Advanced Hydrogen & Environmental Research
713 Ernest Ave
Westcliffe, CO. 81252
Vernon Roth: Tech, Research and Development
(719) 783-0310 Office
Pure Energy Systems News
July 31, 2011
On July 28, 2011, at the Events:2011 : ExtraOrdinary Technology
Conference put on by TeslaTech in Albuquerque, NM, USA, Vernon
Roth gave a workshop on Directory:Hydroxy or HHO Injection Systems
technology he's been working on. He saved the "best for last"
surprizing the audience with his claim that 'in the process of
creating hydrogen/oxygen gas in certain cells that elements in the
water were found to be replicated -- alchemy' -- as much as 10-13
times. An element copy machine. He had observed this with things
such as gold, silver, and even some fairly complex chemical
The next day I did two sets of interview with him to have him
describe the phenomenon (part A, in three videos) and to have him
show how he builds his cell that accomplishes this phenomenon
(part B, in 8 videos), as well as the economical and philosophical
considerations of doing this.
Several other people have reported a phenomenon similar to this,
seeing replication of elements that are in the water of such
set-ups. This video features one person, Al Throckmorton, who was
in the audience and vouches to having seen the same thing
independently. Two other people at the conference told Vernon that
they also saw an effect like this.
Part A: 1 of 3
Part A: 2 of 3
Part A: 3 of 3
Part A: 2 of 9
Part A: 3 of 9
Part A: 4 of 9
Part A: 5 of 9
Part A: 6,7 of 9
Part A: 8 of 9
Part A: 9 of 9
Al Throckmorton was shown in Part B of the above video set. He
said he has seen this effect as well. Two other people came up to
Vernon independently after his talk at TeslaTech, saying they had
observed the same phenomenon. I know of several people who claim
to have seen this replication of elements in the water of Joe
cells or some hydroxy cells. If you are able to replicate this
effect using the above information, feel free to post your results
On August 3, 2011, George Wiseman wrote:
This is ONE of the Brown's Gas transmutation techniques I've been
telling people about for years. Anyone using an electrolyzer,
particularly some designs, will notice sediment forming. In only
two clean-outs of one of my electrolyzers I measured 19 pounds of
material. When the material was analyzed, it contained all the
elements that make up the stainless steel plates in my
electrolyzer. When new, my electrolyzers contain 19 pounds of
plates, and when I weighed the plates after cleaning them... they
still weighed 19 pounds. NOTHING but pure water was ever put into
these machines and they are under constant pressure (my machines
are never open to the atmosphere) so my theory is that the
Electrically Expanded Water (ExW) formed in the electrolyzer can
become 'imprinted' and will transmute into new elements. Anyone
can replicate my electrolyzers, full plans are in my Brown's Gas
Book 2. I haven't tried using gold or silver plated plates yet,
but it is certainly on my list of things to do.
September 7, 2011
Surviving Into Anything and HHO
Michael Riversong reports on a workshop given by Vernon Roth on
July 28, 2011 at the ExtraOrdinary Technology in
Albuquerque, covering the whys and wherefores of hydroxy
technology, as well as how the technology can help prepare
for and survive coming hard times.
by Michael Riversong
Take a gallon of rainwater and ferment (store)
it for 2-3 months.
Distill off 4 quarts
Name and label them Fire, Air, Earth, and
Water. This made them into fractals. Each one was then tested:
Fire would not freeze at minus 10 degrees, and
got a golden hue.
Air formed bubbles & expanded.
Earth froze at 32 degrees, and was completely
Water might not freeze even at minus 100
Then, put each one into your hydrogen.
This conference should teach us new ways of thinking and working.
The experiment shows us that alchemy is alive and well. It also
points out dramatically how the alchemist is part of the process.
Safety: the Art of Triple Redundancy. Hydrogen is very explosive,
so always make sure any potential source of ignition in the area
is under tight control. Explosions happen in labs. That's why we
need to stress safety. We want to make sure all the researchers
In an HHO system 10 liters per minute will form lots of bubbles. A
safety valve will let the gases in the bubbler release to the
atmosphere immediately. Hydrogen dissipates quickly and goes
straight up. There's a flashback arrestor at the next stage which
is really a secondary bubbler. Gas flows out the top to another
safety device, another flashback arrestor. You can get a 2-pack
for $40 at US Air. Metal is needed for these. It's an industry
standard. You can also make your own flashback arrestor. Pressure
switches are $16 from Allied Switch.
A column of water is important. It magnifies the power of
hydrogen. You could try putting a Rodin coil around a loop with
this water in it. UV light is also good to try. There are many
Laser refining of uranium is a common process. But we can change
the nature of an element using just frequency, which makes that
aspect worth exploring. This might be a key to handling
radioactive waste material.
Vernon said he had been working with Internal Combustion Engines
(ICEs). We can readily get a lot of improvements in mileage. But
the current problem is a paradigm. It's illegal to put things on
semi trucks to improve mileage.
Inspectors are actually sent out when logs indicate this is
happening! Increased efficiency upsets too many balances within
the American trucking industry so it's discouraged.
So how do we survive cataclysmic changes in our world? Sustainable
generation is definitely necessary, and so is a lot of caution. We
don't have to tell the whole world about every stage of research.
[Editor's Note: Don't we give in to the bullies if we let them
scare us into silence? Sharing progress helps inspire and foster
others to do the same, and vice versa.]
A solar tool charger from Harbor Freight can put out 20 liters /
hr. It adds up over 7 hours a day. A hydrogen device can be hooked
into a diesel generator and can boost such an engine.
There are some business tax incentives to refit with solar or
wind, which are normally 40% but can be depreciated in 1 or 2
years. Business tax breaks essentially make solar and wind systems
free. Combining conventional alternative energy systems with
hydrogen generators is thus a good idea.
Some water electrolysis systems will produce Brown's Gas (BG),
which indexes itself to whatever you're working on. This is a
mixed form of monatomic and diatomic (double atom) hydrogen and
oxygen gases which can be burned immediately for various
applications, including welding or fuel. Several ways to produce
it have been worked out.
It may not boil water, but it can be made to. Cast iron and silica
don't disintegrate in BG, but many other materials do. The reasons
for this variation in disintegration are not known. To heat air
you have to find a substance that won't disintegrate in BG. It
doesn't burn carbon, but it does cause some emissions.
Gasification releases the power within.
We can pull out 600 degrees – and heat up things like copper,
carbon, etc. This blows it out into the room. It's just like what
happens with welding, where you're breathing whatever you're
cutting. A lot of this eventually manifests as Parkinson's
Disease. Best thing to do is run exhaust through water and trap
all the fumes. It's especially important to deal with sodium
hydroxide which can form in many ways. If you're heating things
up, use a heat exchanger for safety. With a vapor generator you're
cooling down any potential explosion. BG is implosive, but that's
powerful and then followed by a powerful explosion. Actually
nuclear weapons work the same way. So don't ever compress Brown's
All this is connected to the fact that newer stoves are not just
wood-burning – they're essentially coal gasification units.
If you add enough hydrogen and oxygen literally anything can
become a fuel. You can burn it with Brown's Gas in a crucible of
something that it won't destroy like cast iron. Plastics can be
converted back to oil. This tech from Japan is all open source and
reduces about 80% of CO2 emissions. Methane is also being released
which can be profitably captured. This was found at
http://ecoideas.net (sponsored by Panasonic). A community never
needs to throw away plastic again!
Many small biomass gasification projects are quietly being done in
remote areas around the world. These technologies are key to
reconstituting civilization. They're burning fuels that would
normally be waste. Some good developments in the Philippines are
proceeding right now, which is good because their power plants are
Diesel generators are good to modify because they don't care where
the spark is – they have none. Fog can be generated, run through
water, and powered essentially by solar. This is not over unity,
but it is running on water.
Bubbling through also washes out sodium hydroxide.
Note that number 316 stainless steel is best for metal assemblies.
If you let steel get too thin, it starts flexing & thus gets
undependable in terms of electrical properties – amperage goes
off. At smaller sizes all parameters change. It's been found that
1/8 inch thickness tends to work better than 1/2.
After 6 months a crystalline layer can form on the metal surfaces,
so you have to make sure you use the right frequencies.
If using hydrogen in a vacuum assisted unit, do not use any
caustic solution. You can use a different catalyst such as
colloidal silver or spring water.
Large scale industrial grade vacuum pumps have a tendency to
disintegrate. This is due to hydrogen embrittlement.
When all the moisture is taken out of air, it also takes out water
from metals and other materials. In ordinary situations that's not
a factor. With hydrogen, we have to watch out for it. Also, heavy
acids or alkali will impede the process. There is a level of
energy density we have to acknowledge.
Hydrogen and oxygen can also be used to create artificial gems of
extremely high quality. That opens up a whole different area of
research related to this technology.
The indexing nature of Brown's Gas allows us to get more heat for
input than normal. Hydrogen in general and BG solves many problems
of power generation and industry. By connecting our systems we can
minimize power and time use.
Hydrogen is a key to financial independence. Without selling
technology or disrupting the dominant paradigm we can use a nearly
free energy system to fuel our lives and overcome any limitation.
Hydrogen is an interim technology, which can get us to running on
universal ether. We can then mine water for our materials. The
final step is to jump feet first into our future. It really comes
down to trying it as you ask: "How do you survive into anything?"
Recommended videos: Open Source Civilization, from Missouri. With
these blueprints, we can build up a community that's not going to
be dependent on the rest of the world, producing 50 machines that
are essential to the world.
Detailed plans for each of these machines are being provided.
There are several web sources now, including forums, videos, and
http://opensourceecology.org .Polish immigrant Marcin Jakubowski
is the main person promoting this idea.
Civilization is a never ending cycle of expansion and contraction.
Those who do not adopt a new paradigm will collapse. America has
gone through several expansions. We became an industrial based
society. Then we had an expansion of ideas in the 60s & 70s.
We are in the process of an expansion of technology right now. But
you can't eat your iPod. We must adopt a new paradigm or find
another way of survival.
Types of expansion:
political, which means running communities
religious, which means tolerance
sociological, which means forming community structures
Adaptation is the key to all survival:
We can adjust – personal ease and comfort is much less important
than how we behave.
Video of this workshop is available through: http://www.teslatech.info
From Comments :
"Distill off 4 quarts. Name and label them Fire, Air, Earth, and
Water. This made them into fractals... This conference should
teach us new ways of thinking and working. The experiment shows us
that alchemy is alive and well...": No verified facts, no data, no
science, only magic incantations for uneducated naives and obtuse
believers. What will they think of next? Do we get next time a
method to invoke the devil for obtaining thermal energy from the
hell? May be by saying "abracadabra" 666 times while electrolyzing
snake oil? Appalling stupidity.
We are surrounded by the idiots, each year there are new ones in
the free energy field but this year, I think those of 2012 are
Method and Apparatus for Efficient Generation of Hydrogen II
Inventor: ROTH VERNON / SHERMAN GREGORY
Apparatus for dissociating water into hydrogen and oxygen,
comprising a tank and the quantity of water contained in said tank
is dissolved. A quantity of a conductivity promoting material
suspended or dissolved in said water to form an electrically
conductive fluid and a plurality of plates suspended in said
electrically conductive fluid and a reactive agent selected from
the group consisting of derivatives of vegetable materials,
derivatives of highly resinous vegetable materials, derivatives of
vegetable materials taken from pinyon pine, derivatives of
materials taken from dragon blood tree, water soluble derivatives
of partially oxidized vegetable materials, water soluble
derivatives of partially oxidized highly resinous vegetable
materials, water soluble derivatives of partially oxidized
vegetable materials taken from pinyon pine,; and water soluble
derivatives of partially oxidized vegetable materials taken
from dragon blood tree.
The invention relates to methods and apparatus for increasing the
efficiency of an internal combustion engine, such as that powering
an automobile, through the introduction of hydrogen and oxygen
produced by an onboard electrolyzer subsystem thus resulting and
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Addressing any serious problems presented involves a strategy of
conservation of resources, coupled with increasing the efficiency
with which fuels achieve desired objectives and decreasing the
emission of pollutants.In the case of large facilities, such as
coal fired electric plants and the like, the size of the facility
justifies the implementation of relatively elaborate technology,
such as scrubbers for removing pollutants from the exhaust of a
coal burning plant. Implementation of this Hydrogen technology is
more cost-effective and will largely neutralize deleterious
effects on the environment as well as improving efficiency.
However, one of the most serious sources of pollution is the
personal automobile, as well as trucks and buses, which daily
forge across the roads of this country. Moreover, some of the
potential for improving operation of the internal combustion
engine may readily be appreciated when it is considered that the
efficiency of such engines is on average, between 15 and 25%.
Pollution from automobiles, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions, presents a
serious problem because each automobile requires its own
individual means of addressing the problem. While pollution
control valves, cleaner gasoline and other advances have done much
to alleviate the problems involved in gasoline vehicle pollution,
much more needs to be done, as the world heads for what may
potentially be a very substantial crisis.
It is known that virtually every existing engine application from
lawnmowers to automobiles to trucks to locomotives can benefit
from the addition of hydrogen. Benefits include more power and
longer engine life but the most astonishing of all are Minus
Emissions. That is, with enough hydrogen, the exhaust gasses are
cleaner than the air that enters the engine. Levels of carbon
monoxide, un-burnt hydrocarbons, tire particles and diesel soot
are reduced as air is cleaned by the hydrogen combustion. This
increases efficiency of the engine and pollutants are reduced to
harmless gasses and water vapor.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Apparatus for dissociating water into hydrogen and oxygen,
comprises a tank and a quantity of water contained in the tank. A
quantity of a conductivity promoting material is suspended or
dissolved in the water to form an electrically conductive fluid. A
plurality of plates are suspended in the electrically conductive
fluid. A reactive agent selected from the group consisting of
derivatives of vegetable materials, derivatives of highly resinous
vegetable materials, derivatives of vegetable materials taken from
pinyon pine (Pinus aristata), derivatives of vegetable materials
taken from dragon blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari), water soluble
derivatives of partially oxidized vegetable materials, water
soluble derivatives of partially oxidized highly resinous
vegetable materials, water soluble derivatives of partially
oxidized vegetable materials taken from pinyon pine, and water
soluble derivatives of partially oxidized vegetable materials
taken from dragon blood tree are suspended or dissolved in the
The reactive agent may be made by collecting a quantity of organic
material, at least partially oxidizing organic material, placing
the oxidized organic material in a vessel; introducing water into
said vessel; heating the contents of said vessel; maintaining
temperature of the contents of said vessel for a period of time;
allowing the temperature of the contents of vessel to drop over a
period of time; filtering out solids from the contents of vessel
to generate said reactive agent. The water may comprise energized
water, such as available from Ancient Transformational
Technologies of Westcliffe, Co. (www.ancienttek.com) under the
brand name AETHERICALLY CHARGED WATER. The water may comprise
triple distilled or a mixture of triple distilled and energized
water. The water may comprise de-ionized water. The water may
preferably comprise non-energized and energized water in a ratio
of approximately six parts non-energized water to one part
energized water. The water may comprise non-energized and
energized water in a ratio of approximately five to seven parts
non-energized water to one-quarter to two parts energized water.
The plates may comprise stainless steel plates that have been
subjected to an electrical potential in an electrolytic solution
and periodically cleaned. The plates may also comprise a metal
that is substantially non-reactive in a mixture of the water,
reactive agent and conductivity promoting material under the
application of electrical power to the apparatus. The inventive
system may further comprise an internal combustion engine and a
coupling sending dissociated hydrogen and oxygen to (i) an air
intake on the internal combustion engine, (ii) a fuel material
associated with the engine, or (iii) a cylinder of the internal
combustion engine. The plates may reach a level higher than the
water, reactive agent and conductivity promoting material. The
plates are preferably not connected to each other by metallic
conductors. The inventive engine may be powered by one or more
hydrocarbon fuels selected from the group consisting of gasoline,
diesel fuel, alcohol, petroleum biofuel, biological derivatives
and petroleum derivatives.
A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the stoichiometric ratio of
water, for example as released from the electrolysis of water, may
be added to the air intake of an internal combustion engine or
otherwise introduced into the combustion process, in accordance
with the invention.
This compares with hydrogen injection in automobiles, which is a
known method of improving engine efficiency.
Hydrogen gas may be stored in a vehicle, for example compressed in
a vessel at 3,600 to 10,000 psi for injection into the engine.
This is costly and requires an infrastructure in industry outside
of the vehicle itself.
Introduction of gases into the engine, in accordance with the
invention, may be achieved by way of introducing the gas into the
air intake or the atomized gasoline entrained in the air exiting a
carburetor, or by injecting the gas into liquid gasoline prior to
injection into the cylinder of the engine. Injection of
appropriate amounts of free hydrogen into a cylinder of an
internal combustion engine results in a more explosive mixture in
accordance with the invention. The result is more complete
combustion of hydrocarbons and, consequently, cleaner combustion.
The principal problem is how to efficiently generate hydrogen for
storage and use over the long term. The mixture of hydrogen and
oxygen is generally regarded as dangerously explosive as compared
to pure hydrogen or oxygen. Typically, generating hydrogen and
oxygen may be achieved using a hydrolyzer, also known as a
hydrogen electrolyzer. Generally, a simple hydrolyzer comprises a
container filled with distilled water in which sodium hydroxide
(lye) or some other suitable conductive agent is dissolved in
solution. Positive and negative electrodes are suspended in the
solution and voltage is applied between the positive and negative
electrodes. This causes oxygen to form at the positive electrode,
and hydrogen to form at the negative electrode. These gases are
allowed to mix and then introduced into an engine together with
Hydrogen may also be obtained by other methods, such as steam
reformation. This process is relatively efficient, involving
heating metal, usually iron to red hot temperatures and allowing
steam to pass over the surface. The oxygen binds to the metal,
forming an oxide, which may have commercial value as a pigment
useful in applications ranging from cement to paints. In this
process hydrogen atoms are released and may be drawn off and
compressed for storage and later use.
Solar energy may also be used to generate hydrogen from water.
In conventional hydrolyzers the suspension of electrodes in the
caustic solution coupled with the application of electricity to
the electrodes results in rapid degradation of the electrodes and
resultant inefficiency and, ultimately, failure of the system.
In accordance with the invention, means are provided for more
efficiently extracting energy from the engine while at same time
In accordance with the invention, an electrolyzer with electrodes
having a surface which greatly extends electrolyzer life is
provided. The invention also incorporates of a catalytic agent
into the electrolyzer solution and the same significantly
contributes to the longevity of the system and its effectiveness.
Generally, besides being used during the operation of the
electrolyzer, the catalyst contributes to the surface treatment of
the electrolyzer electrodes during what may be viewed as an
initial “breaking in” period as will be described in detail below.
This is achieved by applying electricity to the electrolyzer
electrodes suspended in a solution of the catalyst in an
electrolyzer, or in a dedicated electrode treatment device, much
like an electrolyzer.
It is thus seen that the system of the present invention provides
hydrogen on demand, as compared to the consumption of hydrogen,
generated previously, for example, at a facility dedicated to
same, which has been stored in compressed gas cylinders.
As an additional advantage, the amount of hydrogen present in the
system is relatively small at any given point in time.
Accordingly, the system of the present invention takes advantage
of this condition to allow the hydrogen to mix with the oxygen.
Undesired combustion is minimized or eliminated as the gases are
present in small amounts, as compared to a reservoir of, for
example, compressed hydrogen gas, or two compressed tanks filled
with compressed oxygen and compressed hydrogen.
In accordance with the invention, oxygen and hydrogen are mixed
with each other as they are being produced, for example in the
precise stoichiometric ratio of water, that is two hydrogen atoms
for each oxygen atom. This mixture is more combustible than the
mixture of hydrogen and air. In accordance with the present
invention, combustion of the same, as it is produced, improves
horsepower and contributes to more complete combustion, thus
improving efficiency and reducing pollutants.
It is recognized by the applicant that hydrogen will explode in a
wide range of concentrations in the air, for example ranging
between 5% to 70% hydrogen. However, characteristics and
efficiency of the combustion will vary with the concentration of
and the type of hydrogen in the mixture. Accordingly, preferably
the system of the present invention utilizes hydrogen and oxygen
in the above stoichiometric ratio, although other ratios will
provide acceptable results, and under certain circumstances may
meet or exceed performance characteristics of the stoichiometric
In accordance with the invention further efficiency may be
achieved by implementing the particular modifications and
adaptations of the electrolyzer as are described herein. As will
be detailed below, a large number of electrodes suspended in a
sodium hydroxide solution which also comprises a catalyst are
configured in a series electrical circuit with the objective of
limiting per cell voltage and current. The objective is to prevent
overheating of the hydrolyzer. Such overheating represents power
losses which should be avoided because they unduly increase the
load which the hydrolyzer puts on an automobile generator used to
power it. It is also believed that the series configuration
results in the formation of a uniform magnetic field which may
assist in the electrolysis.
A third aspect of the technology disclosed herein, which may be
incorporated into the system in accordance with the invention, is
to use a combination of inventive features to separate the
hydrogen from the oxygen in the water used to fuel combustible gas
generation in accordance with the present invention. More
particularly, a catalytic material is introduced into the sodium
hydroxide solution, as noted above.
In accordance with the invention, high-grade stainless steel
plates may be used to form the conductive electrodes in the
BRIEF DESCRIPTION THE DRAWINGS
The operation of the invention will become apparent from the
following description taken in conjunction with the
drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram generally illustrating the
construction of a hydrolyzer or electrode conditioning apparatus
in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram, similar to FIG. 1, in which the
details of construction of the system are illustrated;
FIG. 3 illustrates schematically the desirable clearance
between the top of the liquid and the top of the electrode in a
hydrolyzer or an electrode conditioning device and a desirable
clearance between the top of the electrodes in the lid closing
of the tank portion of an electrolyzer;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram illustrating structure for the
collection of Hydrogen and oxygen gas generated according to the
FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-section overview of the inventive
FIG. 6 illustrates apparatus for practicing the inventive
method for the preparation of the inventive catalytic agent.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
As noted above, in accordance with the invention a high oxygen
reduction potential (ORP) catalyst is incorporated into the sodium
hydroxide solution in the inventive electrolyzer to advantageously
achieve operation of an electrolyzer with the minimal generation
of heat and the avoidance of fouling of the hydrolyzer electrode
surfaces. The result is high efficiency and relatively long
service life for the hydrolyzer and its electrodes. Moreover, the
mixture of dissolved chemical compounds (e.g. sodium hydroxide,
water and high ORP catalyst, whose preparation is described below)
is used in preferred ratios which are believed to favor the
hydrolysis reaction with a minimized generation of heat,
functioning as a catalyst that contributes to breakage of the
bonds between the oxygen and hydrogen in the water molecule. The
chemical constituents sodium hydroxide, triple distilled water,
and the high ORP catalyst, as well as the method for mixing and
determining proper ratios are described below. This mixture of
catalyst and other chemical constituents may be used in a series
cell electrolysis device to create hydrogen and oxygen from water
with high efficiency.
The preparation of triple distilled water is well-known, generally
comprising three successive distillations. In each distillation
stage water is boiled, for example in a retort or industrial
equivalent, precipitated using a condenser and collected as the
end product of the particular distillation stage and is input to
the next distillation stage.
The sodium hydroxide solution to be incorporated into an
electrolyzer or an apparatus dedicated to the conditioning or
burning of electrodes or the electrolyzer, is prepared by first
adding sodium hydroxide to the triple-distilled water. Typically,
approximately 4.5 pounds of sodium hydroxide is added to about two
gallons of water.
During the addition of sodium hydroxide to the water, the
conductivity of the solution is monitored. When the maximum
conductivity is reached, slightly more sodium hydroxide is added.
After such adding of the sodium hydroxide, the solution is allowed
to cool to room temperature. It is important to add the energized
water after the solution of distilled water and sodium hydroxide
is mixed and thoroughly cooled, because the energized water
generally accentuates and/or energizes reactions of chemical
compounds to which it is added, as compared to ordinary water.
This could cause a number of problems. For example, the added heat
may do damage to the system. Likewise, splashing, bubbling and
other reactions may cause injury, make measurement of ingredients
difficult, or the like.
Referring to FIG. 1, the manufacture of a hydrolyzer 1 in
accordance with the invention may be understood. In accordance
with a preferred method, sodium hydroxide is mixed into two
gallons of triple distilled water. The triple distilled water is
held in a tank 10 made of, for example, plastic material, such as
a suitable non-conductive, non-reactive material similar to
Acrylic having an appropriate thickness, usually of 0.25 inches.
The tank may be fabricated by having the plastic material cut into
a plurality of sheets of plastic which function as sidewalls 12,
14, 16 and 18, a bottom 20 and a top cover 22. Sidewalls 12, 14,
16 and 18, and a bottom 20 are secured to each other to form a
Mechanical assembly and sealing of wall, bottom and top cover
interfaces may also be employed.
As detailed above, sodium hydroxide of the quality detailed above
is slowly added to the triple distilled water in tank 10.
Conductivity of the liquid and tank 10 is monitored, and addition
of sodium hydroxide is continued until conductivity peaks.
In another vessel, the high ORP fluid is mixed with triple
distilled water in a ratio of 1 teaspoon of the catalytic high ORP
fluid to 1 gallon of distilled water.
Sidewalls 14 and 18 are provided with a plurality of grooves 26.
Bottom 20 is provided with a plurality of grooves 28. While the
grooves are not necessary, they facilitate the placement and
secure mounting of plates 30 in tank 10.
Plates 30 function as electrodes of the hydrolyzer.
Electrodes 30 are made of stainless steel, for example 316L. The
material is selected for its paramagnetic properties. Most
effective operation with this material has been achieved by
conditioning the electrodes by running a hydrolyzer cell for an
extended period of time, periodically scrubbing the electrodes
with an abrasive member to remove accumulated deposits. The
electrolyzer is run by the application of a voltage to the
positive end electrode 32 and the negative end electrode 34.
Electrodes between positive end electrode 32 and negative end
electrode 34 are not directly connected to electricity 5 wires,
but together with the electrolytic sodium hydroxide solution
contained in tank 10 form an array of electrodes which are connect
in a series electrical circuit. It is believed that constituent
metals of the stainless steel plates which are subject to fouling
(apparently primarily iron oxides) are oxidized during operation
of the electrolyzer through the application of a voltage to the
positive end electrode 32 and the negative end electrode 34.
In accordance with the invention, the plates which form the
electrodes may be sanded or abraded to increase the surface area.
Because of the accumulation of iron oxide and perhaps other
deposits on the electrodes during conditioning, mechanical
scrubbing of the electrodes (as will be detailed below) is
performed in accordance with the present invention. This may be
achieved using any suitable means. This should be done
periodically during the conditioning of the electrodes, for
example by initial operation of a hydrolyzer 1, or in a cell
dedicated to the conditioning process. During this conditioning
process hydrogen and oxygen are released from opposite sides of
It has been discovered that after the initial conditioning
process, analysis of the surface of the opposite sides 36 and 38
of the electrodes, compared to the composition of stainless steel
SST 316L, shows the following constituents:
Plate Side 36 Plate Side 38 SST 316L Oxygen
O — O 36.09 O 21.11
Na — Na 33.81 Na 19.22
C 0.03 C 22.19 C 36.69
Fe Bal Fe 6.05 Fe 15.33
Cr 16-18 Cr .84 Cr 4.18
Ca — Ca .29 Ca .22
Ni 10-14 Ni .22 Ni 2.38
Al — Al .37 Al —
Mo 2-3 Mo .08 Mo .35
Si 1 Si .05 Si —
Ce — Ce — Ce .06
Mn 2 Mn — Mn .46
P .045 P — P —
S .03 S — S —
The analysis method used was chromo-spectrographic imagery.
Surfaces 36 are the sides of the electrodes at which oxygen is
released. Surface 38 is the side of the electrodes at which
hydrogen is released. It is believed that fabricating a plate with
the composition of one or more of the metals for plate sides 36
and 38 (and perhaps not including iron) indicated in the above
table may result in an acceptable electrode without any (or
perhaps a reduced) need for the initial electrode conditioning
process described above.
In accordance with the invention, electrodes 30, 32 and 34 are
made of Stainless steel 316L and have a thickness of 16 gauge, but
any convenient thickness will work. Electrodes have a length and
width calculated to fit securely within grooves 26 and 28 on the
sides and the bottom of tank 10.
In accordance with the invention, as illustrated in FIG. 2, the
electrodes formed by plates 30, 32 and 34 have a height 40 of
approximately six inches, and a width 42 of approximately six
inches, but may be any size and proportion, as may be needed to
meet any particular demand for the production of hydrogen and
oxygen. Likewise, the electrodes have a wide range of thicknesses,
selected mainly to accommodate physical handling and mechanical
integrity of the same. In the case of a cell constructed for the
purpose of conditioning electrodes, the electrodes are separated
by a gap 44 of 0.125 inches, as illustrated in FIG. 2. It is noted
for the sake of clarity that FIG. 2 is not drawn to scale for
purposes of clarity of illustration.
The height 40 of the electrodes is selected to be higher than the
level of liquid in the cell, but is low enough to allow a
clearance 46 of approximately 0.25 inches, as illustrated in FIG.
3. This results in the creation of a manifold space between the
tops 48 of the electrodes and the bottom of top cover 22. Both
hydrogen and oxygen created on opposite sides of the electrodes
during the operation of electrolyzer 1 are thus collected and to
some extent mixed in this manifold space from which they enter
tube 50, as illustrated in FIG. 4. Tube 50 is coupled, for
example, to the air intake of an internal combustion engine
through a bubbler, in accordance with the invention.
In accordance with the invention, there are various electrodes in
tank 10 when the object of the operation of the system is to
condition electrodes for use in an electrolyzer. In the case of a
device meant to provide hydrogen and oxygen gas to an engine, end
electrodes 32 and 34 are connected to the positive and negative
terminals of a battery. It is noted that the number of electrodes
and their dimensions are not to scale in FIG. 1, which is laid out
primarily to clearly illustrate the nature of the structures
involved. The remaining electrodes 30 between end electrodes 32
and 34 are not directly connected to the battery. However, because
they are positioned between electrodes 32 and 34, they are in a
series electrical circuit and have a voltage across them. The
battery is continuously being recharged by the generator of the
engine, in a conventional manner.
The voltage across each pair of adjacent electrodes is in the
range of 2.1 to 2.5 volts when voltage is applied across the
electrolyzer during the initial operation of the electrolyzer. As
noted before, this initial operation serves as a conditioning
period. During such conditioning, reddish iron deposits build up
on the electrodes which must be removed and periodically scrubbed.
In accordance with the invention, initial conditioning by
operation of the electrolyzer 1 is usually continued for
approximately 36 hours.
The analysis of the plates noted above, indicates that the red
material forming on the electrodes is an iron compound. Thus,
scrubbing removes iron compounds from the surface of the stainless
steel electrodes, leaving a substantially paramagnetic surface.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is
believed advantageous, after several hours of operation for
example twelve hours, for tank 10 to be drained and conditioning
to be continued by the introduction of second solution, comprising
a fresh mixture of triple distilled water, sodium hydroxide and
high ORP catalyst prepared as detailed above and introduced into
the tank. However, in the second solution, the amount of high ORP
catalyst is doubled. More particularly, high ORP catalyst is
incorporated in a ratio of 2 teaspoons of the catalytic high ORP
fluid to 1 gallon water. After the replacement of the fluid in the
tank, the conditioning process is continued, as described above
with periodic scrubbing of electrodes to remove accumulated
materials, such as iron oxides.
After another three to five days, a layer of material is formed on
the surface of the steel. It appears that the surface is simply in
large measure nonferrous components of the stainless steel, as
detailed in chart herein. It is a layer of a new catalyst, formed
from the combination of the ORP materials and the low oxidative
metals, Chromium and Molybdenum which are components of the
stainless steel electrodes.
During the burning or conditioning process described above,
generally a voltage of between 2.1 and 2.5 volts may be measured
across adjacent electrodes as a result of the application of
voltage to end electrodes 32 and 34. As noted above, the burning
process, while it may be viewed as a plate conditioning process,
may, effectively, also be viewed as the initial operation period
for an electrolyzer. Accordingly, hydrogen and oxygen are released
during this process and should be appropriately treated.
In accordance with the invention, it has been found that it may be
necessary to continue burning or conditioning the plates for 3-5
days, 24 hours a day.
It is believed that the electrode conditioning process described
above results in the high ORP catalyst bonding with the chromium
and molybdenum of the stainless.
After the iron is burned off the stainless steel electrodes during
the initial operation of electrolyzer 1 (which condition is
indicated by the cessation of the formation of red deposits on the
electrolyzer plates) the electrodes may be considered to be
conditioned and the electrolyzer may, in principle, be ready to be
used. However, in accordance with a preferred embodiment, the
conditioned electrodes are placed in an electrolyzer particularly
designed for a specific purpose and generally of a more compact
design. This is possible because the electrodes surfaces have been
treated, and harmful accumulations and deposits at the bottom of
the tank are largely eliminated.
After burning or conditioning of the electrodes has been
completed, it has been observed that the side of the electrode
which releases oxygen is a darkish color. Similarly, after burning
has been completed, it has been observed that the side of the
electrode which releases hydrogen is somewhat gold in color.
During the operation of the inventive electrolyzer, as illustrated
in FIG. 1, twelve volts is applied across electrolyzer 1. However,
can be made to operate with different voltages depending on the
conditions of the engine or desired results. Similarly, the
voltages could be pulsed instead of steady. More particularly, the
inventive electrolyzer 1 may have electrode 32 coupled to the
positive side of the automobile battery, while electrode 34 is
coupled to the negative side of the automobile battery.
As a result of the application of voltage between end electrodes
32 and 34, electrolysis occurs and Hydrogen comes off the negative
sides 52 of the electrodes, as can be seen in FIG. 5. Oxygen comes
off the positive sides 54 of the electrodes. The production of
hydrogen and oxygen is caused by the dissociation of hydrogen and
oxygen atoms in the water which is one of the constituents of
As the aqueous component of the liquid in tank 10 is consumed by
being converted into hydrogen and oxygen, water must be added to
the tank which forms hydrolyzer 12. The water to be added is
triple distilled water and more particularly the liquid added to
tank 10 comprises six parts triple distilled water to one part
This mixture is prepared by pouring energized water into triple
The molecules of Hydrogen and Oxygen formed adjacent the
electrodes are mixed in the manifold space 58 above the level 60
of solution 56 and the bottom of cover 22.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is
contemplated that the cover 22 is sealed to tank 10. Tank 10 and
cover 22 may also be made of any appropriate material, with the
object of reinforcing and containing the system.
It is also contemplated that a suitable release mechanism may be
employed, referred to as a safety bubbler with a release valve for
the neutralization of any pressure.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the
plates prepared, as detailed above, may be removed from a
conditioning cell, as described above, to make a compact,
long-lived and efficient electrolyzer suitable for incorporation
in conjunction with an engine.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of an engine application
electrolyzer, the tank of the application electrolyzer is filled
with a solution of distilled water, energized water, sodium
hydroxide and high ORP catalyst.
In accordance with the invention, it is contemplated that any
level of sodium hydroxide solution in the electrolyzer will not
exceed the height of the electrodes, as illustrated in FIG. 5.
Engine electrolyzer includes suitable number of plates, and
receives appropriate input from power source. The electrode plates
are separated by 0.125 inches, as noted above, and a voltage of 2
volts has been measured between adjacent electrode plates. It may,
depending upon the design of the engine involved, be desirable to
use a larger battery and generator in view of the added electrical
load introduced by the inventive electrolyzer.
The engine electrolyzer described above will produce about 300
liters of gas comprising a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen per
hour. This gas accumulates in the manifold space 58, from which it
feeds into output tube 62 which is connected to the air intake of
the internal combustion engine powering the automobile.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the length of the
coupling between the electrolyzer and the air intake is as small
as possible. Thus, the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is sent to
the engine substantially simultaneously with its production. The
gas thus sent to engine is mixed with air and is ignited in the
combustion chamber. The result is to make to the gasoline or other
fuel more completely combustible, thus resulting in substantially
reduced pollutants and increased power.
As alluded to above, it is believed that by fabricating the
electrodes of appropriate materials, for example those materials
indicated in the above chart, perhaps without the inclusion of any
iron, the need for the electrode conditioning process may be
In the system of the present invention, as described above, the
sodium hydroxide solution is a highly efficient vehicle for water
separation. The sodium hydroxide has increased the conductivity of
the distilled water to allow the electricity to pass through it
and dissociate the molecular bonds between the oxygen and hydrogen
atoms in the water and hence facilitate separation. As alluded to
above, in accordance with the invention, electrolyzer 1 is carried
on board a vehicle, such as an automobile or any engine
application. The system also involves minimal added complexities,
because the electrolyzer 1 is powered by the generator of the
vehicle and is connected to the automobile engine merely by adding
an input port to the air intake to the engine.
It is believed that the relatively short path between the plates
where the hydrogen and oxygen are generated and the input to the
engine, and the fact that the gas is consumed substantially as it
is produced, with a minimal delay in time results in the fact that
the hydrogen produced is largely para-hydrogen and this is
believed, in accordance with the present invention, to be more
effective in promoting combustion and reducing pollution.
It has been shown that hydrogen gas under ordinary conditions is a
mixture of two kinds of molecules, known as ortho- and
para-hydrogen, which differ from one another by the spins of their
electrons and nuclei. Normal hydrogen at room temperature contains
25% of the para form and 75% of the ortho form. The ortho form
cannot be prepared in the pure state. Since the two forms differ
in energy the physical properties also differ.
These two forms of hydrogen are referred to as spin isomers of
hydrogen. In these species, the hydrogen molecule consists of two
hydrogen atoms linked by a covalent bond. If we neglect the traces
of deuterium and tritium which could be present in any sample of
hydrogen, each hydrogen atom consists of one proton and one
electron. The proton has an associated magnetic moment, which we
can treat as being generated by the proton's spin. The spins of
the two hydrogen atoms can either be aligned in the same direction
(this is orthohydrogen) or in opposite directions (this is
The ratio between the ortho and para forms is about 4:1 at
standard temperature and pressure, but the para form dominates at
low temperatures (approx. 99.95% at 20 K).
Orthohydrogen is unstable at low temperatures and spontaneously
changes into parahydrogen, but the process is slow because the
kinetic barrier to interconversion is high. The conversion from
ortho to para state is exothermic (releasing heat). The presence
of an orthomagnetic substance in liquid hydrogen can induce rapid
heatin— an undesirable occurrence when one wants hydrogen to
remain liquid. At room temperature, hydrogen contains 75%
orthohydrogen, a proportion which the liquefaction process
preserves. The first synthesis of pure parahydrogen was achieved
by Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer in 1929.
The high ORP catalyst fluid used in accordance with the invention
is non-corrosive, with a high Ph and very high ORP. This fluid,
which is amber in color, has been found to have a Ph of between 12
and 14 and an oxygen reduction potential of between -150 to -250.
This compares with the pH of sodium hydroxide which is 12-14. The
high ORP catalyst is prepared, in accordance with the invention,
by heating a solution of sodium hydroxide from a natural source
and filtering the same, as appears more fully below. Observation
has shown that with the addition of the high ORP fluid, the
efficiency of the electrolysis process is significantly increased
to the point of being viable as an add-on to an internal
combustion engine which will provide additional power and reduced
The high ORP catalyst is a fluid and is prepared by using a
resinous tree bark as a starting material. The same is burned,
resulting in the creation of a light ash or raw pot ash. Potash is
in large part sodium hydroxide and is the traditional source of
this compound, but, in the case of resinous vegetable materials,
it also contains other materials and may be refined to produce the
While other parts of the tree may be used, in accordance with a
preferred embodiment of the invention, pinyon pine bark is, most
preferably, burned to make ash. While only preliminary work has
been done with other woods, it is believed that ponderosa pine and
other closely related species (e.g., other species of subgenus:
Ducampopinus) may also work.
In addition to the bark, other resinous parts of the wood, such as
the pinecones, the layer of wood closest to the bark, new growth,
and needles are believed to be particularly effective.
It is believed that the metabolic systems in trees of the resinous
type generate complex organic materials with a high degree of
stability and anti-fouling potential.
In accordance with the invention burning of the organic material
is done in a manner conventional to that for the generation of
In accordance with the invention it is contemplated that the
formation of ash should proceed until the ash is substantially
without charcoal remaining in the combustion product.
In accordance with the invention, it is necessary that sufficient
heat be generated for a long enough time to convert all components
of the wood and associated vegetable matter to ash.
When it is necessary to add additional highly resinous wood
components to the stove, the process is continued with the
objective of generating more ash as a source material for
catalyst. More particularly, at that time, the stove is filled
with wood again with proportions and quantities of the thicknesses
of large wood, followed by closely packed highly resinous
components noted above.
Generally, it was found that the desired gray ash was located on
the top of the ash layer.
More completely burned white ash, typically located below the gray
ash, was not found to be the most desirable source of the
materials from which to refine the catalyst.
After the desired ash has been collected, in order to make the
catalytic fluid, approximately 300 ml of dry collected ash is
placed in a vessel 110 having the shape illustrated in FIG. 6. In
accordance with a preferred embodiment, ash used in the method is
of relatively fine dimension, for example in the range of 1000 to
5000 nm in diameter. In order to achieve this particle size, the
ash should be ground, for example, using a ball mill.
One gallon of triple distilled water is also placed in vessel 110.
Vessel 110 is then hermetically sealed. The dimensions of vessel
110 are an inside height of eight inches and an inside diameter at
its center (the maximum diameter) of five inches. Vessel 110 has a
wall thickness of about one inch and is made of high grade
paramagnetic stainless steel. After being placed in vessel 110,
frustro-conical stopper 112 is put in position as illustrated in
FIG. 6. Stopper 112 is sealed in position by an O-ring 114 and a
second O-ring 116.
The contents of vessel 110 are then shaken to disperse and/or
dissolve components of the ash in the distilled water. Stopper 112
incorporates a heating element 118 supported within mounting
member 120. A thermal sensor 122 incorporates a probe 124 which
measures the temperature within the vessel 110. In addition, means
may be provided for measuring the pressure of the fluid within
Once the material is placed inside, the vessel is sealed so that
no air is left inside and the pressure is raised to 1000 psig. As
this is being done, the temperature is raised until the outside
temperature reaches 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The vessel is then
shaken vigorously to allow the materials to mix.
Shaking is performed during the heating process and at the end of
the heating process.
The vessel may be cleaned using a brass scrub brush which is 18
Heating element 118 is then activated, resulting in heating the
fluid within vessel 110 and increasing the pressure within the
vessel. In accordance with the invention, the material in vessel
110 is pressurized up to or in excess of 1000 psig, for a
sustained period of time up to 3 hours.
In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, it
is contemplated that vessel 110 is made of a paramagnetic
material, more particularly a paramagnetic grade of stainless
steel. After the heating process is completed, the contents of
vessel 110 are allowed to cool linearly to room temperature for a
period of 24 hours. No agitation is applied during this 24-hour
The vessel has a threaded cap that will seal itself stronger as
the pressure increases. Through the cap is inserted a heating
element that is used to heat the material inside. The heating
element is insulated from the metal of the vessel to avoid heat
transfer to the shell and maximize the transfer to the material.
A gauge and pressure fitting is attached to the cap to both
pressurize the vessel and measure the pressure.
The contents of vessel 110 is heated by internal heating element
118, which draws about 20 amperes at 240 volts, consuming about
2000 watts. Element 118 is activated until the outside temperature
of vessel 110 reaches 300 degrees Fahrenheit. Heating element 118
is turned on and off periodically in order to maintain that
temperature in the manner well known in the art, for example using
a thermostatic sensor whose contact probe touches the outside of
the vessel. A cross check on temperature is provided by
thermostatic sensor 122.
After the outside temperature 300.degree.F. has been maintained
for about three hours, actuation of heating element 118 is
continued for a 24-hour period in a manner which provides for
linear decrease in temperature from 3000 Fahrenheit to 70.degree.
Fahrenheit over a period 24 hours.
After this, one first pours off the liquid allowing the material
which has settled at the bottom of vessel 110 to remain in vessel
110. This remaining material is distorted. The poured off liquid
is then filtered using a paper filter, being careful to note that
the filter material may be degraded.
The resulting catalytic fluid has a Ph level of between 12 and 14
but appears to be non-toxic and non-reactive to human tissues. It
has a golden yellow-amber color.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the
oxygen and hydrogen gasses provided by the electrolyzer are washed
and utilized together by being fed into the air intake of the
engine to facilitate a more efficient combustion of hydrocarbons
in the internal combustion engine.
It is also noted that the inventive electrolyzer may be used in
any device which burns fuel, for example fossil fuel, such as an
oil burner, in order to achieve increased combustion efficiency.
Applications include refineries, mills, chemical plants,
foundries, waste processing, etc.
It is noted that while the use of the inventive hydrogen and
oxygen dissociation apparatus has been described in the context of
improving combustion efficiency in an internal combustion engine,
it is contemplated that the generated gasses may be introduced
into other systems burning fuel, including diesel engines, heating
systems, kerosene burning systems, biofuel burning engines and
combustion devices and so forth.
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