rexresearch.com



Barnett ROBINSON


Elevated Expansion Ratio Engine








http://www.articlesbase.com/automotive-articles/gas-saving-invention-granted-us-patent-161839.html

http://www.articlesbase.com/authors/joe-thompson/6671.htm

Gas Saving Invention Granted U.S. Patent

Joe Thompson


In 1975, Honda was granted the U.S. Patent 3878826 for instructions on how to manufacture an engine with a third manifold. The patent was secured because the CVCC engine for the Honda Civic has a second intake manifold. This technology is now being put to reduce fuel consumption by National Fuelsaver Corp. based in Boston.

An internal combustion engine commonly has only two manifolds - the intake and the exhaust manifold. These manifolds facilitate the entry of fuel to the engine as well as provide the exit of exhaust gases.

According to the abstract of the patented three-manifold engine: “A four-cycle internal combustion engine has eight cylinders each provided with a main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber connected by a torch nozzle. A carburetor has a Venturi throat supplying rich mixture to each of the auxiliary chambers and other carburetor throats supplying a lean mixture to each of the main chambers. Although the effective cross sectional area of the Venturi throat for the rich mixture need not be larger than the effective cross sectional area of a single torch nozzle when the engine has four cylinders or six cylinders, an eight cylinder engine requires that the Venturi throat for the rich mixture be smaller than 1.4 times as large in effective cross sectional area as each of the torch nozzles.”

According to the National Fuelsaver Corp., the third manifold can be used to increase the gas mileage of an engine by injecting platinum vapor into the combustion chamber. The platinum particles allow fuels to be burned almost completely. Conventional engines only burns about 70 percent of the fuel introduced into the combustion chamber. With the new patented technology, an additional 22 percent of the fuel can be burned.

According to the abstract of the patented gas saving technology: “An Elevated Expansion-Ratio Internal Combustion Engine has a substantially standard repeating four-stroke sequence for each cylinder, and the Engine includes for each cylinder: an intake valve, a combustion-gas exhaust valve, and a vapor return valve. A return manifold for vapor connects from the return valves of respective ones of the cylinders back into a passage ahead of a beginning portion of an intake manifold. Substantially during a predetermined part of each compression stroke in the sequence of strokes, the return valve opens after a closing of the intake valve, and thereafter closes at a time within the compression stroke corresponding to a predetermined position of the piston in the cylinder.”

According to the developer of the gas saving technology, the use of platinum is already used on catalytic converters. What they just did is bring the platinum to the engine so that the unburned fuel will not be wasted.

According to Jack Leopold, the West Coast distributor for National Fuelsaver Corp., “The Gasaver injects a platinum vapor directly into the engine where the catalytic action of the platinum promotes faster and more complete combustion - with 15 to 25 percent savings in gasoline.” Joel Robinson, the inventor of Gasaver, added that, “We're not doing anything new chemically; we're simply changing the location of where the process occurs.”

With the increasing price of gasoline, a product such as that would surely be welcomed by many fuel-concerned individuals. With the money saved on fuel consumption, they can spend on upgrading the body parts of their daily drivers.

About the Author: Joe Thompson is the owner of a successful auto body shop in Ferndale, California. This 38 year old is also a prolific writer, contributing automotive related articles to various publications.



EPA Federal Test Procedure Measured a 15.2% Improvement in Miles Per Gallon on a Slightly Modified Engine Design

National Fuelsaver Corp. has just completed testing a prototype engine implementing only 1/3 of the fuel saving features described in their US Patent 6907859.

The EPA Federal Test Procedure has already measured a 15.2% increase in miles per gallon.

No other technology or combination of technologies has shown even a 5% improvement in miles per gallon in the last 60 years.

This is the second fuel saving technology developed by National Fuelsaver Corp. to be confirmed by the federal government.

The first is their low cost automotive accessory, the Platinum Gas Saver. Over half a million of their Gas Savers have been sold since Consumer Protection concluded: "Independent testing shows greater fuel savings with the Gas Saver than the 22% claimed by the developer."

With a simple connection to a vacuum line, the Gas Saver adds platinum vapor to the air and fuel entering the engine.

Since platinum enables non-burning fuel to burn, the Gas Saver's platinum enables your engine to burn 90% of each gallon instead of the average 68% of each gallon, a 22% increase.

Obviously, burning 22% more of each gallon inside the engine translates directly into 22% more miles per gallon.

In addition, the Gas Saver has received patents for raising octane and for extending engine life by cleaning out the abrasive carbon.



http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS124143+03-Jun-2008+PRN20080603

U.S. Gov't. Test Confirms that the Robinson Engine Head Delivers 48% More Miles per Gallon
 
U.S. Gov't. Test Confirms that the Robinson Engine Head Delivers 48% More Miles per Gallon while Reducing Carbon Dioxide (Global Warming) Emissions by 30%

BOSTON, June 3 /PRNewswire/ -- The Robinson Engine Head, developed by National Fuelsaver Corp., gives the driver three benefits. It delivers 48% more miles per gallon. It reduces global warming emissions by 30% and it increases the horsepower of a 2 liter engine to that of a 3 liter engine. Don't buy a new car without one.

In the last 60 years no engine modification until now has shown more than a 1% improvement in miles per gallon on the U.S. Government Official Test known as the EPA Federal Test Procedure.

The Robinson Engine Head, which is a simple modification of the standard engine head at the manufacturing level, has now demonstrated on the EPA Federal Test Procedure a 48% increase in miles per gallon and a 30% reduction in Global Warming emissions.

In the past, in order to get more horsepower at the wheels, it was necessary to build a bigger engine which would consume more fuel and do more harm to the environment.

The Robinson Engine Head takes a totally different approach. Robinson measured that the standard engine itself consumes 77 units of horsepower for every 100 units of fuel. This leaves only 23 units of horsepower at the wheels.

The Robinson Engine Head reduces the engine's requirements by 11 units to 66 units of horsepower. This reduction in the horsepower requirement of the engine increases the horsepower at the wheels by 11 units from 23 to 34 units of horsepower

By reducing the engine's requirements for horsepower, the Robinson Engine Head gives the driver 48% (11/23) more miles per gallon, reduces global warming emissions by 30% and increases the horsepower of a two liter engine to the horsepower of a three liter engine.

Although the Robinson Engine Head design is not yet in production, National Fuelsaver's after-market Platinum Gas Saver is available and is guaranteed to increase gas mileage by 22%.

After a five year study, the government concluded: "Independent testing shows greater fuel savings with the Gas Saver than the 22% claimed by the developer."

With a simple connection to a vacuum line, the Gas Saver adds platinum vapor economically to the air and fuel entering the engine.

Since platinum enables non-burning fuel to burn, the Gas Saver's platinum increases the percentage of fuel burning inside the engine from 68% of each gallon to 90% of each gallon, a 22% increase.

Since unburnt fuel leaving an engine is pollution, this 22% of each gallon normally burns when it reaches the platinum surfaces of the catalytic converter.

Since the converter burns this 22% of your fuel outside of the engine, the heat and energy produced from this fuel cannot give you more miles per gallon.

But when the air and fuel carry the Gas Saver's platinum into the engine, 22% more of each gallon burns inside the engine so that 22% fewer gallons are required to drive the same distance.

In addition to the fuel savings, the Gas Saver has received patents for cleaning out the abrasive carbon and raising octane, making the premium fuels unnecessary for most vehicles.

Joe Robinson, the developer, commented: "Since the government concluded its study, we have sold over a half million Gas Savers. To our surprise, more people buy the Gas Saver because it extends engine life by cleaning out the carbon than buy it to increase gas mileage or to raise octane."

For further information call: 1-800-LESS-GAS or 1-800-537-7427

Joel Robinson, +1-617-734-9900, FAX: +1-617-734-4444,
joelrobinson22@gmail.com; or For further information call: +1-800-LESS-GAS or
+1-800-537-7427



US Patent # 6,907,859
Internal Combustion Engine with Elevated Expansion Ratio

Abstract -- An Elevated Expansion-Ratio Internal Combustion Engine has a substantially standard repeating four-stroke sequence for each cylinder, and the Engine includes for each cylinder: an intake valve, a combustion-gas exhaust valve, and a vapor return valve. A return manifold for vapor connects from the return valves of respective ones of the cylinders back into a passage ahead of a beginning portion of an intake manifold. Substantially during a predetermined part of each compression stroke in the sequence of strokes, the return valve opens after a closing of the intake valve, and thereafter closes at a time within the compression stroke corresponding to a predetermined position of the piston in the cylinder.












BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to internal combustion engines and, more particularly, to the provision of an improved expansion cycle stroke characteristic in an internal combustion engine.

A form of the internal combustion engine, generally used for powering automobiles, operates in accordance with the Otto cycle, and may be referred to herein as a gasoline engine, as distinguished from a diesel engine. The gasoline engine employs one or more cylinders, each cylinder having a piston movable therein with reciprocating motion for the driving of a crankshaft of the engine. Output power of the engine, for the driving of a load, is obtained from the rotating crankshaft. In the four-stroke form of the gasoline engine, the movement of a piston in its cylinder is characterized by four strokes, which occur in a repeating sequence, the sequence of the four strokes being; an induction stroke, a compression stroke, a power (or expansion) stroke, and an exhaust stroke. During the induction stroke, the piston moves away from the head of the cylinder to produce a vacuum which draws in a mixture of air and fuel vapors via an intake valve generally located in the head of the cylinder. During the compression stroke, the piston moves towards the cylinder head to compress the air-fuel mixture. Approximately at the beginning of the power stroke, there is ignition of the air-fuel mixture and, during the power stroke, the expanding gases produced by the combustion of the fuel drive the piston away from the cylinder head. During the exhaust stroke, the piston moves towards the cylinder head to drive the exhaust gases out of the cylinder via an exhaust valve generally located in the cylinder head. In the usual construction of such an engine, an intake manifold is provided for bringing air and fuel from a carburetor or fuel-injection assembly to the intake ports of the cylinders, and an exhaust manifold is provided for removal of combustion gases via exhaust ports of the cylinders.

It is useful to compare operation of the gasoline engine with the diesel engine. In the case of the gasoline engine, both fuel and air are present in the cylinder during the compression stroke. The temperature produced in the gases within the cylinder is below the ignition temperature of the air-fuel mixture so as to avoid premature ignition of the air-fuel mixture. Ignition is produced by an electric spark of a spark plug, mounted within the cylinder head. In a modem engine, activation of the spark plug at an optimum moment, relative to the time of occurrence of the power stroke, is provided by a computer. In the case of the diesel engine, only the air is present in the cylinder during the compression stroke. The geometry of the piston within the cylinder of the diesel engine differs somewhat from the corresponding geometry of the gasoline engine such that the compression stroke of the diesel engine provides significantly more compression of the gases within the cylinder (a compression ratio of approximately 15:1) than occurs in the gasoline engine (a compression ratio of approximately 8:1). As a result, in the diesel engine, the temperature of the air is raised by the compression stroke to a temperature high enough to ignite fuel. Accordingly, in the diesel engine, the fuel is injected into the cylinder at approximately the beginning of the power stroke, and is ignited by the high air temperature.

It is observed furthermore, that in the usual construction of a gasoline engine and of a diesel engine, the ratio of the expansion of the volume of cylinder gases, final volume divided by initial volume of the power stroke, is equal to the ratio of the compression of the volume of the cylinder gases, initial volume divided by final volume of the compression stroke. By way of example for a gasoline engine, compression and expansion is characterized by a ratio of approximately 8:1, and for a diesel engine, compression and expansion is characterized by a ratio of approximately 15:1. The expansion of the cylinder gases in the power stroke is accompanied by a reduction in the temperature of the cylinder gases. Well-known theoretical considerations show that an important consideration in determining the efficiency of the engine is the ratio of the gas temperature at the beginning of the power stroke to the gas temperature at the end of the power stroke. A greater temperature ratio is obtained in the case of the diesel engine than for the gasoline engine. This is one of the reasons that the diesel engine can operate more efficiently than the gasoline engine.

Based on the foregoing theoretical consideration, it appears that there would be an advantage to the construction of a gasoline engine with a higher, or elevated, expansion ratio of the power stroke without a corresponding increase in the compression ratio of the compression stroke. By maintaining the relatively low value of the compression ratio in the compression stroke, the temperature of the cylinder gases would be maintained at a sufficiently low value so as to avoid premature ignition, as in present-day gasoline engines, while greater efficiency would be obtained as in present-day diesel engines. A further advantage of such an engine would be the avoidance of needless excess compression during the compression stroke, a matter which can be appreciated by one attempting to start an engine by hand.

Such a construction of an elevated expansion-ratio engine would be advantageous for the form of the internal combustion engine, generally used for powering automobiles, that operates in accordance with the Otto cycle, as well as other "mixed " cycle four stroke-repeating internal combustion engines. Such a construction of an elevated expansion-ratio engine would be advantageous also for a diesel engine wherein an expansion ratio in the power stroke of 20:1, by way of example, could be obtained for still greater efficiency while the compression ratio of the compression stroke would be maintained at 15:1. However, attempts to build such an engine have not met with commercial success.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The foregoing need for construction of an engine embodying an elevated expansion ratio is met, and other advantages are provided by an engine, constructed in accordance with the invention, wherein a third manifold, to be referred to as a return manifold, connects with a return port in each of the cylinders to remove a portion of the gases present in each of the cylinders during their respective compression strokes for reinsertion into a stream of air-fuel mixture provided by the carburetor or fuel-injection assembly. The cylinder head of each of the engine cylinders is provided with three ports, namely, an intake port with an associated intake valve, an exhaust port with an associated exhaust valve, and a return port with an associated return valve. An intake manifold of the engine connects via the intake ports and the intake valves with respective ones of the engine cylinders, an exhaust manifold of the engine connects via the exhaust ports and the exhaust valves with respective ones of of the engine cylinders, and the return manifold connects via the return ports and the return valves with respective ones of the engine cylinders.

An engine with three ports and an associated three valves per cylinder head plus three manifolds connecting with respective ones of the ports is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. of Date et al, 3,878,826, issued Apr. 22, 1975 (hereinafter referred to as "Date "). In the Date patent, the third manifold is connected between a carburetor and the cylinders to serve as an auxiliary intake manifold while, in the present invention, the third (return) manifold connects between the carburetor, or fuel injection assembly, and the cylinders to extract a portion of the gases (air-fuel mix) present in the cylinders during their respective compression strokes to be returned to the carburetor, or the fuel injection assembly. In the case of the present invention applied to a diesel engine, a portion of the air present in the respective cylinders during their compression strokes is returned by the third manifold to the source of the compressed air.

The return manifold comprises a relatively large central chamber with a set of arms extending from the central chamber to the return ports in respective ones of the cylinders. An exit passage of the central chamber communicates returned air-fuel mix to a location at the carburetor or fuel injection assembly, in the case of the gasoline engine, at which location the returning air-fuel mix combines with the air-fuel mix provided by the carburetor or fuel injection assembly, this location being ahead of the entrance to the intake manifold. In the case of a diesel engine, the exit passage of the central chamber communicates air to a location at the inlet to the source of compressed air. In accordance with a further feature of the present invention, the engine includes also a set of discharge valves located at the in board ends of the manifold arms adjacent to the central chamber of the return manifold. For each arm of the return manifold, the return valve (located at a cylinder head) serves to close off an outboard end of the manifold arm, and the discharge valve serves to close off the inboard end of the manifold arm. Thereby, each arm of the return manifold, in cooperation with its associated return valve and discharge valve, can serve as a holding tank for returned air-fuel mix (in the case of the gasoline engine) or returned air (in the case of the diesel engine).

The operation of the return valves is synchronized with the operation of the intake valves. Such synchronization can be accomplished by driving the return valve of an individual one of the cylinders by an additional cam on a camshaft which operates either one or both of the intake and exhaust valves of the cylinder, or by use of a further camshaft. The return valve is open during a portion of the compression stroke of its cylinder. During an open state of the return valve, the corresponding discharge valve is closed, and the interior space of the cylinder connects via the return port to the interior space of the corresponding holding tank. This effectively enlarges the interior size of the cylinder during the portion of the compression stroke when the return valve is open. The volume of the holding tank is essentially equal to the volume of the cylinder at the point in time wherein the piston has moved approximately half way along the compression stroke. Therefore, at this point in time, half of the charge of the cylinder, namely the air fuel mix (of the gasoline engine) or the air (of the diesel engine) is located in the cylinder and the other half of the charge is located in the holding tank.

Thereupon, the return valve is closed, and the compression stroke continues with only half of the charge being present in the cylinder. The withdrawn charge is held within the holding tank until a later moment when it can be discharged into the central chamber of the return manifold. The discharging is accomplished by an opening of the discharge valve. In the practice of the invention, the discharging of the returned charges of the various holding tanks is accomplished in a manner which encourages a relatively smooth flow of the returned charges from the return manifold into the inlet to the carburetor or the fuel-injection assembly. The smooth flow of the returned air or air-fuel mix ensures that subsequent metering of the air or air-fuel mix can be accomplished in a normal manner without disruption by the process of extracting air or air-fuel mix from the cylinders.

The invention can be practiced without major modifications of the standard engine. Thus, with respect to increasing the expansion ratio during the power stroke of the engine, this can be accomplished by using a taller piston while retaining the interior length of the cylinder, so that the expansion ratio is increased from the value of approximately 8:1 to a value of approximately 15:1.

In accordance with a well-known relationship in the physics of gases, the product of the pressure of a gas times the volume of the container of the gas is proportional to the product of the temperature of the gas times the number of moles of the gas in the container. In the above noted practice of the invention, wherein half of the charge of the cylinder is removed during the compression stroke, and wherein the length of the piston has been increased for an increased expansion ratio, the pressure and temperature of the gas at the end of the compression stroke is reduced to lower values than that which would be present if no modification had been made to the length of the piston for identically sized engines in identical vehicles traveling on the same road at the same speed. Thereby, the invention enables the engine to operate with the high-efficiency associated with the higher expansion ratio while retaining the pressure, the temperature and the ignition characteristics of the charge in the cylinder to be substantially the same as that of an unmodified engine.

In modern engines, a computer is employed for regulating the air-fuel ratio as well as the total amount of air drawn into the cylinders based on such factors as the mass density and temperature of environmental air, engine speed, requested vehicular speed, and the concentration of oxygen in the exhaust gases. Since this invention retains the temperatures and pressures of the air or air-fuel mix in the compression stroke, the vehicular computer can control the quantities of air and fuel admitted to the engine in a fashion similar to that of an unmodified engine with minimal changes in programming.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

The aforementioned aspects and other features of the invention are explained in the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing figures wherein:

FIG. 1 shows a stylized view of an internal combustion engine constructed in accordance with the invention;

FIG. 2 shows diagrammatically details in the construction of a return manifold connected to a cylinder of the engine of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a timing diagram showing operation of valves and a piston associated with a cylinder of the engine;

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic plan view of an assembly of manifolds of the engine; and

FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic sectional elevation view of a cylinder and connecting manifolds of the engine.

Identically labeled elements appearing in different ones of the figures refer to the same element but may not be referenced in the description for all figures.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

FIG. 1 shows a diagrammatic view of a piston 10 within its cylinder 12. The piston 10 is driven by a crankshaft 14 and connecting rod 16 with reciprocating motion, wherein the motion of the piston 10 is characterized by a repeating sequence of four strokes, as described above. During the induction stroke and the power (or expansion) stroke, the distance between the piston 10 and a head 18 of the cylinder 12 increases to provide for an increase in the volume of cylinder available for containing gases within the cylinder. During the compression and the exhaust strokes, the distance between the piston 10 and the head 18 decreases to provide for a decrease in the volume of the cylinder available for the containment of gases within the cylinder. The invention provides for the changing of the geometry of the piston 10 relative to the cylinder 12 by increasing the length of the piston 10 to provide for a taller piston 10A as indicated in dashed line. Typically, in the construction of the cylinder head 18, the interior of the head 18 may be provided with a complex shape to enhance combustion within the cylinder 12; however, for an understanding of the present invention, the interior of the cylinder head 18 may be represented by the more simple shape of a right circular cylinder as shown in FIG. 1.

By way of example in the construction of the piston 10, 10A within its cylinder 12, in the ease of a gasoline engine operating with the four-stroke process, when the piston in the cylinder is at top dead center, there is 1 cm (centimeter) between piston-top and the head. If the length of a stroke is 7 cm, then bottom dead center is 8 cm from piston to head, this resulting in a compression stroke with 8:1 compression ratio and a power stroke expansion ratio of 8:1. The diesel engine four-stroke cycle differs from this pattern only by having a higher compression ratio and a correspondingly higher expansion ratio.

Now, continuing with this example to show the preferred embodiment of the invention, the piston 10A is made to be 0.5 cm taller. This changes the geometric ratios from a ratio of (8 cm to 1 cm), with corresponding compression and expansion ratios of 8:1, to a ratio of (7.5 cm to 0.5 cm) with a corresponding expansion ratio of 15:1 in the power stroke. The invention prevents the compression ratio of the compression stroke from rising above 8:1 by use of the return valve (described above and to be described hereinafter) which releases some of the gases (or vapor) in the cylinder during the beginning of the compression stroke. The result is that the compression stroke retains its compression ratio of approximately 8:1 (assuming that the return valve closes when the piston position is half way through the compression stroke) while the expansion stroke has the aforementioned expansion ratio of 15:1. By this usage of different ratios of the compression and the expansion strokes, the invention may be said to change the engine's operational aspect ratio of expansion ratio to compression ratio from today's regular industrial standard of 1:1 to an elevated level of about 2:1 in gasoline engines.

In the case of the diesel engine, wherein the elevated temperature produced by the relatively high compression of the air is responsible for ignition of the fuel, the improvement in the aspect ratio in diesel engines may be less that 2:1. However in the cases of both the gasoline engine and the diesel engine, if the invention results in an "elevated " aspect ratio of greater than 1:1.

FIG. 1 also shows an intake valve 20, an exhaust valve 22 and a return valve 24 located in the cylinder head 18, these three valves being present in both the gasoline and the diesel forms of an engine 26 constructed with the piston 10A and the cylinder 12. Three camshafts 28, 30 and 32 are provided for operation of the valves 22, 24 and 26, respectively. It is understood that the three camshafts are provided by way of example, and that, by way of further example, a single camshaft with two cams thereon may be employed for operation of two of the foregoing valves, or possibly a single camshaft with three cams thereon may be employed for operation of all three of the valves. The intake valve 20 is operative to close and to open an intake port 34 of the head 18. The exhaust valve 22 is operative to close and to open an exhaust port 36 of the head 18. The return valve 24 is operative to close and to open a return port 38 of the head 18. Also shown in FIG. 1 is a spark plug 40 for ignition of gases in the cylinder 12 in the case of the gasoline engine and, as an alternative form of construction, FIG. 1 also shows a fuel injector 42 for injecting fuel into the heated air at the beginning of the power stroke for the case of the diesel engine. Additional cylinders 12 of the engine 26 are indicated in phantom.

FIG. 2 shows a simplified view of the cylinder 12 and its connection with a return manifold 44. In the cylinder 12, the piston 10A is being driven during a compression stroke from its position at bottom dead center towards the cylinder head 18, and is shown in FIG. 2 at the halfway point. The return manifold 44 comprises a central chamber 46 with a plurality of arms 48 extending from the central chamber 46 to respective ones of the cylinders 12 of the engine 26. An outlet passage 50 is provided on the central chamber 46 for directing return gases from the return manifold 44, in the case of the gasoline engine, to the location at the carburetor or fuel injection assembly (not shown in FIG. 2) in which the return gases join the stream of the air-fuel mix heading toward an inlet of the intake manifold (not shown in FIG. 2). Arrows show the direction of gas flow within the central chamber 46.

Each of the arms 48 has the same construction, which construction in shown for one of the arms 48 in the figure. The arm 48 has sufficient internal volume to serve as a holding tank 52 for a quantity of the cylinder gases passed from the cylinder 12 into the arm 48 during a portion of the compression stroke of the piston 10A. One end of the holding tank 52, at the outboard end of the arm 48, connects via the return valve 24 and the return port 38 to the cylinder 12. The other end of the holding tank 52, at the inboard end of the arm 48, connects via a discharge valve 54 to the central chamber 46.

In the operation of the arm 48, prior to inception of the compression stroke, the discharge valve 54 closes to prevent any flow of vapor or gases between the holding tank 52 and the central chamber 46. The return valve 24 is opened, at the commencement of the compression stroke, to provide for communication between the interior space of the cylinder 12 and the interior space of the holding tank 52. Then, during the compression stroke, as the piston 10A advances towards the head 18, the piston 10A pushes gases from the cylinder 12 via the return port 38 into the holding tank 52. Since these gases cannot escape from the holding tank 52, because of the closure of the discharge valve 54, pressure of the gases builds up in both the interior space of the cylinder 12 and in the interior space of the holding tank 52.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the interior volume of the holding tank 52 is equal to one-half of the interior volume of the cylinder 12 when the piston 10A is at bottom dead center. When the piston advances to a position half way toward the cylinder head 18, the position shown in FIG. 2, the volume of the cylinder located between the piston and the head is equal to the volume of the holding tank 52. Therefore, for the situation depicted in FIG. 2, half of the gases originally present in the cylinder 12 has been moved to the holding tank 52. In the operation of the compression stroke, as the piston 10A passes the halfway point, the return valve 24 closes to prevent further egress of the gases from the cylinder 12. It is recalled that the piston 10A of the modified cylinder is taller than the piston 10 (as described above in FIG. 1) of the unmodified cylinder. The removal of the foregoing quantity of engine gases from the cylinder 12 into the holding tank 52 compensates for the greater height of the piston 10A so as to produce, at the end of the compression stroke, a pressure and temperature in the cylinder gases which is substantially the same as that which is found in the operation of the unmodified cylinder.

By way of review of the preferred embodiment of the invention, it is noted that the modification of the engine 26 provided in FIG. 1 considers the situation wherein the piston is at top dead center, and the piston height is raised sufficiently so as to half the cylinder space with the piston at top dead center. Reducing the volume of the compressed gas by a factor of two raises the pressure and temperature of the gas well above the values of pressure and temperature found in the unmodified engine. The removal of half of the engine gases by means of the holding tank 52, as described in FIG. 2, restores the values of pressure and temperature to those of the unmodified engine.

However, for alternative embodiments of the invention, it is recognized that one may wish to lower the pressure and temperature of the compression stroke in the modified engine (FIG. 1) to values below that found in the unmodified engine so as to be able, by way of example, to operate the modified engine with a lower octane fuel. This can be accomplished, in accordance with the invention, by employing the holding tank 52 to remove more than 50 percent of the engine gases, for example, to remove 60 percent of the engine gases. Removal of the 60 percent of the engine gases is accomplished by enlarging the holding tank 52 from the size disclosed with reference to FIG. 2. Alternatively, if the engine had been operating on low octane fuel, and it is desired to operate the modified engine on higher octane fuel, then one would reduce the size of the holding tank 52 to remove less than 50 percent of the engine gases, possibly to remove only 45 percent of the engine gases.

It is also possible to alter the amount of the gases removed by the holding tank 52 by closing the return valve 24 earlier during the compression stroke, this reducing the amount of gases transferred from the cylinder 12 into the holding tank 52. Alternatively, one may delay the closing of the return valve 24 during the compression stroke, this increasing the amount of gases transferred from the cylinder 12 into the holding tank 52. In each of the foregoing cases, it is apparent that the invention has made it possible to transfer a precisely determined fraction of the cylinder gases into the holding tank 52, thereby to compensate for changes in the height of the piston as well as to accomplish further changes compensating for fuel octane.

By way of further example in the case of a diesel engine, wherein it is desired to alter the expansion ratio of the power stroke from a value of 16:1 to the value of 20:1, this can be accomplished with a relatively small change in the piston height, as compared to the changes disclosed above the reference to FIG. 1. It is recalled that, in the case of the embodiment of FIG. 1, the expansion ratio of the power stroke was changed from a value of 8:1 to a value of 15:1 by modification of the engine, while in the case of the present example of the diesel engine, a relatively small change in the expansion ratio of the power stroke is provided, namely, from the aforementioned value of 16:1 to the value of 20:1. In order to restore the values of temperature and pressure that were originally present in the compression stroke prior to the modification of the height of the piston, the holding tank 52 would be employed to remove a portion of the cylinder gases. However, the amount of the cylinder gases to be removed in this example of the diesel engine is smaller than that disclosed above with reference to the embodiment of FIG. 1. This is accomplished most readily by employing a holding tank 52 of smaller size, relative to the size of the cylinder, than that disclosed in the description of FIG. 2.

In accordance with a further feature of the invention, that central chamber 46 of the return manifold 44 is provided with a mesh 56 extending across the chamber 46 at a location between the outlet passage 50 and the set of arms 48. By way of example, the mesh 56 may divide the internal space of the chamber 46 into two equal portions. The mesh 56, which may be constructed as a wire screen with apertures therein, functions as an acoustic baffle, as does a corresponding structure in a muffler, to reduce pulsations in the speed and pressure of gases applied to the central chamber 46 by respective ones of the arms 48. In terms of an electrical-circuit analogy to the operation of the return manifold 44, gas, escaping from a holding tank 52 by its corresponding discharge valve 54 into the central chamber 46, experiences a certain amount of resistance to the flow of the gas through the discharge valve 54, depending on the interior dimensions of the discharge valve 54.

The central chamber 46 has a substantially larger interior volume than does any one of the holding tanks 52. The volume of the central chamber 46 is sufficiently large to store the quantities of gas expelled from a plurality of the holding tanks 52, just as a capacitor of an electrical low-pass filter is able to store the charge from a pulsating current to provide a relatively in a value of voltage. The mesh 56, by introduction of resistance to the flow of gases across the chamber 46, may be viewed, in terms of the analogous electrical circuit, as dividing the chamber 46 into two sections, each of which may be regarded as a capacitor of the foregoing low-pass filter, with the two capacitors coupled via an electrical resistor. The outlet passage 50 also introduces an amount of resistance to the flow of the return gas, depending on the interior dimensions of the outlet passage 50. Accordingly, the return manifold 44 is operative to reduce pulsations of returned gases from the respective cylinders 12 to a steady stream of gas, ready to be combined with the air-fuel mixture of a carburetor or fuel injection assembly of the engine, in the case of the gasoline engine, or with air from the source of compressed air, in the case of the diesel engine.

As described above with reference to FIG. 1, the camshafts 28, 30 and 32 provide synchronization among the valves of the respective cylinders 12 of the engine 26. As is well-known in the construction of engines, the camshafts are driven by mechanical timing apparatus connecting with the crankshaft 14. It is understood that, in certain modern engines operated by computer, it may be possible to alter the timing between respective ones of the valves in a cylinder 12. When such altering of the timing is provided, it is based on such factors as engine speed and the request for greater engine torque by a person operating the vehicle, as when the driver steps on the accelerator pedal. With respect to the operation of the discharge valve 54, a mechanical linkage with a cam on one of the camshafts 28, 30 or 32 may be employed to drive the valve 54, or a separate camshaft (not shown) may be employed to drive the valve 54, or a motorized valve (the discharge valve 54 in combination with an electric motor drive) driven by the engine computer may be employed to drive the valve 54. Thereby, the timing of the operation of the discharge valve 54 in each of the respective ones of the manifold arms 48 can be set to compensate for pulsations in the magnitude of the vacuum found in the intake manifold (to be described hereinafter) during operation of the engine 26. Thus, in accordance with a further feature of the invention, the timing of the operation of the discharge valve 54 may be employed in conjunction with the aforementioned pulsationsfiltering operation of the return manifold 44 to ensure a steady stream of the flow of the intake fuel-air mixture (gasoline engine) or the intake air (diesel engine) to the intake manifold.

FIG. 3 presents a timing diagram showing the various strokes during the piston travel with the reciprocating motion in the cylinder. Also shown are the open and close positions of the valves with reference to the piston travel. Horizontal axes represent the time. At the top of the diagram, the piston travel is shown as a sinusoidal movement between the top of the stroke and the bottom of the stroke, identified in the figure. The midpoint of a stroke is also identified. The strokes are identified as the induction stroke, wherein the piston travels from the top dead center position, adjacent the cylinder head, to the bottom dead center position, the compression stroke wherein the piston travels from the bottom dead center to the top dead center positions, this being followed by the expansion (or power) stroke wherein the piston travels from the top dead center position to the bottom dead center position, and the exhaust stroke wherein the piston travels from the bottom dead center position to the top dead center position. The intake valve is shown open during the induction stroke and closed during the other three strokes. The exhaust valve is shown open during the exhaust stroke and closed during the other three strokes. The return valve is shown open during the first half of the compression stroke, and closed for the second half of the compression stroke as well as during the other three strokes. The discharge valve is shown open during the exhaust stroke and closed during the other three strokes. The open status of the discharge valve is presented by way of example for convenience in operating the discharge valve from the same cam as is used in operation of the exhaust valve. It is understood that, in the event that a separate timing mechanisms employed for operation of the discharge valve, the discharge valve may be opened, by way of example, during a different interval of time, such as an open interval beginning at approximately the midpoint of the expansion stroke and terminating at approximately the midpoint or at the end of the exhaust stroke.

FIG. 4 presents a diagrammatic view of the engine 26, and shows interconnection of an intake manifold 58 between intake valves 20 of the respective cylinders 12 of the engine 26 and a housing 60 which may contain either a carburetor or a fuel injector assembly. The engine 26 further comprises an exhaust manifold 62 connecting with exhaust valves 22 of the respective cylinders 12. Also shown in FIG. 4 is the return manifold 44 of the engine 26, the return manifold 44 connecting between the housing 60 of the carburetor or the fuel-injector assembly and the return valves 24 of the respective cylinders 12. The arms 48 of the return manifold 44 connect via the discharge valves 54 to the central chamber 46 of the return manifold 44. As described above, synchronization of the discharge valves 54 with the operation of other components of the engine 26 may be accomplished by either a mechanical connection, as by an additional camshaft, or by an electrical connection to a computer 64 which operates to control various functions of the engine 26.

FIG. 5 shows a diagrammatic view of the engine 26 wherein a part of the engine construction is similar to that of the engine of the Date patent, the figure showing further, in schematic form, a modification of the head 18 to accommodate an additional pivoting valve-lifter rocker-arm 66 operated by a camshaft 68 for opening and closing the discharge valve 54. In the engine 26, a cylinder 12 is shown with its piston 10A, the piston 10A defining with the head 18 a combustion chamber 70. In the view of FIG. 5, the exhaust valve 22 is positioned behind the intake valve 20 and, accordingly, is not visible, but is shown in FIG. 4. The intake manifold 58 connects between the housing 60 and the intake valve 20, and the exhaust manifold 62 connects between an exhaust pipe 72, at the base of the housing 60, and the exhaust valve 22. An auxiliary chamber 74 is formed within the head 18 and branches off from the combustion chamber 70 to receive the spark plug 40, and to communicate with the return port 38 and the return valve 24. The return port 38 is at the junction of the return manifold 44 and the auxiliary chamber 74. The configuration of the housing 60 provides for support of an air cleaner 76, provides for a location at 78, indicated in phantom, for the venturi of a carburetor and, by way of alternative embodiment, provides for a location at 80, indicated in phantom, for a fuel injection assembly. The outlet passage 50 of the return manifold 44 extends along the interior of the housing 60 to combine a stream of the return air-fuel mix with an air fuel mixture provided by the carburetor or by the fuel-injection assembly. The combined streams of the air fuel mixture then enter into the intake manifold 58 to feed the combustion within the cylinder 12. Thereby, an engine constructed in accordance with the invention is able to recirculate the portion of the air-fuel mixture, withdrawn from the cylinder via the return manifold, back to the cylinder via the intake manifold.

It is to be understood that the above-described embodiments of the invention are illustrative only, and that modifications thereof may occur to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, this invention is not to be regarded as limited to the embodiments disclosed herein, but is to be limited only as defined by the appended claims.




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