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Luigi [ Louis ] ROTA

  Universal Current Devices
( Detector / Collector / Transmitter )




Pre-electric telluric energy can be collected, focused, and beamed for secure communications, detection, and transmission of power.

See also : ROTA, L. :
Levitation Apparatus

Source :
http://wikirota.org/en/The_Work_of_Louis_Rota
https://web.archive.org/web/20130120084153/http://wikirota.org/en/The_Work_of_Louis_Rota







Luigi Gino Valerio Rota

Luigi Gino Valerio Rota was born on July 1, 1886 at Lu Monferrato province from Alessandria in Italy. He made studies of physics in Turin at the beginning of the 19th century, and settled in Marseilles before joining England where he was between 1917 and 1921 the first foreigner working in the research laboratories of the British Admiralty. It is at that time that he was invested in work on the microwaves which allowed the discovery and the development of the first radars.





https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/80679613/
The Washington Times from Washington, District of Columbia · Page 7 (February 26, 1922)

Telluric Current to Open Vast Realm, Says Scientist.

By F. A. WRAY. International New* Service. LONDON, Feb. 25.

IT HAS UNCANNY FORCE

Harnessing of Earth's Elements Now in Bounds of  Possibility. An invention that will revolutionize the world! This is the claim of a young, almost unknown, Italian scientist, Professor L. V. Rota, who claims to have discovered the secret of telluric currents. "My invention," states the professor, "can cause battleships, submarines, aeroplanes and guns to crumble to dust at any moment that any government gives the order to move them.

Speed up Travel.

It can be harnessed up for the service of man and can immensely speed up travel, transport and communication, whether by land, water or air. It can cheapen-*very sort of manufacture and enhance every domestic and social immunity. "For instance, a cargo of mails or goods could be sent across the Atlantic through the upper air, without a human being aboard the craft, at a speed of ten to 400 miles an hour. The vessel would rise vertically the prescribed height, travel horizontally in a predetermined direction and drop gently and punctually upon its destination.

"Travel Any Distance."

"Wireless messages, dispatched from no costly or elaborate stations, would travel to any distance free from all danger of dissipation or confusion and with absolute privacy as between sender and receiver. "The nature of all mineral and oil deposits in any part of the world and their depth and volume will be accurately determined without so much as sinking a shaft. "Currents rushing through the air will provide the householder with cheaper, safer and more brilliant lighting than he has ever ventured to desire. "A new power for every Industry will first make coal, steam, oil and electricity more efficient and afterward will dispense with them altogether. "When our company Is formed? within eighteen months ? we will give spectacular demonstrations that all these things?and more?can be accomplished."

Currents Long Suspected.

The existence of these currents, which emanate from the earth (hence their name) have been suspected by other scientists. Lord Kelvin before his death declared their reality. Professor Rota claims to be the first to discover and record them. They may also be described as "molecular force," and they must not be confused, says the professor, with Ampere's thermo-electric currents or with Foucault currents. It is the study of these telluric currents, in their nature, intensity and direction, that is believed to open up such possibilities of tremendous Importance for the future of humanity. Professor Rota has recently given a preliminary demonstration at Marseilles. With a cigar-shaped apparatus, seventeen feet long, thirty Inches In diameter and weighing 200 pounds, he convinced a number of press correspondents that this apparatus could remain suspended motionless In the air for twenty-four hours, carrying a considerable weight, and be propelled or stopped without the use of any mechanical motor.



The work of Luigi Giovani Valerio Rota ( 1886-1951 )

By

Mike Watson

Introduction

L.G.V. Rota was a Frenchman of Italian origin. He was born 1886 and died in Genesieux near Valence, France in 1951. His early life is relatively unknown. He was involved in early aviation and experiments in wireless communication and also anti-gravitation. He originated in northern Italy and was contemporary with Marconi so that he was almost certainly influenced by his work. Rota wrote little about his discovery: The Universal Current. He produced two short booklets, based on seminars, one in collaboration with a medical Doctor Kresser, and another in which he briefly outlined his work, but with only general details as to how the universal energy he claimed to have discovered was tapped or used. Neither was there any significant theory. However, Rota did discuss his research with one or two confidants, notably a man called Slade who wrote some articles on Rota’s work. Later, after Rota’s death the author visited his laboratory, obtained some of Rota’s laboratory notes and examined some apparatus. Some years later the author met Rota’s son and he showed me apparatus and notes I had not previously seen. Using this data and after many experiments over the years, it has been possible to piece together to some extent a coherent idea of Rota’s discoveries.

Around the time of the end of first world war, Luigi Giovani Valerio Rota discovered a new naturally occurring non-electromagnetic energy which, he claimed, controlled the manifestation of all matter. This energy, which he called the Universal Current, flows some few meters below the earth’s surface. The energy flowing within the earth generates a field in the atmosphere. It was tapped by large buried laminated metallic structures which Rota called blocks. The energy could light lamps, power machines, inhibit electromagnetic propagation such as radio waves and stop or control electromagnetic induction, and also develop antigravity effects and is involved in the life process. Rota maintained that all matter is made of condensed Universal Currents and that any metal could be slowly dissolved releasing the condensed Universal Currents from which it was made. The enormous energy developed during the dissolution of matter could be harnessed. The released energy was not in the form of charged particles but in the form of more Universal Current, which in turn, could be converted into electrical energy. The Universal Current was generally (but not always) harmless and although similar in behavior to electricity it is much more fundamental. Rota understood electricity as a degeneration of the Universal Current. In short, matter is composed of nothing but Universal Current and could be decomposed back into it.

Early research

Rota’s early interests seem to have been in aviation and possibly early wireless transmission, but there is no information surviving from this period. At this time (1910-1915) he had a laboratory in Marseilles and it was there that he devised and experimented on several unusual aircraft which finally resulted in what he called the “Stabilisiteur” (a description is given later in this document) which he defined as a device that floats weightless in the air. He claimed:

“The device works by opposing the magnetic and electric field of the earth rendering the device weightless”.

This claim would at first sight appear impossible, nevertheless the device worked and later a version was given a public demonstration and reported in the press at the time. During one of these experiments he touched the Stabilisiteur and received an enormous electric shock which rendered him unconscious for 50 minutes. Rota said that the voltages and currents used in the machine were very small and he could not understand how a potential of such a large magnitude build up. The search for a solution, ultimately lead him to the discovery of the Universal Current. This unknown energy, he thought, had amplified the small electric current used in the machine.

Around 1910-1918 on the suggestion of one of his teachers Rota seems to have been involved in investigating earth currents. Lord Kelvin had advanced the notion that due to non-uniformities in the earth’s magnetic field earth currents are produced as the earth rotates in its own magnetic field. Rota’s notes of the period show that he thought the telluric currents originated deep within the earth itself and were not external in origin, in short, he had adopted Lord Kelvin’s view. He found that magnetic fields produced by these currents were perturbed by the presence of ships aircraft etc and Rota used this effect to locate the position of ships and aircraft at a distance. He took out patents on the associated apparatus, the text of which is below, and he used a version of it in all his later research. Although he thought that the magnetic disturbances which the apparatus was detecting were caused by telluric currents, around 1923 he started to change his mind. Sometime later he finally decided that the apparatus was detecting a much more fundamental energy of which electromagnetism was a mere byproduct, this energy he called the “Universal Current” because, in his view, it lay at the root of all physical phenomena including the life process.

Although his first laboratory was in Marseilles in the south of France, from the early 1920’s to the end of the 1930’s Rota had a laboratory in northern France near Rouen at Mont-Saint-Aignan. Around the outbreak of the 2nd world war he moved close to Romans near Valence in the south of France and set up a new laboratory there. Both the Rouen and Romans facilities were quite large. He was evidently quite wealthy, his early work being funded by a family friend and it seems that between the wars on at least one occasion, he was under contract to the French government.

My Interest

I became interested in the research of L.G.V. Rota after reading an article on his work in a long defunct popular fringe science journal called the Modern Mystic and Monthly Science Review. The article was entitled "Universal Currents" by a person writing under the pseudonym of Layman. The editor of the Modern Mystic, A.R.Heaver knew Layman. It turned out that Layman was a retired geologist by the name of Slade, who got to know Rota well over the years between the wars, and the three articles in the magazine were an educated layman's account of the bits and pieces of information that Rota had imparted over this period. These articles are included below.

When the author met A.R.Heaver in 1958, the Modern Mystic and Monthly Science review had already been defunct for some ten years. Also both Layman and Rota had died, but Heaver put me in touch with a man who had known Rota since childhood, he also knew most of the people in the area in which Rota had his laboratory. A visit to what remained of Rota’s laboratory was organised and it transpired that some of Rota's equipment was still fairly intact although some of the equipment had been removed and some dumped in an outhouse used by a local farmer as a shed. I managed to finance the digging up of one of the many metal blocks that Rota had used to tap the universal current, and subsequently brought the block to England for examination.

Some 16 years later, out of the blue, I was visited by a Frenchman, Guy Leblond, who knew about L.G.V. Rota and he informed me that Rota had a son. I shortly afterwards met Rota's son, Daniel Rota in St. Malo in northern France. Daniel Rota was only a small boy when Rota died and he knew that his father had made some important discovery, but not being a scientist he understood little about it. However in the intervening 16 years since I had visited Rota’s laboratory he had brought most or all his father's papers and laboratory equipment up to his then house in St. Malo . He allowed me to see and photograph the equipment (some of which are shown below).

Sometime later Guy Leblond unexpectedly visited me with a piece of Rota equipment I had not previously seen. Leblond said this was called the "Transducteur". I had not been shown it previously because Daniel Rota believed it as containing Rota's "secret" regarding the universal current. It seems that the in part Transducteur amplified the Universal Current sufficiently so that they could heard without electronic aid, since Rota invariably used headphones and even galvanometers to detect the Universal Current.

Background

Natural electric currents called telluric currents were well known to 19th century scientists. These electric currents are due to induction from disturbances of the earth’s magnetic field caused by solar flares and storms. Magnetic storms induced quite heavy electric currents in the earth’s surface which, while they lasted, blocked telegraph transmission. The sensitivity of the apparatus of the time to disturbance was due to the use of an earth return in the telegraph circuit. The earth return consisted of large buried metal plates one at each end of the circuit. The telegraph circuits stretched sometimes 100 Km in length and consequently magnetic fluctuations due to solar magnetic storms would induce currents in the overhead wires causing spurious telephone/telegraph signals. Magnetic devices such as electrical transformers relays etc. would saturate. On some occasions the electric currents would reach formidable levels. It is likely that the disturbing currents which existed in telephone wires and the rather strange behaviour of these disturbances interested Rota and led to his research. This is not unknown today.



Excerpt From A Letter from L. Rota ( January 1920 ) :

Sir,

Not alone the press but  large number of individual scientists are striving painstakingly and anxiously to explain the origin and source of the mysteriuous signals intercepted at various wireless stations a week ago.

Seven yars have passed since I beganm y reseraches intothe problem of which these phenomena are the outward signs, that is to say into the question of:-

1. the source of terrestrial magnetism

2. The real nature and constitution of the true center or core of the earth.

3. The derivation of seismic phenomena

4. The propagation of electric waves and everything that this wide field of research covers today.

It was while engaged in this study that I came upon what I believe to be a discovery of the most scientific import that may yet favorably revolutionize the natural sciences especially insofar as they concern electricity or electric waves, and one which, in any future war that may unhappily arise is destined to afford to the nation wise enough to exploit it to the full an insuperable means, either of offense or defense...



Unidentified Letter :

...In the convenient circumstances mentioned, Prof. Rota diligently continued his researches concerning Telluric Force more especially in relation to seismological and meteorological conditions. In the course of these researches he found that not only does Telluric Force undoubtedly exist in and emanate from the earth, but he satisfied himself thatTelluric currents have a range of notless than 300,000 miles.

Telluric currents must not be confounded with Ampere thermo-electric currents or with Foucalt currents.

Teluric currents vary in their specific nature, intensity, direction, and limits of influence.

The idea of employing these Telluric currents as means of power naturally followed and Prof. Rota therefore directed his attention to the invention of instruments for detecting, collecting, concentrating, controlling and so applying these currents that the employment of such instruments would enable the successful commercial exploitatio of Telluric Force...



Excerpt from : Daily Herald ( 25 July 1921 )

Latest Marvels Of Science
Power To make A New World
Telluric Currents
Startling Claims Of A Young Scientist

A company is about to be floated to work the invention of a very great, but little known scientists, whose discovery, if it fulfills his claims, will literally revolutionize the world.

This fact was disclosed to me yesterday [writes a Daily herald correspondent] by two financiers in their office in the City of London.

This invention, I was told, is one that can cause battleships, suibmarines,aeroplanes and guns to crumble to dust the moment any Government gives orders to move them.

UNMANNED CRAFT

That was only the beginning of this marvel. The mysterious force about to be harnessed for the service of man would immediately speed up travel, transport, and communication, whether by land, water or air, and cheapen every sort of manufacture, and enhance every domestic and social amenity.

For instance, a cargo of mails or goods could be sent across the Atlantic through the upper air, without a human aboard the craft, at a speed of 10 to 400 miles an hour. The vessel would rise vertically to a prescribed height, travel horizontaly in a predetermined direction, and drop gently and punctually upon its destination.

CHEAP WIRELESS

Wireless messages, dispatched from no costly or elaborate stations, would travel to any distance, free from all dange of dissipation or confusion, and with absolute privacy as between sender and receiver.

The nature of all mineral and oil deposits in any part of the worldand their depth and volume will be accurately determined without so much as sinking a shaft.

Current rushing through the air will provide the householder tiwh cheaper, safer, and more brilliant lighting that he has ever ventured to desire.

OLD POWER MADE OBSOLETE

A new power for every industry will first make coal, steam, oil and electricity more efficient, and eafterwards dispense with them altogether.

Within 18 months, I was told -- and in accents of conviction -- the company will be operating, and a spectacular demonstration will convince the world that all these wonders, and more, can be accomplished.

The secret is "telluric currents", and the discoverer is a young Italian scientist, Professor L.V. Rota.

The existence of these currents, which emanate from the earth (hence the name) has been suspected by other scientists...



Excerpt From Another Unidentified Newspaper Article :

..."My studies have led to the discovery of three classes of telluric, or earth currents, never previously defined. These currents have no analogy with Ampere's thermo-electric currents. The late Lord Kelvin proclaimed, shortly before his death, the existence of an uknown telluric current, but without further defining it. It is evident also from newton's lete to Bentley in 1691 that the discoverer of the law of gravitation had some suspicion of a law of universal attraction. These telluric currents vary in their specific nature, their intensity, direction, and limits of influence. Their radius of action is immense, their action very powerful, and they cause the natural phenomena which scientists have endeavored in vain to explain.

Telluric Currents

These telluric currents have brought about an atmospheric condition which renders impossible the formation and condensation of clouds, hence we have not had our usual rainfall, because they also control the electric state of the atmosphere, and they absolutely master the formation of all electric storms. Given full knowledge of the laws which govern telluric...



PATENTS

GB128624
Apparatus for the Concentration of Electric Waves in a Single Direction or upon a Fixed Point


Rota, L., and Binetti, E. Aug. 14, 1917.

Wireless telegraphy and signalling; wireless control of distant apparatus; determining presence of metallic bodies. -

Apparatus for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic waves in or from a predetermined direction consists of a series of alined cylinders or prisms with their axes lying along the desired direction, the cylinders &c. being connected to each other by transformers, and an end cylinder being connected to the oscillation producing or reception circuit. The cylinders are connected alternately through choking- coils to opposite poles of a battery. In the transmitting-arrangement shown in Fig. 1, three cylinders, A, A<1>, A<2>, formed of sheet metal or of wire, are connected to each other by adjustable transformers P, S and P<1>, S<1> and are connected through choke-coils s, s<1>, s<2> and variable -resistances r, r<1> to opposite poles of a battery or dynamo p. Prisms of square, rectangular, triangular, or other cross section may be substituted for the cylinders. The receiving-apparatus is similar to that described above, the extreme cylinder being at opposite potential to the extreme cylinder A<2> of the transmitter. The cylinders A, A<1>, A<2> may be enclosed in outer cylinders insulated from each other, the outer cylinders being connected to opposite poles of the battery between the choking-coils s, s<1>, s<2> and the resistances r, r<1>. In another arrangement, an earthed tube passes through some or all of the cylinders. The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 may be duplicated, with the cylinder axes parallel or slightly inclined. The cylinders may also be arranged with their axes inclined or vertical, and the upper cylinder may terminate in an inverted cone formed of wire or bands. The presence of a magnetic body between the transmitting and receiving stations is indicated by the disturbing effect upon the receiving apparatus. When used for detecting submarines, the cylindrical transmitters and receivers 4, 5, Fig. 8, may project from ships' sides below the water-level, and are partly enclosed by a tube 3 closed with insulating material. The apparatus is adjustable as regards depth below the surface of the sea, and may be withdrawn when not required. Fig. 10 shows three apparatus converging on a pair of co-axial cylindrical tubes Q, Q<1> insulated from each other, with the object of concentrating the radiation towards a point P, where a spark may be produced. Instead of being arranged one within the other, the cylinders Q, Q<1> may be built up of parallel wires and may be arranged in alignment, with an intermediate inductance. In another form, Fig. 12, these cylinders are coupled to each other by a transformer P, S, and are connected to opposite poles of a battery p through choking-coils h, h<1> and resistances r, r<1>. An outer cylinder formed in two insulated sections 4, 5 is also connected to the battery p. The apparatus may be used for telegraphy, telephony, or for the distant control of mechanism, and is stated to ensure secrecy in working, to prevent interference by atmospherics or by signals intended for other stations, and to prevent absorption and dissipation due to atmospheric electricity.

COMPLETE SPECIFICATION.

We, LUIGI ROTA, of Clarence House, Park Road, Teddington, in the County of Middlesex, Professor, and ERNESTO BINETTI, of 132, Via del Tritone, Rome, in the Kingdom of Italy, Commendatore, do hereby declare the nature of this invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, to be particularly described and ascertained in and by the following statement:-

The objects of the present invention are to construct apparatus which will:-

1. Concentrate the wave or train of waves upon a desired point for whatever purpose the apparatus may be designed. '

2. Assure the absolute secrecy of the communications, that is to say, each station may correspond at any distance by radio-telegraphy and radio-telephony as well as by radio telemechanism, exclusively with the appointed station without the communications being intercepted or troubling or being received by other stations. '

3. Enable several stations to be installed close together, each station not being disturbed or troubled by messages intended for other stations or by atmospheric waves, at the same time permitting a receiving station to determine the direction of the station from which it receives its messages and to put itself in communication with the sending station.

4. Suppress all dissipations or absorptions to which the waves are subject during their travel due to natural electrical disturbances produced by atmospheric electricity:

5. Permit all transmission and receiving stations to transmit or receive in all directions if the apparatus is put out of circuit.

6. Increase the capacity, determine the phases and intensity of the wave, making it possible to transmit electric power wirelessly to a distance, as for producing Joule's effect at a distance.

7. Transmit a wave having a force and such a constitution that it can indicate when a magnetic body has come between the transmitting and receiving stations, whether the body be upon the earth, upon water or under water.

The accompanying drawings show diagrammatically various examples of the methods of carrying the invention into effect, from which it will be observed that it may have various arrangements, forms and sizes, single or double, and may be arranged horizontally, vertically or inclined, and with respect to its cross sectional form it may be circular, square, rectangular, triangular or of other form. We will hereinafter, both in the description and claims, refer to these forms as cylinders, and they may be constructed of sheet metal or of wires or bands arranged parallel to each other, according to the work for which the apparatus is intended and the system and power of the station in which it is installed ; the system may be direct coupled or indirect coupled, and the waves may be damped waves or undamped or continuous waves and of any length.

The apparatus always remains the same in principle and in its fundamental basis and action, but, according to. the.work. which it is intended to perform, it may be modified in various ways.

The apparatus consists of two, three or more cylinders united in series by means of a reciprocal induction and, further, each cylinder is in communication with a battery, accumulator or dynamo, and the said battery is common to all the cylinders but in a contrary direction for each alternate cylinder. Upon the principle of the action of transformers, one is able to obtain by the first transforming, the augmentation of intensity, in the second, the electromotive force, by means of the third, these two (intensity and electromotive force) may be made equal; or vice versa, if desired or necessary, all these effects in co-relation, the energy originally produced and its intensity, its electromotive force and its periods. The battery has for its object to reconstitute all the force lost by passive losses, resistances and otherwise, and further to give to the energy of the wave its constitutive and primitive property. The cylinders increase the capacity and diminish the resistance, and in union with the relative inductions and currents of the batteries, they define the energy of the wave with intensity and phase desired and determined,







As shown in Fig. 1, the cylinders A, A1, A2, are provided with the relative transformers a, a1, --P, P', being the primaries and S, S', the secondaries; p is the battery of accumulators and r, r1, the resistances ; s, s1, s2 are coils to prevent the oscillation circulating in the battery circuit. By the first coil s the cylinder A is connected with the positive pole of the battery; by the second, s1, the cylinder A1 is connected with the negative pole of the battery, and by the third, s2, the cylinder A2 is connected with the positive pole of the battery. The production of the current in the battery of accumulators is suitable for the relative transformers of the cylinders and the energy produced by the exciting apparatus. In the receiving apparatus, P, P1, are the primaries, and S, S1, are the secondaries, p is the battery, r, r1, are the resistances, x, s1, s2 are the coils to prevent, the wave passing into the battery circuit. A-2 is a negative cylinder (the opposite to, the last cylinder of the transmitting station), the second cylinder, A1, is positive, and the third cylinder, A, is negative. The first cylinders are generally shorter and the last cylinders longer, and further this latter may sometimes terminate with a conical formation 42 of larger diameter (of wire or bands) as shown in Fig. 7, which also represents a vertical arrangement. All the transformers may be fixed or adjustable, both in the transmission and receiving apparatuses. Also the resistances, connected to the batteries may be fixed or variable. It is now easy to understand that we can diminish or increase the energy of the wave. It is possible to produce waves with definite phases and intensity and to receive a definite wave at a single receiving station, that is to say, a perfect syntony, and also to distinguish various waves different from one another, rendering it thus possible to communicate with or receive messages from various stations.

The apparatus shown in Fig. 2 is similar to that shown in Fig: 1 with this difference, that the first cylinder, A, has a second concentric cylinder A10 connected to it at A11 and with the wire at b.

Fig. 3 shows other cylinders 3, 31, 32, in addition to the cylinders A, A', A2, The cylinders 3, 31 32, are insulated from each other at i, i1, and they are united to the battery of accumulators and also with the cylinders A,A1, A2, by means of coils h, h1, h2, to prevent, by means of their inductance, the oscillations traveling into the circuit of the battery. This method gives the maximum intensity of the apparatus and prevents the radiating of the wave during its traverse of the cylinders A, A2, which act as antenna or transmitting points.

Fig. 4 is the same, in principle as those previously described but with this difference, that there is in the interior of the apparatus and concentric therewith, a complete cylinder A12, connected to earth, farther increasing the capacity of the apparatus.

This connection with the earth would be the same as in Fig. 5. In this figure n, nl, n2, n3, are four cylinders arranged as previously described. The cylinder n is connected with the circuit by means of the wire m. There is in the same cylinder, n, another cylinder E, which is concentric therewith and which terminates at d in the second cylinder n1. The said cylinder E is connected to earth by means of the wire m1, which is generally smaller than the wire m, and further, in certain cases (due to a different system of excitation being used) there may be inserted at the point, K, a capacity or a self inductance, to make the wire m1 agree with the arrangement and work of the wire m, producing in m1, a retardation because the wire m1 is united to the 'cylinder E, and this latter 'terminating in n1, would otherwise have precedence of action with respect to the cylinder n (and to the wire m connected thereto).

Fig. 6 is similar to that described with respect to Fig. 1 with this difference, that the apparatus is doubled starting from the point b1 and finishing with the last cylinders, which are parallel as shown in Fig. 6 or at an angle to each other as shown in, Fig. 6a. The two sets of cylinders A Al A2 are connected by inductances h, h1, h2 acting as above described. Upon the principle of electrodynamics, two fluxes or currents parallel and in the same direction will attract each other. Due to the common attraction they will travel always uniting more and more, with the suppression of radiation or expansion. This apparatus shown in Fig. 6 is specially suitable for indicating a magnetic body which may happen to be between the two stations of transmission and reception, as hereinafter explained. To obtain the desired information or indication, starting with the principle that currents magnetize magnetic bodies, for this reason, due to the improved apparatus by which we obtain a wave having the properties of a current and with a certain intensity, then, if this wave remains neutral to all the disturbances and currents of the atmosphere during its traverse, on encountering a magnetic body, it will magnetize it. The wave will then lose its original properties and it will no longer act (due to the loss or defect) at the receiving station in such a way as to do the desired work there. It will thus make known the presence of a body (or obstacle) according to its constitutive matter. Or, in other words, as it is a law of nature that to every action which seeks to exert itself upon matter, this latter opposes the same with a reaction equal and inverse, then the wave coming by means of this apparatus reproduces the same matter in the body which it encounters, it must be admitted that the body, as soon as it has received a part of the flux, causes a reaction upon a certain scale in such a way that it changes the whole of the original action, that is to say, it prevents a regular reception, which is immediately known or noticed at the receiving station, for the receiving apparatus is so constructed as not to be affected by all disturbances, thus effecting the desired work, that is to say, indicating the presence of a body.

The apparatus shown in Figs. 3 and 6 are especially useful for doing the work just described. The apparatus shown in Figs. 8 and 9 is specially suitable for signifying the presence of a magnetic body which may be .upon or in the water (and it is the same with a magnetic body which may be upon the land), and this body we admit, for example, may be a submarine.

The idea will certainly occur that it is impossible to transmit through sea water as it is true that sea water absorbs very rapidly electric waves, but it must be remembered that known electric waves are simply a disturbance of the lines of magnetic force, instead of, as we obtain by the present invention, the production of a real current. For this reason the absorption is slower over the greater part of its travel and its production is dynamically stronger and more united. The wave therefore has the faculty of being perceived by the reception apparatus, being signalled at the receiving station with very delicate apparatus, that is to say, by means of a telephone of the micro-ampere type or of the hundredth of a micro-ampere, or by means of a galvanometer, for example of the Nobili type, or the more delicate Deprez-D'Arsonval. Thus the apparatus will be able to determine very nearly all the evolutions of a submarine, it being well understood that it is necessary to ascertain all the losses due to resistance, absorption and other causes and the distances apart of the transmitting and receiving ships.

Fig. 8 shows the arrangement for the transmission as well as for the reception ; Fig. 9 represents the double transmission which will be effected as described with respect to Fig. 6, that is to say, with a single transmission apparatus to which two apparatuses constructed according to the present invention have been applied working synchronously together.

In Fig. 8, 1 represents one transmission antenna independent of that which is to effect the desired object, 2 is the body. of the vessel, and 3 is a cylinder closed by insulating material. 4 and 5 are the two cylinders forming part of the apparatus constructed according to the present invention, a part of the cylinder 5 protruding from the closed cylinder 3. For the reason that sea water destroys very rapidly the materials, and the search should be made at ) different depths as well as at the surface of the water, the two apparatuses will be made movable and will be plunged into the sea only at the desired time and in agreement both for transmission and receiving.

Fig. 10 shows the arrangement given to the apparatus to obtain Joule's effect at a distance, that is to say, a spark at a predetermined point by means of electric waves produced by the apparatus herein described. Fig. 10 represents three apparatuses, 1, II, III, each having its own excitation apparatus ; all three working together and in accordance with the principle stated above of the common attraction of the fluxes, they unite in Q at the point E to obtain the desired effect at P. Q, Q1, may be two complete cylinders insulated from each other or as described with respect to Figs. 11 and 12.

In Fig. 11 the cylinders 4,5, are made with parallel wires with an intermediate inductance.

The apparatus shown in Fig. 12 is very similar to that shown in Fig. 3, the outer cylinders 4 and 5 being similar to those marked z and zl in Fig. 3, and the inner cylinders A, A1, corresponding with two of the inner cylinders A., A1, shown in Fig. 3. The inductances h, h1, act in similar manner to those shown in Fig. 3.

It is necessary to state that the number of apparatuses such as I, II, III, is not limited but is always in accordance with the work desired to be done. The arrangement of the apparatus I is generally at' an angle of 45 degrees to the apparatus III or the last of the series.

It may be stated that the various modifications of the apparatus herein repre- sented are those forms which in experiments have given the best practical results, are simple and work perfectly.

Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of our said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, we declare that what we claim is: -

1. Apparatus for transmitting and receiving electric waves, consisting of  a series of cylinders united by means of reciprocal transformers and connected to a battery, accumulator or dynamo, the connection between the cylinders being so made that each cylinder is connected to the opposite pole to that to which the next adjacent cylinder is connected, the connection being made by coils having such an inductance as to prevent the wave circulating in the battery circuit, substantially as shown and described.
 


GB129059 
Apparatus for detecting the proximity of mines, submarines, icebergs, &c.


Apparatus for detecting the proximity of mines, submarines, icebergs, &c. comprises a. wooden cylinder d carried by spokes d<1> and bearings d<2> on a shaft d<3> fixed within an outer wooden cylinder a. The cylinder d has insulated windings d<4> connected through brush and ring contacts d<5> with a sensitive galvanometer f<2>, and may be rotated by a flexible shaft e<2> and bevel gear e<1>. A fixed frame g with coils of soft-iron wire g<1> or plates has within it a magnetic declination needle g<2>. An outer iron casing a<1> with pointed ends may be provided, and the apparatus is suspended from a ship by a telescopic shaft b<3> with ball bearings b<2>, c, or by other suitable suspension, allowing the axis of the device to be kept horizontal, and its height and position about a vertical axis adjusted. The needle is observed by reflexion in mirrors h, h<1>, and the galvanometer directly, through a tube i which may be provided with lenses, a lamp a<4> serving for illumination. The device may be used with the cylinder d stationary and its axis at right-angles to the magneto meridian, or with the cylinder rotated and its axis parallel to the meridian or inclined thereto at 30 to 35 degrees. The apparatus is stated to indicate the proximity and direction of a mine &c, Two such devices may be used in conjunction, with the cylinders respectively stationary and rotating, and one of the devices may have a dip needle. In a modification, stated to detect the proximity of an iceberg owing to its high electric potential, the casing a is omitted, and two copper cylinders are provided, one within and the other without the cylinder a, extending approximately half its length and carried by a disk which closes the end of the cylinder d. The copper cylinders are connected to an electroscope or torsion balance.

COMPLETE SPECIFICATION

The object of the present invention is to provide improved means for signalling the presence and the direction of floating mines, submarine and' other ships, or other magnetic or paramagnetic bodies or icebergs. The apparatus signals the presence of such bodies whether Seating or submerged, and as it indicates the direction of such bodies it may also indicate the speed at which they are traveling.

I have discovered that there are certain telluric or earth currents which produce in the earth telluric magnetic vortices. The presence or intensity of these currents is shown when they encounter a magnetic or paramagnetic body however small this may be. Due to this fact it is possible to recognise the presence of a mine, submarine, ship or other magnetic or paramagnetic body, by means of the apparatus forming the subject of the present invention, which indicates these currents.

The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:-

Fig. 1 is a vertical longitudinal. section showing some of the parts in elevation.

Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken through the axis of the apparatus.

Fig. 3 is a transverse section taken on the line 3---3 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 is an axial section of the apparatus showing a modification.



The apparatus consists of a wooden cylinder or casing a, which may be enclosed in a pointed outer iron casing a1 This latter is only necessary when the apparatus is intended for use in water as. it diminishes the resistance and withstands the pressure of the water. The cylinder a is hermetically closed and is supported by the rods b, fixed to a vertical shaft bl, supported by a ball bearing b2 carried by the vertical rod b3. This latter may be telescopic and the two parts may be fixed with relation to each other by a set screw, b4, or by other suitable mechanism. The ball bearing b2 allows the apparatus to be rotated upon a vertical axis. The vertical rod b3 is supported by a ball bearing c, carried by the arm c1 fixed to the ship. This bearing c allows the shaft and rod  to hang in a vertical position. Any other suspension means may be employed which will allowthe indicating apparatus to be retained with its longitudinal axis horizontal, which will allow the apparatus to be oriented about a central vertical axis, and which will allow it to be raised or lowered. The apparatus may be suspended either at the bows or side of a ship.

Within the casing a, and concentric therewith, is mounted a rotating cylinder d made of wood. The cylinder d is carried by radial arms or spokes d1 mounted, by means of ball bearings d2 upon a rod d3, fixed to the casing a. The cylinder d may be rotated by any suitable means, such as clockwork, located in the space a2 at the right hand end of the casing a. In the drawings a bevel toothed wheel e, indicated by broken lines, is attached to the end of the cylinder d This bevel wheel e is driven by the bevel pinion el, mounted upon the end of a flexible shaft e2 both parts being shown in broken lines. The flexible shaft e2 would be carried up to the deck of the ship and be there driven by suitable mechanism. It will be understood that an electric motor cannot be used in the end a2 of the casing a, as it would prevent accurate observations being taken. The cylinder d has a surface velocity of from 4 to 9 meters per second.

On the rotating cylinder d is wound Insulated copper or soft iron wire d4 in one or more layers forming a closed circuit. The ends of this circuit are furnished with suitable brushes or contacts d5, and these latter are in contact with the rings f, f1 which are connected to a very sensitive galvanometer f2. Partly located within the cylinder d is a fixed frame 0 which may be of any suitable form. In the drawings it is shown as rectangular but it may be cylindrical or polygonal. This frame g is concentric with. the cylinder d and carries coils of soft iron wire as shown or thin plates forming a closed circuit. In side the frame and parallel to a plane of a convolution of the wires or plates, is located a magnetic declination needle g2 as the wires. or plates are caused to point to the north. Above the needle g2 in the construction shown, is fixed a mirror h, and at the extreme left hand end of the cylinder is another mirror hl. Within the inspection chamber a3 is an electric lamp a4 (Fig. 1) for illuminating the ealvanometer f2 and the magnetic needle q2. An inspection tube i, indicated in broken lines in Figs 1 and 3, passes up to the deck of the ship and enables the galvanometer f2 to be seen by direct vision and the magnetic needle g2 to be seen by double reflection by means of the mirrors h, h1.

Prisms may be employed instead of the mirrors h h1 and the tube i may be fitted with lenses to enable the observations to be more readily made.

When the apparatus is used upon a ship having an iron hull it will probably be necessary to employ compensating or correcting magnets, which are not shown upon the ship or within the apparatus as will be understood.

The apparatus will generally be fixed at about 3 to 5 meters from the hull of the ship, but the greater the distance the better, especially when it is carried by a battleship.

The apparatus may be used with the cylinder d rotating or stationary, and it is lowered into the water or onto the surface. Whatever may be its position the signalling action will always take place, but to render this action more sensitive it is well to use the apparatus in the following manner. If the apparatus is used with a stationary cylinder d, it should be retained with its longitudinal axis at right angles, as far as possible, to the magnetic meridian.

If the apparatus is used with the cylinder d rotating, it should be kept on the magnetic meridian, or making with the magnetic meridian an angle of 30 to 35 to the right or east thereof.

The extensions j are provide at each end of the casing a, to enable the apparatus to be turned and retained in the desired direction by mechanical connections.

I may in some cases employ two apparatuses, one having a magnetic declination needle as above described, and the other having, within the fixed frame g a magnetic declination needle and also a magnetic dipping needle. One apparatus is used with a rotating cylinder, and the other is used with a stationary cylinder d.. Each apparatus is retained in the direction which is most suitable as above explained, so that one apparatus is at right angles to the other apparatus. It is known that terrestrial magnetism induces currents in moving conductors so that the quantity of flux received by each apparatus will vary.

The apparatus will be sensitive to telluric currents when a paramagnetic body is encountered, such as a mine, a submarine, or a ship, and the larger bodies will be detected at considerable distances reckoned in miles. Experience will determine the type of body by the intensity of the current. When the presence of a body has been signalled by the apparatus, it is advisable to stop the ship upon which the apparatus is carried, and it will then be possible by watching the magnetic needle and galvanometer to ascertain whether the body is fixed or in motion, and if in motion, whether it is approaching or receding from the apparatus and what is its depth. By being able to follow the direction of the object and knowing whether it is approaching or receding one is able to calculate the course of the object. According as the apparatus is increased in size, so it will be able to detect mines at a greater distance.

I have discovered that icebergs when carried by currents have a very high electric potential. In order to render the apparatus suitable for detecting an electrically charged body as well as a para-magnetic body, the apparatus above described and shown in Figs. 1,2 and 3, may be modified as shown in Fig. 4.

The outer casing al is dispensed with. The cylinder d, covered with wire d4 is mounted upon spokes dl, carried by ball bearings d2 rotating upon a rod d3. All the other parts, not shown, are similar to those shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. The cylinder d is closed at one end by a discs d10 which projects beyond the casing a and fits against this latter. To the disc d10 is fixed a copper cylinder k, which covers about half of the casing a. This copper cylinder 1e may be further supported by means of small rollers k1 carried by the casing a. Within the casing a is fixed another copper cylinder k2 having the same length as the copper cylinder k. The two coppers cylinders k, k are connected to a suitable apparatus, such as an electroscope or torsion balance, located in the inspection chamber a3 to reveal the most delicate electric charges and to measure their intensity and variations.

Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is:-

1. Apparatus for signalling the presence of mines, submarine or other ships, or other paramagnetic bodies, comprising in combination a casing, a cylinder covered with a closed circuit of wire the ends of which are connected to a galvanometer, a fixed frame covered by a closed circuit of wire or thin plates, a magnetic declination needle, within said frame, and means for inspecting the galvanometer and magnetic needle, substantially as set forth.



Rota's Lamps






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