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Hilsch-Ranque Vortex Tube Patents












See also : RANQUE : Vortex Tube ( I )






G. Rangue's US Patent :

US Patent # 1952281
Method & Apparatus for Obtaining from a Fluid Under Pressure Two Currents of Fluids at Different Temperatures





FEED METHOD OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH SPARK IGNITION
RU2391550

FIELD: engines and pumps. SUBSTANCE: feed method of internal combustion engine with spark ignition consists in the fact that to operating cylinders of engine there supplied is fuel mixed with air with addition of waste gas at partial load of engine. The supplied air is swirled so that vortex is formed, which is characterised according to Ranque Effect with non-uniform temperature field. Cold air is taken from central vortex zone, added waste gas is cooled with it and mixed with air taken from vortex periphery. EFFECT: increasing fuel economy of engine.




ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONING INSTALLATION
RO122506

The invention relates to an installation meant for air conditioning by cooling and heating, in order to ensure thermal and physiological comfort conditions; inside a habitacle such as dwelling, working and technological spaces. According to the invention, the installation comprises a filter (1) for cleaning the air, an electric fan (2) for producing pressurized air, a vortex generator (3) for hot and cold air, functioning on the basis of Ranque Hilsch effect, an electric valve (4) whose functioning is conditioned by the signals received from a switch (7), from a thermostat (8) and from a microprocessor (9), said signals controlling also the functioning of the electric fan (2), a diffuser for the dispersion of the air in a habitacle and a valve (6) for the depressurization of the habitacle.





Method for mixing liquid fuel with air
DE19612691


Method is used in mixing a liquid fuel with air, in which a vortex tube is employed. The fuel and air are mixed in a turbulent centrifugal field, for supply to the combustion chamber. In this method, a Hilsch tube is used. This has opposite, hot and cold ends, each with restricted cross-sectional openings. The heated gaseous mixture is extracted from the hot end. Also claimed is a burner, to carry out the procedure. Regions near the air or fuel supply may be heated, or the vortex tube itself is heated.

DESCRIPTION

It is known that the heat transfer in turbulent centrifugal fields is particularly intense (F. Schultz-Grunow, journal "Research in the field of engineering", born 1951, Volume 17, Issue 3, pages 65ff).

This effect causes a vortex tube according to Ranque or Hilsch that the incoming ambient temperature air is separated into two air streams, one of which is much colder (to <230 K), the other much warmer (up to> is 470K) than the incoming air (R. Hilsch, "Journal for Nature Research ", born in 1946, volume 1, pages 208ff).

The achievable temperatures depend on a given geometry of the ratio of the outgoing hot and cold air quantities.

An overview of recent applications and appropriate versions of the vortex tube conveys L.Bloos, Magazine "The refrigeration and air conditioning", No.9 / 1991, pages 620, 621st.

It is also known that the reaction liquid fuels complete expires, if the fuel is vaporized prior to the reaction.

A desired complete vaporization of the fuel prior to the reaction is not yet applied, because the power of the burner can be regulated thereby insufficiently.
That is why today the spray or flame gasification is used, but with the disadvantage that larger fuel droplets can move through the flame without completely evaporate and burn, thereby reducing the efficiency and increase the gaseous and solid emissions.

However, to achieve a fine atomization of the fuel, as is necessary for the effective and low-carbon conversion, which is injected into the flame fuel quantity can not be arbitrarily small.

Therefore, domestic heating have today usually so services that they can not be operated continuously.

The required heat output is adjusted by intermittent operation of the burner.

This operating condition but requires on average higher inlet temperatures, and thus lead to higher losses than in the continuous operation of home heating would be necessary.

In addition, it is known that even less evaporated volatile liquid fuels in Zentrifugalströmungsfeld a vortex tube partially and with air can be mixed (DE-PS 2 87 835).

Also described in this specification that the vortex tube exiting the fuel / air mixture additionally secondary air to be supplied for finer atomization of the fuel droplets still present in the mixture.

The specified invention addresses the problem of reducing the emissions from the conversion of liquid fuels in a combustor, and reduce fuel consumption.

This problem is solved in that in a vortex tube according to Ranque / Hilsch liquid fuel is given.

The Regulati is thereby taken according to its partial pressure of the carrier gas.

Because of the partial pressure of the fuel exponentially mi the temperature rises, allows even those volatile fuels at the high temperatures that can be reached at the hot end of the vortex tube, form a combustible mixture.

The turbulent flow field in the vortex tube ensures a good mixture of fuel vapor and carrier gas.

If flow control is achieved by appropriate or devices for performing the method according to claims 2 and 3 that the fuel the vortex tube only gaseous can leave a constant mixture composition is achieved as long as liquid fuel is included in the vortex tube.

This has several advantages over conventional burners, namely:

The fuel supply (continuous or intermittent) has no influence on the mixture formation.

This permits the intermittent operation of the pump for the liquid fuel.

The quantity of fuel that enters the combustion chamber, and thus the burner output depends only on the temperature d hot end of the vortex tube.

This temperature can be very effectively by varying the ratio of the outgoing hot and cold Luftströ set.

This results in the ability to easily adjust the burner output, which makes possible (for example, by throttling the cold air flow) continuous operation of a heating system.

Even if the mixture cools down as it enters into the combustion chamber through the expansion, so that fuel auskondensi are the droplets formed significantly smaller and therefore burn more completely than is possible with conventional burners.

In order to minimize the additional energy required for the compression of the carrier gas at reasonable limits, the temperature of the hot end of the vortex tube can be so high that the mixture √ľberstoichometrisch enters the combustion chamber where 4 secondary air is mixed according to patent claim.

This may, in particular for low volatile fuels, be necessary to heat individual portions of the apparatus in accordance with claim 5 by external heat supply.

The advantage of the good controllability is not lost.

The intense heat exchange in the turbulent centrifugal ensures for defined conditions at the hot end of the vortex tube, no matter what the temperature level.

An embodiment of the invention is shown in Fig. 1 and will be described in more detail below.

Compressed carrier gas (usually air) flows out of a pressure vessel (2) in the vicinity of the tube wall tangentially into the vortex tube (1).

One possible dosing of the carrier gas through a valve in the supply line does not appear necessary because the carrier gas flow is determined by the state at the inlet to the vortex tube, which is usually the critical state is reached.

Particularly high temperature differences between the two ends of the vortex tube resulting apparent when the gas inlet is located as close as possible to the cold end (1b).

The turbulent flow in vortex tube ensures that near the axis of the tube part of the gas to the aperture at the cold end (1b) flows, releasing heat.

The temperatures of the warm (1a) and the cold end (1b) of the vortex tube, as described above, determined by the ratio of hot to cold air flow.

This ratio is in this embodiment determined by throttling of the cold air flow, wherein the throttling of the warm air stream is also conceivable.

In the distance to the cold end through a small opening (3) is pumped in the vortex tube liquid fuel.

The place of this opening should be chosen such that the fuel can not come into contact with the cold air flow because this fuel with the cold air flow from the pipe would be transported.

On the other hand, the fuel supply should not be too close to the hot end of the vortex tube to ensure intensive as possible mass and heat transfer between the carrier gas and liquid fuel.

The saturated carrier gas with fuel passing through the aperture in the warm end (1a) of the vortex tube in the combustion chamber (4), where the fuel is reacted.

Typically, the inlet is in the combustion chamber have a suitable flow guidance, as known from gas burners.



METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR DISSOCIATION OF WATER MOLECULES USING INERTIAL-KINETIC ELECTRO-MAGNETIC RESONANCE
WO2010059751
 
Apparatuses and methods are provided for producing hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) from water (H2O). The apparatuses may comprise a dissociation chamber for dissociation water to hydrogen ions and oxygen ions, a separation apparatus for separating the hydrogen ions form the oxygen ions, a device for the de -ionization of hydrogen ions and oxygen ions to H2 and O2, and a combustion chamber for reacting H2 and O2 to generate H2O in an exothermic process. In the dissociation chamber, water may be dissociated with the aid of interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields. In the separation apparatus, hydrogen ions may be separated from oxygen ions with the aid of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex and an electrostatic field.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This invention relates to dissociating water into hydrogen and oxygen, more particularly to dissociating water into hydrogen and oxygen with the aid of electromagnetic resonance.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] A hydrogen-based energy economy could provide significant advantages over the current carbon-based economy. Specifically, a hydrogen-based economy allows for reduced production of greenhouse gases (such as, e.g., CO2) and reduced reliance on foreign resources. The benefits of a hydrogen-based economy may be maximized when renewable resources derived from solar, wind, and thermal energy (e.g., geothermal energy) are used for hydrogen production.

[0004] Hydrogen can be generated from water via the dissociation of water via the following endothermic reaction:

2 H2O(I) ^ 2 H2(g) + O2(g)

H2 may be subsequently stored and used as fuel in various combustion engines, such as automobiles and electric turbines for generating electricity. For instance, H2 and O2 may be reacted to form water via the following exothermic reaction:

O2(g) + 2 H2(g) ^ 2 H2O(l)

The energy obtained form this reaction can be used to generate steam, which may subsequently be used to drive a turbine to generate electricity.

[0005] There are techniques available in the art for facilitating the dissociation of water. In electrolysis, for instance, an electric current is used to dissociate water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Unfortunately, current electrolysis techniques can be energy intensive and inefficient, preventing hydrogen from becoming a dominant resource for mainstream energy usage. Accordingly, there is a need in the art for improved methods for dissociating water into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0006] The invention provides an apparatus and method for high efficiency dissociation of water into ionized hydrogen (e.g., H<+>, H2<+> ) and oxygen (20<">, O2<">). The ionized hydrogen and oxygen can be de-ionized to form hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). In some embodiments, the hydrogen and oxygen can be reacted to reform water. The water can be in a chemically and biologically purified form, while deriving energy for continuing the purified water production. In other embodiments, the hydrogen and oxygen can be combusted to reform water and drive energy production in a conventional steam turbine per the following equation: 2 H2 + O2 -> 2 H2O.

[0007] The apparatus (or device) for dissociating water and producing hydrogen and oxygen can be utilized in parallel for production of a large quantity of hydrogen (H2). The apparatus can be of any size. In an embodiment, the apparatus can be about the size of a breadbox. In some embodiments, the apparatus is of an appropriate size that can be readily used in vehicles to provide energy. In some embodiments of the invention, the energy or water production capability of the apparatus can be scaled appropriately for the amount of power or water to be produced, respectively.

[0008] The apparatus can comprise a resonance dissociation chamber and a Ranque- Hilsch vortex. The resonance dissociation chamber may comprise one or more magnetic fields. In an embodiment, the resonance dissociation chamber comprises interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields. The Ranque-Hilsch vortex can be combined with an electrostatic field.

[0009] In embodiments, high temperature steam can be fed to a resonance dissociation chamber that produces ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen by utilizing multiple magnetic and electromagnetic fields and a kinetic vortex. The magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields can be interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields. Ionized species can be subsequently separated using a modified Ranque-Hilsch vortex and electrostatic fields. In an embodiment, the ionized species can be subsequently de-ionized by a modified electron exchange membrane to produce hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). Hydrogen and oxygen can be combusted to produce water and energy. In an embodiment, water may be recycled to generate hydrogen and oxygen via the resonance dissociation chamber. [0010] The apparatus can be comprised of both hardware and software. Various components may be unique to this invention, making use of recent developments in hardware processing speed and methods in software design.

[0011] In an aspect of the invention, a system for producing hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) is provided. The system comprises at least one steam production vessel, a dissociation reactor having a series of interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields downstream from the at least one steam production vessel, and a separation chamber for creating a Ranque-Hilsch vortex and an electrostatic field, the separation chamber downstream of the reactor.

[0012] In another aspect of the invention, a system for generating electricity is provided. The system comprises at least one steam production vessel and a dissociation chamber comprising a series of interpenetrating magnetic fields downstream of the at least one steam production vessel. A separation apparatus (or chamber) is disposed downstream of the dissociation chamber, the separation apparatus configured to create a Ranque-Hilsch vortex and an electrostatic field. The system further comprises a de-ionizing filter downstream of the separation apparatus and a combustion chamber downstream of the de-ionizing filter. [0013] In yet another aspect of the invention, a system for purifying water is provided. The system comprises one or more steam production vessels. The system further comprises a dissociation apparatus disposed downstream of the one or more steam production vessels, the dissociation apparatus configured to dissociate water into hydrogen ions and oxygen ions with the aid of a series of interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields, the dissociation apparatus configured to create a Ranque-Hilsch vortex and an electrostatic field for separating hydrogen ions and oxygen ions. A de-ionizing apparatus (or filter) is disposed downstream of the dissociation apparatus, the de -ionizing apparatus configured to generate hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) from hydrogen ions and oxygen ions from the dissociation apparatus. The system further comprises a combustion chamber downstream of the de- ionizing apparatus and a condensation chamber downstream of the combustion chamber. [0014] In still another aspect of the invention, a method for producing hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) is provided. The method comprises providing water (H2O) to a dissociation reactor (also "dissociation chamber" herein) having a series of interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields. In an embodiment, the water provided to the dissociation reactor is steam. Next, hydrogen ions and oxygen ions are generated in the dissociation reactor. The hydrogen ions and oxygen ions are then directed to a separation apparatus configured to separate the hydrogen ions from the oxygen ions. Next, the hydrogen ions and oxygen ions are directed to a de-ionizing apparatus configured to generate hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) from the hydrogen ions and oxygen ions.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0015] FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of an apparatus described herein, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

[0016] FIG. 2 is a flowchart illustrating energy input and outputs to an apparatus described herein, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

[0017] FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of an inertial-kinetic electro-magnetic resonance reactor, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention; and

[0018] FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of various components of an inertial-kinetic electro-magnetic resonance reactor, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.




DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0019] The invention provides for the rapid and high efficiency dissociation of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen ions. The hydrogen and oxygen ions can be de -ionized to H2 and O2, thereby extracting electricity, burned together to produce heat, and then condensed to provide chemically and biologically pure water.

[0020] Water is comprised of two hydrogen atoms and a single oxygen atom joined by two hydrogen-oxygen covalent bonds. The molecular arrangement of the hydrogen atoms about the oxygen atom creates a polar molecule (or a molecule having a dipole moment). The polar or dipole nature of water allows not only for hydrogen bonding to occur, but for a magnetic field to control the orientation of a water molecule. The magnetic field may be used to impart energy to the water molecule. When placed in a magnetic field, a water molecule will align with the field to an extent inversely proportional to its own kinetic energy and relative to the strength of the magnetic field. The force exerted to align the molecule is known as magnetic torquing, and its effect causes the molecule to precess about the direction of the magnetic field at a frequency relative to the magnetic torque applied and dependent upon the molecule's frequency components.

[0021] Apparatuses and methods of various embodiments of the invention provide for dissociation of water molecules to form ionized hydrogen (e.g., H<+>, H2<+>) and ionized oxygen (e.g., O<2'>, O2<">), for the separation of ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen, for the de- ionization of the ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen to form H2 and O2, respectively, and for the production of energy by the conversion of hydrogen and oxygen to water. [0022] Various aspects of the invention make use of the polar nature of water to dissociate water into ionized hydrogen and oxygen using a magnetic field. The two ionized species are subsequently separated using an electrostatic field in conjunction with a Ranque- Hilsch vortex. In certain embodiments, a modified electron exchange membrane de-ionizes the separated hydrogen ions and oxygen ions. The apparatus for dissociation of water and de- ionization to hydrogen and oxygen may be collectively referred to as an inertial-kinetic electro-magnetic resonance (IKEMR) reactor. In some embodiments, the IKEMR reactor may comprise a separate dissociation chamber (or reactor) for dissociating H2O and a separate device or apparatus downstream of the dissociation chamber for separating hydrogen ions and oxygen ions into separate streams of hydrogen ions and oxygen ions. In a preferable embodiment, the IKEMR reactor dissociates water to ionized hydrogen and oxygen and also separates the ionized species. A modified electron exchange membrane may subsequently de-ionize the species to form hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. In some embodiments of the invention, the hydrogen gas and oxygen gas may be combusted to produce water and energy, which may be used to provide energy to the IKEMR reactor. Dissociation of Water to Ionized Hydrogen and Ionized Oxygen [0023] As shown in Figure 1 , water may be used to produce ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen. Liquid state water may be filtered and pumped into an input reservoir for storage. Water from the input reservoir may be pumped into a pressure vessel to be heated and converted into high pressure steam using a series of pressure vessels and heat exchangers. At any time, each of the vessels may be in one of four phases (or stages): a "Fill Phase", "Heat Phase", "Run Phase", or "Backwash Phase". The phases may be cycled through sequentially in each of the vessels, controlled by valves, which may be much in the way a four-stroke combustion engine works (i.e., in a four-stroke Otto-type engine, the engine goes through adiabatic compression, heat addition at constant volume, adiabatic expansion, and rejection of heat at constant volume). Water may be fed into a vessel during the Fill Phase. In the Fill Phase water may be fed unpressurized. While that is happening, water previously fed into a second vessel can be heated during its Heat Phase. While those are happening, water in a third vessel, which has gone through its Fill and Heat Phases, can be boiled to form pressurized steam during its Run Phase. The steam can be fed into the dissociation process. A fourth vessel, having finished its Run Phase, may then enter its Backwash Phase, where residual pollutants and contaminants, left by the distillation of the water during the Heating and Run Phases, are cleaned out. If brackish or sea water is used as the source water, minerals existing in sea water can be claimed or removed from the residue. By combusting the hydrogen and oxygen product of the dissociation process, high temperature water vapor can be formed and can be condensed in the heat exchangers to provide heat for the Heat Phase and then either outputted as purified water or fed back into a vessel in its Fill Phase.

[0024] With reference to FIG. 1, in some embodiments, high pressure and high temperature steam may be fed from a vessel in its Run Phase into a dissociation chamber (or dissociation apparatus) comprising multiple magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields, and further comprising a modified Ranque-Hilsch tube, that can collectively use magnetic torquing and vortex kinetics to dissociate water into segregated (or separate) streams of ionized hydrogen (e.g., H<+>) and ionized oxygen (e.g., O<2">). In an embodiment, the multiple magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields may be interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields. The dissociation chamber can also be referred to as the IKEMR reactor or the resonance dissociation reactor.

[0025] In some embodiments of the invention, the dissociation chamber is controlled using high-speed processors and specialized software.

Deionization of Species to Hydrogen and Oxygen

[0026] As shown in FIG. 1, the ionized hydrogen and oxygen species can be de-ionized using a charge filter. The charge filter can also be referred to as a modified electron exchange membrane. In an embodiment, the charge filter may operate like a proton exchange membrane (PEM). The charge filter may allow for the extraction of electrons from ionized oxygen, resulting in oxygen gas (O2). Concurrently, electrons can be donated to ionized hydrogen, resulting in hydrogen gas (H2).

[0027] In some embodiments of the invention, the modified electron exchange membrane is controlled by specialized software and hardware, such as high-speed processors.

Reaction of Hydrogen and Oxygen

[0028] FIG. 1 shows a combustion chamber for combustion of hydrogen and oxygen to drive the production of electricity by a turbine generator. The combustion chamber can be a standard apparatus used to burn hydrogen and oxygen and consequently drive electricity production by a turbine generator.

[0029] In some embodiments of the invention, the combustion chamber is controlled by specialized software and hardware, such as high-speed processors.

[0030] A portion of the heat produced by combustion of hydrogen and oxygen may be used to heat the water that is fed to the IKEMR reactor. In other embodiments of the invention, the electricity produced by the turbine generator may be used to power the electronics of the IKEMR reactor and the hardware used to control the IKEMR reactor.

Controller

[0031] FIG. 1 shows a controller comprised of at least one high-speed solid-state processor and specialized software for controlling any or all of the following: a) the valve and pressure vessel system; b) the dissociation chamber; c) the charge filter; and d) the combustion chamber and turbine generator. The controller may be configured to control various process parameters, such as flow rates, pressures and temperatures.

[0032] In some embodiments of the invention, the controller may be used to tune oscillating magnetic fields to frequencies based on a mean velocity of molecules in a vortex and/or a minimum duration of molecules in a dynamic field. The controller may adjust the periodicity of the molecules to be sufficiently small so as to limit charge dissipation.

[0033] The controller may be used to micro-adjust oscillation frequencies used in the dissociation of water to form ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen. The oscillation frequencies may be adjusted to maintain peak current loading corresponding to peak adsorption of energy by water molecules.

[0034] The controller may also be used to adjust radio frequency generators used in catalyzing the dissociation of water.

Additional Components

[0035] With continued reference to FIG. 1, additional components of the apparatus may include a backwash reservoir for storage of distillation residue, an input reservoir, and a condenser for cooling water formed after combustion of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) for the formation of purified hot water.

Energy Inputs and Outputs

[0036] With reference to FIG. 2, an external heat source and electricity source may be used to initiate the dissociation and deionization of water to hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2).

An external heat source may be used to produce high-pressure steam from the input water source. An external electricity source may be used to power the resonance dissociation reactor to dissociate water to ionized hydrogen (e.g., H<+>) and ionized oxygen (e.g., O<2">). The resonance dissociation reactor can produce ionic hydrogen and ionic oxygen at high pressure.

Ionic hydrogen and ionic oxygen can be fed to a modified electron exchange membrane for de-ionization.

[0037] Energy can be produced by the de-ionization of hydrogen and oxygen by a modified electron exchange membrane. Hydrogen and oxygen produced during the de-ionization process can be stored for later use by, e.g., consumers. Alternatively, the hydrogen and oxygen can be combusted to produce heat and electricity.

[0038] With continued reference to FIG. 2, the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen may provide energy for steam production. In addition, the de -ionization of ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen may provide energy, which may be used to dissociate H2O in the IKEMR reactor.

IKEMR reactor

[0039] With reference to FIG. 3, the IKEMR reactor can dissociate water to ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen. A magnetic field can create dipole-aligned water molecules that can accept energy at the hydrogen-oxygen bond resonance frequency or a sub-harmonic thereof. An oscillating electromagnetic field can cause resonance catastrophe, resulting in the dissociation of water into hydrogen ions (e.g., H<+>) and oxygen ions (e.g., O<2">). An electrostatic field and a modified Ranque-Hilsch vortex can be used to separate the ionized hydrogen from ionized oxygen with minimum post-dissociation collisions. [0040] With reference to FIG. 4, the dissociation of water to ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen is shown in greater detail. Ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen can be produced from high pressure steam by utilizing one or more of electromagnetic fields, magnetic fields and kinetic vortexes. In an embodiment, the magnetic fields and/or electromagnetic fields may be interpenetrating magnetic fields and/or electromagnetic fields. High-pressure steam may be fed transversely to a funnel-type device or apparatus and exposed to a magnetic field. High-pressure steam may then progress through the funnel in a spiral manner and experience magnetic torquing. Steam may exit the funnel through multiple concentric ports at the end of the funnel and may be subsequently directed to a plurality of specialized channels surrounded by modified static magnets capable of imparting a tendency for water molecule alignment, resulting in further magnetic torquing. [0041] With continued reference to FIG. 4, a plurality of magnetically torqued and magnetically aligned streams of steam may be directed toward a modified Ranque-Hilsch tube in a plurality of offset right angles, thereby creating a vortex. While in the modified Ranque-Hilsch tube, an oscillating electromagnetic field created by a plurality of electromagnetic field generators can impart additional magnetic torquing on the streams of the steam that have been magnetically torqued and magnetically aligned. A radio frequency (RF) generator may be used for the dissociation of water to ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen. The RF generator may couple RF energy to the water molecules, thereby facilitating the dissociation OfH2O into hydrogen ions and oxygen ions. The radio frequency generator may be tuned to a fundamental resonant frequency of molecular water (H2O). [0042] A wavefront of magnetically torqued water molecules may be created by convergence of the plurality of streams in the Ranque-Hilsch tube. The convergence of magnetically torqued water molecules support each other and amplify the degree of magnetic torque experienced. The magnetic torquing of water molecules induces a current in the molecule. The excitation occurs repeatedly at a sub-harmonic frequency of the molecular resonance that successively builds a charge across each water molecule which, eventually, catalyzed by induced, tuned radio frequency waves, momentarily exceeds the hydrogen- oxygen bond energy, causing a resonance catastrophe where the hydrogen atom releases its electron. This leads to a break in the O-H bond , forming ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen. The process in the IKEMR reactor may be summarized by the following equation.

2 H2O -> 4 H<+> + 2 O<2">

While H+ AND O<2"> have been shown in the reaction above, it will be appreciated that other excited species of hydrogen and oxygen may be formed in the IKEMR reactor. For example, O2<"> may be formed in the reactor. As another example, H2<+> may be formed in the IKEMR reactor. As yet another example, hydrogen radicals may be formed in the IKEMR reactor. As still another example, oxygen radicals may be formed in the IKEMR reactor. Separation of Ionized Hydrogen and Ionized Oxygen

[0043] FIG. 4 shows the separation of ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen using a modified Ranque-Hilsch tube. The modified Ranque-Hilsch tube, in conjunction with an electrostatic field, can achieve separation by causing ionized hydrogen to migrate toward the center of the modified Ranque-Hilsch tube and the ionized oxygen to migrate toward the walls (or outer periphery) of the modified Ranque-Hilsch tube with a minimum of molecular collisions. The orientation of the steady state fields can have the tendency to constrain the spin of the dipole molecules to a surface of the wavefront. Having dimensionally minimized the randomness of the molecular motion and spin, at the optimal spin rate, due to the orbital motion of the lighter hydrogen atoms around the heavier oxygen atoms, upon dissociation there may be imparted a centrifugal force that is sufficient to propel the hydrogen ions at high speed towards the center of the vortex where they collide with each other, absorbing electrons from the electrostatic field. The separated hydrogen and oxygen can exit the modified Ranque-Hilsch tube through separate channels oriented at the center and outer edges of the modified Ranque-Hilsch tube, respectively. The migration directions can be a result of different densities of the ionized hydrogen as compared to ionized oxygen and/or the charge difference between ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen. Resonance Catastrophe

[0044] The covalent bonds of the water molecule, which are approximately 110 kcal, have a characteristic resonance frequency and therefore have periodic motion. Any system in periodic motion can be acted upon by an external force, appropriately tuned to that resonance frequency, such that the system will continuously absorb energy from the external force to a point that it can no longer maintain the integrity of its periodic motion. This can result in a resonance catastrophe and effective disintegration (or dissociation) of the system. Resonance catastrophe of water can produce ionized hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Efficient formation of ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen can occur in the absence of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding can reduce the efficiency of ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen production. The effect of hydrogen bonding can be reduced when water is in a vacuum or in gas form. Water can be heated to a gaseous state, motion-coordinated and brought in alignment by a combination of a specialized device and magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields. In various embodiments, the specialized device has a generally conical shape. In an embodiment, the specialized device is in the shape of a funnel. In an embodiment, the magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields may be interpenetrating magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields.

[0045] Passing a conductor through a magnetic field can induce a current in the conductor. The water molecule has a dipole moment. In certain circumstances, water may be a conductor of electricity . Passage of rotating water molecules through an oscillating magnetic field can induce a current across the water molecules, such that a potential electromotive force (EMF) can be generated across each molecule, independent of its actual orientation. During high velocity motion in a vortex, through the presence of a dominant steady state field, interaction between the water molecules may be constrained primarily to two dimensions, and may serve to distribute the aggregate charge in a continuously building wavefront. Due to an interpenetrating steady state field, this charge is not translated into further spin, but may be absorbed over time in quanta by the electrons of the hydrogen bond, energizing them in a way that is free from the energy dissipation that is typically caused by the hydrogen bonding of liquid water.

[0046] This process, repeated at a high enough rate and tuned to a dominant sub- harmonic partial of the primary resonance frequency of the hydrogen atoms in the water molecule, can systematically build a charge across each molecule. Charge induction, through dynamo-type action of spinning molecules (having dipole moments) passing through oscillating magnetic fields, can act to raise the excitation state of bonding electrons nearest the charge centers through their energy levels until the resonance kinetics within the molecule temporarily exceed the lowest atomic bond threshold (that of the hydrogen atoms), thereby causing release of ionized hydrogen atoms in a resonance catastrophe.

[0047] To facilitate this process, a chamber or reactor with oscillating fields and a vortex may be constructed and tuned in a way to induce a modified Ranque-Hilsch effect. The chamber may also include one or more perpendicular (with respect to a longitudinal axis of the chamber) steady state fields to constrain molecular spin and an electrostatic field oriented to direct the positively charged ions to the center of the vortex.

[0048] Thus, periodically adding energy of magnetic torquing to the molecules by passing them through a series of tuned and oscillating magnetic fields at a rate harmonically synchronous with a repeated charge induction, after a certain amount of time, may cause a threshold of the molecular bond energy holding the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the water molecules together to be momentarily exceeded, resulting in dissociation of the water molecules into ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen atoms. Example

[0049] An objective of the process is to impart energy to the water vapor molecules utilizing their dipole nature as they move through a reactor in such a way as to build a charge across the water molecules over time. A first alignment phase does not necessarily result in the molecules lining up in a North-South orientation. The process can continuously torque the molecules in the same direction as they spin through a static field.

[0050] In a tuned phase, an effective electric charge across each water molecule may be induced over a period of time in a number of synchronized steps until the aggregated charge can momentarily exceed a bond threshold energy between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of a water molecule. This does not necessarily require that the molecules be stimulated continuously at a particular resonance (or resonant) frequency. A timing of stimuli can correspond to a resonant sub-harmonic in such a way that magnetic torquing of the water molecules can have an additive electrical effect. Oscillating magnetic fields can be tuned to frequencies that take into account both the mean velocity (which can be correlated to their kinetic energy) of the water molecules in the vortex and their minimum duration in each of the dynamic fields, which are aligned so as to sequentially build the electric charge across the molecules during their transit through the reactor with a periodicity small enough to limit charge dissipation. Oscillation frequencies can be continuously micro-adjusted to maintain peak current loading on field drivers, which can be at their peak when charge absorption by the molecules is at its highest, thereby minimizing the number of stages required in the reactor. The radio frequency (RF) generators that can augment the process can be tuned to fundamentals of the molecular resonance.

[0051] The electrostatic field can be applied at the leading edge of the dissociation (resonance catastrophe) wavefront to assist the vortex kinetics to attract lighter, positively charged H<+> ions towards the center of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex with a minimum of molecular collisions and push the heavier, negatively charged oxygen ions (e.g. , O<2">) to the outer walls of the reactor chamber, where they can be forced out of the reactor in separate channels.







Apparatus for cooling electrical equipment in a turbine engine
US2008209914  

The device has a double circuit type vortex tube (14) i.e. ranque tube, comprising an inlet (18) connected to an element (16) e.g. low pressure compressor of turbomachine (10), and a cool air outlet (24) connected to a heat exchanger (50). The outlet of the tube is connected to an inlet (34) of a secondary circuit of the heat exchanger. The tubes supplies, at the outlet, cool air whose temperature is 50 degree Celsius lower than the temperature of pressurized air supplied at the inlet (18).



VORTEX TUBE THERMOCYCLER
WO2005113741

A thermal cycling apparatus (10) utilizes hot and cold gas streams produced from pressurized gas being passed through a Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (20) to efficiently and rapidly cycle samples (70) (i.e., DNA+Primer+Polymerse) between the denaturation, annealing, and elongation temperatures of the PCR process. The samples (70) are disposed within a reaction chamber (40) that, through connection with a vortex tube (20), allows the gas to contact the samples (70). The temperature of the gas that is allowed to contact the samples (70) is controlled by a valving system (30) being connected with the vortex tube (20) and the reaction chamber (40). The valving system (30) controls the flow of cold gas into the reaction chamber (40) where it is mixed with the hot gas to establish the different temperatures required for the denaturation, annealing, and elongation steps of the cycle.



Device for extruding hollow strands
US7789649
 
Device for extruding hollow strands from thermoplastic material, with an extruder head, having a mandrel, and a calibrating device, for making a dimensional change while production is in progress, and with a radially adjustable inlet, at least one Ranque vortex chamber being formed in the mandrel, the cooling air outlet of which chamber leads into a cooling tube, which extends as an axial extension of the mandrel through the inlet of the calibrating device and has a cooling air outlet opening out into the calibrating device. This device achieves the object of providing a device with which effective interior cooling is achieved in calibrating devices designed for making a dimensional change while operation is in progress.



Centrifuge with Ranque vortex tube cooling
US6334841

This centrifuge includes a chamber (5), a rotor (6) arranged therein, a device (8) for driving the rotation of the rotor, and a device (11) for cooling the atmosphere of the chamber. The device for cooling the atmosphere of the chamber includes a Ranque vortex tube (30), a cold outlet (33) which is connected to one inlet (66) of the chamber. The centrifuge includes a pressurized-gas supply circuit which is connected to an inlet (32) of the Ranque vortex tube and which is intended to be connected to a source (49) of pressurized gas. Application is to the centrifuging of biological products.



Preventing vaporization of the liquid in a centrifugal gas-liquid separator
US4458494

This patent refers to a gas-liquid separation process by centrifugal force, which takes place in a fast turning vortex confined in a tube, similar to inventor's former patents. Against the separating centrifugal force the thermal (Ranque) effect tends to heat the periphery of the tube and vaporize the liquid. This improvement refers to a method of preventing the vaporization of the liquid, either by cooling a short section of the periphery with a cooling jacket, or by taking out the liquid at a short distance from the inlet, where the heating effect on the periphery is minimal, and insulating the liquid from this heating effect. It also refers to the method of control of this liquid separation, and the process of using it as a wellhead oil and gas separator.



SYSTEM FOR DRIVING HEAT MOTOR
US3788064

A heat engine having a shaft output is connected to a vortex separating means, such as a bank of Ranque tubes, for deriving first and second gas flows respectively having higher and lower temperatures than input gas to the vortex separating means. The heat engine and a high temperature heat exchanger are in a first feedback loop responsive to the first gas flow. A second feedback loop, responsive to the second flow from the bank of vortex tubes, includes a low temperature heat exchanger responsive to scavenged or rejected heat of the system. The first feedback loop may include a second bank of vortex tubes which feeds hot and cold gases to a heat exchanger and vapor generator, respectively. The gases fed to the heat exchanger and vapor generator, after passing through them, are condensed. The condensed gas is fed to the vapor generator and heat exchanger to the heat engine. The heat engine may be, e.g., a simple gas turbine or a compound turbine.
 


GAS LIQUEFACTION APPARATUS
US3672179

Liquefaction of a small proportion e.g., 1% of a compressed gas stream e.g., natural gas at 150 p.s.i. and 530 R. i.e., 70 F. is effected by passing the feed stream at 1 into the warm end of the high pressure side 3 of an indirect heat exchanger 2, withdrawing through lines 6 to 10 portions of compressed feed and expanding them in Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes 12 to 15, passing cold. low pressure gas at temperatures 407 R., 340 R., 285 R., 240 R. and 202 R. through lines 21 to 25 respectively extending from said tubes 12 to 15 to spaced points along a low pressure side 4 of the exchanger 2 thereby icooling the residual high pressure feed gas which is withdrawn at 204 R. through a line 27 and expanded with liquefaction into a flask tank 30 Relatively warm expanded gas is discharged by tubes 11 to 15 through lines 16 to 20 at temperatures of 610 R., 510 R., 427 R., 360 R. and 302 R. respectively and which lines also lead to the low pressure side 4 of the exchanger 2.



Improvements in or relating to a system for the cooling of compressed gas    
GB708452

In a gas cooling and drying apparatus using a vortex tube 15 of the type described in Specification 405,781, the compressed gas before its expansion is cooled by the cooled partial current in a heat exchanger 10, and the cooled partial current amounts to at least 70 per cent of the total current. The compressed gas supplied through a pipe 5 is first cooled in a precooler 6, the separated moisture being removed at 8, and then passes through the tubes 11 of the heat exchanger 10 and through a pipe 14 to the tangential nozzle 16 of the Ranque vortex tube 15. Cold air from the vortex tube passes by a pipe 19 to the heat exchanger and issues through a pipe 21. Precipitated liquid is removed by a separator 28. The warm air issuing through the valve 25 of the vortex tube 15 passes to the place of use through a pipe .23 to which is also connected the pipe 21. If ice, &c. is formed two heat exchangers can be used operating alternately. To avoid the formation of frost a de-icing fluid is distributed by a pipe 27 to a porous substance 29 through which the compressed gas passes. A de Laval nozzle is used to feed the compressed gas tangentially into the tube 15, and the gas rotates in the tube at supersonic speed. The apparatus may be used to dry protective gases for furnaces. Specification 678,420 also is referred to.



Cooling system
DE19605241 / WO9624808

The cooling system has a heat exchanger through which passes a working medium, a liquid, made up of one or more substances and an expansion valve through which the medium passes into a separator. The separator divides the medium into a stream of vapour which passes into a Ranque and Hilsch vortex tube after passing through the heat exchanger, and a stream of boiling liquid . In the vortex tube the vapour flow is divided into a warm flow and a cold flow the hot flow passing through a cooler and then flowing through a return line and a control valve which mixes it with the cold flow. In the resulting wet vapour the liquid component is greater than it would be if directly pressure relieved in an adiabatic valve.



Cooling device using exothermic dynamic expansion process
DE4345137

The cooling device has a double chamber vortex pipe (6) and a cooling pipe (23), the working fluid (3) fed to one chamber of the vortex pipe, with part of the fluid vaporised and separated into hot and cold gas flows (15, 17) via a Ranque-Hilsch effect. The hot gas flow (15) is delayed by an expansion pipe (22) and fed to the cooling pipe, where it is cooled, the cold gas flow (17) fed via a valve to a collection space before mixing with the cold fluid flow.



PROCESS FOR THE CONTROL OF A DEVICE
US2009241555

The method involves blocking an expulsion orifice at an end of a Hilsch-Ranque vortex tube (24) by a tapered relief valve, so that a fraction of injected compressed air forming an incoming hot air stream is expelled outside a chamber (12) while another fraction of the air stream is reflected towards another end of the tube. The tapered relief valve is preset, so that the fractions of the air stream are constant during control operation, and injection pressure of the compressed air is controlled, where the compressed air is supplied to the tube by an air accumulator (30) i.e. cylinder.  An independent claim is also included for a device for controlling an air conditioning device or refrigeration cooling/heating device in a sealed enclosure in a motor vehicle. USE :  Method for controlling an air conditioning device or refrigeration cooling/heating device in a chamber i.e. passenger compartment, in a motor vehicle i.e. city motor bus. Can also be used for controlling an air conditioning device or refrigeration cooling/heating device in a room of a building. ADVANTAGE : The method optimizes the overall energy consumption of the air conditioning device or refrigeration cooling/heating device, and permits the air accumulator to be reserved for backup use to operate the air conditioning device or refrigeration cooling/heating device when the air compressor fails, so as to avoid breakage of the cold subsystem in the conditioning device or refrigeration cooling/heating device.
 


DEVICE FOR MEASURING DENSITY AND DEW POINT OF A GAS
US3831430

This invention uses a vortex tube or Hilsch tube in combination with a thermocouple to determine the apparent molecular weight or density of a gas mixture and the dew point of the gas mixture. The thermocouple has a flat planar configuration with one side highly polished for accurately indicating the dew point. The cold gas which is extracted from the Hilsch tube is used to cool the polished thermocouple until frost or dew is formed on the thermocouple. This indicates the dew point of the gas surrounding the polished surface of the thermocouple. The temperature of the thermocouple continues to drop until it indicates the exhaust temperature of the cold gas from the Hilsch tube. This output temperature is a function of the pressure and temperature of the incoming gas and the density of the gas. Thus if the incoming gas temperature and pressure are held constant the exhaust gas temperature is a function of the density of the gas mixture.



ROTOR DEVICE OF STEAM TURBINE
JPS5934402

PURPOSE:To provide a cooling means without causing any possibility of decreasing stage performance further without causing any possibility of inducing a problem of strain and strength due to the unevenness of temperature distribution, by constituting a vortex tube in a space in the shaft center of a turbine rotor. CONSTITUTION: A part of working fluid is allowed to flow into a chamber 25 from a nozzle 16 opened to a root part in the downstream side of a disc 8 holding a moving blade 7 in the second stage, and the fluid of low temperature in the center part of a shaft is allowed to flow through an orifice plate 15 and isolated to a chamber 26, while the fluid of high temperature in the peripheral side is left in the chamber 25. The high temperature fluid 23 is fluidized to heat the internal part of a turbine rotor 9 and released to the outside via a discharge hole 17 at the high temperature side, while the low temperature fluid 24 is fluidized while cooling the internal part of the turbine rotor 9 and discharged to the outside from a discharge hole 18 at the low temperature side.



Cold treatment of human and animal body parts - by means of appts. supplying cold dry gas to affected body part
DE4208799

Appts. (I) for the medical cold treatment of human or animal body parts contains a tube (vortex- or Hilsch tube) connected to an outlet for the cold gas surrounded by a funnel. The funnel is covered by an airpermeable and water absorbent material. Pref. the funnel (5) is covered with an inner water absorbing and an outer water repellant layer that are bound to a multilayer textile (6). The material covering is pref. detachable from the funnel rim. The funnel is detachable from the vortex tube (1) and is made fro either a hard material such as metal or plastic or from a flexible material such as silicone rubber or rubber. The material coverin gthe funnel opening has elastic properties and additionally is covered by an air permeable foam or mesh layer. The water absorbing material is composed of cotton and/or modified acrylate and the water repellant material is composed of polyamide, polyester or propylene. USE/ADVANTAGE - Use of (I) allows a physically therapeutic cooling of body parts without unpleasant sensation by the application of a dry coldness in an exact and reproducible manner. (I) may be used with compressed air thereby eliminating the hazards of toxic gas inhalation and flammability.



GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT
US3973396

A gas turbine power plant comprising, Fig. 1, at one compressor 10 and at least one turbine 11 includes means for bleeding off a portion of the air delivered by the compressor and directing it via line 16 to an expansion member 18 arranged to divide the portion into hotter and cooler fractions, at least part of the cooler fraction being conveyed via line 19 as cooling air to the inlet of turbine 11. The plant also includes a combustion chamber 12, power turbines 13, 14 and a regenerator 15. The volume of bleed air is controlled by valve 89, at least some of the air flowing through cooler 17 before entering expansion member 18. The latter may consist of a Hilsch tube (50, Fig. 5, not shown) into which the bleed air is tangentially directed so as to induce swirl. The opposite end walls of the tube are provided with respective smaller and larger exit ports 51, 52, formed in replaceable washers (53, 54) through which the cooler and hotter fractions pass to lines 19, 22. The cooler fraction is directed to the turbine 11 as coolant and may be mixed in an ejector (36, Fig. 2, not shown) with some warm, unexpanded, bleed air directed via line 20, the temperature of the mixture being controlled by valve 21. Mixing may also take place in a further ejector 43 supplying cooling air to a sealing bellows 42 of regenerator 15 when the latter is of rotary type. The warmer fraction in line 22 may be used for windscreen de-icing, water heating &c., or, by way of device 24, for air conditioning a passenger or cargo space in a vehicle propelled by the gas turbine power plant. In a modification, Fig. 6, an insulated cargo space 61 in a vehicle is conditioned by air bled from the compressor 10 and passed via line 16, cooler 17 and valve 70 to Hilsch tube 18a. The cooler and hotter fractions from the latter are passed via lines 62, 63 respectively to mixing chamber 64 and thence via line 65 to an ejector 66 within cargo space 61. A temperature sensor 67 within the latter transmits signals to a device 68 controlling valves 70, 71, 72. Sensors 75, 76 are also provided in further outlets of valves 71, 72. In a further arrangement (Fig. 7, not shown) several Hilsch tubes 18 are disposed in series to effect extra cooling.



RADIATION-WAVE CRACKING METHOD AND REACTOR FOR SAME
WO2014163523

The processing of petroleum and petroleum products involves the spraying thereof in a gas vortex flow formed in the peripheral near-wall portion of a cylindrical reactor with the occurrence of the Ranque effect, and subjecting the vortex flows to an ionizing radiation of accelerated electrons and to super-high frequency electromagnetic radiation. In addition, the near-axis vortex flow and, partially, the near-wall vortex flow are guided out of the reactor.



VORTEX FILL
WO2014110155
US2014190588

Improved methods, systems, and devices for filling fuel tanks, particularly compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel tanks, are provided. Such methods, systems, and devices lower the heat of compression when the fuel tank is being filled to a temperature lower than that if such methods, systems, and devices were not used. Pressure sensor logic on a fuel station will be less prone to error, enabling the tank to be filled more accurately and fully. To lower heat of compression, an insert is placed within the tank. The insert changes the flow characteristics of the fuel that is being delivered into the tank. Typically, the delivered fuel will be released into the interior of the tank in a vortex fashion to fill the tank. Other flow modification devices are also provided including an externally coupled Ranque-Hilsh vortex tube and a flow modification chamber built within a fuel tank.



AIR CONDITIONER
WO2013095176

The air conditioner relates to air-conditioning systems using vortex tubes and comprises the following, mounted in a housing: a compressed-air blower (2), a vortex tube (4), a vortex disperser (6), a vortex contact evaporator (5), a vortex humidifier (7), a water container (8) and a piping system (12) with distributing valves (13 - 16), said system providing for appropriate connection of the above-mentioned components. The air conditioner can additionally also comprise an ionizer (27) and a heat exchanger (9) with a fan (10). A process for cooling the air conditionable in such an air conditioner is divided into two processes: cooling by using the Ranque-Hilsch effect in the vortex tube (4) and additionally by endothermically evaporating a finely dispersed liquid in the vortex contact evaporator (5) and in the vortex humidifier (7), which, by reducing the volume of air in both the evaporator and the humidifier and intensifying the heat-exchange processes, makes it possible to increase the efficiency of the cooling process as a whole.



Deterring a workpiece, by supplying a partially heated workpiece with a cooling
DE102012021576

The method comprises supplying a partially heated workpiece with a cooling medium, and subjecting a deterred area of the workpiece to a turbulence of a gaseous cooling medium. A cold gas flow of the cooling medium is created by an eddy-current generator such as an eddy-current or a vortex pipe and by a Ranque-Hilsch vortex pipe (7). The workpiece is: deterred within a cold gas chamber standing in fluid connection with the eddy-current generator; hardened by an inductive heating; and surface-hardened or air-hardened after a hot forging process.



Experimental device for second law of thermodynamics
CN202383899

The utility model discloses an experimental device for a second law of thermodynamics, and is characterized in that: a high-temperature high-pressure gas generation device is provided with a gas pressure sensor and a high-temperature high-pressure gas temperature sensor; an inner part of an unthrottled Hilsch-Ranque vortex tube is provided with a separating pore, the unthrottled Hilsch-Ranque vortex tube is in a T shape; a vertical part of the T-shaped tube is connected with the high-temperature high-pressure gas generation device, the center of a horizontal part of the T-shaped tube is provided with a circular separator plate, the center of the circular separator plate is provided with the separating pore; an outlet at one side of the T-shaped tube is provided with a stop valve and a low-temperature gas temperature sensor which are respectively used for adjusting an outflow volume of a low-temperature gas and detecting the temperature of the low-temperature gas at the auxiliary-side outlet; and the other side of the T-shaped tube is provided with a high-temperature gas temperature sensor. By adopting the experimental device of the utility model, a student can use an ideal gas to approximatively perform a quantitative estimation, thereby understanding the essence of the second law of thermodynamics better.



DEVICE TO CLEAN WATER OF IMPURITIES
RU2415813

FIELD: process engineering. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices intended for cleaning water of impurities by freezing, and may be used for sea water desalination. Proposed device comprises, at least, two chambers for water freezing and its defrosting made up of vertical hollow cylindrical tanks (1) and (2) arranged in heatproof cases (3) and (4), while freezing and defrosting device represents a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (5) generating hot and cold airflows intermittently fed into cases (3) and (4) of cylindrical tanks (1) and (2). Note here that each said tank is provided with pipeline (6) of treated water, pipeline (7) to discharge water with impurities and pipeline to drain purified melt water, all pipelines being equipped with controlled shut-off valves. EFFECT: increased efficiency of cleaning.



Device for generating hot- or cold air for medical applications
DE102009041742

The device has a hermetically sealed compressor (2) whose pressure output is connected with the input of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (5). The compressor is operated as displacement machine. One output of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube communicates with a device-sided connection for warm- or hot air and another output communicated with a device-sided connection for cold air.



SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION OF LIQUID FROM GAS AND METHOD OF COLLECTION OF LIQUID
US2011056457

The present disclosure generally relates to an apparatus for the condensation of a liquid suspended in a gas, and more specifically, to an apparatus for the condensation of water from air with a geometry designed to emphasize adiabatic condensation of water using either the Joule-Thompson effect or the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect or a combination of the two. Several embodiments are disclosed and include the use of a Livshits-Teichner generator to extract water and unburned hydrocarbons from exhaust of combustion engines, to collect potable water from exhaust of combustion engines, to use the vortex generation as an improved heat process mechanism, to mix gases and liquid fuel efficiently, and an improved Livshits-Teichner generator with baffles and external condensation.



METHOD OF POWER SUPPLY TO AUTONOMOUSLY FUNCTIONING GAS REDUCTION FACILITIES OF MANIFOLD GAS LINES AND GAS NETWORKS OF LOW PRESSURE
RU2417337

FIELD: electricity. SUBSTANCE: method of power generation is based on using Ranque-Hilsch and Seebeck effects in compressed gas reduction. To increase efficiency of power generation, in thermoelectric module hot and cold flows of low pressure gas of vortex tube are combined in an ejector, where hot gas is a working one, and cold gas is the injected flow. EFFECT: provision of power supply to auxiliary needs of autonomously functioning gas reduction facilities of manifold gas lines and gas networks of low pressure.



PROCESS FOR THE CONTROL OF A DEVICE HAVING HILSCH-RANQUE VORTEX TUBES
US2009241555

The method involves blocking an expulsion orifice at an end of a Hilsch-Ranque vortex tube (24) by a tapered relief valve, so that a fraction of injected compressed air forming an incoming hot air stream is expelled outside a chamber (12) while another fraction of the air stream is reflected towards another end of the tube. The tapered relief valve is preset, so that the fractions of the air stream are constant during control operation, and injection pressure of the compressed air is controlled, where the compressed air is supplied to the tube by an air accumulator (30) i.e. cylinder.




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