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Rustum ROY, et al.

Pure E or H Field Microwave Metallurgy







http://www.wikipedia.org

Rustum Roy



Rustum Roy (July 3, 1924 - August 26, 2010) was a materials scientist who held visiting professorships in materials science at Arizona State University and in medicine at the University of Arizona, as well as an emeritus position at Pennsylvania State University in three departments. He described himself as a science policy analyst, advocate of interdisciplinary education and alternative medicine, and science and religion.

Education and career

Roy was born in Ranchi, Bihar Province, India. In 1942 he received BS in Physical Chemistry from Patna University and in 1944 his MS from the same university. He earned a Ph.D. in ceramics at Penn State in 1948, and became an American citizen in 1961. He had a long career at Penn State in geochemistry and materials science. He founded the Materials Science Laboratory at Penn State and authored hundreds of technical papers. Roy was a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Publishing in a journal for which he was editor-in-chief, he wrote about the relevance of the structure of water to homeopathy[1] which he defended from 'Homeophobia' by letter to The Guardian.[2] He referred to himself as a "citizen scientist."

Awards and honors

Evan Pugh Professor of the Solid State Emeritus
Professor of Geochemistry Emeritus
Professor of Science, Technology, and Society Emeritus
Honorary Member, Ceramic Society of Japan 1991
Foreign Member, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, elected 1977
Foreign Fellow, Indian National Science Academy, elected 1984
Honorary Fellow, Indian Academy of Sciences, 1990
Foreign Associate, Engineering Academy of Japan, Foreign Associate 1991
Foreign Member, Academy of Russian Sciences Foreign Member; elected 1999
Ceramic Society of Japan (Centennial) International Award, 1991
Mineralological Society of America Award 1957
Federation of Materials Societies, National Materials Advancement Award 1991
American Chemical Society DuPont Award in Chemistry of Materials, 1993
American Society for Engineering Education, Centennial Medal, 1993; Installed in Hall of Fame, 1993 (one of 43 in 100 years).
Order of the Rising Sun, 3rd Class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon, 2002.[3]

Other activities

Roy served as a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies (1980–85) and Senior Policy Fellow at the Brookings Institution (1982–83). He was on the Planning and Strategy Committee of the National Council of Churches from 1964–70. He worked with Andrew Weil's program in integrative medicine and whole person healing at the University of Arizona.

Bibliography

with coauthor Della Roy, Honest Sex (1969), Signet Press, Author's Choice Press 2003 reprint: ISBN 0-595-27213-4

(contributor), Materials Science and Engineering in the United States: Proceedings (1970) Penn State U. Press ISBN 0-271-00101-1

Experimenting With Truth: The Fusion of Religion With Technology Needed for Humanity's Survival (1980), Pergamon Press, ISBN 0-08-025820-4, the 1979 Hibbert Lectures

Radioactive Waste (1982), Pergamon Press, ISBN 0-08-027541-9

Lost at the Frontier: U.S. Science and Technology Policy Adrift (1985), ISI Press, ISBN 0-89495-042-8

(co-editor), Materials Science and Engineering Serving Society (1998), Elsevier Science, ISBN 0-444-82793-5

(editor), The Interdisciplinary Imperative: Interactive Research and Education, Still an Elusive Goal in Academia (2000), Writers Club Press, ISBN 0-595-01179-9
    Science of Whole Person Healing: Proceedings of the First Interdisciplinary International Conference (2003), iUniverse, ISBN 0-595-30153-3
Observations & Studies of the Healing Efficacy of the Life Vessel (2009) [2]

Biography

Phoebe Forrest Link, Passionate Realist: Rustum Roy In Our Life And Time (1994), Cricklewood Press, ISBN 0-9643077-0-7

References

Roy R. (2005) “The Structure of Liquid Water; Novel Insights from Materials Research; Potential Relevance to Homeopathy.” Material Research Innovations. 9 (4), pg 577-608.[1]
 
Roy, Rustum (2007-12-19). "'Homeophobia must not be tolerated'". The Guardian.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/dec/19/comment.health.
Retrieved 2008-02-24.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rustum_Roy&oldid=498020183"



http://www.mri.psu.edu/faculty/agrawal/media/169.pdf
Materials Research Innovations 12 ( 3 ) p. 119 ( 2008 )

Rapid Alloying of Silicon with Germanium in Microwave Field  using Single Mode Cavity

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http://www.mri.psu.edu/faculty/agrawal/media/069.pdf

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http://www.mri.psu.edu/faculty/agrawal/media/061.pdf

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Mat. Res. Innovat. ( 2002 ) 6 : 128 - 140

Definitive Experimental Evidence for Radically New Effects of Separated E & H Fields,
such as decrystalization of oxides in seconds


Radha Roy, et al.

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http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7999650
Journal of Materials Research
Volume 17 / Issue 12 / 2002 , pp 3008-3011

Major phase transformations and magnetic property changes caused by electromagnetic fields at microwave frequencies

Rustum Roya1, Ramesh Peelamedu, Craig Grimes, Jiping Chenga1 and Dinesh Agrawal
Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802

Abstract

We demonstrate in this paper that common crystalline phases can be made noncrystalline and hard magnets can be converted to soft magnets in the solid state in several seconds at temperatures far below the melting points. New crystal structures and magnetic structures of ferromagnetic oxides (ferrites such as BaFe12O19, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and ZnFe2O4, etc.) are formed by reacting either the stoichiometric mixture of oxides or the preformed phase-pure crystalline material in a pure H field (or E field) at microwave (2.45 GHz) frequencies. These major changes in the magnetic properties as well as major structural phase changes are caused by the magnetic field.

(Received June 29 2002)




New Roles for Electric and Magnetic Fields in Processing, Microstructure Evolution, and Performance of Materials: New "EM" and Human Intentions as Polarized Vector Fields

Program Organizers: Rishi Raj, Univ of Colorado; Rustum Roy, Pennsylvania State University; Dinesh Agrawal, Pennsylvania State University


Wednesday 10:00 AM
October 28, 2009

Survey of Novel Directed Microwave Fields (EMR) on Condensed Matter

Tania Slawecki1; Manju Rao1; Rustum Roy1; L. Cross1; Nicholas Kuzmik2; James Cornwell2; 1Penn State University; 2Protective Systems, Inc.

Directed-energy high power microwaves have been harnessed for weaponry, but not for useful commercial applications. The standard configuration consists of a power supply, magnetron and horn antenna. Modifications of this configuration described by Cornwell, produced a radiation which has radically new effects on materials. We report the effects of 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz directed fields, conventional versus modified, on a wide-range of materials, liquids and solids, and consider prospects for their use.

Dramatic Structuring of Water using Polarized Microwave and Radiofrequency Radiation, and Crystal-induced Epitaxy

Manju Rao1; G. Patrick Flanagan2; Rustum Roy3; Tania Slawecki3; Steven Sedlmayr4; 1Materials Research Institute; 2Phi Sciences; 3Pennsylvania State University; 4Sedlmayr Associates, LLC

Polarized radiation and epitaxy are presented here as key vectors for structuring water.

Raman spectroscopy reveals that liquid water treated with 2.45 GHz polarized microwave and 13.56 MHz radiofrequency radiation undergoes dramatic structural changes, including striking reduction in the main O-H stretching modes which relax to normal on the order of several hours,  while other structural changes persist for days or weeks.

Water containing small amounts of NaCl in presence of a polarized radiofrequency fields, causes an unpredicted electrodeless dissociation of water, splitting the O-H bond to generate nascent hydrogen and oxygen, which can be burned, and/or which can spontaneously ignite.

For epitaxial structuring, water properties, including surface tension and viscosity, have been altered using macroscopic, large, ultrahard phases: corundum, diamond and quartz crystals. This led to the development of a silica gel sol that is used in industrial applications and in the health industry.



US2009183597
Metal Extraction from Various Chalcogenide Minerals... with Separate Electric Fields and Magnetic Fields


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Inventor(s):     ROY RUSTUM [US]; MOELLER WILLIAM [US] + (ROY RUSTUM, ; MOELLER WILLIAM)
Applicant(s):     CLIFTON MINING COMPANY [US] + (CLIFTON MINING COMPANY, ; AMERICAN BIOTECH LABS, LLC)
Classification:     - international:     C22B11/00 - European:     B02C19/18; C22B1/00; C22B11/00; C22B11/04; C22B3/06; C22B4/00
Also published as:     US7850759  //  WO2008147420



MICROWAVE PROCESSING IN PURE H FIELDS AND PURE E FIELDS 
WO0130118

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Inventor(s):     ROY RUSTUM [US]; CHENG JIPING [US]; AGRAWAL DINESH K [US] + (ROY, RUSTUM, ; CHENG, JIPING, ; AGRAWAL, DINESH, K)
Applicant(s):     PENN STATE RES FOUND [US]; ROY RUSTUM [US]; CHENG JIPING [US]; AGRAWAL DINESH K [US] + (THE PENN STATE RESEARCH FOUNDATION, ; ROY, RUSTUM, ; CHENG, JIPING, ; AGRAWAL, DINESH, K)
Classification: - international:     C04B35/64; H05B6/80; (IPC1-7): H01L21/326; H05B6/64; H05B6/74 - European: C04B35/64; H05B6/80

Also published as: US6365885  (B1) //  AU8027800  (A) 

Abstract -- A process for heating a material (30) includes providing a microwave radiation source (14) and a processing chamber (12). The process includes generating a region of pure magnetic field from the microwave radiation in the processing chamber (12). A region of pure electric field from the microwave radiation is also generated. The material (30) is positioned in the region of pure magnetic field while no portion of the material is positioned in the region of pure electric field and the material is heated in the region of pure magnetic field. The heating may be conducted to sinter the material (30) which may include a metal.

Technical Field

The present invention relates to methods for processing materials in the presence of microwave energy.

Background

Application of microwave energy to process various kinds of materials in an efficient, economic, and effective matter, is emerging as an innovative technology.

Microwave heating of materials is fundamentally different from conventional radiation-conduction-convection heating. In the microwave process, the heat is generated internally within the material instead of originating from external heating sources. Microwave heating is a sensitive function of the material being processed.

Microwaves are electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 1 m in free space and frequency between approximately 300 GHz to 300
MHz, respectively. Today, microwaves at the 2.45 GHz frequency are used almost universally for industrial and scientific applications. The microwaves can be transmitted, absorbed, or reflected, depending on the material type with which they interact.

In conventional sintering processes, extremely high temperatures, long processing times and, in some cases, hot pressing or hot isostatic processing must be applied in the fabrication of products to achieve the highest density and minimum porosity. Conventional powder processing involves the compaction of a powder into the desired shape following by sintering. Typically, powders in the range of 1 to 120 micrometers are employed. The powder is placed in a mold and compacted by applying pressure to the mold. The powder compact is porous. Its density depends upon the compaction pressure and the resistance of the particles to deformation.

The powder compact is then heated to promote bonding of the powder particles. The sintering temperature is such as to cause atomic diffusion and neck formation between the powder particles. The diffusion process can yield a substantially dense body upon completion of the sintering cycle. Such a process is used in industry for a variety of products and applications.

Microwave sintering processes have unique advantages over conventional sintering processes. The fundamental difference is in the heating mechanism. In conventional heating, heat is generated by heating elements (resistive heating) and then transferred to samples via radiation, conduction and convection. In microwave heating, sample materials themselves absorb microwave power and then transform microwave energy to heat within the sample volume.

The use of microwave processing typically reduces sintering time by a factor of 10 or more. This minimizes grain growth. The fine initial microstructure can be retained without using grain growth inhibitors and hence achieve high mechanical strength. The heating rates for a typical microwave process are high and the overall cycle times are reduced by similar amounts as with the process sintering time, for example from hours/days to minutes. Microwave processing of materials has the potential to yield products having improved mechanical properties with additional benefits of short processing times and low energy usage.

Typical microwave processing procedures utilize a mixed electric field and magnetic field condition, with the sample placed into a chamber where it is exposed to both the electric field and the magnetic field generated by the microwaves.

Cherrardi et al., in Electroceramics IV. Vol. II, (eds. Wasner, R., Hoffmann, S.,Bonnenberg, D., & Hoffmann, C.) RWTN, Aachen, 1219-1224 (1994), published a paper indicating that both the magnetic field and electric field may contribute to the sintering of certain materials.

Summary

One embodiment relates to a process including providing a microwave radiation source and a processing chamber. The process includes generating a region of pure magnetic field from the microwave radiation in the processing chamber. A region of pure electric field from the microwave radiation is also generated. A material is positioned in the region of pure magnetic field while no portion of the material is positioned in the region of pure electric field, and the material is heated in the region of pure magnetic field. In one aspect of certain related embodiments, the heating is conducted to sinter the material. In another aspect of certain related embodiments, the material includes a metal.

Another embodiment relates to a method including providing a microwave radiation source and a processing chamber. A first region of maximum magnetic field from the microwave radiation is generated in the processing chamber, and a second region of maximum electric field from the microwave radiation is generated in the processing chamber. A body is positioned in only one of the first region and the second region during a first time period. The body is positioned in the other of the first region and the second region during a second time period. In an aspect of certain related embodiments, a first portion of the body is heated during the first time period and a second portion of the body is heated during the second time period, wherein during the first time period the first portion is heated to a higher temperature than the second portion, and during the second time period the second portion is heated to a higher temperature than the first portion.

Another embodiment relates to a method for heating including providing a substrate having a layer of material thereon. One of the substrate and the layer is positioned in one pure field selected from the group consisting of a microwave generated pure magnetic field and a microwave generated pure electric field, during a first time period. The one of the substrate and the layer is heated layer to a temperature greater than that of the other.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Certain embodiments of the invention are described with reference to the accompanying figures which, for illustrative purposes, are not necessarily drawn to scale.

Fig. 1 is a schematic of a microwave system used for processing materials in magnetic and electric fields.



Figs. 2 (a) is a top sectional view of the cavity of the microwave system including a quartz tube therein.



Fig. 2 (b) is a view along the line A-A of Fig. 2 (a).



Fig. 2 (c) is a side sectional view illustrating a sample positioned in the electric field region and the location of the temperature monitor.



Fig. 2 (d) illustrates the microwave field distribution within the TE, 03 single mode microwave cavity along the length a shown in Fig. 2 (b) and sample locations in the maximum magnetic H field region and the maximum electric E field region.


Fig. 3 (a) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of powdered metal compact (Fe-2% Cu-0.8% C) samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 3 (b) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of cobalt powder compact samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 3 (c) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of copper powder compact samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 3 (d) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of solid copper rod samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 3 (e) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of alumina powder compact samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 3 (f) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of tungsten carbide powder-compact samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 3 (g) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of alumina-metal composite powder-compact samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 3 (h) illustrates a comparison of the heating rates of tungsten carbide cobalt powder-compact samples in different microwave fields.



Fig. 4 illustrates the sintering of a pure Cu powder metal compact including a fully sintered core, a partially sintered interlayer and a surface layer.



Fig. 5 illustrates an example of microwave heating of a Fe-Cu-C powder compact metal sample in a magnetic field region according to an embodiment of the present invention.



Detailed Description

Fig. 1 illustrates a microwave system 10 including a finely tuned waveguided cavity 12 with a cross-sectional area of 86mm by 43 mm which works in TE, 03 single mode which was used to investigate the microwave heating of several materials in different microwave fields using a 2.45 GHz, 1.2 kW microwave generator 14 (Toshiba, Japan). The system also includes a circulator and water dummy load 16, a frequency tuner 18, microwave power monitor 18, and temperature monitor 20 (infrared pyrometer from Mikron Instrument Co., Model
M90-BT with a temperature range of-50 C to 1000 C) connected to the cavity 12.

A gas supply may also be connected for atmospheric control.

Figs. 2 (a)-2 (d) illustrates the cavity 12 in more detail. The cavity is rectangular in cross-section and has a length a = 12.4 cm. A quartz tube 22 is positioned in the cavity 12 to hold the sample 30 and to permit easy atmospheric control. As seen in Figs. 2 (a) and 2 (b), the samples may be positioned at location (a) at the center of the chamber or at position (b) at the side wall of the cavity. Fig. 2 (c) illustrates the position of the temperature monitor 20 when a sample 30 is positioned in the electric field region. Fig. 2 (d) shows the electric field E and magnetic field H distributions along the length a (as seen in Fig. 2 (b) of the chamber. In the location halfway along the length of the cavity, the maximum electric field is in the center of the cross-section, where the magnetic field is a minimum, and the maximum magnetic field is near the wall, where the electric field is at a minimum. During experimental processing runs nitrogen gas was passed through the tube 22 to avoid oxidation of metal samples at elevated temperatures.

A number of samples were prepared and sintered using the experimental set up described above. The samples were centered either at the electric field maximum node or at the magnetic field maximum node. The electric field maximum region and the magnetic field maximum region in the experimental set up described above are separated by about 6 cm, hence, the sample sizes of about 6.25mm (1/4 inch) diameter pellets are small. It should be noted that depending on the size of the sample, it is possible that the entire sample may not lie at the absolute maximum of the magnetic field or electric field. For example, if the maximum electric field is located at the center point of the cavity, then part of the sample may be positioned exactly at the center point, and part of the sample may be positioned slightly adjacent to the center point. As such, the part that is positioned slightly adjacent may not be exposed to the maximum electric field and minimum magnetic field. As a result, when the samples are described herein as being positioned at a"maximum" field region or a"minimum"field region, or at a"pure"field region, it is understood that a portion of the sample may be positioned slightly adjacent to the maximum field point, minimum field point, or pure field point.

A first sample was a commercial powdered metal having a composition of Fe-2wt% Cu-0.8wt% C (obtained from Keystone Powdered-Metal Company, Saint Marys, PA). In the pure or maximum electric field region, the sample reached a maximum temperature of 180 C after being microwave heated for 8 minutes, as seen in Fig. 3 (a). In the maximum magnetic field region, the sample heated up quickly and uniformly. The heating rate was higher than 300 C per minute in the first two minutes, then it slowed down. The final temperature reading was 780 C after 10 minutes.

A cobalt powder-compact sample displayed similar behavior to the Fe2wt% Cu-0.8wt% C sample described above. There was little heating effect in the maximum electric field region, with the sample reaching a temperature of only about 150-200 C in 10 minutes. There was a high heating rate in the maximum magnetic field region, with the sample reaching a temperature of about 550 C in about 2 minutes, and further increasing to a temperature of about 700 C at 10 minutes, as seen in Fig. 3b.

A copper powder-compact sample was also tested and displayed fast heating when placed in the maximum electric field region and when placed in the maximum magnetic field region. As seen in Fig, 3c, the sample temperature rose to about 600700 C and then dropped down to-500 C and remained within the range of about 500-550 C during the heating. In the maximum electric field region, the sample reached maximum temperature in about 1-2 minutes. In the magnetic field region, the same reached maximum temperature in about 3-4 minutes.

For comparison to the copper powder-compact sample, a solid copper bar with the same shape and size was tested to determine its energy absorption and heating behavior (Fig. 3d). There was little or no temperature rise in the solid copper bar in either the maximum electric field region or the maximum magnetic field region. After being exposed in the microwave field for 10 minutes, the sample remained at room temperature, as seen in Fig. 3d.

Non-metal samples were also tested. Alumina is a typical ceramic material with excellent dielectric properties. Alumina usually has a very low dielectric loss, and it is generally not easy to heat up by microwaves, particularly at lower temperatures. Since the dielectric loss of alumina increases with temperature, microwave heating of alumina becomes more efficient at high temperature.

Alumina powder-compact samples doped with 0. 05wt% MgO (from Baikowski
International, Charlotte, NC) were tested (Fig. 3e). In the maximum electric field region, the heating rate speeded up after the sample reached a temperature of about 400-500 C. In the maximum magnetic field region, the alumina sample barely heated up, as seen in Fig. 3e.

Tungsten carbide (from Teledyne) powder-compact samples were also tested.

The WC samples exhibited different behavior than the alumina samples. As seen in
Fig. 3f, the heating rate was rapid in the maximum magnetic field region, reaching a maximum of about 700 C in 3-4 minutes and then leveling out. In the maximum electric field region, the heating rate was slow, and after 7 minutes of heating the sample temperature was only about 180 C and there was some electrical discharging around the sample.

Two types of composite samples were also tested, including aluminapowdered metal (50% A1203 and 50% (Fe-2wt% Cu-0.8wt% C)) and tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-10% Co).

For the alumina-metal composition, in the maximum magnetic field region, the sample was rapidly heated to a temperature of about 900 C in about 1-2 minutes and then leveled out. In the maximum electric field region, the reached a temperature of about 400 C in about 2 minutes and then leveled out.

For the tungsten carbide-cobalt sample, in the maximum magnetic field region, the sample was rapidly heated to a temperature of about 400 C in about 2 minutes and then continued to increase to a temperature of about 650 C in 10 minutes. In the maximum electric field region, the sample was barely heated at all, reaching a temperature of about 100 C in 10 minutes.

It should be noted that there was no insulation placed around the samples, and as such, thermal loss was likely significant at the higher temperatures, leading to lower heating rates at the higher temperature ranges. In addition, for the experimental set-up described above, it is believed that placing the center of the sample within about 3 mm of the maximum or minimum field point will yield similar results. In addition, a fixed microwave power for testing runs was not used because for some samples, the temperature increase was too fast to be measured with the pyrometer, and for certain conditions, discharging and arcing occurred. As a result, the samples were tested at the powers set forth in Table 1 below.

Table I. Microwave power applied to test materials.

Test Material Microwave Power
powdered metal compact (Fe-2% Cu-0.8% C) samples 200
cobalt powder-compact samples 150
copper powder-compact samples 150
solid copper rod samples 150
alumina powder-compact samples 180
tungsten carbide powder-compact samples 150
alumina-powder-compact metal composite samples 120
tungsten carbide-cobalt powder-compact samples 200
From the above results, it is apparent that different materials have different heating behaviors in the electric and magnetic field regions, and that exposure to either the electric field alone or the magnetic field alone can be used for processing a variety of materials. In general, the higher conductivity samples, such as the powdered metal sample, can be more rapidly and efficiently heated in the maximum magnetic field region. The pure ceramic alumina sample with low conductivity exhibited a more rapid and efficient heating rate in the maximum electric field region.

Fig. 4 illustrates microstructures of a pure Cu powder compact microwave heated in the maximum magnetic field region for 10 minutes, including (A) surface region with no sintering and considerable porosity; (B) interlayer region with little sintering and some porosity ; and (C) core region fully sintered with little or no porosity. Fig. 5 shows a portion of the experimental set-up during microwave heating of a Fe-Cu-C powdered metal sample in the maximum magnetic field region.

Embodiments may find application in a variety materials processing applications. For example, for certain types of electronic devices it may be desirable to heat only a portion of the device. By properly positioning the device, a particular portion may be subjected to the maximum magnetic field or electric field region in order to heat up the particular portion. One example of an application would be to heat a metal deposited on a ceramic substrate. By subjecting the metal to the magnetic field region, it may be possible to heat the metal while the ceramic is not heated, due to the different interactions of the metal and the ceramic with the magnetic field. Such a process may be suitable for activating catalysts, processing semiconductor devices, forming coating, etc., where different materials can be heated differently depending on their interactions with the magnetic field or electric field generated by the microwave processing system. Numerous materials may be processed according to embodiments of the present invention, including, but not limited to metals, ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, polymers, composites and glasses. The term metals includes not only pure metals but also other materials having metallic properties, such as alloys.

In semiconductor processing, it is sometimes necessary to heat a particular layer in order to, for example, activating a dopant, annealing a metal, causing reflow of an electrode, etc. Microwave processing by exposing the necessary region to a separate essentially pure magnetic field and/or electric field enables one region to be heated while other regions, which may be damaged by heat, are kept at a lower temperature. In addition, it is possible to configure a processing system so that a sample can be moved through the regions of maximum magnetic and/or electric field as desired. Such a system may be a stand alone processing system or attached to a larger processing system having multiple processing chambers, such as a semiconductor processing cluster tool.

It will, of course, be understood that modifications of the present invention, in its various aspects, will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The scope of the invention should not be limited by the particular embodiments described herein.

Other embodiments are possible, their specific features depending upon the particular application.





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