Dr. Robert C. OLNEY
UV Blood Irradiation

Blocked Oxidation
by Robert C. Olney, M.D.

Dr Robert Olney

This presentation deals with the prevention and treatment of "blocked oxidation" which we consider the prime cause of malignant, viral, bacterial, and allergic diseases.

With our present knowledge it should be possible to prevent and wipe out cancer and serious infectious diseases.

We are in an era of destructive therapy, powerful poisonous insecticides, fluoride poisoning and "embalmed foods." This is an era of ignoring the principles of healthful living and then attempting to cure everything by taking an array of pills.

We believe that the so-called "accepted" methods of treating cancer are no more successful today than they were 40 years ago.

We are entering on an era of prevention and simple effective treatment of malignant, viral, bacterial, and allergic diseases.

Blocking of,(1) or injury to the vital oxidation process (respiration) of the living cells by oxygen deficiency or various toxic substances we find to be the most important cause of malignant, viral, bacterial, and allergic diseases. Effective prevention and treatment of these diseases depends upon the restoration and maintenance of the normal oxidation process. Knowing and eliminating the oxygen deficiency and these toxic substances is of prime importance, but once the blocking process or injury has become established effective means must be taken to reverse the process and restore normal oxidation. The condition will not return to normal simply by elimination of the cause.

In malignant disease, (1, 2) when the oxidation process is blocked, energy is produced by fermentation and viruses grow profusely in this condition.

For many years Dr. William F. Koch(1) and Otto Warburg (2, 3) have claimed that blocking of, or impairment of oxidation in the enzymes and cells allows fermentation of sugar and that fermentation in these enzymes and cells is the PRIME CAUSE OF CANCER. Koch (1) has also proved that blocked oxidation in micro-organisms causes them to be pathogenic and parasitic, and that when this condition is corrected these organisms become non-pathogenic, non-parasitic, and non-virulent.

In so many of these conditions patients have a low blood oxygen level as shown by blood oxygen studies. Some are only 50% to 60% of normal as shown in this paper. As part of this paper are the results of studies made in 1968 which confirm studies by Dr. George Miley.(6)

Our clinical studies show that intravenous Ultraviolet effectively increases the blood oxygen to normal or near normal in most cases.

Increasing blood oxygen is important, but when the oxidation process is blocked by certain amines it takes a powerful oxidation catalyst to bring about normal oxidation and eliminate the blocking substances. We now have an effective oxidation catalyst which does this.(1)

In the treatment of these cases the following are very important: 1. Intravenous Ultraviolet rapidly increases the oxygen absorption of the patient bringing the blood oxygen up to normal. The powerful oxidation catalyst stimulates the use of this increased oxygen or the patient's oxygen at any level to restore the normal oxidation process (cell respiration).

2. The diet of these patients is extremely important, using foods grown with natural fertilizers and without poisonous fertilizers and insecticides, and eating much of it raw. Since so many of these patients are deficient in important trace minerals such as magnesium and zinc it is important to see that these patients are supplied with sufficient trace minerals in chelated form so that they are readily absorbed.

3. Since much of the toxic substances producing these diseases comes from the colon we use colonic irrigations for thoroughly cleansing the colon of these substances. Since the normal pH (of fresh stool) of the colon must be properly maintained this is done with every means to promote the normal physiology of the colon.

4. All factors for the most healthful condition of each patient are carefully considered and treated.

Pasteur was the first to discover the oxidation process or respiration in the cells and enzymes. Koch,(1) Warburg,(2) and others have firmly established the fact that oxygen deficiency and certain toxic substances block the oxidation process, and that in this condition energy is then produced by fermentation instead of oxidation. This is the pathological basis for malignant, viral, bacterial, and allergic diseases.

The pathogenicity,(1) virilance and paracitism of micro-organisms is due to the same blocking of oxidation in these organisms. When normal oxidation is established in these organisms they lose their pathogenicity, virilance, and paracitism.

Prevention of the devastating effects of these diseases is one of the principle goals of this work and study. Now that we know these causes of these diseases, it is imperative that we put forth every effort to prevent them.
Treatment of all of these conditions in the earliest possible stages is also our goal, when these patients have not been subjected to destructive forces and treatments which are so generally used in the treatment of these diseases.     


I. On January 17, 1969, Miss D.P., 38 years old, white female, was admitted to Providence Hospital.

Past History: Eleven years ago a melanoma was removed from the right upper arm. August 1968 subcutaneous tumor mass appeared on the upper left chest just below the clavicle. Excision and biopsy of this revealed malignant melanoma. Following this she developed a tumor on the right chest at the same level, tumor in the right axilla, abdomen began to become very large, patient had marked difficulty in breathing, and constant cough. There was gradual and painful swelling of the right thigh (all at another medical center).

Present Illness: On entering the hospital patient was in critical condition with marked difficulty in breathing, constant cough, cyanosis, abdomen was very large and pendulous containing a large amount of fluid in which there were large tumor masses palpable throughout the abdomen, especially the entire lower abdomen and lower right quadrant.

Extremities: The right thigh from the knee to the hip was very swollen and painful, about twice normal size.

Diagnosis: Generalized malignant melanoma.

Treatment: Patient was immediately given ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) to overcome hypoxemia, the oxidation catalyst (Koch Glyoxylide) intermuscularly, ultra mycro-wave therapy throughout the body, diet consisting of raw vegetables and fruits eliminating all meats and fluorides, colonic irrigations to remove the toxic material from the colon, and large doses of trace minerals especially magnesium and zinc with natural vitamin C and natural vitamin E in addition to other natural vitamin supplements. UBI treatments given on January 17, 20, 24, and once a week following this. Koch Glyoxylide given on January 17, February 20, March 21, June 2, and July 17. Mycro-wave given on January 17, 27, February 3, 6, 12, 19, 26, and once a week following this.

Within three weeks the mass in the right axilla had disappeared as well as the tumor of the right chest wall, and the abdomen was becoming definitely smaller and the tumor masses much smaller. At the end of six weeks of this treatment patient had no difficulty in breathing, the right thigh was normal size and no pain, the abdomen had returned to normal size with no fluid, and the tumor masses were practically gone with only very small evidence of tumor in the lower abdomen. Patient up and about in a normal manner except for some weakness following her long illness.

This patient will remain under treatment in the hospital for another 2 or 3 weeks when she will be discharged to go to her home in Utah with instructions to return in approximately 3 months for examination and further treatment for the prevention of further development of malignant melonoma.

This type of case will need observation over a period of several years to be sure as possible of success.

This case illustrates the very early effective results of treatment of the whole program that we are now using for the treatment of all malignancy. This treatment is based upon the evidence (4) that cancer is due to hypoxemia and blocking of oxidation with the development of fermentation of sugars which causes the cancerous growth. It has been shown that all cancers have one common factor, and that is, fermentation of sugar in the enzymes and cells, replacing normal oxidation. Reversal of this process back to normal oxidation is all important.

II. Mrs. A.F., age 64, white female, entered hospital on April 21, 1953 with a rapidly developing carcinoma of the left breast. A few years before this she had had cancer of the right breast with a radical mastectomy followed by x-ray therapy. On this occasion mastectomy with removal of axillary lymph glands was performed, but not a radical mastectomy. It was found that the cancer was penetrating the chest wall and into the lung. Post-operative therapy consisted of x-ray therapy, but principally the program of stimulating the oxygen content and the use of minerals, particularly magnesium and zinc. At first the UBI treatments were given at weekly intervals and after three months they were given at monthly intervals and this continued on for five years. She continued to take the zinc and magnesium supplement and other general vitamin supplements.

Within a few months there was no evidence of malignancy in the x-ray of the lung.

This patient is now living and well and has had no evidence of recurrence of her malignancy.

III. Mrs. A.R., age 60, white female, entered the hospital June 22, 1960 with a large tender mass in the left abdomen which was thought to be a perinephritic abscess. Upon operation it was found that patient had a large carcinoma of the splenic flexure of the colon which had ruptured into the abdominal cavity. There were melostatic nodules beyond the primary growth. A Miculitz type operation was performed and in due time closed.

Following surgery patient was placed on an intensive program of ultraviolet blood irradiation, given four in the first week and one each week thereafter for several months. She was also given zinc and magnesium in adequate amounts with other vitamin and supplements. Patient made a very excellent recovery from the surgery and is living today. She kept up with the blood irradiation treatment once a month for 5 years and also the supplement therapy.

IV. Mrs. C.B., age 55, white female, entered the hospital on January 4, 1954 with a nodular tumor of the thyroid. At operation it was determined she had an adeno-carcinoma and sub-total thyroidectomy was performed leaving very little thyroid tissue. Following her surgery she was given UBI treatments, four in the first week and one each week, following this together with adequate magnesium and zinc therapy. This treatment was continued once a month for 5 years. Patient is still living and well and has had no recurrence of her carcinoma.

V. On April 30, 1969 Mrs. I.W., white female, 50 years of age entered Providence Hospital for treatment of a large tumor of the uterus considered to be carcinoma.

Past History: February 1968 patient found to have cancer of the cervix and uterus and was given radium and cobalt treatments for a month. In August 1968 she was examined again and her doctor told her that she had a large cancer of the cervix and uterus and that nothing could be done and told her to "just go home and die." Following this she had six months of laetril treatment. (All of this was at other treatment centers–not here.)

On entering Providence Hospital, examination revealed a large tumor of the uterus and pelvis, specifically carcinoma. She was given ultraviolet blood irradiation on May 1, 2, 6, 14 and once a week following this. She was given Koch Glyoxylide on May 1, 6, 26, June 6, 16, she was given mycro-wave treatments on May 1, 6, 14, 19, 29, June 4, 9, and 30th. Along with this she was given the diet of raw vegetables and fruits together with adequate amount of zinc, magnesium, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B6. By June 24th examination revealed a marked reduction in the size of the tumor with only slight discharge from it and it was felt that it was possible to remove the tumor surgically. Hysterectomy was performed on June 26, 1969 by Richard C. Olney, M.D. and the entire uterus including the cervix removed and the remaining right falopian tube. Pathological examination of the specimen removed failed to reveal any viable cancer tissue in the cervix or uterus. Patient has made an uneventful recovery from surgery and is continuing on with a vigorous program of treatment to assure as much as possible no recurrence of her malignancy.

Blood Oxygen Saturation After Intravenous Ultraviolet (Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation)

Hypoxemia is a common and serious factor in so many diseases and surgical procedures. Correction of this and bringing the oxygen saturation of these patients to normal or near normal is vitally important in the treatment of these diseases and the success of serious surgical procedures.

This report deals only with the blood oxygen saturation changes following intravenous ultraviolet therapy (UBI). (Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation is by use of the Knott Hemo-Irradiator. A definite amount of patient's blood, 1 1/2 cc per pound of body weight is withdrawn from a vein, citrated and returned immediately to patient after passing through the Knott-Hemo Irradiator and thus exposed to a certain band of ultraviolet light in an exact period of time, 10 cc in 20 seconds.)

For this study twenty-three patients were selected at random regardless of the diagnosis in which there was clinical evidence of hypoxemia. Patients were selected in which there was no known condition which would interfere with or change the outcome of these studies. Before the first treatment of intravenous ultraviolet 5 cc of venous blood was removed and immediately taken to the American Optical Oximeter and the oxygen saturation was determined prior to the treatment. In this way the oxygen saturation was compared with the day previously, and the previous determinations, for the changes which could take place following the intravenous ultraviolet therapy.

Normal oxygen saturation on the American Optical Oximeter is 100% for arterial and 72% for venous blood.

It is important to emphasize that in so many pathological conditions there is a very marked hypoxemia and that this is a very important factor in the diseased condition. Whether it is an etiological factor or a result is not important. It is important, however, that the blood oxygen saturation is returned to normal as rapidly as possible, in the treatment of these patients or in the performing of extensive surgical procedures, as a matter of giving these patients one of the most important factors in their defense mechanism and resistance.


Hypoxemia and blocked oxidation followed by fermentation of sugar in the enzymes and cells we consider to be the prime factor in malignant, viral, bacterial and allergic diseases.

A program of prevention and treatment of this condition is presented which has proved in the past, and is proving at this time to be very effective, in correcting the pathological physiology which has taken place and returning normal oxidation to the enzymes and cells for the recovery of these patients.


Koch, William F., M.D.: The Survival in Neoplastic and Viral Diseases. Vanderkloot Press, Detroit, Michigan, 1955-1958.
Warburg, Dr. Otto, Director Max Tlanck-Institute for Cell Physiology, Berlin-Dahlem (Nobel Prize 1931); "On the origin of cancer cells," Science Magazine, Feb. 24, 1956, Volume 123, #3191.
Warburg, Dr. Otto: "Revised lecture at the meeting of Nobel Laurets," June 30, 1966, Landau, Lake Constance, Germany.
Burk, Dean, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland: "The Prime cause and prevention of Cancer," Konrad Trietsch, Wurzburg, Germany, 1967; English edition by Dean Burk.
Olney, Robert C., M.D. and contributors: "Treatment of Viral Hepatitis with Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation," Am. J. of Surg., Sept. 1955.
Miley, George, M.D.: "The Ultraviolet Irradiation of Auto-transfused Blood: Studies in Oxygen Absorption Valves," Am. J.M.SC. 197:873, 1939.
Olney, Robert C., M.D.: "Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation in Biliary Disease." American Journal of Surgery, August, 1946.
Olney, Robert C., M.D.: "Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Treatment of Pelvic Cellulitis." American Journal of Surgery, Oct. 1947.
Olney, Robert C., M.D.: "Role of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy, Not Technic, in Surgery." International College of Surgeons Journal, 1949.


Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy (Photo-Ocidation)
The Cure That Time Forgot

Robert Jay Rowen, MD
Omni Medical Center


In the 1940s, a multitude of articles appeared in the American literature detailing a novel treatment for infection. This treatment had a cure rate of 98 to 100% in early and moderately advanced infections, and approximately 50% in terminally moribund patients. Healing was not limited to just bacterial infections, but also viral (acute polio), wounds, asthma, and arthritis. Recent German literature has demonstrated profound improvements in a number of biochemical and hematologic markers. There has never been reported any toxicity, side effects or injury except for occasional Herxheimer type reactions.

As infections are failing to improve with the use of chemical treatment, this safe and effective treatment should be revisited. (Int J Biosocial Med Res., 1996; 14(2): 115-132)


Ultraviolet (UV) light has been known for decades to have a sterilizing effect and has been used in many different industries for such a purpose. Almost all bacteria may be killed or attenuated by ultraviolet rays, but there is considerable variation in the rapidity of their destruction. Those which live in the body are most easily affected, while those in nature adapt to the action of sunlight and become relatively resistant to irradiation.[1] LTV-sensitive bacteria have not been shown to become resistant and toxins have been found to be very unstable in the presence of UV irradiation (Diphtheria, tetanus, and snake venom are inactivated by ultraviolet rays).[2]

At the turn of the century, Niels Finson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on UV rays and various skin conditions which showed a success rate of 98% in thousands of cases, mostly lupus vulgaris.[3] Walter Ude reported a series of 100 cases of Erysipelas in the 1920s, claiming a nearly 100% cure rate with UV skin irradiation.[4] Emmett Knott pioneered the irradiation of autologous blood on dogs before treating a moribund woman with postabortion sepsis in 1933, who was thought to be untreatable. With his treatment of blood irradiation, she promptly recovered, resulting in more research and further development of the “Knott” technique.[5] The technique involved removing approximately 1.5cc/pound, citrating it for anticoagulation, and passing it through a radiation chamber. Exposure time per given unit amount (1cc) was approximately 10 seconds, peak wavelength of 253.7nM (ultraviolet C) provided by a mercury quartz burner and immediately re-perfused.[6]

By the early 1940s, UV blood irradiation was being used in several American hospitals. Into the late 1940s, numerous reports were made about the high efficacy for infection and complete safety of UV blood irradiation. With the emergence of antibiotic therapy, the reports suddenly ceased.

In the ensuing years, German literature demonstrated the effectiveness of UV irradiation in vascular conditions. Additionally, more thorough observations of significant improvement in many physiologic processes and parameters have been reported.

American Findings

The most prolific American researcher was George Miley, a clinical professor at Hahnemann Hospital and College of Medicine, who practiced the Knott technique at their blood irradiation clinic. In 1942, he reported on 103 consecutive cases of acute pyogenic infections at Hahnemann Hospital in Philadelphia. Such conditions included puerperal sepsis, sinusitis, pyelitis, wound infections, peritonitis (ten cases), and numerous other sites. Results of recovery were 100% for early infections, 46 out of 47 for moderately advanced, and 17 out of 36 of those who were moribund.[7] Staphylococcus had a high death rate, but those patients were also using sulfa drugs, which may have inhibited the effectiveness of the UV irradiation treatments. In fact, when Miley reviewed his data, he found that all the Staph failures had been on sulfa. A second series of nine patients (six Staph aureus, three Staph albus) had a 100% recovery rate with one or two treatments when sulfa was not used.[8] (Table 1).

Rebbeck and Miley documented the fever curve of septicemia in patients who received UV therapy, demonstrating detoxification and recovery within a few days.[9](See Fig. 1). In 1947, Miley reaffirmed his initial findings reporting on 445 cases of acute pyogenic infection, including 151 consecutive cases. Again, results showed a 100% recovery in early cases (56), 98% recovery in moderately advanced (323), and 45% in apparently moribund patients (66) (see Table 2).[10] Detoxification usually began within 24 to 48 hours, and was complete in 46 to 72 hours. Some patients required only one or two irradiation treatments, while a few needed one or two more.

Figure 1.
Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation in Peritonitis


Male of 20, who after operation was comatose, in shock, and apparently moribund, with a fulminating toxemia due to generalized peritonitis secondary to a ruptured appendix. Within 24 hours of ultraviolet blood-irradiation therapy detoxification was pronounced and the downhill course of the patient reversed. An eventful convalescence ensued.


In 1943, Rebbeck[11], reported on eight cases of E.coli sepsis treated with UV phototherapy – six lived. Barrett reported in his cases of septic toxemia, that pain associated with infection was typically relieved with ten to 15 minutes of hemo-irradiation.[12] Toxemia of pregnancy responded in all 100 patients with no serious complications, even after the onset of convulsions.[13]

Spectacular detailed reports of hopeless cases responding to UV phototherapy regularly appeared in the American literature. Barrett reported on a patient who had cerebellar artery thrombosis, pneumonia, pulmonary emboli – left femoral leg, deep-venous thrombosis, left-sided paralysis, and paralysis of the left vocal cord. This dying patient responded dramatically, almost instantly, and had a full recovery over a period of several months.


Miley reported on 13 patients with thrombophlebitis, including some infections. Nine received only one treatment, while two had two treatments and healing was noted within hours to two days. Most were discharged from the hospital in an average of 12 days.[14]

In June, 1943, Miley reported on asthma response in a series of 80 “intractable” patients. Twenty-four patients were not followed up, which left only 56 patients to document. Of these, 29 were moderately to greatly improved, 16 were slightly improved, and 11 had no improvement after a period of six to ten months. The 45 who had improved remained so for six to ten months, after an initial series of up to ten irradiations.[15] In 1946, Miley,[16] reported on a larger series of 160 consecutive patients with “apparently intractable asthma”; 40 cases could not be followed, leaving 120. The results (Table 3) were better than his initial findings, with 32.5% apparently cured, 31.6% definitely improved, 22.5% slightly improved, and 13.4% unchanged. The authors commented that two to five treatments a year were often required for maintenance. Cyanosis of many years’ duration, disappeared within one year of therapy, and a marked increase in general resistance was observed; no deleterious effects were noted.

Miley and Christensen reported on polio treated with blood irradiation[17] (Table 4). Fifty-eight cases were followed, including seven with Bulbar polio (40% death rate expected). Only one death occurred in the Bulbar group and none in the others. Rapid recovery was reported after the first treatment (24 to 48 hours). One to three treatments were all that was necessary in the majority of cases.


Effectiveness in other viral conditions was further documented by Olney.[18] His report documented 43 patients with acute viral hepatitis treated with the Knott technique. Thirty-one patients had acute infectious hepatitis; 12 had acute serum hepatitis (hepatitis B). An average of 3.28 treatments per patient were administered; the average period of illness after the treatment, was 19.2 days; two recurrences were observed among the 43 patients during a follow-up period averaging 3.56 years, one in each type of hepatitis. The one suspected recurrence in the “serum” variety was in a heroin addict and reinfection was suspected. No deaths occurred among the 43 patients during the follow-up period. Marked improvement and rapid subsidence of symptoms was noted in all patients treated and within three days or less, in 27 patients. 11 showed marked improvement in 4 to 7 days, and five patients showed improvement in 8 to 14 days.

Rebbeck reported a remarkable effect on the autonomic nervous system, documenting how postsurgical paralytic ileus could be relieved very quickly with UV blood irradiation.[19] He attributed this effect to toning the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic effects also can be appreciated in the reports on asthma.

The authors were so impressed with the results that they included numerous case reports of hopeless and long-suffering infectious conditions resolving with UV blood irradiation. Rebbeck reported on its prophylactic preoperative use in infectious conditions, concluding that the technique provided significant protection with a marked decrease in morbidity and mortality.[20]

The authors consistently reported beneficial peripheral vasodilation. A significant rise in combined venous oxygen was also repeatedly mentioned.[21] The remarkable lack of any toxicity was consistently noted by all authors. In addition to polio, Miley reported that viruses, in general, responded in similar fashion to pyogenic infections.[22]

Botulism, a uniformly fatal condition, was treated by Miley.[23] The patient was in a coma and could not swallow or see. Within 48 to 72 hours of one irradiation treatment, the patient was able to swallow, see, and was mentally clear. She was discharged in excellent condition in a total of 13 days.

LTV blood irradiation resulted in the prompt healing of chronic very long-term, non-healing wounds. [24]

Miley went on to discuss an “ultraviolet ray metabolism,” based on the profound physiologic effects he noted, along with discoveries that hemoglobin absorbs all wavelengths of ultraviolet rays, and Gurwitsch’s[25] demonstration of “mitogenic rays, tiny emanations given off by body tissues in different wavelengths, all in the ultraviolet spectrum and varying in wavelength according to the organ emitting the rays…”

A summary of physiologic changes documented through the 1940s included the following.[26] An inactivation of toxins and viruses, destruction and inhibition of growth of bacteria, increase in oxygen-combining power of the blood, activation of steroids, increased cell permeability, absorption of ultraviolet rays by blood and emanation of secondary irradiations (absorbed UV photons re-emitted over time by the re-perfused blood), activation of sterols into vitamin D, increase in red blood cells, and normalization of white cell count.


In 1967, Robert Olney privately printed, short, undated pamphlet, sent to me by a friend, and entitled Blocked Oxidation, in which he presented 5 cases of cancer, which were cured by a combination of techniques, including ultraviolet blood irradiation. He theorized, based on the work of previous researchers, that cancer was a result of blocked oxidation within the cells. Utilizing detoxification techniques, dietary changes, nutritional supplements, the Koch catalyst, and ultraviolet blood irradiation, he reported the reversal of generalized malignant melanoma, a breast cancer penetrating the chest wall and lung, highly metastatic colon cancer, thyroid cancer, and uterine cancer.

Modern research on ultraviolet treatment for cancer is continuing. Edelson reported on a variation of the technique called extracorporeal photophoresis.[27] In this particular technique, a photosensitizing agent, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), is given to patients two hours before blood is withdrawn and separated into cellular components. White blood cells were irradiated with UV-A and returned to the patient. This therapy has proven highly successful and actually has received FDA approval for its use in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Gasparro explains the observed and presumed biochemical events underlying the response in this condition. Such response includes the induction of cytokines and interferons.[28]

German Findings

Recent German research reports significant improvement in vascular conditions when using ultraviolet blood irradiation, including peripheral arterial disease and Raynaud’s disease. One study demonstrated a 124% increase in painless walking for patients with Stage Ilb occlusive disease (Fontaine), as compared to 48% improvement with pentoxifylline.[29] UV blood irradiation was found to improve claudication distances by 90% after a series of ten treatments.[30] The authors also reported an 8% drop in plasma viscosity with the treated group, compared to no change with Pentoxifylline.

Significant changes and improvements in physiologic, biochemical, and blood rheological properties have been observed. A summary of these effects, based on the works of Frick[31] appear in Table 5.[32] This article expanded on indications to all circulatory diseases, including post-apoplexy, diabetes, venous ulcers, and migraines.

Frick reported an increase in prostacyclin and a reduction in arteriosclerotic plaque. The biochemical effects are generated by the activation of molecular oxygen to singlet oxygen by UV energy. This active species initiates a cascade of molecular reactions, resulting in the observed effects. Ultimately, this controlled oxidation process leads to a rise in the principle antioxidant enzyme systems of the body – catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Contraindications included porphyria, photosensitivity, coagulopathy (hemophilia), hyperthyroidism, and fever of unknown origin, but not pregnancy.

The device utilized in these reports is the Oxysan EN 400 manufactured by the Eumatron Company.


In the 1800s, arguments raged between Pasteur and his rival, Bechamp, over the true cause of infectious disease. Pasteur claimed the cause was the organism alone, while Bechamp claimed the disease rose from organisms already within the body, which had pleomorphic capability (the ability to change). It is rumored that Pasteur, on his deathbed, admitted that Bechamp was correct. Forgotten in the debate was Bernard who argued it was the terrain or fertility of the body, which permitted disease or allowed bacterial infection to take root. Perhaps UV blood irradiation can be explained best in the general effect of the treatment on the physiology and terrain of the body. For example, it is known that the phagocytic respiratory burst, in response to infection, consumes up to 100 times the oxygen that white cells require in the resting state. The improvement in oxidation, rise in red blood cells, and increase in red cell 2,3 DGP[33] may provide a significant boost to the body.

Table 5.
Findings of German Research

Improvement of the electrophoretic movability of the red blood cells
Elevation of the electrical charge on the red blood cell
Lowering of the surface tension of the blood
Origin of free radicals
Elevation of the chemical illuminescence of blood

Increase in erythrocytes
Increase in hemoglobin
Increase in white blood cells
Increase in basophilic granulocytes
Increase in lymphocytes
Lowering of thrombocytes;

Lowering of fibrin
Normalization of fibrinolysis
Trend towards normalization of fibrin-split products
Lowering of platelet aggregation

Lowering of full-blood viscosity
Lowering of plasma viscosity
Reduction of elevated red blood cell aggregation tendencies

Increase in arterial P02
Increase in venous P02
Increase in arterial venous oxygen difference (increased oxygen release)
Increase in peroxide count
Fall in oxidation state of blood (increase in reduction state)
Increase in acid-buffering capacity and rise in blood pH
Reduction in blood pyruvate content
Reduction in blood lactate content
Improvement in glucose tolerance
Reduction in cholesterol count, transaminases, and creatinine levels

Elevation of poststenotic arterial pressure
Increase in volume of circulation

Increase in phagocytosis capability
Increase in bacteriocidal capacity of blood
Modulation of the immune status (Table 5)

Infection produces inflammation, edema, and a significant lowering of oxygen tension and diffusion in the affected tissues, which is critical to immune cell functions. Benefits of higher oxygen tension can be seen in the accepted use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for osteomyelitis, where healthy circulation is already slow. Deductive reasoning would suggest that any rise in oxygen tension would help the body’s immune defenses. Such can be seen in anecdotal reports of hyperbaric oxygen therapy alone resolving necrotizing fascitis.

German research (Table 5) documents a rise in oxygen consumption and oxidation within the body stimulation of mitochondrial oxidation results in greater ATP production.

In effect, UV blood irradiation therapy may be providing an inactivation of bacteria, a more resistant terrain, improved circulation, alkalinization, etc. While perhaps not as dramatic a treatment as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, it may provide a similar and longer-lasting effect through the secondary emanations of the absorbed ultraviolet rays. Such emissions, which last for many weeks, may account for the observed cumulative effectiveness of the therapy. UV photons, absorbed by hemoglobin, are gradually released over time, continuing the stimulation to the body’s physiology.

For eons, nature has utilized the sun’s ultraviolet energy as a cleansing agent for the earth. The lack of resistance of bacteria to ultraviolet treatment is not surprising, since if bacteria could develop resistance, they have had approximately 3 billion years to do so.

Only two discrepancies in accounts of this therapy could be found between the older American and modern German literature. Venous oxygen tension was reported by Miley to be increased, even up to one month after treatment. Frick, on the other hand, reported a rise in Pa02, and a fall in PV02, suggesting greater oxygen delivery and absorption in the tissues. A rise in 2,3 DGP can account for the latter. Miley recommended the treatment for fevers of unknown origin,[34] yet Seng’s article suggested that as a contraindication. Perhaps the German author feels the infections should be clearly diagnosed first, while Miley was so impressed with his results and the safety of the treatment, he thought it was proper to treat any presumed infection with the technique.

For years, there have been anecdotes and reports of another oxidative therapy (ozone) helping a variety of chronic conditions including, but not limited to, rheumatoid diseases, arterial and circulatory disorders, osteoporosis pain, viruses, and immune deficiencies. Some recent findings shed light on how this particular oxidative therapy might help such a wide variety of conditions.

Bocci has determined that exposure of blood to ozone at concentrations used by practitioners for years induces cytokines and interferons.[35,36] In fact, he went on to call ozone “an almost ideal cytokine inducer.” He concluded that such immune system modulation could explain the benefits of ozone reported for decades on a very wide variety of conditions.

Mattman has detailed hundreds of reports linking cell wall deficient bacteria to a wide span of disease states.[37] Autoimmune disease may not be autoimmune at all, but rather an immune attack a hidden infection with native tissue being damaged by a prolonged or dysfunctional immune response to these “stealth pathogens.”

The broad spectrum of biologic effects of these nonspecific oxidative therapies may explain the broad range of benefits. It is quite possible that all of the oxidative therapies may operate through similar mechanisms postulated by Bocci for ozone (namely the generation of reactive oxygen species, which in turn induce some very exceptional biochemical events).

Ultraviolet has clearly been shown to be a superior anti-infective. It is possible that the secondary emanations previously described could inactivate pathogens deep in tissues. However, of possible greater import is its effect on the other various physiologic factors affecting the terrain. The improvement in oxygen delivery and consumption, rise in circulation, blood elements, stimulation of mitochondrial oxidation and shift towards alkalinity, while all nonspecific in themselves, may help hasten the cellular response in very many disease states.

Personal experience with UV blood irradiation therapy has been limited strictly to an outpatient practice. However, I have observed significant and dramatic effects on pharyngitis, cellulitis, otitis media, wounds, viral infections, and gastroenteritis, and chronic fatigue. In several years of use, I have had only one patient who suffered from apparent chronic fatigue and failed to respond to a series of UV treatments; the patient had a significant psychological factor. Several patients with multiple chemical sensitivities have also experienced significant improvement. Chronic and intractable pain has been reported by an anesthesiologist pain specialist to be surprisingly responsive.[38]

Modern medicine has focused on drugs to suppress symptoms or inhibit certain physiology (NSAID drugs as prostaglandin inhibitors, hypertensive drugs as enzymatic blockers) to treat disease. As a result, we have seen the frightening rise of resistant organism and the side-effects of chemical pharmacology. Perhaps medicine should consider the concept of nonspecific modalities that encourage the body’s healing response and immune system. What could be a safer or more effective agent against infection than the bacteriocidal capabilities of our own phagocytes and a properly functioning immune system?

At least 20 American physicians are currently utilizing photooxidation and have advised me of dramatic cures of intractable infections, including osteomyelitis. Communications from these physicians are verifying my findings in the use of this modality with chronic fatigue. A German videotape related that several hundred physicians are currently employing the technique in Germany with hundreds of thousands of treatments having been performed through the years and never any reported incidents of toxicity (other than a mild Herxheimer reaction).

“Ultraviolet irradiation of blood has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Thus, the method is legal within the context of FDA’s definition of legality. It is also legal, from the standpoint of long (over 50 years) and continuous use by physicians in the United States as a commercially viable product before the present FDA was even in existence. “[39]

The technique is taught at workshops and seminars sponsored by the International Association of Oxidative Medicine (telephone: 405634-1310). The American Board of Oxidative Medicine (a member of the American Board of Specialities of Alternative Medicine) certifies doctors in the various techniques of oxidative medicine, including UBIT.


This simple, inexpensive, and nonspecific technique was clearly shown years ago to be a totally safe and extremely effective method of treating and curing infections; promoting oxygenation; vasodilation; improving asthma; enhancing body physiology, circulation, and treating a variety of specific diseases. Its use in hospitals and offices could significantly reduce mortality, morbidity, and human suffering. Much more research needs to be done in determining all of the potential uses of ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy and also its correlation with other oxidative therapies.


1. Laurens, Henry, The Physiologic Effects of Ultraviolet Irradiation,JAMA, Vol. 11, No. 26, December 24,1938, p. 2390.
2. Ibid, p. 2391.
3. Douglas, W.C., Into The Light, Second Opinion Publishing, Inc., 1993, pp. 18-19.
4. Ibid, p. 28.
5. Knott, Emmett, Development of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation, American journal of Surgery, August, 1948, pp. 165-171.
6. Miley, George, Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy, Archives of Physical Therapy, September, 1942, pp. 537-538.
7. Miley, George, The Knott Technique of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation in Acute Pyogenic Infections, The New York State Journal of Medicine, January 1, 1942, pp. 38-46.
8. Miley, George, Efficacy of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy and Control of Staphylococcemias, American journal of Surgery, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 313-322.
9. Rebbeck and Miley, Review of Gastroenterology, January-February, 1943., p. 11.
10. Miley and Christensen, Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy: Further Studies in Acute Infections, American journal of Surgery, Vol. 73, No. 4, April, 1947, pp. 486-493.
11. Rebbeck, E.W., Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood in the Treatment Of Escherichia coli Septicemia, Archives of Physical Therapy, 24:158-167, 1943.
12. Barrett, Henry, The Irradiation of Autotransfused Blood by Ultraviolet Spectral Energy: Results of Therapy in 110 Cases, Medical Clinics of North America, May, 1940, pp. 723-732.
13. Douglas, W.C., Into The Light, Second Opinion Publishing, Inc., 1993, pp. 97-98.
14. Miley, George, The Control of Acute Thrombophlebitis With Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy, American journal of Surgery, June, 1943, pp. 354-360,
15. Miley, Seidel, and Christensen, Preliminary Report of Results Observed in Eight Cases of Intractable Bronchial Asthma, Archives of Physical Therapy, September, 1943, pp. 533-542.
16. Miley, Seidel, and Christensen, Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy of Apparently Intractable Bronchial Asthma, Archives of Physical Medicine, January, 1946, pp. 24-29.
17. Miley and Christensen, Archives of Physical Therapy, November, 1944, pp. 651-656.
18. Olney, R.C., American Journal of Surgery, Vol. 90, September 1955, pages 402 – 409.
19. Rebbeck, E.W., Review of Gastroenterology, January-Februarv, 1943.
20. Rebbeck, E.W., Preoperative Hemo-Irradiations, American journal of Surgery, August, 1943, pp. 259-265.
21. Miley, George, The Ultraviolet Irradiation of Autotransfused Human Blood, Studies in Oxygen Absorption Values, Proceedings of the Physiological Society of Philadelphia, Session of April 17, 1939.
22. Miley and Christensen, Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy in Acute Virus and Virus-Like Infections, The Review of Gastroenterology, Vol. 15, No. 4, April, 1948, pp. 271-276.
23. Miley, George, Recovery From Botulism Coma Following Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation, The Review of Gastroenterology, Vol. 13, No. 1, January-February, 1946. pp. 17-18.
24. Miley, George, Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy (Knott Technique) in Non-Healing Wounds, American journal of Surgery, Vol. 65, No. 3, September, 1944, pp. 368-372.
25. Gurwitsch, A.: In Rahn, Otto, Invisible Radiations of Organisms, Protoplasma – Monographien, Berlin, Vorntraeger, 1936, Vol. 9.
26. Douglas, W.C., Into The Light, Second Publishing, Inc., 1993, pp. 14-15.
27. Edelson, Richard, Scientific American, August 1988, pages 1-8.
28. Gasparro, F.P., Mechanistic Events Underlying the Response of CTCL Patients to Photophoresis. In: Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy: Clinical Aspects in the Molecular Basis for Efficacy, Austin, Texas, RG Landes Company, 1994; 101-20.
29. Pohlmann, et al, Wirksamkeit Von Pentoxifyllin und der Hamatogenen Oxydationstherapie, Natur-und GanzheitsMedizin, 1992; 5:80-4.
30. Paulitschke, Turowski, and Lerche, Ergebnisse der Berliner HOT/UVB – Bergleichstudie bei Patienten mit peripheren arteriellen Durchblutungsstorungen, Z. gesamte Inn. Med., No. 47, 1992, pp. 148-153.
31. Frick, G., A Linke: Die Ultraviolet bestrahlung des Blutes, ihre Entwicklung und derzeitiger Stand., Zschr.arztl., Forth. 80, 1986.
32. Seng, G., Hernatogenic Oxydationstherapie, Therapeuticon Six, June, 1988, pp. 370-373.
33. Krimmel, Hematogena Oxidationstherapie – Eine Moglichkeit bei der konbinierten Tumortherapie, Arztezeitschr. f. Maturheilverf., November, 1989, 30., Jarhg.
34. Miley, George, The Present Status of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation (Knott Technique), Archives of Physical Therapy, Vol., 25., No. 6., June, 1944, p. 361.
35. Bocci, Vielio, Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone, 1. Induction of Interferon Gamma on Human Leukocytes, Haernatologica, 1990, 75:510-5.
36. Bocci, Vielio, Ozonization of Blood for the Therapy of Viral Diseases and Immunodeficiencies: A Hypothesis, Medical Hypothesis, 1992, Vol., 39, pp. 30-34.
37. Douglas, William C., Into the Light, p. 257.
38. Mattman, Lida, Cell Wall Deficient Forms – Stealth Pathogens, CRC Press, 1993.
39. Weg, Stuart, Private Conitnunication, January, 1996.

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016 Apr; 157: 89–96
doi:  10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.02.007

Ultraviolet blood irradiation: Is it time to remember “the cure that time forgot”?

Ximing Wu
, Xiaoqing Hu, and Michael R. Hamblin


Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, the use of UBI declined and it has now been called “the cure that time forgot”. Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers and in other Eastern countries, and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial. This review discusses the potential of UBI as an alternative approach to current methods used to treat infections, as an immune-modulating therapy and as a method for normalizing blood parameters. Low and mild doses of UV kill microorganisms by damaging the DNA, while any DNA damage in host cells can be rapidly repaired by DNA repair enzymes. However the use of UBI to treat septicemia cannot be solely due to UV-mediated killing of bacteria in the bloodstream, as only 5–7% of blood volume needs to be treated with UV to produce the optimum benefit, and higher doses can be damaging. There may be some similarities to extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) using psoralens and UVA irradiation. However there are differences between UBI and ECP in that UBI tends to stimulate the immune system, while ECP tends to be immunosuppressive. With the recent emergence of bacteria that are resistant to all known antibiotics, UBI should be more investigated as an alternative approach to infections, and as an immune-modulating therapy.

1 Historical Introduction

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum with a wavelength range (100–400 nm) shorter than that of visible light (400–700 nm), but longer than x-rays (<100 nm). UV radiation is divided into four distinct spectral areas including vacuum UV (100–200 nm), UVC (200–280 nm), UVB (280–315 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm).

In 1801 Johann Wilhelm Ritter, a Polish physicist working at the University of Jena in Germany discovered a form of light beyond the violet end of the spectrum that he called “Chemical Rays” and which later became known as “Ultraviolet” light [1]. In 1845, Bonnet [2] first reported that sunlight could be used to treat tuberculosis arthritis (a bacterial infection of the joints).

In the second half of the 19th century, the therapeutic application of sunlight (known as heliotherapy) gradually became popular. In 1855, Rikli from Switzerland opened a thermal station in Veldes in Slovenia for the provision of heliotherapy [3]. In 1877, Downes and Blunt discovered [4] by chance that sunlight could kill bacteria. They noted that sugar water placed on a window-sill turned cloudy in the shade but remained clear while kept in the sun. Upon microscopic examination of the two solutions, they realized that bacteria were growing in the shaded solution but not in the one exposed to sunlight.

In 1904, the Danish physician Niels Finsen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on UV treatment of various skin conditions. He had a success rate of 98% in thousands of cases, mostly the form of cutaneous tuberculosis known as lupus vulgaris [5]. Walter H Ude reported a series of 100 cases of erysipelas (a cutaneous infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes) in the 1920s, that were treated with high cure rates using UV skin irradiation [6].

Emmett K Knott (Figure 1) in Seattle, WA reasoned that the beneficial effect of UV irradiation to the skin might (at least partly) be explained by the irradiation of blood circulating in the superficial capillaries of the skin. With his collaborator Edblom, an irradiation chamber was constructed to allow direct exposure of the blood to UV light. The irradiation chamber was circular and contained a labyrinthine passage connecting the inlet and outlet ports underneath the quartz window that formed the top of the chamber. The irradiation chamber was so designed as to provide maximum turbulence in order: (a) to prevent the formation of a film of blood on the chamber window that would absorb and filter out much of the UV; (b) to insure that all the blood passing through the chamber was equally exposed to UV [7].

Figure 1
Figure 1
Emmett K Knott of Seattle, WA.

Knott and co-workers then carried out a series of experiments using UV irradiation of blood extracted from dogs that had been intravenously infected with Staphlyococcus aureus and hemolytic Streptococcus, and then the treated blood was reinfused. They found that it was unnecessary to deliver a sufficient exposure to the blood to kill all the bacteria directly. It was also found unnecessary to expose the total blood volume in the dogs. The optimum amount of blood to be irradiated was determined to be only 5–7% of the estimated blood volume or approximately 3.5 mL per kg of body weight. Exceeding these limits led to loss of the benefits of the therapy. All the treated dogs recovered from an overwhelming infection (while many dogs in the control group died), and none showed any ill effects after four months of observation [7].

The first treatment on a human took place in 1928 when a patient was determined to be in a moribund state after a septic abortion complicated by hemolytic streptococcus septicemia. UBI therapy was commenced as a last resort, and the patient responded to treatment and made a full recovery [7]. She proceeded to give birth to two children.

Hancock and Knott [8] had similar success in another patient with advanced hemolytic streptococcal septicemia. These workers noted that in the majority of cases, a marked cyanosis was present at the time of initiation of UBI. It was noted that during (or immediately following) the treatment a rapid relief of the cyanosis occurred with improvement in respiration accompanied by a noticeable flushing of the skin with a distinct loss of pallor.

These observations led to application of UBI in patients suffering from pneumonia. In a series of 75 cases in which the diagnoses of pneumonia were confirmed by X-rays, all patients responded well to UBI with a rapid fall in temperature, disappearance of cyanosis (often within 3–5 minutes), cessation of delirium if present, a marked reduction in pulse rate and a rapid resolution of pulmonary consolidation. A shortening of the time of hospitalization and convalescence occurred regularly.

The knowledge gained in these successful studies led to the redesign of the irradiation chamber to give a more thoroughly uniform exposure and led to the “Knott Technic of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation.” A number of redesigned irradiation units (Figure 2) were manufactured and placed in the hands of physicians interested in the procedure, so that more clinical data could be accumulated [7]. The technique involved removing approximately 3.5 mL/kg venous blood, citrating it for anticoagulation, and passing it through a radiation chamber and reinfusing it. Exposure time per given unit amount was approximately 10 seconds, at a peak wavelength of 253.7 nm (ultraviolet C) provided by a mercury quartz burner and immediately re-perfused [7].

Figure 2
Figure 2
The Knott Hemo-Irradiator.

George P Miley at the Hahnemann Hospital, Philadelphia, PA published a series of articles on the use of the procedure in the treatment of thrombophlebitis, staphylococcal septicemia, peritonitis, botulism, poliomyelitis, non-healing wounds, and asthma [922].

Henry A Barrett at the Willard Parker Hospital in New York City, in 1940 reported on 110 cases including a number of infections. Twenty-nine different conditions were described as responding including the following: infectious arthritis, septic abortion, osteoarthritis, tuberculosis glands, chronic blepharitis, mastoiditis, uveitis, furunculosis, chronic paranasal sinusitis, acne vulgaris, and secondary anemia [23, 24].

EV Rebbeck at the Shadyside Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, reported the use of UBI in Escherichia coli septicemia, post-abortion sepsis, puerperal sepsis, peritonitis, and typhoid fever [2529].

Robert C Olney at the Providence Hospital, Lincoln, NE, treated biliary disease, pelvic cellulitis and viral hepatitis with UBI [3032].

UV irradiation of blood was hailed as a miracle therapy for treating serious infections in the 1940s and 1950s. However in an ironic quirk of fate, this time period coincided with the widespread introduction of penicillin antibiotics, which were rapidly found to be an even bigger miracle therapy. Moreover another major success of UBI, which was becoming used to treat polio, was also eclipsed by the introduction of the Salk vaccine. Starting in the 1960s UBI fell into disuse in the West and has now been called “the cure that time forgot” [33].

In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and the potential of UBI as an alternative approach to infections and as a new method to modulate the immune system. Our goal is to remind people to continue to do more research and explore more clinical uses. The topics include the efficacy of UBI for infections (both bacterial and viral), to treat autoimmune disease, disease, the possible mechanisms of action, and a comparison with extracorporeal photopheresis.

2 Mechanisms of action of UBI

The use of UBI has been described to affect many different components of the blood. UBI can alter the function of leukocytes as proven in many in vitro studies. UV can increase stimulator cells in mixed leukocyte cultures, modulate helper cells in mitogen-stimulated cultures, UV can also reverse cytokine production and block cytokine release. UV can disturb cell membrane mobilization (Figure 3)

Figure 3
Figure 3
Some mechanisms of action of UBI.

2.1 Effect on red cells

Anaerobic conditions were reported to strongly restrict the process by which long wave ultraviolet light could induce loss of K+ ions by red blood cells. Kabat showed that UV-irradiation could have an effect on the osmotic properties of red blood cells, altering their submicroscopic structure and affecting the metabolism of adenine nucleotides. Irradiation times (60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes) were used. ATP decreased while content while ADP, AMP and adenine compounds increased. It was also found that hypotonic Na+ and K+ ion exchange and hematocrit values increased. [34]

UV light irradiation on Rh-positive blood significantly increased the immunosorption activity. Vasil’eva et al [35] studied varying irradiation levels of UV on both red blood cells and leucocyte-thrombocyte suspensions. The immunosorption activity increased immediately after irradiation in the whole blood and red blood cells, however, the immunosorption capacity in leucocytic – thrombocytic suspensions was lost after two days later.

A two-phase polymer system including polydextran was used to study a one-hour UV exposure of blood for autotransfusion. They found that the cell surface properties of circulating erythrocytes were altered, which contributed to the prolongation and more effective therapeutic benefit of autotransfusion [36]. Snopov et al [37] suggested that some structural disturbances in the state of the erythrocyte glycocalyx were related to UV-irradiation when it was used as a clinical treatment. Cytochemical and isoserological methods were used to show that blood autotransfusions were improved after UV irradiation.

Ichiki et al [38] showed that the erythrocyte cellular volume and the membrane potential were changed by UV irradiation. Lower doses (< 0.1 J/cm2) increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte production of peroxides (H2O2) which was the most pronounced among different blood cells, However an increased dose decreased the production, while the peroxide production in platelets was lowest at the lower dose, but it increased abruptly at doses above 0.4 J/cm2.

2.2 Effects on Neutrophils

The pro-oxidative effects of UBI on neutrophils could be inhibited by arachidonate or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), as well as the complex-forming agent alpha-tocopherol. These compounds inhibited the interaction of UVR with phagocytes [39]. In chronic inflammatory disease, the concentration of large IC-IgG, IgM, and small IC-IgM immunocomplexes showed a linear and inverted correlation when UBI was carried out on autotransfused blood [40]. The function of UV-B irradiated mononuclear cells derived from human peripheral blood could be enhanced by deoxyribonucleoside supplementation, and also T-lymphocyte survival was enhanced after UV-B or UV-C exposure [41]

Artiukhov suggested that nitric oxide (NO) generation by photomodified neutrophils was due to the activation of iNOS synthesis that was de novo upregulated by UV-irradiation, which also had an effect on TNF-alpha production. Irradiation with a lower dose (75.5J/m2) improved the maintenance of physiological homeostasis through an effect relative to the native level of NO. While higher doses (755 and 2265 J/m2) were delivered to neutrophils this led to different effects by increasing the concentration of NO metabolites. Cells treated with UV-irradiation in the presence of cycloheximide (a transcriptional inhibitor of protein synthesis) could prevent the activation of iNOS synthesis. High dose UV-irradiation (755 J/m2) of blood cells showed a positive correlation between NO and TNF-alpha concentrations [42].

Zor’kina carried out a series of thirty-day rabbit experiments, suggesting that alleviation of chronic stress with hypodynamia after UBI, was caused by neutrophilic mobilization and lowered coagulation. These effects contributed to improvement of body function under long-term hypodynamia and lessening of chronic stress. UBI enhanced an adaptive process to reduce stress through activated neutrophils, lowering of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and changed atherogenic metabolism[43].

2.3 Effects on lymphocytes

Although UBI has several disadvantages including a lack of depth penetration and limited absorption by targeted cells, it can be useful in organ transplantation and in blood transfusion particularly in the UVB range, since immunological function and immunogenicity could be suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. Although UBI can decrease lymphocyte viability, UVC irradiation appears to be the most effective among the three spectral regions. UVB and UVC irradiation can abolish proliferative and stimulatory ability as well as the accessory/antigen-presenting ability of leukocytes in vitro. Cell-surface properties, calcium mobilization, cytokine production and release, and other sub cellular processes could be changed by UV irradiation [44]. Areltt et al [45] used the “Comet“ assay for strand breakage (single cell gel electrophoresis) as an indicator of nucleotide-excision repair to prove that circulating human T–lymphocytes were exquisitely hypersensitive to the DNA-damaging and lethal effects of UV-B radiation, raising the possibility that UV-B may make a contribution to immunosuppression via a direct effect on extracapilliary T-lymphocytes.

Schieven et al observed that after surface immunoglobulin cross-linking, UV-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in B cells was very similar to that seen after Ca2+ signaling in T cells. This means that the UV irradiation effect on lymphocyte function could induce both tyrosine phosphorylation and Ca2+ signals. Ca2+ channels in lymphocyte membranes are sensitive to UV irradiation, and moreover UV radiation can cause damage DNA through activation of cellular signal-transduction processes. UV radiation depending on dose and wavelength can not only induce tyrosine phosphorylation in lymphocytes, but also induce Ca2+ signals in Jurkat T cells and associated proteins synthesis. Furthermore, the pattern of surface immunoglobulin cross-linking was very similar to the UV-irradiated B cells and Ca2+-treated T-cells. In this research it was found that CD4+ and CD8+ normal human T-lymphocyte cells gave strong reactions during UV-irradiation induced producing Ca2+ responses [46].

In another similar study, Spielberg et al [47] found that UV-induced inhibition of lymphocytes accompanied by a disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis, and compared the UV effect with gamma irradiation, which have different effects on lymphocyte membranes. They found the presence of Ca2+ channels in lymphocyte membranes that were sensitive to UV irradiation. Indo-1 and cytofluorometry, was used to measure [Ca2+]i kinetics was in UVC- or UVB-exposed human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and Jurkat cells in parallel with functional assays. The UV-induced [Ca2+]i rise was predominantly due to influx of extracellular calcium, and it was more pronounced in T than in non-T cells. It was observed that [Ca2+]i increased within 2–3 h of irradiation; these increases were UV-dose dependent and reached maxima of 240% and 180% above baseline level (130 nM) for UVB and UVC. The UV-induced more [Ca2+]i rise in T cells than in non-T cells, due to the influx of extracellular calcium. UV-induced calcium shifts and UV irradiation on the plasma membrane decreased the sensitivity of response to phyto hemagglutinin (PHA) and its ability to stimulate a mixed leukocyte culture, because UV produces [Ca2+]i shifts.

A series of studies confirmed that UVR irradiated lymphocytes were not able to induce allogeneic cells in a mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) as first reported by Lindahl-Kiessling [4850]. Clusters formed by specialized accessory cells such as dendritic cells (DC), after mitogenic or allogenic stimulation, were necessary for lymphocyte activation to occur. Aprile found that UV irradiation of DC before culture completely abrogated the accessory activity and was able to block both cluster formation and proliferation [51].

UV-induced differentiation of human lymphocytes could accelerate the repair of UV-irradiation damage in these cells [52]. Exposure to UV irradiation was more effective than combination of UV-irradiation with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in the unscheduled DNA synthesis value, especially when MMS was given prior to the UV-irradiation (either at 2 hour or 26 hours incubation) because the MMS has an effect on the DNA repair polymerase by alkylating DNA [53]. Photo modification of HLA-D/DR antigens could be a trigger mechanism for activation of immunocopetent cells by UV-irradiation. Lymphocytes were isolated from a mixture of non-irradiated and UBI irradiated blood at different ratios (1:10, 1:40, 1:160) [54].

Pamphilon reported that platelet concentrates (PC) could become non-immunogenic after being irradiated with ultraviolet light (UVL) and stored for 5 d in DuPont Stericell containers. Lactate levels, beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor were increased, while glucose levels were decreased with an irradiation dose of 3000 J/m2 at a mean wavelength of 310 nm in DuPont Stericell bags [55]. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of platelet concentrate (PCs) accelerated downregulation of CD14 and nonspecifically increased the loss of monocytes by inhibiting the upregulation of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR [56]. However, UV radiation of platelet concentrates reduced the induced immunological response in a cell suspension [5759].

Deeg et al studied a model where administering blood transfusions to littermate dogs led to rejection of bone marrow grafts even though the grafts were DLA-identical, while untransfused dogs uniformly achieved sustained engraftment. UBI of the blood before transfusion prevented bone marrow graft rejection in vivo. 9.2 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) was also used and 2.8±2.1×108/Kg donor marrow cells were infused, and whole blood was exposed for 30 minutes to UV light for 1.35 J/cm2, then injected into the recipient dogs. The control group transfused with sham-exposed blood rejected grafts, while no rejection appeared in the treatment group, which received UV-exposed blood before transplanted marrow. UV irradiation of blood lessened activation of DC by eliminating a critical DC-dependent signal; therefore subsequent DLA-identical marrow graft was successfully engrafted [60].

Oluwole et al [61] suggested that transfusion of UV-irradiated blood into recipients could be used prior to heart transplantation to inhibit immune response and reduce lymphocyte reaction. Three strains of rats (ACI, Lewis, W/F) were used for heart transplantation in his research. When ACI rats received a Lewis rat heart, giving 1 mL transfusion of donor-type blood with or without UV-irradiation transfusion at 1,2, and 3 weeks prior to the transplantation, the mixed lymphocyte reaction with ACI lymphocytes showed a weaker response to Lewis lymphocytes than without UBI and the similar results were obtained with the other two strains of heart transplantation. UV irradiation of donor rhesus-positive blood can be used for increase in therapeutic effect of blood exchange transfusion in children with rhesus-conflict hemolytic disease [62].

Kovacs et al [63] found that DNA repair synthesis was dependent on the dose of UV-C light between 2 and 16 J/cm2. This was evaluated in irradiated and unirradiated lymphocytes in 51 healthy blood donors. Irradiation (253.7 nm) of 2,4,8 and 16 J/m2 was used, then DNA synthesis was measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation in the presence of hydroxyurea (2mM/2 ×106 cells) added 30 min before irradiation to inhibit the DNA-replicative synthesis. No significant age-related difference was seen between 17 and 74 years.

Teunissen et al [64] suggested that UVB radiation neither selectively affects Th1 or Th2 nor CD4 or CD8 T cell subsets. Compared with different dose of UVB irradiation, although the phototoxic effect was not immediately apparent, low doses of UVB (LD50: 0.5–1 mJ/cm2) irradiation were sufficient to kill most of T cells after 48–72 hours. There was a dose dependent reduction of all cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, TNF-a) 72h after irradiation. This fall in cytokine production was correlated with loss of viability so the reduction of cytokine production may be caused directly by cell death. However, the ratio of CD4+ or CD8+ T cell subsets, and the expression of CD4 and CD8 compared with the un-irradiated control, was not altered by UVB, suggesting that neither of the two T cell subsets was selectively affected.

2.4 Effects on phagocytic cells

Phagocytic activity (PhA) was one of the first mechanisms to be proposed to explain the immunocorrection by UBI therapy, In Samoı̆lova’s research, non-irradiated blood mixed with 1:10 volumes of irradiated blood were used to test PhA of monocytes and granulocytes. An increase of 1.4–1.7 times in PhA compared with non-irradiated blood, was seen when UV-irradiated blood was transfused into healthy adults. The enhancement of PhA depended on its initial level and may occur simultaneously with structural changes of the cell surface components [65].

Simon et al [66] showed that UVB could convert Langerhans cells (LC) or splenic adherent cells (SAC) from an immunogenic to a tolerogenic type of APC (LC or SAC). In his research, single dose of irradiation (200J/m2) was used on LC and SAC. The Th1 loss of response after preincubation with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied with UVB-LC or UVB-SAC. Furthermore, the loss of responsiveness was not related to the release of soluble suppressor factors but was Ag-specific, MHC-restricted, and did not last for a long time. Functional of allogeneic LC or SAC delivery a costimulatory signal(s) was interferes by UVB, because unresponsiveness by UVB-LC or UVB-SAC could not induce by unirradiated allogeneic SAC.

UV-irradiation increased phagocytic activity of human monocytes and granulocytes; the improvement in phagocytic index was related to the irradiation dose, and the initial level. A lower initial level would increase proportionately more than a higher initial level after UV-irradiation. It was found that UV irradiation enhanced the phagocytic activity directly [67].

2.5 Effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

Roshchupkin et al [68] found that UV irradiation played a core role in lipid peroxidation in the membrane of blood cells. UV irradiation on blood stimulated arachidonic acid to be produced by a cyclooxygenase catalyzed reaction. UV induced a process of dark lipid autoperoxidation that continued for some time afterwards producing free radicals. It contributed to lipid photoperoxidation producing lipid hydroperoxides.

An UV irradiated lipid emulsion greatly enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by monocytes. Highly atherogenic oxidized LDL could be generated in the circulation. UV irradiation of the lipid emulsion called “Lipofundin” (largely consisting of linoleic acid oxidized either by lipoxygenase, Fe3+ or ultraviolet irradiation) was injected into rabbits. Blood samples were taken from the ear vein with EDTA before and 6 hours after lipofundin treatment. Though UV-oxidized lipofundin induce less chemiluminescence from monocytes compared with Fe3+ oxidation, it lasted 2.3 times longer. UV–oxidized lipofundin could more effectively stimulate H2O2 production by cells, than LDL altered by monocytes, even with the same concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Six hours after injection of oxidized lipofundin, the lipid peroxide content was significantly increased; however neutral lipids of LDL separated from rabbit plasma showed no significantly difference to the monocyte-oxidized human LDL [69].

Salmon [70] found that UVB (280–315 nm) irradiation could easily damage LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) tryptophan (Trp) residues. The TBARS assay was used to measure the photooxidation of tryptophan residues which was accompanied by the peroxidation of low and high density lipoprotein unsaturated fatty acids. Vitamin E and carotenoids naturally carried by low and high density lipoproteins, were also rapidly destroyed by UVB. However UVA radiation did not destroy tryptophan residue and lipid photoperoxidation.

UV radiation (wavelength range 290–385 nm) easily oxidized lipoproteins contained in the suction blister fluid of healthy volunteers, which is a good representative of the interstitial fluid feeding the epidermal cells. Apolipoprotein B of LDL and apolipoprotein A-I and II were all changed in the same way under UV irradiation. The single tryptophan residue of albumin was highly susceptible to photo-oxidation during irradiation. UVA irradiation of undiluted suction blister fluid induced apo-A-I aggregation; however, purified lipoproteins were not degraded. During UV irradiation of suction blister fluid, antigenic apolipoprotein B is fragmented and polymerized. Activated oxygen radicals in the suction blister fluid during UV irradiation were derived from lipid peroxidation in HDL. Furthermore, they suggested that lipid peroxidation of was caused by a radical chain reaction and could transfer the initial photodamage. UV-light irradiation could play an important role in triggering inflammation and the degeneration caused by induced lipoprotein photo-oxidation with systemic effects. [71]

2.6 Effects on redox status

Artyukhov et al [72] found that dose-dependent UV-irradiation could activate the myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the NADPH-oxidase systems and lipid peroxide (LPO) concentration in donor blood. Two doses of UV-light were used (75.5 and 151.0 J/m2 ) in UV-induced priming of neutrophils (NP). A higher dose activated more free radicals and H2O2 from NP than a lower dose. Two groups were divided by the type of relationship between MPO activity and UV light dose (from 75.5 to 1510J/m2). A low enzyme activity (group 1) increased under the effect of UV exposure in doses of 75.5 and 151.0 J/m2, while in group 2 this parameter decreased. MPO activity showed the same result in dose-dependent UV-irradiation; however increasing the dose to 1510J/m2 did not increase the activity of MPO. In the next series of experiments, LPO concentration was evaluated after UV exposure of the blood. Two groups of donors were distinguished by the relationship between blood content of LPO and UV exposure dose. UV irradiation at low doses (75.5–151.0 J/m2) decreased initially high LPO and increased initially low LPO levels. In phagocytes, NADPH-oxidase plays one of the most important role of photoacceptors for UV light. Which cause the superoxide concentration to increase after UV-irradiation by activating the enzyme complex. UV irradiation decreases intracellular pH that is raised by activation of NADPH-oxidase complex.

UBI can reduce the free radical damage and elevate the activity of antioxidant enzymes after spinal cord injury in rabbits. 186 rabbits were divided into 4 groups randomly, (control, blood transfusion, injured and UBI). UV irradiation (wavelength 253.7nm, 5.68×10−3 J/cm2) were used in the treatment group at 47, 60 and 72 hours after surgery. Free radical signals (FR), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were measured. In the treatment group, SOD and GSH-PX were highly increased and showed significant differences compared with other groups; while FR and MDA decreased significantly in the UBI groups compared to the other groups. UV-irradiated blood decreased MDA and FR content in the spinal cord tissue. They also suggested that two factors contributed to increased SOD and GSH-PX activity: one was that UV irradiation induced the (lowered) SOD, GSH-PX return to normal levels, the other was that a decrease in the formation of FR, led to SOD and GSH-PX increases, especially at 48 and 72 hours after injury [73].

3 Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) overview

As UBI has certain factors in common with the medical procedure known as extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) we believe it is useful to compare and contrast the two techniques. ECP is an apheresis-based immunomodulatory therapy which involves ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to the photosensitizing drug 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). ECP has been widely used as an immunotherapy for cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) since it received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1988. There are a numbers of features of ECP that distinguish it from other immunologic therapies, such as its action as a cancer immune-stimulator and an immune-modulator in the transplant setting; induction of antigen presenting cells (APC); and its ability to modify processed leukocytes [74]. ECP has been studied for treatment of other autoimmune-mediated disorders and for prevention of organ allograft rejection. It is especially beneficial for CTCL and graft-versus host disease (GVHD).

3.1 ECP therapy treatment

The standard schedule of ECP treatment involves 2 successive days at 4 week intervals. Tens of thousands of patients afflicted with CTCL, organ transplant rejection, GVHD, Crohn’s disease and type 1 diabetes [7580] have been benefited by ECP since the first report of the systemic efficacy of ECP by Edelson [81] in 1987. In his studies, treatment of skin manifestations in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) achieved a response rate of greater than 70% compared with other forms of treatment. Wollnia [82] combined alpha-interferon and ECP treatment for fourteen patients (all male) aged 38 to 72 years with CTCL of the mycosis fungoides type, stage IIa/IIb, achieving a total response rate of 56%.

3.2 Mechanism of ECP

UVA activated 8-MOP causes formation of cross-links between the pyrimidine bases of DNA of sister strands, causing apoptosis of the extracorporeally targeted lymphocytes [83]. ECP can reduce erythrodermic CTCL caused by intact CD8 T cells and prolongs survival with minimal toxicity [84]. Two immune effects of ECP have been confirmed: one is immunostimulatory effects against neoplastic cells in CTCL, the other is immunosuppressive effects against T-cell-mediated disorders such as GVHD [85].

3.3 Comparison between UBI and ECP

As far as we can tell ECP has never been tested against the systemic bacterial infections that were treated so successfully by UBI between 1930 and 1950. Both UBI and ECP can have immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive effects depending on the dose employed and the disease that is being treated. The type of DNA damage is different between UBI and ECP. UBI causes formation of thymine dimers and 6:4 photoproducts, which are intra-strand crosslinks, while ECP causes formation of inter-strand cross-links when the photoactivated psoralen reacts with nucleic acid base residues in both strands [86].

4. Conclusion

UBI had originally been an American discovery, but then transitioned to being more studied in Russia and other eastern countries, which had long concentrated on physical therapies for many diseases, which were more usually treated with drugs in the West. Over the years its acceptance by the broad medical community has been hindered by uncertainties about its mechanism of action. Confusion has been caused by the widely held idea that since UV is used for sterilization of water and instruments; therefore its use against infection must also rely on UV-mediated direct destruction of pathogens. Another highly confusing aspect is the wide assortment of diseases that have been claimed to be successfully treated by UBI. It is often held that something that appears to be “too good to be true” usually is.

It is clear that the effectiveness UBI is critically dependent on the dose of UV employed. In fact the dose-response is governed by the concept of hormesis [87], where a small dose is beneficial, but when the dose is increased the benefit is lost, and if the dose is further increased then damaging effects can be produced In fact Knott’s original studies using dogs found that only 5–7% of the total blood volume should be treated to have the optimum benefit [7]. UV radiation is well known to produce DNA damage, and cells with DNA damage that is unable to be repaired will undergo apoptosis. It is uncertain to what extent the cell death caused by UV irradiation is necessary for the beneficial effects. It should not be forgotten that the original Knott technic used UVC irradiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp (253.7 nm). Many of the laboratory studies reported above have used UVB light (280–315 nm). It is possible that there are major differences between these two wavelengths of UV light. Interest in UVB has to a great extent been driven by the field of photodermatology, that seeks to understand the damaging effects of UV exposure to the skin in sunlight [88]. This has led to accumulation of a large body of knowledge on the immunosuppressive effects of UVB, in addition to its carcinogenic effects. Since the UVC wavelengths in sunlight are absorbed by the ozone layer, and do not reach the earth’s surface, the biological effects of UVC have been somewhat neglected.

It is still uncertain which of the many plausible mechanisms covered above really contribute to the success of UBI. Is it the production of reactive oxygen species caused by UV irradiation? Is it the activation of phagocytes such as neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages? Is it an alteration in lymphocyte subsets leading to differences in Th1 and Th2 profiles. Is it due to alteration in the secretion of cytokines? What factor is responsible for the marked increase in oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood that was noted by the early pioneers? There are many questions still to be answered.

In the last decade the problem of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria has grown relentlessly. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacterial strains and their related infections are emerging threats to public health throughout the world [89]. These are associated with approximately two-fold higher mortality rates and considerably prolonged hospital admissions [90]. The infections caused by antibiotic resistant strains are often exceptionally hard to treat due to the limited range of therapeutic options [91]. Recently in Feb 2015, the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance stated “Drug-resistant infections could kill an extra 10 million people across the world every year by 2050 if they are not tackled. By this date they could also cost the world around $100 trillion in lost output: more than the size of the current world economy, and roughly equivalent to the world losing the output of the UK economy every year, for 35 years.” [92]

Sepsis is an uncontrolled response to infection involving massive cytokine release, widespread inflammation, which leads to blood clots and leaky vessels. Multi-organ failure can follow. Every year, severe sepsis strikes more than a million Americans. It is estimated that between 28–50% percent of these people die. Patients with sepsis are usually treated in hospital intensive care units with broad-spectrum antibiotics, oxygen and intravenous fluids to maintain normal blood oxygen levels and blood pressure. Despite decades of research, no drugs that specifically target the aggressive immune response that characterizes sepsis have been developed [93].

We would like to propose that UBI be reconsidered and re-investigated as a treatment for systemic infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in patients who are running out of (or who have already run out) of options. Patients at risk of death from sepsis could also be considered as candidates for UBI. Further research is required into the mechanisms of action of UBI. The present confusion about exactly what is happening during and after the treatment is playing a large role in the controversy about whether UBI could ever be a mainstream medical therapy, or must remain sidelined in the “alternative and complementary” category where it has been allowed to be forgotten for the last 50 years, and sometimes referred to as “photoluminescence therapy”.


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UBI--Irradiating Blood For Infections

A review from the Eclectic Medicine International (EMI) staff at http://www.holisticcancersolutions.com/

"The history of Ultraviolet treatments, or Photoluminescence Therapy, reaches back at least as far as the clinical use of medical ozone. The treatment is similar to major autohemo-therapy; blood is taken from one arm, it is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, then led back through the other arm. The two treatment modalities are close relatives; there are many similarities between them. However, there is one major difference: U.B.I. has been approved by the FDA, and medical doctors in the USA are free to use it. This fact in itself brings up some very disturbing questions. As you will see in this report, U.B.I., an entirely harmless, benign, and painless procedure, has already been proven very effective decades ago in reversing and completely eliminating viral infections that today are regarded as irreversible, and are treated with dangerous and expensive drugs.

Being informed about this treatment may one day save your life, so let us take a closer look at U.B.I.

Despite the fact that this modality is very little known in North America, it is not one of those obscure experimental methods that are practiced in the basements of some private clinics. Quite the opposite! U.B.I. has been used in mainstream medical practice in the United States from as far back as 1935. In Europe, particularly in the former Soviet Union, millions of patients were treated successfully with blood irradiation. One of the reasons for the interest in this therapy in the USSR was that it is a very inexpensive, yet effective procedure. Why didn't it become a major tool against viral diseases in the hands of US medical doctors?

In 1998 we have received a report from an M.D. in Ohio, who has just finished a large clinical study with 32 Hepatitis C patients. He reversed all of them with ultraviolet treatments, completely eliminating the infection. This was very similar to reports from naturopathic physicians in British Columbia, Canada, who are regularly achieving such results with medical ozone.

The U.B.I. equipment is being distributed in the USA by a firm called Foundation for Blood Irradiation, Inc. Its owner and medical director is Dr. Carl Schleicher. They offer training seminars to interested doctors. The followings are excerpts from their literature.

U.B.I. Therapy is intravenously applied ultraviolet energy.

This produces effects of a profound nature in human beings with photochemical, biochemical & physiological aspects.

These effects have proven to be of great value clinically in a wide variety of disease processes.

No harmful effects have been observed over a period of more than 25 years, during which UBI has been given more than 500.000 times to over 30.000 patients by at least 100 physicians.

Effects of UBI:

A rapid detoxifying effect.

An increase in venous oxygen in patients with depressed blood oxygen values.

A marked anti-inflammatory effect in diseases where severe damaging inflammatory processes exist.

A powerful regulatory or normalizing effect on the autonomic nervous system.

A rapid rise of resistance to acute or chronic viral or bacterial infections.

UBI has excellent effects in:

Viral infections (Hepatitis -- serum, infectious, acute, chronic, Mumps, Measles, Mononucleosis, Herpes, etc.)

Bacterial infections (Septicemias, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, streptococcus, coli, salmonella, pneumonias, etc.)

Profound overwhelming toxemias

Severe damaging inflammatory processes

Non-healing wounds, ETC.

Treatment requires from fifteen to twenty minutes. Outpatients rest fifteen minutes, after which time they resume their normal activities. The quantity of blood withdrawn is small, and the procedure doesn't cause either pain or discomfort.


In a letter written to us in 1998, Dr. Schleicher remarks: "We haven't yet seen an infectious disease we could not treat."

Here is the introduction to the 1997 Edition of a book written about UBI:

Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation: A History and Guide to Clinical Application

The publication of this book has been years in the making, with many hours of fine detective work spent in finding some of the missing chapters long considered lost. The Foundation for Blood Irradiation (FFBI), its well-wishers, supporters and staff view this accomplishment as a coming of age and
renaissance for Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation (UBI). Those who participated in this effort can be justifiably pleased.

The writing of this manual began in the 1930's with the pioneers of this technique, specifically, Olney, Miley, Knott and Lewis. They treated thousands of patients with a broad spectrum of disease complaints, and closely observed these patients, often over a period of years. Because of their dedication and vision, we now have concrete documentation on the efficacy and safety of UBI. Their efforts have filled the pages of this manual and make a profound argument for UBI to become one of the more effective treatment methods of our time.

Writing was completed in 1997 with the addition of Chapter 23, which documents recent research into the treatment of HIV/AIDS using UBI. This Chapter replaces the original Chapter 23, which dealt with diseases of connective tissue, and regrettably was lost over the many years since work began on this project.

UBI was originally created through the research of E.K. Knott to fight the ravages of poliomyelitis in the 1930's, which it did with considerable success. However with the advent of antibiotics and the Salk vaccine this method of treatment fell into disuse during the 1950's and 1960's, and was for a long period of time overlooked by most physicians. Those who had not been totally seduced by the use of antibiotics continued to apply UBI and were soon rewarded with the knowledge that UBI could successfully treat many other ailments than polio, as well as those diseases not responding to antibiotic treatment. As news of this discovery spread, UBI found a renaissance in the 1980's and has been re- introduced by FFBI in the 90's, with an improved, state-of-the-art device.

The Foundation for Blood Irradiation (FFBI), an organization founded in New York in 1947 by Louis Ripley, John Winters, Dr. H.T. Lewis and others, moved to Maryland in 1979 and continues in operation today under the direction of Dr. Carl Schleicher. Recently FFBI has obtained research reports of the use
of UBI in the treatment of HIV/AIDS; projects are currently in process for treating immune system disorders, Alzheimer's Disease and Gulf War Syndrome. While no claims can be made for UBI's efficacy in treating these illnesses, funds are being sought for research.

Since this method uses no drugs and lowers the cost of medical treatment, it can be expected that there will be resistance from those who feel that their interests are threatened by this device. A similar situation occurred in the 1950's and 60's when computers replaced many persons doing clerical keyboard operation. Now we can see that computers have actually created more jobs at higher rates of pay than the near minimum wage of keypunch operators. It is expected that the same could happen here with the advent of energy medicine and the use of alternative, non-drug approaches to the treatment of disease. It should be understood that most drugs have side-effects and risks. UBI has no known side-effects or risk.

This manual is dedicated to the pioneers of UBI and to their untiring search for more effective, safer, and lower-cost methods for healing the diseases that face humanity, using one of nature's own tools: ultraviolet light.

This book is largely a collection of the documented case work of Miley, Olney, Lewis and others as performed with the UBI device or Knott Hemoirradiator, applied to a variety of diseases afflicting their patients. This treatment continues to be effective today although it has not changed in application for 50 years. There have been no known negative side effects, and it continues to be a safe, painless and easy-to-apply process.

In his book Into the Light, William Campbell Douglass, M.D. (a pioneer in the new era of UV energy medicine), states that Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation is the life-saving breakthrough therapy of the age. The secondary title of Dr. Douglass' book is Tomorrow's Medicine Today; we concur, and hopefully this
manual can serve as a guide to continue this breakthrough well into the next century.


If you are interested in this treatment modality, please call the office of Dr. Schleicher. They will be able to give you the address of a clinic or doctor nearest to you, where you can obtain the treatment.

Is UBI an 'alternative' treatment? It is neither unapproved, nor actively suppressed. A medical doctor is free to practice it. However, it is very little known, and almost never used against infectious diseases, except by a handful of practitioners. If an excellent medical modality becomes neglected and forgotten by the medical community, does that place it in the category of alternative medicine? Hardly. Maybe we should create a new category: neglected medicine, or not sufficiently profitable medicine.

So, if you have an infectious disease, and you are not satisfied with the answers you get from your doctor, it may help to talk to other doctors. Don't let one person's ignorance prevent you from recovering your health."

Unproven method of Cancer Treatment
Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Intravenous Treatment

After careful study of the literature and other information available to it, the American Cancer Society does not have evidence that treatment with Ul
traviolet Blood Irradiation Intravenous Treatment results in objective benefit in the treatment of cancer in human beings.

The following is a summary of in formation on the Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Intravenous Treatment in the American Cancer Society files:


In an interview reported in the Lincoln (Nebraska Journal, August 13, 1969, Dr. Robert C. Olney was quoted as saying that the Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Intravenous Treatment combined several techniques developed by what he labels as several great scientists. These included, in addition to Glyoxylide, one of the Koch Antitoxins, and Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Intravenous Treatment, developed by the late E. K. Knott, D.Sc. in the late 1920's, microwave therapy, major colonic irrigations, an organic diet and supplements of zinc and magnesium in addition to natural vitamins C and E.

In a case report which Dr. Olney distributed in 1969, he described the treatment of a case of generalized malignant melanoma as follows: Patient was immediately given ultraviolet blood irradiation to overcome hypoxemia, the oxidation catalyst intermuscularly, ultra ultra mycro-wave therapy throughout the body, diet consisting of raw vegetables and fruits eliminating all meats and fluorides, colonic irrigations to remove the toxic material from the colon, and large doses of trace minerals especially magnesium and zinc with natural vitamin C and natural vitamin E in addition to other natural vitamin supplements.

In 1963, the Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Therapy was described as the drawing out of some of the blood of a patient suffering from certain diseases and, after purifying the blood by pasteurization with ultraviolet rays, putting the blood back into the patient's blood stream, as a consequence of which the blood stream is sterilized of infecting organisms of various types.

In the August 1969 interview, Dr. Olney said that Glyoxylide is a chemical which must be prepared with extreme care and be fresh or it is ineffective... He added that he had brought an expert chemist here the previous year to make up the special formula since he started using the glyoxylide muscular mi ecti on treatment with ultraviolet blood irradiation treatments for cancer patients.

Unproven Methods of Cancer Treatment

was recently distributed to the 58 Divisions of the American Cancei' Society for their information.

Ultraviolet BloodIrradiation Intravenous Treatment Rationale

According to information distributed by Dr. Olney in 1969, he believes that the most important cause of malignant, viral, bacterial and allergic diseases is hypoxemia, oxygen deficiency of the blood, which in turn deprives the cells of oxygen. He further believes that once the blocking process or injury whichcausesthe oxygen deficiency has become established, effective means must be taken to correct this condition, since removal of the cause will not return thecondition to normal. He conducted experiments and gave data from these which seemed to show that Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Intravenous Treatment, also called Intravenous Ultraviolet, increases the oxygen absorption of the patient, and that the oxidation catalyst stimulates the use of the increased oxygen to restore the normal oxidation process.

In the August 1969 interview, Dr. Olney was quoted as stating that more than 50 men and women have been treated by him with the Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation treatments at the Providence Hospital within the last year, coming from' 13 states outside Nebraska. At the time of the interview, he said he had about 25 patients undergoing treatment with the Intravenous Ultraviolet at that time.


In the Lincoln Journal article in August 1969, Robert C. Olney, M.D. is given as the founder and medical director of Providence Hospital, Lincoln, Nebraska.1 According to the American Medical Association Directory, 1967, Dr. Olney was born in 1896, received an M.D. degree from the Eclectic Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1919 and was licensed to practice medicine in Nebraska in 1919. He was reported to have a full-time specialty practice in general surgery.

In 1963, the American Blood Irradiation Society was defined as a group "dedicatedto the advancement and practice of the modality of treatment known as ultraviolet blood-irradiation therapy." There is reference in correspondence to this group as early as 1953. In 1963, Dr. Olney was given as President, and reference was made to seven other physicians who were officers or members of the Society, as follows: Drs. Armand C. Grez of New York City and Spring Lake, New Jersey; Basil A.Bland, Jr., and Breen Bland of Memphis, Tennessee; A. M. C. Jobson of Tampa, Florida; Albert A. LaPlume of Ville de Tracy, Quebec, Canada; Howard T. Lewis, Jr. of Doimont, Pennsylvania; and George P. Miley of Stephantown, New York. According to the American Medical Association Directorij for 1963, all were listed as general practitioners except Dr. Jobson, who was reported to be a full-time surgeon; Dr. Grez, reported as having a part-time specialty in surgery, and Dr. LaPlume, a part-time specialty in physical medicine.


In late December, 1963, medical news weeklies reported that eight physicians, including Dr. Olney, were suing the Columbia Broadcasting System for sixteen million dollars. In their complaint they charged that the program, The Health Fraud, telecast as part of the Armstrong Circle Theatre series on March 27, 1963; represented the Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Treatment to be a fraud and the medical specialists using it to be medical quacks, health frauds, and crooks. The plaintiffs were also said to be the only physicians in their communities using this therapy, and that they were therefore identifiable, even though they were not specifically named. Other physicians associated with Dr. Olney in the complaint were Drs. Grez, Jobson, LaPlume, Lewis, Associated Press in New York City, the case at that time, six years later, was ready to go to trial, awaiting call, and might be heard the following fall.


1. Jenkins, B.: State medical meeting to take up topic. Out-of-state patients seek cancer treatment. Lincoln (Nebraska) .Journal, August 13, 1969.

2. American Cancer Society: Unproven methods of cancer treatment. Koch antitoxins. In: Unproven Methods of Cancer Treatment. New York, 1966.

3. Eight physicians branded 'frauds'; suing TV program. Medical Tribune, December 30. 1963. Miley, and Basil A. Bland, Jr. and Breen Bland.

The physicians' complaints, filed in the New York State Supreme Court, also stated that all eight of them were licensed to practice medicine in their various states, all were members of the American Medical Association, and all were officers or members of the American -Blood Irradiation Society.

In the August 1969 Lincoln Journal article, it stated that, according to the


One of the greatest evils in modern cancer research isthe abuse of definitions that are based on the preconceived ideas of individual investigators highly expert over an extremely narrow range of neoplastic phenomena. Statements such as “¿?Cancer is, by definition, somatic mutation―are indefensible in logic and disastrous in application; they presume as axiomatic what remains to be provedor, sometimes, what has already been disproved.

Somatic mutation supplies a reasonable workinghypothesis for the study of neoplasia; as a definition of neoplasia it is intolerable. No satisfactory definition of neoplasia is available or will be until a great deal more is known about its nature and properties; cancer research will have reached an outstanding landmark when it becomes possible to define neoplasia in biological terms. Meanwhile, the concept of neoplasia is essentially descriptive and based on the collective experience of many generations of clinicians, pathologists and laboratory investigators, but primarily on the empirical observation of neoplasia in man.

Foulds, 1.: Definitions, classifications and terminologies. In: Neoplastic Development. London, Academic Press,1969. Page 91.

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