts which can be used when using
the electrode device according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 shows an electrode device according to the present
invention during local treatment with electricity in situ in a
FIG. 3 shows the same device as shown in FIG. 2 but
supplemented with an additional channel for transportation of
liquids and/or gases to and from and for cooling of the point of
treatment, respectively; and
FIG. 4 shows a sectional view through the distal end of the
electrode device of the present invention.
As seen in FIG. 1, the electrode part 1 according to the present
invention includes one wire which at one end 3a, 3b thereof
preferably is bifilar wound. The wire of electrode 1 is preferably
made of platinum. The distal ends 3a, 3b of the wire are bent
backwards, as is best shown in FIG. 4. The electrode wire runs
through an electrically insulated tube 2, made of Teflon (trade
name), for example, and the other end 4 of the wire runs through
and projects out of the tube 2 and is terminated by a loop. The
wire 1 as well as the tube 2 are very flexible and can be bent.
Thus, they are difficult or impossible to introduce into a living
In order to perform introduction of the electrode device into a
living being, a cannula 7 comprising, for example, a stiff steel
tube with an obliquely bevelled tip is inserted into the tube 2
and extends to the distal ends 3a, 3b of said wire, as seen in
FIG. 4. The distal ends 3a, 3b of the wire are arranged so as to
extend into the channel of said cannula 7 by a certain distance,
as is best seen in FIG. 4. Furthermore, a screw means 5 having a
threaded tip (see FIGS. 1 and 4) is introduced into the channel of
said cannula 7 and is turned by means of its handle 8 such that
the threaded tip cooperates with said distal ends against the
inner wall of said cannula 7, whereby the electrode wire 1 is
clamped at the distal ends 3a, 3b thereof in relation to the
cannula 7 as well as to the screw means 5.
The assembled unit as described above has become a stiff unit due
to the insertion of cannula 7 and screw means 5, and can, thus, be
inserted into a living being to the desired point of treatment.
When introduced into the living body, the distal ends 3a, 3b of
the wire 1 are located at the desired position and the effective
length of the electrode part 1 at the point of treatment is
adapted to the desired size by pulling the loop-shaped end 4 of
the electrode wire outside said living body while the distal ends
3a, 3b are still clamped as specified above. The effective
electrode part 1 is, thus, exactly adapted in length to the size
When the above described manipulation has been performed, the
screw means 5 can be removed to free the distal ends 3a, 3b by
unscrewing said screw means 5. When the screw needle end of screw
means 5 is free, the screw needle end is used for pushing out the
ends 3a, 3b from the tip of said cannula 7. The screw means 5 can,
then, be removed as well as the cannula 7.
The electrode device is now ready to be used, for example, for
treatment of the point of treatment with electricity as indicated
in FIG. 2. From the point of view of the electrode, the
comparatively very large effective electrode surface is to be
noted. Furthermore, it is to be noted that the electrode part 1 in
itself as well as the electrically insulatng tube 2 are very
flexible and pliable and they, thereby, adjust themselves to
movements in and around the point of treatment.
Through the tube 2, various agents can be supplied to and removed
from the point of treatment. Moreover, communication is taking
place via an infinite number of openings 9 (see FIG. 4)
distributed around the electrode part 1. As seen in FIG. 4, a
continuous opening 9 is provided, which extends around the device
along the length of the electrode part 1, which continuous opening
9 is located between the turns of the bifilar wound wire.
The electrode device according to the present invention can--if so
desired or required--be supplemented with an extra additional tube
or channel 6 (see FIGS. 1 and 3) in the shape of a flexible tube
made from, for example, Telfon (trade name), which additional tube
or channel 6 is inserted into the channel of said insulating
flexible tube 2. Said additional tube or channel 6 can preferably
be introduced throughout the whole length of tube 2 and also over
a long distance into the electrode part 1, whereby a supply of,
for example, cooling agents can be performed through said tube 6
and return transportation can be carried out between the outer
wall of said tube 6 and the inner wall of said tube 2. In this
manner, a very effective mode of transportation--a circulating
transportation--is obtained to and from the point of treatment
without any essential obstacles.
When the desired use of the electrode device is completed, the
extra channel 6 is firstly removed, whereafter the loop 4 is
pulled so that the electrode part 1 is straightened out towards
the tube 2 without damaging surrounding tissues, whereafter the
tube 2 with the electrode part 1 therein is removed by pulling it
An apparatus for supplying electric energy
to biological tissue for simulating the physiological healing
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an apparatus for supplying
electric energy to biological tissue with a view to supporting
different physiological processes, including various phases of
healing, growth, modification of pathological states, for example
deterioration in blood flow, chronic pain, fluid accumulation in
tissue etc., and similarly with the view to influencing viability
conditions of, for instance, tumour tissue, the apparatus
essentially comprising at least two electrodes connected to a D.C.
voltage source, of which one electrode is intended to be disposed
in or on the bio-tissue which is to be supported in its
physiological or patho-physiological cycle, and the other
electrode is intended to be disposed in spaced-apart relationship
from the biological tissue in such a position that electrically
conductive circuits exist between said electrodes, the voltage
source being arranged, via said electrodes, to supply current
through the biotissue.
It is previously known in this art that power may be supplied to
biological tissue by the intermediary of electrodes of different
designs, in or outside that tissue portion which is to be treated.
In this prior-art case, the electrodes are connected to a
specially designed current emitter. This current emitter, known
int. al. from Swedish patent No. 7812092-0 (corresponding to U.S.
Pat. No. 4,289,135), is described as being employed for
destruction of tumour tissue.
Diathermy instrumentation may also be employed with great power
input at high frequencies for obtaining tissue coagulation by
Methods are also known for so-called stimulation of fracture
healing across implanted electrodes, as well as the application of
electromagnetic, constant or variable fields from Helmholt's loops
outside fractures. These prior-art methods have, as far as is
known, not been based on the physiological requirements of tissue
for healing, which, in crucial aspects, have hitherto been
OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The primary object of the present invention is to propose an
apparatus, by means of which the current emission may be adapted
to the varying physiological and pathological reaction conditions
of the tissue for attaining a good treatment result.
The apparatus as described by way of introduction--for attaining
the above-indicated object--has been designed such that the
above-mentioned voltage source, for simulating the physiological
healing process, supplies a current whose amplitude value
alternates with time, that each maximum amplitude value is lower
in absolute terms than the amplitude value immediately preceding
in time, and that the above-mentioned alternation of the current
is caused to be effected a plurality of times.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The nature of the present invention and its aspects will be more
readily understood from the following brief description of the
accompanying Drawings, and discussion relating thereto.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a suitable voltage source selected
for means of exemplification; and
FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the voltage as a function of
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
Referring to the Drawings, the embodiment of the present invention
is based--as opposed to existing treatment apparatuses-- on the
varying requirements of support or modification of electric power
supply as required in different pathological states. These
requirements, which must be plotted before different treatments,
may then be employed in the present invention, which, in one
embodiment, may be programmed for different functions. By giving
these functions a wide programming possibility, the present
invention may be utilized for several states, for example fracture
or wound healing, rheumatic arthritis, glaucoma, healing of tumour
The present invention, which is based on the inventor's many
years' practical experiments and treatment of patients suffering
from cancer, may cite fracture healing as a prototype for the
support of tissue healing, which, fundamentally, always appears to
take place according to the major principle on which the present
invention is based.
According to this major principle, there will occur in each
fracture or other tissue damage, a spontaneous degradation of
tissue which gives rise to electrochemical polarization of the
damaged tissue in relation to its undamaged surroundings. This
polarization is initially electropositive of the order of
magnitude of a few hundred millivolts and constitutes the
electromotoric power in an electrogenic transport system for
tissue material. This major principle has recently been employed
by the inventor in the case described in detail and experimentally
tested in vitro, in vivo on animals and in vivo on human patients.
This major principle includes new, previously unknown facts, for
example a new function of the blood vessels, whose walls have a
high degree of resistivity in relation to the conductive media,
namely blood plasma. The blood vessels have an electric
transmission by the intermediary of the blood capillaries, which
contract segmentally under the action of the superposed
electromotoric field. Hereby, ion transports are shut in ion
channels through the endothel cells of the blood capillaries and
the leaking stomata therebetween. Hence, influence by diffusion,
pressure differences and differences in osmotic pressure across
the capillaries and the effect of gravitation will be excluded.
The superposed electric gradient can, on the other hand, induce
electron transfer across the endothel cells via globular proteins
in a manner which was first demonstrated by Peter Mitchell in
inner mitochondria membranes and is here shown to be present in
the membranes of the endothel cells. There will thereby be
obtained, on electron transfers, a biological equivalent to the
electrode reactions in electrophoresis. As a result, the
electromotoric power which is generated in the injury can drive
ions in the blood vessels and in the interstitial, conductive
tissue liquid. This is the basis of the material transport which
is induced by the injury on healing.
This transport system permits accumulation of electronegative ions
and repulsion of electropositive ions during the electropositive
phase of the tissue damage. In a later phase, the damage converts
to becoming electronegative in relation to its surroundings. In
the particular current transport system which has been identified
and plotted, the current transport reverts, therefore, so that
electropositive ions are accumulated and electronegative ions are
repulsed from the damage. This cycle is characterized by a
fluctuating, attenuating potential difference to the immediate
surroundings which may be utilized according to the present
invention. Every tissue injury requires, for its healing, both
anions and cations, but these must be employed in determined
sequences. The total current transport is of crucial importance.
This is calculated on the basis of determination of the size of
the tissue damage. A direct relationship has been demonstrated
between the total quantity of energy which is released in an
injury and the quantity of current transport this energy can
deliver for healing the damage. In simple terms, the injury itself
will, in a normal healing process, deliver that energy which is
required for healing the damage.
If the tissue damage were solely electropositive, only anions
would be accumulated therein, while cations would be repulsed
thence. For natural reasons, both anions and cations are needed in
the healing process. In animal experiments, it has been
demonstrated that the damage potential slowly fluctuates with
time. For a given injury, the ion transports must, therefore, be
influenced, int. al., by the conductive properties of surrounding
tissue. In good conductivity, a given electromotoric force may, in
a short time, transport a sufficient quantity of ions both during
the positive and the negative phase of the injury, i.e. rapidly
heal the injury. In poor conductivity, these transports take
longer time and may need to be supported by a variable current
source. An applicable fluctuation pattern in fracture healing has
been studied experimentally on rodent fractures, this pattern
giving polarity, voltage and current force, respectively, for the
transports during the requisite healing time for an injury of a
None-invasive methods, for example X-ray, computer tomography and
magnetic resonance may be utilized for determining the size of the
injury before treatment. Since the degradation of a small injury
releases energy which gives voltage changes equivalent to a large
injury, it is possible, by means of size determination, to
calculate the quantity of ion transport in the different phases
which is required for healing the injury. This may be effected by
either calculating and adapting the current time integral the
invention is to give or by sensing the actual current passage of
the invention and allowing the voltage to rise to a level which
permits adequate transport of ions in suitable phases during a
With the above disclosures as a background, the present invention
enjoys the following properties. Using an electric battery which
is preferably rechargeable but is separable during use from the
mains power supply, varying voltage and current force can drive
ions to and from the fracture with the application of both
electropositive and electronegative phase of the injury. In one
embodiment, there is a possibility of applying a satisfactorily
positive voltage in order, during a reasonable time, to accumulate
a sufficient quantity of anions. On approaching the calculated
current figure for anion accumulation, after the preceding
determination of the size of the injury, the current through-flow
levels out towards the zero value during a time of from 0.1 to 10
days, preferably approximately one week, whereafter the desired
negative phase commences for inverting or alternation of the
current. By such means, the flow time integral will be programmed
in a corresponding manner to the positive. Thereafter, the voltage
fluctuations, the varying voltage, are attenuated, until clinical
stability is achieved in the fracture, in other words until the
injury is substantially healed.
A voltage source selected by way of example as being suited for
reducing the present invention into practice is illustrated in the
block diagram according to FIG. 1. This D.C. voltage source
preferably includes a block 12 which generally designates mains
chargeable accumulators or batteries (not shown in detail on the
drawing). This disconnection from the mains is to be preferred in
order to avoid the risk that disturbances, transient voltages etc.
deriving from the mains power affect the D.C. voltage source.
The D.C. voltage source includes a clock 1 suitably controlled by
a crystal 2, the clock being arranged to control the process. The
real time measured by the clock 1 is shown on a display 3 of
suitable type. The clock 1 operates, by the intermediary of, for
example, a relay (not shown in detail), two tongues 4 and 5 for
acting on a current generator 6 to increase or reduce the current
emitted from two patient connections 7 and 8, the current being,
by the intermediary of electrodes (not shown on the Drawings),
surgically implanted into the tissue portions which are to be
treated, supplied to the biological tissue whose physiological
cycle is to be supported.
As a complement or alternative to the crystal-controlled clock 1,
equipment (not shown) for controlling the process may naturally be
provided for programming, by means of which previously obtained
experience values, limits etc.--as well as values revealed or
sensed from the treatment--may be caused to act upon the initial
values generated from the current generator 6 in respect of
current, voltage, time alternation of current, degree of
modification etc., in an appropriate manner. This refers in
particular to those cases where it is possible relatively
instantaneously to sense the result of the healing process and
thereby establish more or less exactly when the next phase in the
healing process is to be introduced by alternation of the current.
The D.C. voltage source further includes a meter 9 for
continuously or instantaneously reading off the actual voltage and
current which are retrieved by the intermediary of a switch device
10 from the current generator 6 and are shown on the display 3. A
charging meter 11 is continuously connected to the current
generator 6 and its value is also shown on the display 3. This
charging meter 11 is, in this context, essential, since--as was
mentioned above--the volume of charge which is to be supplied to
damaged tissue is directly related to the volume of the injury
itself. By manual means, the current supply is reduced to zero
when sufficient charging volume has been supplied to the treatment
site. If--on the other hand--equipment for programming is
employed, a preprogrammed charging volume may be compared with the
charging volume supplied to the connections 7 and 8, and when
these values are equal, the current is reduced to zero and/or the
current supply is alternated automatically from the current
As a complement or alternative, it is further conceivable--before
the current supply from the current generator is commenced--to
utilize the electrodes implanted in the biological tissue for
sensing the current direction of the physiological healing process
and adapt the emission current direction generated from the
current generator 6 in response thereto.
However, as a rule, it is most appropriate to commence the
treatment from the beginning, corresponding to the onset of a
natural healing process, with the current directed from the
Through the above-mentioned increase and decrease, respectively,
of the current from the current generator 6 controlled by the
clock 1 via relays, there will be obtained a time-controlled
stepwise increase and reduction of the current, but, naturally, it
is also possible to continually increase and reduce the current by
FIG. 2 illustrates the potential which is impressed by the current
generator 6 across the connections 7 and 8 as a function of time,
since the voltage is simpler to follow than the essentially
corresponding variations of the current (in reasonably constant
resistivity of the biological tissue). The time axis T in the
diagram here embraces approx. 3-4 weeks and--as will be apparent
from the curve--is damped asymptotically towards zero at the end
of this time interval. The initial current application up to the
first maximum takes place within a few seconds up to a few
minutes, while, on the other hand, the change thence to zero takes
place stepwise or continually for a long time from 0.1 to 2 days
up to 7-10 days and continued alternation of the current to the
negative maximum and then further to zero takes place within
approximately the same time interval as above, i.e. the distance
between two mutually subsequent alternation points (when the
current or voltage is, as a rule, but not necessarily, zero), is
approx. 7 days. The current to the electrode connections 7 and 8
hence alternates extremely slowly. After 3-4 alternations of the
current direction, healing will have essentially taken place, on
condition that the total volume of charge which is supplied to the
tissue substantially corresponds to the volume of the damage.
The present invention should not be considered as restricted to
that described above and shown on the drawings, many modifications
being conceivable without departing from the spirit and scope of
the appended claims.
Also published as: EP0056801 / WO8102839
/ US4572214 / SE8002772 / SE8002772
An electrode device for treatment of biological tissue comprising
an electrode unit (1, 3, 3') and a supply unit (4) electrically
insulated against the surrounds for sup ply of electricity from a
voltage source to the said electrode unit (1, 3, 3'). The supply
unit (4) is designed pliable and contains at least one duct for
one or a plurality of electrical conductors (5-7) and for
transport and guidance of aids (12-15, etc.) to and from the
electrode unit (1, 3, 3').
This invention relates to an electrode device intended to be
temporarily inserted into the body of a living being and
essentially locally to treat biological body tissue therein and
subsequently, 5 upon completion of the treatment, to be removed,
the said device incorporating an electrode unit introducable into
the body tissue which it is intended to treat and a supply unit
electrically insulated against other parts of the body for the
supply of electricity from a voltage source to the said electrode
unit. [deg.] Various electrodes are already known, for example
through the U.S. patents 4 103 690 and 3 348 548 and through the
German patents 577 722, 651 428 and 1 143 937.
Known electrode designs for the treatment of biological tissue are
unsuitable for several reasons.
In order, for example, to treat a tumour with direct current, the
electrode which is to be inserted in the tumour and which is
arranged to electrically interact with a s<'>econdary
electrode which is located outside the tumour must be localized
with great precision in the centre of the tumour. With prior art
electrodes, it is very difficult to achieve exact positioning and
retention of the electrode in the tumour. One of the reasons for
this is that the tissue and the tumour may move, for instance as a
consequence of the respiratory motions of the patient. Moreover,
the tumour, where the point of the electrode reaches to and is to
be inserted into the tumour, may slide aside in surrounding softer
tissue. This means that repeated attempts frequently have to be
made in order for an acceptable positioning of the tumour to be
Severe problems in the treatment of tissues also arise as a
con[not] sequence of gas formation, dehydration and/or material
deposition on -' the surfaces of the electrode.
One of the objects of the present invention is to provide an
electrode device which permits certain and exact insertion and
re[not] tention as well as removal of the active electrode unit in
a bio[not] logical tissue without being moved out of position, for
example in a tumour. A further object of the invention is to
provide an electrode device with the aid of which gases generated
at the surfaces of t electrode can be sucked out and liquid and/or
medication can supplied to the tumour.
These and other objects are obtained at the electrode device
specified in the descriptive preamble according to the present
invention in that said device is given the features as are evident
fr the characterizing clause of the accompanying Claim 1.
Other essential features of the present invention are evident fr
the accompanying claims. One embodiment of the invention is
described below and with reference to the accompanying drawings,
wherein Fig. shows a cut-away view of an example of an embodiment
of the electro device according to the invention, Fig. 2 shows a
first stage in t introduction of the electrode device in the
direction towards tumour, Fig. 3 shows the introduction of an aid,
for example an anchoring device, in the tumour, Fig. 4 shows the
electrode devi inserted _ with the <'>aid of the anchoring
device an'd a stiffeni member, for example a cannula, and Fig. 5
shows the electrode devi with the anchoring device and cannula
removed. According to Fig. the electrode device is in the
treatment position in the tumour and three-way cock is connected
to the supply unit for extraction of g and/or introduction of
liquid or medication.
The embodiment of the electrode device shown in Fig. 1 compris an
electrode unit, manufactured for example of platinum and having
front section 1 with a pointed or narrowing cylindrical end 2 and
one or more rear cylindrical rings 3, 3'. These parts have a
diameter approx. 1.9 mm. The electrode unit is shown here to
consist of thr parts to illustrate that electrode units with
different axial lengt for tissue areas of different sizes can be
built up from standardized front section 1 and auxiliary rings 3,
3<1> since a large electrode surface is- required in order
to enable sufficiently lar current intensities to pass through the
tissu "e area to be treat within reasonable time.
The front section 1 of the electrode unit, which obviously can
used v/ithout auxiliary rings 3, 3', if for example a cancer tumor
which is to be treated is of such a size that the length of the pa
1 is sufficient, is attached by pressure to one end section of
supply unit 4 which in this case consists of a tube 4. This tube 4
is made pliable in order to be able to accompany movements in
tissues and may be made for example of the plastic marketed under
the trade mark Teflon. The rear rings 3 and 3' respectively are
similarly attached by pressure to the tube 4. Attached to the
inside of the cylindrical electrode section 1 are one or more
electrical conductors 5, 6, 7, which are for example brazed or
soldered. In the shown example, the conductors are three in
number. The conductors 5-7 which in the same way as the electrode
rings 1, 3, 3' are bright (blank) and thus uninsulated in the
shown embodiment, are clamped between the cylindrical inner
surfaces of the parts 3, 3' and the cylindrical jacket surface of
the tube 4. By this means, good electrical contact is afforded
between the electrical conductors 5-7 and the rings 3, 3'. The
three conductors 5-7 are inserted into the interior of the tube 4
through a hole sited within the region for the ring 3', and are
introduced via the interior of the tube 4 to, for example, one
terminal 8, in the shown embodiment the positive terminal, of a
direct voltage source 9. The second terminal of the latter is in
this case connected to a second electrode 10 which is located at a
suitable distance from the tube in a conductive medium in the
We have thus been able to show that the walls of the blood vessels
function as insulators around a conductive medium - the blood
plasma. Since a tumour is supplied by the surrounding blood
vessels, a closed electrical circuit is obtained by this means,
with the blood vessels acting as mutually parallel electric
conductors. Other conductive media in the body may nevertheless be
used, for example tissue fluid, brain fluid, gall fluid, urine,
gland secretion, etc.
When an electrode which is inserted in a tumour acts as a positive
electrode, a powerful emission of protones is obtained upon
decomposition of water, resulting in the tissue becoming highly
acidic and in destruction of the tumour close to the electrode.
Tumour cells possess negative surplus charges and are therefore
retained by the positive electrode. At the same time, gas - for
example chlorine gas and oxygen gas - is generated at the positive
electrode and the gases deposit themselves on the surface of the
electrode, thus impeding the process. Further biological effects
in the electrical field have been revealed and consist of
electro-osmosis, electroforetic transport accumulation of white
blood corpuscles around the anode and extend formation of blood
clots in the capillaries around the anode, a factors contributing
to the treatment.
If medications such as cytostatics or antibiotics are desired in
high local concentration within a treatment area, such medicatio
can be attracted towards the electrical field of an electrode if t
medication is imparted an electrical polarity which permits
electrophoretic attraction towards the electrode concerned. In
this case, the medication can be administered in supply ducts,
such blood paths, gland paths, etc. By means of the present
invention, t medication can also be administered via the electrode
duct. If t same polarity is given to the electrode as to the
medication, this repelled in the tissue. If the opposite polarity
is applied, the medication is retained in the vicinity of the
The tube 4 has an inner cylindrical duct which is largely equal as
large as . the cylindrical duct 11 in the front section of t
electrode unit 1. By giving a lug 23 for the end of the tube 4,
slightly greater extent in the direction towards the centre than
the corresponding to the wall thickness of the tube 4 in itself,
additional lug is obtained against which a cylindrical body or ba
(not shown) connected with a stiff but pliable thin wire can
inserted in the tube 4 and act as a seal to close the opening in t
end of the electrode unit 1 if necessary. A cannula with a
diameter of approx. 1 mm may be introduced through the tube and
through the duct 11. The said cannula is provided with, for
example, an oblique ground off tip 13. The cannula 12 can be
inserted into the position shown in Fig. 1, i.e. to a position
beyond the end 2 of the electrode unit 1 and after insertion in
the tissue together with the electro unit will form a guide device
for the electrode unit 1, 3. While t cannula 12 is being inserted
in a tumour, it is possibly rotated around its longitudinal axis.
A wire shaped anchoring device 14, 1 which in the embodiment
example has a screw-shaped end section which is terminated with a
sharp point 15 is introducable into t cannula 12. The end of the
anchoring device may instead be provided with other suitable means
for improving the anchoring in a increasing the contact are
against the tumour, for instance with hooks or barbs.
As an alternative or a complement, the shell surface of the
cannula 12 and/or the electrode unit 1 may be screw-shaped to
facilitate introduction into and increase the contact surface
against the tumour.
The anchoring device, designated by reference numeral 16 in Figs.
1 and 3, extends throughout the entire cannula 12 and some way
beyond the end of the cannula facing away from the tip 13 and is
provided with a knob 17 by means of which the screw-shaped end
section 14 can be rotated. The electrical conductors 5-7 emanate
through a connector 18, for example in the form of a screw socket.
In this position of the cannula socket 19 - see Fig. 2 - the
cannula 12 is entirely inserted in the tube 4 and in the electrode
unit 1 and protrudes beyond the electrode unit 1.
Fig. 2-5 illustrate various stages in application of the electrode
unit' into a tumour 20 which is surrounded by body tissue 21.
Fig. 2 shows how the electrode device has been passed through the
body tissue 21 as far as the tumour 20 and the cannula 12 is here
in its fully inserted position, whereupon the cannula socket 19
rests against the screw socket 18. When the tip of the cannula 12
has reached as far as the tumour 20, the anchoring device 16 will
be in such a position that its screw-shaped end 14 lies entirely
retracted in the cannula 12. In the next stage, the anchoring
device 16 is anchored by means of its tip 14, which may, for
example, be screw-shaped, in the tumour 20. For this purpose, the
tube <'>4 and the cannula 12 are retained in the position
shown in Fig. 2 and the knob 17 - see Fig. 3 - is turned in the
entry direction of the screw-shaped tip 14 under light axial
pressure. The tip 15 of the crew 14 first reaches the occasionally
relatively hard tumour tissue and easily penetrates the surface of
the rumour without essentially disturbing the 'position of the
tumour 20. As the knob 17 continues to be turned, the screw 14 is
drilled into the tumour 20, forming a reliable anchorage for the
entire electrode device - see Fig. 3. When the screw has reached
its intended position in the tumour 20 - something which in
certain cases may require repeated attempts - which position may,
for example, checked by X-ray fluoroscopy, the cannula socket 19
is passed inwar in the direction towards the tumour 20, whereby
the cannula 12 a the electrode section 1 are moved in over the
screw 14 and the tumour cells in the threads of the latter - see
Fig. 4. In th position, the anchoring device 16 serves as a
guiding device for t cannula 12 and thus for the electrode unit,
the cannula 12 also being rotatable during the movement in order
to facilitate insertion. T electrode unit 1, 3, 3' is moved into
the tumour 20 together with t cannula 12 and the cannula 12 serves
during this movement as support for the pliable supply unit 4 (the
tube) and when t electrode unit 1, 3, 3<1> attached to the
tube 4 reaches the intend position in the tumour 20, both the
cannula 12 and the anchori device 16 are withdrawn from the front
section 1 of the electrode a out of the tube with accompanying
tumour material, which may used to advantage for cytological
The anchoring device 16 - either threaded or unthreaded - may
certain cases be used as a. temporary electrode for local
destruction of tissue around the anchoring device 16. In this
case, the device for example provided with a thin coating of
electrical insulation for example the plastic marketed under the
trade mark Teflon, with the exception of the portion which is
intended to be inserted in the tumour. The anchoring device is
then connected either to suitably sited electrode for direct
current treatment or to a large plate electrode applied to the
surface of the body for application high frequency alternating
current. When heat develops around the non-isolated part of the
anchoring device in the tumour, local tissue destruction is
accomplished which has a therapeutical effect an gives a
lengthwise extending tissue cavity, into which, for example the
cannula 12 and the electrode unit 1, 3, 3' can thus be more easily
At this juncture, a cock 22 can now be inserted, as shown in Fig
5, to the connector unit or the screw socket 18 in order to mak
possible, for example, the introduction of fluids or medication to
the tumour 20 through the free duct in the tube 4 via perforations
o holes (not shown) in this tube under the electrode units 1, 3,
3' and in or between the walls of the electrodes 1, 3, 3' and/or
for removal of gas or fluid from the tumour 20. For example,
physiological sodium chloride solution may be introduced in order
to increase the conductivity of the tumour 20 around the electrode
unit. It is also possible for example to introduce cell poison.
The cannula 12, which for example is made of stainless steel,
should have a good fit against the electrode unit 1 and against
the inside of the tube 4 but must slide easily in order to be
insertable into and removable from the electrode unit 1 and the
tube 4 without any greater effort. The anchoring device 16, which
for example is made of stainless steel, has a good fit in the
The above described anchoring device 16 is made of rigid metal
wire but it is also possible to use a flexible material, for
instance spirally wound metal wire. Through the elaboration of the
electrode device, a design is obtained which is soft, pliable and
flexible and thus able to accompany tissue movements, for instance
muscle movements, respiratory movements, etc. and can be
introduced, for example, into a curved gall passage without being
In the drawings, the electrical conductors 5-7 are shown to run
inside the tube 4 but they may obviously instead be -embedded in
the wall of the tube A .
The invention is primarily intended for treatment of cancer
tu[not] mours in the human body but is naturally also usable in
animal bodies and may similarly be used to treat other disease
conditions in tis[not] sues.
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