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Sergio SANGIOVANI

"BLADE" Auto Exhaust Filter







SABERTEC " BLADE "

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http://www.bladeyourride.com/whatitdoes.html

What is BLADE?

BLADE attaches to your tailpipe and reduces emissions of CO2 and toxic particulate material, and it improves fuel economy to save you hundreds of dollars per year on gas.

It’s good for you because it saves you money on gas; and it's good for the environment, which is good for all of us.

Gas Mileage & Cost Savings

Laboratory testing using the EPA 511 Protocol shows gas mileage increases of as much as 6 MPG. Consumer experiences conducted on a wide variety of cars, light duty trucks and SUV’s in the U.S., Europe, and Latin America have resulted in gas mileage increase up to:

34% on 4-cylinder cars, e.g. Honda Civics, Toyota Corollas, Ford Focuses, etc.
21% on light duty trucks and SUV’s, e.g. GMC 2500s, Chevy Avalanches, Range Rovers, etc.
16% on dual exhaust 8-cylinder sedans, e.g. Lincoln Town Cars, Crown Victorias, etc.
24% on 10 cylinder Box-style trucks, e.g. U-Haul moving trucks.

CO2 Reduction

Laboratory test results show decreases of carbon dioxide (CO2) up to 12%.  CO2 is a potent greenhouse gas and is the primary cause of manmade global warming.

Particulate Material (PM) Filtration

Particulate Material (soot) is an air pollutant known to cause grave environmental and human health consequences. Environmentalvconsequences of PM include: air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, crop degradation, acid rain, acidification of waterwaysv and smog. Health consequences of PM include: cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, fibrosis, asthma, reduced pulmonary function and increased mortality.

Proven Results -- EPA 511 Testing at ATDS

Testing at ATDS using The EPA 511 Protocol --  The Blade's laboratory fuel economy and emission testing were conducted by Lactec Laboratories in Curitiba, Brazil, and Automotive Testing and Development Services, Inc. (ATDS), a California based independent testing laboratory which is accepted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is licensed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

At ATDS the Blade was tested on a 2004 Honda Civic using the EPA 511 Testing Protocol – is a combination of the EPA's FTP-75 and High-way Fuel Economy Tests. The EPA 511 test Protocol is the most rigorous EPA recognized test procedure in existence, and it is the only test procedure that the EPA considers statistically valid.

The Blade has also been tested for fuel economy and durability. Endurance road tests conducted in the United States, Europe and Latin America have shown up to 34% increases in overall fuel savings, while causing no adverse effects to test vehicles after 35,000 miles.

What About My Car?

The The BLADE works on a wide range of passenger cars, hybrids, light duty trucks and
SUVs.

The BLADE is NOT a high performance product. Extreme driving may cause damage to
the filter carteridge which could require cartridge replacement.

The BLADE will fit your vehicle if:

Your vehicle has a straight 1 7/8 - 2 inch tail pipe.

Note: many vehicles have decorative exhaust tips which may give the appearance that the Blade will not fit. In most instances, removing the decorative tip will reveal a 1 7/8 2 inch tail pipe. If you need to remove your exhaust tip, we recommend that you see a professional for installation. A normal exhaust shop, i.e. Midas, Meineke, etc. can do this easily.

Your vehicle has an exposed straight tailpipe measuring 1 7/8 – 2 inches in diameter. Examples – 2004 Honda Civic

You have duel exhaust pipes that are both straight 1 7/8 - 2 inch pipes (in which case you will need two BLADEs).

You have a tailpipe larger than 2 1/4 inches. In this case you will need to get a splitter adapter on which you can mount 2 Blades.

You have two 1 7/8 - 2 inch tail pipes coming out of the same muffler. In this case, you will need to make sure that these pipes are not too close together.

Still not sure about your car? Then ask Skip. Be sure to provide the make, model and year of
your car as well as description of your tail pipe configuration. askskip@BladeYourRide.com.


http://www.bladeyourride.com/howitworks.html

BLADE works in three ways:

1. BLADE reduces emissions of Particulate Material by filtering them from the exhaust stream.

Particulate Material (or, PM) emissions are composed of unburned or partially burned fuel. PM emissions vary in size and composition, and they are very hazardous to human health and the environment.

BLADE’s patented bobbin and cartridge technology effectively reduces post-catalytic particulate emission by physically capturing them and removing them the exhaust stream.  This reduces the emission of these particulates into the environment.

2. BLADE reduces emissions and improves fuel economy by decreasing the duration of "cold start" operations.

The second way that BLADE reduces emissions and improves fuel economy is by decreasing the duration of your vehicles period of “cold start” operations. Cold start is the time between when you start your car’s engine, and the time when your catalytic converter reaches its minimum operating temperature.  Cold start is also the period when your vehicle emits its greatest amount of pollution, and when it consumes higher than normal amounts of fuel.

Your catalytic converter is like a furnace that sits between your engine and your tailpipe. Its job is to burn or “oxidize” harmful emissions like hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and, nitrogen oxides into benign emissions like water vapor, carbon dioxide, and elemental nitrogen and oxygen.

In order for your converter to do this however, it needs to be very hot… about 400 degrees C. So when you start your engine, your converter needs to heat up before it’s able to start working.

Late model cars employ different strategies in order to accelerate the converter’s heating process. A common strategy is to use additional fuel in order to create a richer (hotter burning) air/fuel mixture. A richer mixture not only results in an increased amount of emissions being produced by your engine during this period, but it also results in your engine burning excessive amounts of fuel.

Laboratory testing shows that the BLADE decreases cold start operation times by over 20%. Decreasing cold start times in this manner does three things : it decreases the amount of harmful emissions that escape from your tailpipe before your converter starts working; it decreases the amount of emissions produced by your engine that result from running a richer-than normal- fuel mixtures,  and it decreases the amount of gas that your car consumes during this process.

3.  BLADE decreases emissions and increases fuel economy by increasing the Volumetric Efficiency (VE) of your engine.

Volumetric efficiency (VE) is defined as amount of air that an engine ingests, relative to its theoretical maximum.

An internal combustion engine can be thought of as an air pumping station: air is pulled in through one end and pushed out the other.  During this process, the air is mixed with fuel and exposed to a spark to create combustion, which in turn generates mechanical power.

An engine's control systems  attempt to maximize the efficiency of combustion by carefully controlling the amount of air and fuel that is mixed together before exposing that mixture to a spark.Combustion is efficient when the mixture in the combustion chamber burns completely.  The more completely it burns, the more energy it releases, and the less pollutive emissions it produces.

In theory, all of the exhaust gas that is produced from combustion is expelled out of the combustion chamber during the exhaust stroke.In practice however, that isn’t what actually happens. When a piston pushes the exhaust gas through the exhaust valve, not all of the exhaust gas gets expelled from chamber, i.e. not all of the gas gets “pumped” out.  As a result, exhaust gas is present inside the chamber during the following intake stroke.

Not only does this residual exhaust gas distort the composition of the new mixture after it enters the chamber, the volume that this gas occupies creates resistance against the mixture that is being “pumped” in. This reduces the “pumping” efficiency of your engine.  This phenomenon is called “pumping loss”, and it is an inherent inefficiency of four-stroke internal combustion engines.

In addition, some of the exhaust gas that is actually expelled out of the chamber during the exhaust stroke slides back through the exhaust valve and into the combustion chamber immediately before the exhaust valve closes. This phenomenon is called “backsliding”; and it is a major cause of the pumping loss.

When combustion occurs, it expels two things from the combustion chamber: 1) a pulse or “wave” of exhaust gas, and 2) a pulse, or “wave” of energy.

A big difference between the “gas wave” and the “energy wave” is that the energy wave travels about 5-times faster than the gas wave — at a rate of approximately 1,500 feet per second.When the energy wave travels through the exhaust system, it encounters obstacles, such as bends in the manifold, or the catalytic converter.  These obstacles cause the energy wave to “bounce” or “revert” backwards in the form of a “reversion wave”.Reversion waves transmit energy back towards the engine.  At supersonic speeds, it doesn’t take long for a reversion wave to reach the engine’s exhaust valve, which is still in the process of releasing the much slower-traveling wave of exhaust gas.  When a wave of reverted energy encounters the gas wave, the more energy intensive reversion wave forces pressure upon it — pushing, or “backsliding” some of its gas back into the combustion chamber.  And this is how reversion waves create backsliding!  And backsliding is a major cause of pumping loss.

In the presence of pumping loss of backsliding, instead of having only clean air and fuel in the combustion chamber, you now have: clean air and fuel, plus dirty exhaust gas.  This means that combustion is actually occurring at a CLEAN air/fuel ratio of less than 14.7/1, and this is inefficient. Remember that Volumetric Efficiency is the amount of air that an engine ingests relative to its theoretical maximum.

In practice, “The amount of air that an engine ingests” can be described as the actual amount of good, clean air, plus the dirty exhaust gas that remains inside the chamber.  The “theoretical maximum” describes the potential of having exactly the right amount of air in the chamber — a ratio of 14.7/1 — and that all of that air is CLEAN air.

Therefore, the closer you are to the “theoretical maximum”, the greater amount of volumetric efficiency you achieve. When you increase volumetric efficiently, you increase the efficiency of internal combustion.  And when you increase the efficiency internal combustion, you get better fuel economy and less pollutive emissions.

BLADE increases volumetric efficiency by reducing pumping loss and backsliding.


http://www.thedailygreen.com
October 26, 2008

Can the Bolt-on Blade Really Boost Gas Mileage?

Shiny Car Accessory Promises Reduced Emissions and Gas Savings. But Does it Work?

by Jim Motavalli

Wouldn't it be great if you could buy a device on the Internet for, I don't know, $200, bolt it onto your car and enjoy an instant reduction in emissions and an increase in fuel economy?

Claims like that are as old as the hills. We've all heard about the 100-miles-per-gallon carburetor that "they" don't want you to have, and the scientist whose invention was mysteriously suppressed just as he was about to bring incredibly cheap people's power to the world (think Nikola Tesla).

It's inevitable that when fuel prices zoomed up, these devices would see a revival. (Yes, I know gas has come down, but is anyone really happy with $3 a gallon?)

Free lunches are hard to come by, however. Popular Mechanics tested a bunch of "fuel savers" back in 2005 and concluded that absolutely none of them worked. One even started a fire. These devices use miracle magnets, vortex generators, ionizers and water injection. But the only thing they reduced, PM said, was the cash in your wallet.

And this brings us to the latest device, The Blade, which bolts on to the exhaust pipe. It's kind of cool looking in a retro way. Remember those chrome exhaust tips people put on their cars to create a fake hot rod? I've only seen pictures on the website, and I have no idea if the Brazil-sourced Blade actually works. But, given the history, I think caution might be in order.

Don't worry, though, because actress Laura Dern says it works. "Having a Blade on my hybrid car allows me to continue driving with the satisfaction that I am lowering my carbon footprint and burning less fuel," she says.

The Blade is definitely more credible than most. The company paid for independent testing by the respected Automotive Testing and Development Services (ATDS) in Canada. On a 2004 Honda Civic, the Blade allegedly achieved a 57 percent reduction in hydrocarbons, 14 percent in carbon monoxide, 34 percent in nitrogen oxides and six percent in carbon dioxide (the main global warming gas). And on the highway, the numbers show it achieving a five percent fuel economy improvement.

ATDS Vice President Lin Farmer, who conducted the tests, said the Blade "seemed to be doing something on the positive side." He pointed out, however, that the 2004 Civic is a very low-emission car (the numbers for emissions of hydrocarbons, for instance, ranged from 0.0010 without the Blade, to 0.0004 with it).

"It's possible that some of the large improvements in gases are due to test-to-test variability and the fact that we were working with such small numbers," Farmer said. He added, however, that the Blade "performed better than other devices we tested." And the fuel economy numbers impressed him.

William J. O'Brien founded parent company Sabertec in 2005, after he came across the Blade on a visit to Brazil in his role as a venture capitalist. He's a great talker, and I can't pretend to understand everything he said. Luckily, there's a You Tube video that lets you judge for yourself. Here's some of what he said to me when I asked him how a device bolted on to the tailpipe can increase fuel economy. It's unfortunately somewhat paraphrased, because he talks fast:

"There's a phenomenon called backsliding. When the spark goes off and the piston fires, there is both an exhaust wave and an energy or sound wave (which is five times faster than the exhaust wave). When the reversion wave bounces out, some of it goes back into the exhaust chamber, affecting fuel economy. The ratio of air to fuel is affected. The Blade compresses the sound wave, with a vacuum effect, so the exhaust is sucked more freely toward the tailpipe. You end up with a cleaner charge."

O'Brien said it was "difficult to put all this in layman's terms," and related the effect to something called "exhaust scavenging." The website goes into great detail. O'Brien: "Talk to someone who says he knows a lot about engines, and they'll say, "No way will this work.' But if you talk to someone who's really knowledgeable, they say, 'Oh, sure, that's exhaust scavenging.'"

To his credit, O'Brien says he's funding $250,000 worth of further testing, on several different vehicles, including a Ford E250 van and a Toyota Prius. The results aren't out yet. And he admits that some of his earlier emissions numbers are based on trace readings, and thus the 57 and 34 percent reductions may not mean a whole lot. "We're moving away from some of that," he said. "We want to stress the fuel economy advantages, and what the Blade does as a fine particulate filter and reducer of greenhouse gases."

For further enlightenment, I went to an expert, Jim Kliesch, a senior engineer at the Union of Concerned Scientists. "I wish them all the best, but I'm dubious," he said. "On some of those readings the numbers are so small that the changes are actually minimal. And I don't see any proof of their mileage claims. If they had a variety of vehicles independently tested, then I could take it seriously."

So we await the further testing results. The mileage claims Kliesch was referring to are not from the test data, but are on the website. According to what O'Brien calls "customer experience," the Blade has achieved 34 percent improved fuel economy on four-cylinder cars, 21 percent on light-duty trucks and 16 percent on dual-exhaust eight-cylinder sedans. There's no way to verify any of that.

It's hard to believe there's a free lunch, or a bolt-on device, that can achieve improvements like that. Popular Mechanics reports, "There's no ignoring the laws of physics, people. Your vehicle already burns over 99 percent of the fuel you pay for. Less than one percent is squandered as partially burned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide before the exhaust hits the catalytic converter for the last laundering. Even if one of these miracle gadgets could make the combustion process 100 percent complete, the improvement in mileage resulting would be one percent."

So when it comes to the Blade, let's see those independent test results!


IMPACT DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

WO2007131102 (A2)
2007-11-15

[ United States Patent Application 20080066446 ]

Inventor : SANGIOVANI, Sergio
Applicant : SABERTEC L L C [US]; SANGIOVANI, S.
Classification : - international:  F02B23/08; F02B23/08 :- European: F01N7/02; F01N1/08K; F01N1/10; F01N3/022E; F01N3/033B; F01N7/08B; F01N7/18B; F01N7/18D1B
Also published as: WO2007131102 //  WO2007131083 // US2008066446 //  US2008053068
Cited documents: US5248481 (A) // US4469079 // US2005109023)
Abstract -- An emission reduction device which may be removably affixed to a diesel engine's exhaust system. The device comprises an outer casing which may be divided into a lower portion and an upper portion, the lower portion of which is removably attachable to the exhaust system of a diesel engine; a carcass for holding a bobbin wherein the carcass is attached to the lower portion of the outer casing at the point where the exhaust enters the outer casing and the carcass has a beveled opening in a diagonal line in its proximal part and a bobbin positioned in its distal part; one or more fibrous blanket cylinders; and a guide for arranging and securing the one or more fibrous blanket cylinders within the outer casing. The fibrous blanket cylinders may be wrapped in a wire mesh.; In an alternative embodiment, a second fibrous blanket formed into a cone with the larger diameter of the cone positioned proximally may be removably inserted in the carcass.

U.S. Current Class:  60/274; 60/272
U.S. Class at Publication:  060/274; 060/272
Intern'l Class:  B01D 53/92 20060101 B01D053/92

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] There is a need for a method and system capable of efficiently and effectively filtering pollutants from exhaust gases. Although there are a number of devices available which are useful for filtering exhaust gases from diesel engines, each of these devices is incapable of providing an effective method for reducing pollutants cost effectively for the reasons described herein.

[0003] In a diesel engine, air is drawn into the cylinders and is compressed by the pistons at compression ratios as high as 25:1, much higher than used for spark-ignited combustion engines. Near the end of the compression stroke, diesel fuel is injected into the combustion chamber through an injector (or atomizer). The fuel ignites from contact with the air that due to compression has been heated to a temperature of about 700-900.degree. C. The resulting combustion causes increased heat and expansion in the cylinder which increases pressure and moves the piston downward. A connecting rod transmits this motion to a crankshaft to convert linear motion to rotary motion for use as power in a variety of applications. Intake air to the engine is usually controlled by mechanical valves in the cylinder head. For increased power output, most modern diesel engines are equipped with a turbocharger, and in some derivatives, a supercharger to increase intake air volume. Use of an aftercooler to cool intake air that has been compressed, and thus heated, by the turbocharger increases the density of the air and typically leads to power and efficiency improvements.

[0004] In general, diesel emissions are bi-products of diesel combustion. This can be a function of injection within the engine. For example, advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches top of dead center) results in higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and higher efficiency, but also results in higher emissions of oxides of nitrogen oxides through higher combustion temperatures. At the other extreme, delayed start of injection causes incomplete combustion and emits visible black smoke made of particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbon. While many diesel emissions are problematic, the most highly regulated diesel emissions are: [0005] 1. Diesel Particuiate Material ("PM", or "DPM") (also referred to as "Diesel Particulate Matter", "Particulate Material", or "Particulate Matter"): Particulate matter is an aerosol comprised of complex physical and chemical structures. Particulate matter contributes to the greenhouse effect, it causes grave environmental damage, and it seriously affects human health. Particulate matter is primarily responsible for the black smoke normally associated with diesel exhaust. It is also a primary source of urban smog. [0006] 2. Nitrogen Oxides (NO.sub.x): Nitrogen Oxides are highly active ozone precursors and account for a large component of visible smog. Besides particulate matter, nitrogen oxides are one of the most pollutive diesel emissions. [0007] 3. Hydrocarbons (HC): The production of hydrocarbons is often a result of the inefficient combustion of fuel and engine lube oils. In the atmosphere, hydrocarbons undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides leading to formation of smog and ground level ozone. [0008] 4. Carbon Monoxide (CO): This is a highly toxic greenhouse gas that is poisonous to humans and is a contributor to global warming.

[0009] Examples of non-regulated bi-products of diesel combustion include polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and metal oxide.

[0010] Inefficient combustion of diesel fuel produces emissions that pollute the environment and harm human health. The environmental consequences of particulate material emissions include air pollution, water pollution, acid rain, acidification of waterways, deforestation, smog, reduced atmospheric visibility, crop degradation, global warming, and climate forcing. In addition, the human health consequences of particulate material emissions include cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancer, fibrosis, allergic responses, reduced pulmonary function, worsening of asthmatic symptoms and occurrences, increased morbidity, and premature death. Moreover, a number of internationally publicized studies demonstrate a high correlation between ambient particulate material and increases in adverse health outcomes such as respiratory hospital admissions, emergency room visits, restricted activity days, respiratory symptoms for adults, lower respiratory tract illnesses for children, asthmatic attacks, chronic diseases, and mortality.

[0011] Although conventional diesel emission filtration technologies are numerous, there are essentially two categories into which all such technologies fall: [0012] 1. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters ("CDPFs"): catalyzed diesel particulate filters are referred to by many different names. Some of the most commonly used--and misused--are: "catalytic converters," "catalytic Reactors," "catalytic purifiers," "exhaust purifiers," "trap filters," "diesel traps," "exhaust scrubbers," "catalyst filters," "catalyzed wall-flow filters," "wall-flow filters," and "catalytic mufflers." [0013] 2. Diesel Oxidation Catalysts ("DOCs"): diesel oxidation catalysts are also commonly referred to as "oxidation catalysts," "flow-through catalysts," and "flow-through devices."

[0014] Both catalyzed diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts employ the same basic method to achieve the reduction of particulate materials; they utilize heat to "oxidize" or bun the particulate material. In most cases, the heat from the engine's exhaust system is used to achieve oxidation. The reoccurring process of oxidation is also often referred to "regeneration" because the process of oxidation not only reduces particulate material emissions, it also regenerates the catalytic device's filtration capacity.

[0015] In order for the process of regenerative oxidation to occur, high temperatures, normally between 250.degree. and 350.degree. C., must be attained and preferably sustained during operation. In many operating conditions, attaining sufficiently high temperatures can prove difficult or unattainable. Catalytic devices (CDPF's and DOC's) employ precious metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium as catalysts to lower the minimum temperatures necessary to achieve "light off", the point at which oxidation of the particulate material is initiated. Manufactures use these highly conductive, and very expensive, metals to coat or impregnate the substrate surfaces of their catalytic devices.

[0016] The catalytic devices discussed above can generally be described as either active or passive. Catalytic technologies which rely on heat from an engine's exhaust system in order to achieve oxidation are frequently referred to as "passive" catalytic devises. Other systems may incorporate fuel burners, electric heating elements, and fuel-borne additives which aid in attaining the temperatures at which oxidation occurs. Technologies which employ these types of components are often referred to as "active" catalytic devices.

[0017] For purposes of eliminating potential confusion, it should be noted that some manufacturers define catalyzed diesel particulate filters which only contain precious metal catalysts as "active" devices, even though these devices rely solely upon the heat contained in an engine's exhaust to achieve oxidation. This classification usually occurs when the manufacturer also produces a diesel particulate filter which contains no catalyst, i.e. a device which is in all other ways similar to a catalyzed diesel particulate filter, however; the device relies solely upon the heating of its component base metal to achieve temperatures sufficient to initiate oxidation. Because exhaust temperatures are commonly required to exceed 500.degree. C. for these non-catalyzed devices to affect oxidation, their widespread use is significantly restricted.

[0018] The primary difference between catalyzed diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalyst technologies is that catalyzed diesel particulate filter technologies physically trap and store particulate material--usually by using catalyzed ceramic, cordierite or silicon carbide wall flow monoliths, or ceramic fiber or ceramic cartridge filters. Once the particulate material becomes trapped, it is oxidized and particulate material emissions are reduced.

[0019] Conversely, diesel oxidation catalyst technologies do not trap particulate material emissions. Rather, particulate materials "pass-through" the internal structures of these devices. When exhaust gases traverse the catalyst, carbon monoxide, gaseous hydrocarbons and liquid hydrocarbon particles are oxidized, thereby reducing total particulate material emissions.

[0020] There are a number of other differences between catalyzed diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalyst technologies as well. For example, catalyzed diesel particulate filters can achieve particulate material filtration rates of .gtoreq.90% given specific, controlled operating conditions. Moreover, catalyzed diesel particulate filters reduce each sub-category of particulate material (i.e. solid inorganic fractions, solid organic fraction and sulfate particulates). It is necessary to note however, the application and effectiveness of catalyzed diesel particulate filters technology is significantly constrained by the following limitations: [0021] Catalyzed diesel particulate filters are very expensive. The California Air Resources Board provides cost-range information for DPF's corresponding to the following engine capacitates: [0022] 100 horsepower: US$5,000-US$7,000 [0023] 275 horsepower: US$6,900-US$9,000 [0024] 400 horsepower: US$10,000 average [0025] 1,400 horsepower: US$32,000+ [0026] Catalyzed diesel particulate filters are incapable of affecting particulate material emissions reductions when using fuels that exceed 150 ppm Sulfur. [0027] Catalyzed diesel particulate filters performance is adversely affected by insufficient operating temperatures. [0028] In less-than-optimal conditions, catalyzed diesel particulate filters are prone to clogging and failure. When failure occurs, the potential for engine damage or destruction is significant. [0029] Because catalyzed diesel particulate filters can create significant engine back pressure, expensive engine recalibrations are often required upon their installation. [0030] catalyzed diesel particulate filters often need to be equipped with expensive electronic back pressure monitoring devices, such as data loggers. [0031] Because passive catalyzed diesel particulate filters regeneration is entirely dependent on operating temperature, passive catalyzed diesel particulate filters do not work under "low load" conditions. [0032] "Active" components in catalyzed diesel particulate filter technologies significantly increase catalyzed diesel particulate filters unit price and complexity. [0033] Catalyzed diesel particulate filters do not work well on older engines. [0034] Catalyzed diesel particulate filters can become a source of hazardous zinc, sulfuric, calcium, and phosphorus ash particulate. [0035] Catalyzed diesel particulate filters can reduce engine performance. [0036] Catalyzed diesel particulate filters often produce fuel economy penalties.

[0037] According to the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), fuel sulfur has significant effects on post-filter total particulate material emissions, and, as fuel sulfur levels increase, catalyzed diesel particulate filter reduction efficiencies decreases to a point where they actually becomes a source of particulate emissions when using fuels with sulfur concentrations .gtoreq.150 PPM.

[0038] Tests conducted by the USDOE report that catalyzed diesel particulate filters that achieved 95% reductions of particulate material emissions when using fuels with 3 ppm sulfur concentrations had their filtration efficiencies reduced to only 74% when using fuels with 30 ppm sulfur concentrations. Further, these same devices were reduced to particulate material filtration rates of 0% to -3% when using fuels with 150 ppm sulfur concentrations, and they experienced total particulate material emissions increases of 122% to 155% when using fuels with sulfur concentrations .gtoreq.350 ppm.

[0039] Moreover, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) has stated that catalytic technologies can not work properly if there is sulfur in the fuel--and in some cases, sulfur in the fuel will render the catalytic filtration equipment and even the vehicle inoperable.

[0040] By comparison, diesel oxidation catalyst technologies are generally less expensive than catalyzed diesel particulate filter technologies, and because diesel oxidation catalysts are "flow through", instead of "wall flow" devises, they do not have the same propensity to create engine back pressure, clog and/or cause potential engine damage like their catalyzed diesel particulate filter counterparts. Diesel oxidation catalysts can achieve particulate material filtration rates between 19% and 50%. However, the application of diesel oxidation catalyst technology is constrained by the following: [0041] Diesel oxidation catalysts are too expensive for wide-spread application. The California Air Resources Board provides cost average information for diesel oxidation catalysts corresponding to the following engine capacitates: [0042] 275 horsepower: US$2,100 [0043] 400 horsepower: US$20,000+ [0044] The Everett School District in Washington state reported an average per-unit-cost of US$2,500 per DOC for each bus in its fleet [0045] Diesel oxidation catalyst reduction of total particulate material is significantly reduced when using fuels with high sulfur fuels. [0046] Diesel oxidation catalysts do not filter solid organic fraction sometimes called "dry") particulate and dry particulates typically comprise the majority of total particulate material. [0047] Diesel oxidation catalysts do not work well on older engines. [0048] Diesel oxidation catalyst effectiveness is extremely dependent upon operating temperatures. [0049] When operating at higher temperatures, diesel oxidation catalysts oxidize sulfur oxides, and in doing so become generators of sulfuric acid. When this occurs, diesel oxidation catalysts create a net increase total particulate material emissions by increasing production of sulfate particulates at rates that offset soluble organic fraction reductions

[0050] The University of Washington's Extension Energy Program has stated that diesel oxidation catalysts can oxidize sulfur dioxide to form sulfate particulates (sulfuric acid (H.sub.2SO.sub.4)). Therefore, high sulfur content fuels can increase total particulate emissions via the production of sulfuric acid, which can offset soluble organic fraction (sometimes called "wet" particulate material) reductions."

[0051] The United States Department of Energy has found statistically significant increases in particulate material with high sulfur fuel due almost exclusively to the increase in the SO.sub.4 fraction of the total particulate material. At this high exhaust temperature (405.degree. C. at catalyst inlet), the diesel oxidation catalyst accelerates the conversion of SO.sub.2 to SO.sub.3, thereby increasing the SO.sub.4 fraction of the particulate material. As expected, the effect is seen only with the higher sulfur (150 ppm and 350 ppm sulfur content) fuels. With the 350 ppm sulfur content fuel, post catalyst particulate material emissions were approximately 200% higher than those measured without an active catalyst.

[0052] Despite the promoted efficiency of the methods and systems of the prior art, many are impracticable from the commercial point of view for the reasons set forth above. Moreover, the use of fuel with low concentration of sulphur (below 130 ppm) is an essential factor in the employment of catalytic regeneration filters. In Brazil and in the majority of the countries, the diesel is sold with 2000 ppm of sulphur. Therefore using the catalytic regeneration filters in diesel that contains more than 300 ppm of sulphur, turn the filters into a source of pollution.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0053] The system and method described herein relate to a novel solution for the improved use of fuel and the treatment of gases emitted from diesel engines and, more specifically, the gases that are emitted through exhaust pipes of vehicles such as automobile vehicles and industrial equipment. An objective of the present invention is to reduce environmental pollution and, as a result, to improve the conditions of life, including the quality and quantity of the flora and fauna on the planet Earth. The emission of pollutant gases in the atmosphere has significantly contributed to contamination of the environment. There is an overwhelming demand for a solution capable of curbing the alarming effects caused by worldwide environmental degradation.

[0054] The present invention provides a variety of ecologic and economic advantages. For example, because the present invention filters particulates and greatly reduces the amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and other gases produced by the combustion of fuel, this invention has direct effect in the improvement of the environment. This minimizes the damaging effects of the environmental phenomenon known as the "greenhouse effect" and improves the air quality in urban centers.

[0055] In one embodiment, the present invention comprises an outer casing which may be divided into a lower portion and an upper portion, the lower portion of which is removably attachable to the exhaust system of a diesel engine; a carcass for holding a bobbin wherein the carcass is attached to the lower portion of the outer casing at the point where the exhaust enters the outer casing and the carcass has a beveled opening in a diagonal line in its proximal part and a bobbin positioned in its distal part; one or more fibrous blanket cylinders; and a guide for arranging and securing the one or more fibrous blanket cylinders within the outer casing. The fibrous blanket cylinders may be wrapped in a wire mesh. In an alternative embodiment, a second fibrous blanket formed into a cone with the larger diameter of the cone positioned proximally may be removably inserted in the carcass.

[0056] Results from initial tests of one embodiment of the present invention show that the device filters up to 69% of total particulate matter at a cost that is significantly less than either catalyzed diesel particulate filters or diesel oxidation catalysts. Moreover, the device is extremely effective with high sulfur content fuels (i.e. greater than 500 ppm sulfur). The device performs effectively on older engines, does not create engine back pressure, does not reduce engine fuel economy, captures both wet and dry particulate matter, is extremely durable, is easy to install and maintain, lasts indefinitely, and does not produce hazardous sulfur, lead or zinc bi-products. In addition, the device is effective under both high and low load conditions and its efficacy is not affected by engine operating temperatures.

[0057] In addition, the invention also reduces the level of noises emitted from the exhaust system by acting as a sound baffle, thereby reducing noise pollution.

[0058] For all these reasons, and many others, the device and method of the present invention represents an innovation in the field of emission control.

[0059] The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be described hereinafter which form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the conception and specific embodiment disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures or processes for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent constructions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0060] For a more complete understanding of the present invention, and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following descriptions taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0061] FIG. 1 shows a top view of the lower portion of the outer casing of one embodiment of the device of the present invention;

[0062] FIG. 2 shows a side view of the carcass of one embodiment of the device;

[0063] FIG. 3 shows the carcass installed in the lower portion of the outer casing in one embodiment of the device of the present invention;

[0064] FIG. 4 shows a perspective view of the guide for the fibrous blanket cylinders;

[0065] FIG. 5 shows a perspective view of one fibrous blanket cylinder installed in the guide;

[0066] FIG. 6 shows a perspective view of six fibrous blanket cylinders installed in the guide;

[0067] FIG. 7 shows a side view of the fibrous blanket cylinders installed in the guide;

[0068] FIG. 8 shows a bottom view of one of the fibrous blanket cylinders;

[0069] FIG. 9 shows a bottom view of the fibrous blanket cylinders affixed in the guide; and

[0070] FIG. 10 shows one embodiment of the device of the present invention with the upper portion of the outer casing attached.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

[0071] The present invention provides an efficient device and method for reducing the emission of harmful gases in the environment, reducing noise, reducing the consumption of fuel, and improving an engine's performance, all in a cost effective manner. The making and using of the presently preferred embodiments are discussed in detail below. It should be appreciated, however, that the present invention provides many applicable inventive concepts that can be embodied in a wide variety of specific contexts. The specific embodiments discussed are merely illustrative of specific ways to make and use the invention, and do not limit the scope of the invention.

[0072] In one embodiment, the present invention comprises an outer casing which may be divided into a lower portion and an upper portion, the lower portion of which is removably attachable to the exhaust system of a diesel engine; a carcass for holding a bobbin wherein the carcass is attached to the lower portion of the outer casing at the point where the exhaust enters the outer casing and the carcass has a beveled opening in a diagonal line in its proximal part and a bobbin positioned in its distal part; one or more fibrous blanket cylinders; and a guide for arranging and securing the one or more fibrous blanket cylinders within the outer casing. The fibrous blanket cylinders may be wrapped in a wire mesh. In an alternative embodiment, a second fibrous blanket formed into a cone with the larger diameter of the cone positioned proximally may be removably inserted in the carcass.

[0073] Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows one embodiment of the lower portion of the outer casing 1 wherein an exhaust inlet 3 is positioned in the proximal end thereof. The proximal end of the exhaust inlet 3 may be affixed to the exhaust system of a diesel engine and the distal end of the exhaust inlet is affixed to, and forms an integral part of, the lower portion of the outer casing 1. The exhaust inlet 3 may be attached to the exhaust system in a variety of ways using a variety of attachment devices known in the art. The exhaust inlet 3 may be either permanently or removably attached to the exhaust system. The lower portion of the outer casing 1 may be made of any material capable of withstanding the heat and pressure of the application, such as for example, steel, aluminum, aluminized steel or stainless steel.

[0074] FIG. 2 shows a side view of one embodiment of the carcass 5. The carcass 5 is generally cylindrical with a beveled opening 7 in a diagonal line in its proximal part where it is affixed to the distal end of the exhaust inlet. The distal end of the carcass 5 is configured for the passage of air, either through the placement of a screen or mesh at the end thereof, or by perforating the material used to construct the carcass 5. The distal end of the carcass 5 is also adapted to receive and to fix a bobbin 9. The carcass 1 may be made of any material capable of withstanding the heat and pressure of the application, such as for example, steel, aluminum, aluminized steel or stainless steel. The screen may be metallic such as, for example, a punched metal web or a wire mesh. The bobbin 9 may be made of one or more metals or of other materials capable of withstanding the heat and pressure of an exhaust system and may be constructed by wrapping two metal fabrics around a central point. The carcass 5 may be attached to the exhaust inlet 3 in a variety of ways using a variety of attachment devices known in the art. The carcass 5 may be either permanently or removably attached to the exhaust inlet 3.

[0075] In an alternative embodiment, a diaphragm formed by wrapping a fibrous blanket into a cone with the larger radius positioned proximally and the smaller radius positioned distally may be removably inserted in the carcass 5. In one embodiment of the invention, the diaphragm is constructed in such a manner that the overlapping ends at the narrow end of the cone are secured together and, in another configuration, the overlapping ends at the narrow end of the cone are allowed to overlap but are not secured to one another. The diaphragm may be removably attached to the carcass 5. The diaphragm may be made of any material capable of filtering particulate materials including one or more of an aramid, a meta-ararmid, a polyamide, a polyphenylene sulfide, a p-phenylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole, polytetrafluoroethylene, and basalt.

[0076] FIG. 3 shows the carcass 5 attached to the distal end of the exhaust inlet 3. The bobbin 9 is visible through the perforations in the distal end of the carcass 5.

[0077] FIG. 4 shows one embodiment of a guide 11 for arranging and securing fibrous blanket cylinders 13 within the outer casing. In the configuration shown, the guide is configured for the placement of seven cylinders however more or fewer cylinders may be used as desired. As shown, the distal end of the carcass 5 is visible through the center hole in the guide 11 although that configuration is not essential to the operation of the device. The guide 11 may be made of any material capable of withstanding the heat and pressure of the application, such as for example, steel, aluminum, aluminized steel or stainless steel.

[0078] FIG. 5 shows a fibrous blanket cylinder 13 being positioned in the center hole of the guide 11. In one configuration, the fibrous blanket cylinder 13 is made by wrapping the fibrous blanket in a punched metal web and/or metal mesh and overlapping the ends. Although the word cylinder is used in the nomenclature of the fibrous blanket cylinders 13, they may be configured as an oval, square, triangular or any other shape in which a tube may be formed. The fibrous blanket used to construct the fibrous blanket cylinder 13 may be made of any material capable of filtering particulate materials, including one or more of an aramid, a meta-aramid, a polyamide, a polyphenylene sulfide, a p-phenylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole, polytetrafluoroethylene, and basalt. A cap of the same or similar material may be placed over the distal end of the fibrous blanket cylinders 13. In addition, a bobbin 9 may be affixed at the distal end of one or more of the fibrous blanket cylinders 13.

[0079] FIG. 6 shows a perspective view of seven fibrous blanket cylinders 13 configured in the guide 11 and FIG. 7 shows a side view of the fibrous blanket cylinders 13 configured in the guide 11. It is important to note that, while seven fibrous blanket cylinders 13 are depicted, the number may be increased or decreases as the application may require.

[0080] FIG. 8 shows a bottom view of one of the fibrous blanket cylinders 13 and FIG. 9 shows a bottom view of the fibrous blanket cylinders 13 affixed in the guide 11.

[0081] FIG. 10 shows one embodiment of the device of the present invention with the upper portion of the outer casing 15 attached. The upper portion of the outer casing 15 is configured with an exhaust outlet 17 may be made of any material capable of withstanding the heat and pressure of the application, such as for example, steel, aluminum, aluminized steel or stainless steel. The upper portion of the outer casing 15 may be attached to the lower portion of the outer casing 1 in a variety of ways using a variety of attachment devices known in the art. The upper portion of the outer casing 15 may be either permanently or removably attached to the lower portion of the outer casing 1.

[0082] When the device of the resent invention is installed on the exhaust system of a diesel engine, gas leaves the exhaust pipe and enters the exhaust inlet 3. The gas flows through the bobbin 9 or, in an alternative embodiment, flows first through the diaphragm and then through the bobbin 9. In either case, a portion of the gas is allowed to escape through the side of the carcass 5 due to the bevel 7. Some portion of the gas proceeds through the bobbin 9 and out the distal end of the carcass 5 through the perforations or screen. The gas then proceeds through the fibrous blanket cylinders 13 and out the exhaust outlet 17.

[0083] Both the bobbin 9 and the fibrous blanket cylinders 13 act as material particle filters. In the bobbin 9, the gathering of material particles is accomplished by the collection of particles in the walls of the bobbin 9. The particles agglutinate as a result of the lost of speed and due to their own physical characterstics. The fibrous blanket cylinders 13 collect material particles that do not pass through the material. These two systems of gathering of material particles are efficient and can be cleaned and reused.

[0084] The bobbin 9 may be constructed using different metals, such as aluminum, zinc, copper, iron and others, to generate an electric or voltage differential that makes ions available to the system.

[0085] Another important effect is the reduction of the sound emitted from the device resulting from the dampening of the shockwaves of gases against the bobbin 9 and the fibrous blanket cylinders 13

[0086] While the present system and method has been disclosed according to the preferred embodiment of the invention, those of ordinary skill in the art will understand that other embodiments have also been enabled. Even though the foregoing discussion has focused on particular embodiments, it is understood that other configurations are contemplated. In particular, even though the expressions "in one embodiment" or "in another embodiment" are used herein, these phrases are meant to generally reference embodiment possibilities and are not intended to limit the invention to those particular embodiment configurations. These terms may reference the same or different embodiments, and unless indicated otherwise, are combinable into aggregate embodiments. The terms "a", "an" and "the" mean "one or more" unless expressly specified otherwise.

[0087] When a single embodiment is described herein, it will be readily apparent that more than one embodiment may be used in place of a single embodiment. Similarly, where more than one embodiment is described herein, it will be readily apparent that a single embodiment may be substituted for that one device.

[0088] In light of the wide variety of possible filters, the detailed embodiments are intended to be illustrative only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the invention. Rather, what is claimed as the invention is all such modifications as may come within the spirit and scope of the following claims and equivalents thereto.

[0089] None of the description in this specification should be read as implying that any particular element, step or function is an essential element which must be included in the claim scope. The scope of the patented subject matter is defined only by the allowed claims and their equivalents. Unless explicitly recited, other aspects of the present invention as described in this specification do not limit the scope of the claims.


US Patent Application   20080053068

Device & Method for the Reduction of Emissions

March 6, 2008
Abstract --  An emission reduction device which may be removably affixed to an engine's exhaust system. The device comprises a cylindrical carcass with a beveled opening in a diagonal line in its proximal part A bobbin is affixed in the distal portion of the carcass. A cylindrical-shaped fibrous blanket may be inserted in the carcass and the fibrous blanket may be wrapped in a wire mesh. A second fiber mesh formed into a cone may be removably inserted in the cylindrical-shaped fibrous blanket with the larger diameter of the cone positioned proximally.

U.S. Current Class:  60/282
U.S. Class at Publication:  060/282
Intern'l Class:  F01N 3/00 20060101 F01N003/00

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] There is a need for a method and system capable of efficiently and effectively filtering pollutants from exhaust gases. Although there are a number of devices available which are useful for filtering and catalyzing combustion gases or chemical reactions, each of these devices is incapable of providing an effective method for reducing pollutants cost effectively for the reasons described herein. It is generally acknowledged that the functional efficiency of combustion engines is directly related to the engine's ability to discharge gas created during the combustion process. One key element of the efficient discharge of gas is the existence of an adequate amount of counter-pressure at the precise time during the combustion process. This is an issue that has largely been ignored in creating these devices.

[0003] In general, an internal engine of combustion operates from the explosion of an air/fuel mixture that causes the expansion of the gases that move the piston of a cylinder. At the end of this cycle, an escape valve opens and the burnt gases are expelled at an extraordinary speed and sound. The performance of a combustion engine is affected by a variety of factors, including the quality of the fuel, pressure under which the fuel ignites, etc.

[0004] Because of the importance of relationship between fuel and air in the combustion mixture, the engines in most vehicles or devices are controlled by an electronic injection system. When fuel and air are mixed, the spark plug ignites and causes the explosion that puts into motion some parts of the engine, thus enabling the vehicle or device to move. The result of this "explosion" inside the engine also produces a variety of pollutant gases which are eliminated through the exhaust system. Some of these gases are: water vapor (H.sup.2O); carbon dioxide (CO.sup.2); nitrogen (N.sup.2); carbon monoxide (CO); hydrocarbons (HxCy; nitrogen oxide (N.sup.2O); hydrogen Fit; methane (CH4); and oxygen (O.sup.2). The most toxic gases to human beings are: carbon monoxide (CO) which reduces the oxygenation of the blood, affects the nervous system, worsens cardiac and respiratory illnesses, and can cause fatigue and migraine in low concentrations and death in high concentrations; hydrocarbon (HxCy); and nitrogen oxide (N.sup.2O) which affects the lungs and heart, can cause bronchitis, acid deposition and diminishes the atmospheric visibility.

[0005] Once a optimal performance of a combustion engine is achieved, the system metrics of the optimal system can be used as a reference against which to measure the effect of various changes to the exhaust system, such as the collector, the catalytic converter, the diameters of the pipe, and the systems for the elimination of noise. By altering characteristics of the system, it is possible to minimize the emission of harmful gases generated during combustion by increasing the periods of low pressure between gas emissions from the explosions.

[0006] Besides the production of gases, burning fuel produces material particles (MP) that vary in composition in relation to, among other things, the type of fuel, the quality of the engine maintenance and also in relation to the working temperature of the engine. The material particles are formed from the agglomeration of hydrocarbons that are not combusted and water and impurities of the fuel to the nuclei of chemical carbon element. Material particulates can be inhaled and lodged in deep areas of the human lung, for example, and are widely considered to be an irritating agent for respiratory airways. These particles cause pulmonary illnesses that afflict the elderly and children mainly and in particular during the colder months of the year, when the temperatures are extremely low, a fact that increases the concentration of material particles. This process of contamination increases the cancerous elements that might possibly exist in material particles. It is also important to consider the other undesirable effects in the atmosphere, such as the reduction of visibility and the worsening of the "greenhouse effect".

[0007] The material particles generally show a great dimensional variation. This variation causes any type of porous filter to a precocious saturation that, in turn, provokes functional overload to the components of the engine, resulting in an increase of fuel consumption, diminished power of the engine, increase of the volume of gases emitted during the combustion process, increase of temperature, and possible destruction of the engine.

[0008] With the knowledge about problems caused by these gases, several components designed to assist in the emission control have been developed. Amongst the most important are electronic control unit ("E.C.U."), the lambda sensor, the EGR valve and the catalytic converter. The control of the air/fuel admission made by the E.C.U. is simply a microcontroller (microprocessor with embedded RAM and ROM memories, wherein the ROM already comes from the factory with specific program recorded on to it) making use of entrances of analog and digital exits, gathering the signals such as temperature and speed obtained from sensors. The E.C.U. searches in its entries for the sensors conditions. The software program recorded in its ROM analyses this data and, according to the programmed information, considers power, economy, and pollution factors to determine and implement the point of work of the valve of shock and the actuator of the impeller.

[0009] The lambda sensor is typically located in the exhaust system. It measures the amount of oxygen molecules that have not been consumed in the combustion process and which are therefore expelled together with the combusted gases through the exhaust pipe. This way, the computer will command the injection of more fuel in case there are excess oxygen molecules or, alternatively, to inject less fuel in cases where there are fewer oxygen molecules. By enriching or impoverishing the air/fuel mixture, the engine will work more efficiently, polluting much less, wasting less fuel and with less maintenance. Lambda is the ratio of amount of air available for combustion to the amount of air required for combustion to be stoichiometric. The desired value of lambda is one (1) which indicates that the combustion is perfect.

[0010] At the exit of the sensor is an electric signal of a voltage that is proportional to the amount of oxygen in the combusted gases and this voltage, in turn, is proportional to the air/fuel ratio. The ECU controls adjustments in the position in the actuator of the impeller and in the position of the shock valve, resulting in a richer air/fuel mixture (more combustible) or a leaner air/fuel mixture (less combustible). While the engine is warming up, the shock valve is kept partially closed, thereby allowing a richer air/fuel mixture (i.e. more fuel). In the neutral gear, the shock valve is adjusted to a lambda value of 1, while during low speed the impeller is kept partially closed, thus saving in fuel. In the other gears, the ECU shock valve is adjusted according to settings which are adopted to optimize power and economy and minimize pollution. In electronic management, this valve is controlled by the Electronic Control Module which uses actuators to determine the moment and the time where it must operate and its real performance monitored for a present potentiometer in the proper valve. This, in effect, will be part of the subject matter described herein.

[0011] The EGR valve controls the flux and the moment where these gases must be absorbed in the combustion chamber. The valve must be open under each of the following conditions: warm engine; rotation of the superior engine to the one of the idling; diverse conditions of acceleration and deceleration of the engine. The amount of the exhaust gases existing in the chamber, and the time that the valve remains open, will depend on the changes in the vacuum and the pressure of the exhaust pipe gases, in accordance with the pattern of the work of the engine. The exhaust gases are a mixture of combusted fuels and, as a result, they are no longer combustible. Moreover, if they occupy too much space in the chamber, they will limit the combustion of the air/fuel mixture, consequently diminishing its temperature. By reducing the temperature, the level of formation of nitrogen oxides produced by the engine is also reduced.

[0012] The catalytic converter, located in the exhaust system behind the lambda sensor, functions as a filter that reacts chemically, transforming the harmful gases that still remain in the exhaust stream. Behind the catalytic converter, is the muffler or silencer which must attenuate the sound and dampen the vibrations from the beat of the chain of gases (through bulkheads and with the flux passing through a series of punched pipes and chambers,) absorb the sound waves and control the counter-pressure.

[0013] Both the catalytic converter and the muffler are designed to cause a certain counter-pressure in the exhaust system. Without the correct control of the counter-pressure, the exhaust system becomes extremely damaging to the performance of the engine. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that an engine at optimal performance gets the maximum power from a displacement of the piston, and proper discharge of the exit gases serves to generate maximum power and, therefore, the best performance. A double valve/escape system offers restrictive conditions, creating the counter-pressure.

[0014] Even the fuel engine, with the current technology, presents an excess of emissions of gases and material particles in the atmosphere. The ability to get the maximum power and performance is directly linked to the exhaust of the gases from the exhaust pipe. The exhaust process must account for the emission of gases when the engine is running at maximum power. When the engine operates outside of this parameter, resulting in a super dimensioned exhaustion, it will not have the proper restriction of the gases to get the best power and performance from the engine. This causes areas of low pressure resulting in waves of explosion of the gases in the engine causing an unnecessary increase of the emissions of gases and the increase of fuel consumption.

[0015] Mercedes-Benz of Brazil has published a report on the development and manufacturing of devices such as filter for material particles entitled "The Commercial Vehicles and the Environment" which verifies much of the foregoing information. Besides this report, it is generally known that a test using a filter of material particles in a fleet of vehicles that circulates in the urban environment was conducted by Mercedes-Benz GAC.--Germany. The filter in this study was made by means of a rolled ceramic wire net in a pipe that, in turn, was installed in the interior of a carcass, which replaces the muffler installed in the exhaust pipe of the automobile. In this configuration, a system of catalytic regeneration is used in the burning of the material particles that are deposited in the filter, keeping the restriction of the gases to the acceptable levels for the current environmental legislation once the device is automatically set in motion during the operation of the automobile.

[0016] Despite the promoted efficiency of the methods and systems of the prior art, many are encumbered by high costs of manufacturing and therefore are impracticable from the commercial point of view, particularly for use with existing automobiles.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0017] The system and method described herein relate to a novel solution for the improved use of fuel and the treatment of gases emitted from combustion engines and, more specifically, the gases that are emitted through exhaust pipes, such as automobile vehicles and industrial equipment An objective of the present invention is to reduce environmental pollution and, as a result, to improve the conditions of life, including the quality and quantity of the flora and fauna on the planet Earth. The emission of pollutant gases in the atmosphere has significantly contributed to contamination of the environment. There is an overwhelming demand for a solution capable of curbing the alarming effects caused by worldwide environmental degradation.

[0018] The present invention provides a variety of ecologic and economic advantages. For example, because the present invention filters particulates and greatly reduces the amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and other gases produced by the combustion of fuel, this invention has direct effect in the improvement of the environment. This minimizes the damaging effects of the environmental phenomenon known as the "greenhouse effect" and improves the air quality in urban centers.

[0019] In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a cylindrical carcass with a beveled opening in a diagonal line in its proximal part. The carcass may be removably attached to an engine's exhaust system. A bobbin is affixed in or to the distal portion of the carcass. A cylindrical-shaped fibrous blanket may be inserted in the carcass and the fibrous blanket may be wrapped in a wire mesh. A second fibrous blanket formed into a cone with the larger diameter of the cone positioned proximally may be removably inserted in the cylindrical-shaped fibrous blanket.

[0020] Results from initial tests of one embodiment of the present invention show reduction of approximately 33% of the emission of carbon monoxide and of approximately 43% of the emission of hydrocarbons and particulates, thus resulting in a more efficient use of fuel. In addition it is possible to identify operational advantages, where the application of this invention does not compromise the performance of the combustion engine due to an exclusive constructive concept of a system that reduces the periods of low pressure of the gas exhaustion proceeding from the explosions of the fuel of the combustion engine. The direct implications of these positive characteristics are the reduction of fuel consumption and in the emission of gases. It brings the engine closer to the point of peak performance avoiding overloading its components while working, as it has significant improvement of the burning of the gases of combustion. It also reduces the formation of impurities in the system, thus increasing the time of useful life and minimizing the need of corrective maintenance.

[0021] Tune device also presents advantages from the point of view of the product itself, where the constructive concept shows extreme simplicity and practicality, factors that contribute to the reduction of fixed costs involved in its manufacture and therefore making the final price accessible to the consumer market.

[0022] The economic aspect is even more evident when we take into account that the device can be used indefinitely, as it can be washed with anti-grease products, thus eliminating accumulated particles, and yet cleaned in compliance with environmental regulations.

[0023] In addition, the invention also reduces the level of noises emitted from the exhaust system by acting as a sound baffle thereby reducing noise pollution.

[0024] For all these reasons, and many others, the device and method of the present invention represents an innovation in the field of emission control.

[0025] The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be described hereinafter which form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the conception and specific embodiment disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures or processes for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent constructions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0026] For a more complete understanding of the present invention, and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following descriptions taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0027] FIG. 1 shows a blown up perspective view of the set of components that compose one embodiment of the device of the present invention;

[0028] FIG. 2 shows The view representing the attachment of one embodiment of the device to the end of an exhaust system;

[0029] FIG. 3 shows a view of one embodiment of the device installed on the end of an exhaust system;

[0030] FIG. 4 shows a side cut view of one embodiment of the device, indicating the flow of the gas waves proceeding from the engine's exhaust system;

[0031] FIG. 5 shows a side cut view of one embodiment of the device, indicating the behavior of the gas waves proceeding from the engine's exhaust system;

[0032] FIG. 6 shows an interior side cut view of one embodiment of the device inside the carcass of the exhaust system indicating the flow of the gas waves;

[0033] FIG. 7 shows alternate ways of applying one embodiment of the device in an engine's exhaust system;

[0034] FIG. 8 shows a representation of the gas waves originated from the exhaust system without the device of the present invention; and

[0035] FIG. 9 shows a representation of the gas waves originated from the exhaust system with the device of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

[0036] The present invention provides an efficient device and method for reducing the emission of harmful gases in the environment, reducing noise, reducing the consumption of fuel, and improving an engine's performance, all in a cost effective manner. The engine may be any form of combustion engine such as, for example, an engine in a car, truck, lawnmower, or other vehicle or device. The making and using of the presently preferred embodiments are discussed in detail below. It should be appreciated, however, that the present invention provides many applicable inventive concepts that can be embodied in a wide variety of specific contexts. The specific embodiments discussed are merely illustrative of specific ways to make and use the invention, and do not limit the scope of the invention.

[0037] Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows one embodiment of the device 101 comprising a cylindrical carcass 1 with a beveled opening 2 in a diagonal line in its proximal part where it is fixed by a clamp 3 for attaching the device 101 to an engine's exhaust system and its frontal part is adapted to receive and to fix a capsule 4. The carcass 1 and the capsule 4 may be made of any material capable of withstanding the heat and pressure of the applications including, for example, aluminum, steel, stainless steel or aluminized steel. The capsule 4 is generally cylindrical with an internal reflux 4a in its frontal part to receive and to fix a screen under pressure 5. The capsule may also have a cylindrical lateral reflux 5a to receive and fix a combination of a bobbin 6 and/or a fibrous blanket cylinder 7. The screen 5 may be metallic such as, for example, a punched metal web or a wire mesh or, alternatively, may be constructed by perforating the material used to construct the capsule. The bobbin 6 may be made of one or more metals or of other materials capable of withstanding the heat and pressure of an exhaust system and may be constructed by wrapping two metal fabrics around a central point.

[0038] In another configuration, the carcass 1 and the capsule 4 are integrated together into one cylinder. In this case, the screen may be affixed, or perforations may be made, in the distal end of the cylinder and the bobbin may be placed inside the cylinder at the distal end. By configuring the cylinder in this manner, there is no seam where the carcass 1 and the capsule 4 come together.

[0039] In one configuration, the fibrous blanket 7 cylinder is made by wrapping the fibrous blanket in a punched conductive web 6a and/or mesh 6b and overlapping the ends to form a spiral spring. The fibrous blanket 7 may be made of any material which can withstand the heat and pressure of the application. Examples include the combination of one or more of an aramid, a meta-aramid, a polyamide, a polyphenylene sulfide, a p-phenylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole, polytetraflouroethylene, and basalt. In addition, each case where reference is made herein to a fibrous blanket 7, it should be understood that the material may be removed from the carcass for replacement and/or cleaning at any time.

[0040] A diaphragm 8 formed by wrapping a fibrous blanket 8a into a cone with the larger radius positioned proximally and the smaller radius positioned distally. In one embodiment of the invention, the fibrous blanket 8a is wrapped in such a manner that the overlapping ends at the narrow end of the cone are secured together and, in another configuration, the overlapping ends at the narrow end of the cone are allowed to overlap but are not secured to one another. The diaphragm 8 may be removably attached to the carcass 1. The diaphragm 8 may be made of any material which can withstand the heat and pressure of the application. Examples include the combination of one or more of an aramid, a meta-aramid, a polyamide, a polyphenylene sulfide, a p-phenylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole, polytetraflouroethylene, and basalt. In addition, each case where reference is made herein to a diaphragm 8, it should be understood that the material may be removed from the carcass for replacement and/or cleaning at any time.

[0041] Once assembled, the proximal end of the carcass 1 is attached to an engine's exhaust system. One manner in which one embodiment of the present invention may be attached to an exhaust system is show in FIG. 2 and 3. The device may be attached in a variety of ways using a variety of attachment devices known in the art. The device may be either permanently or removably attached to the exhaust system. In the configuration shown in FIG. 2 and 3, the device is attached using a U-bolt which wraps around the engine's exhaust pipe and through the carcass and is thereafter secured using machine bolts.

[0042] The effect produced by each explosion of the fuel in a combustion engine provokes a high-pressure wave of gases (shown in FIGS. 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9) that is sent quickly to the collector. This wave will flow through the exhaust system until being expelled in the atmosphere through the exhaust pipe. Between the serial explosions that transform the chemical energy to mechanical energy, there are periods of low pressure. These periods of low pressure are variable in relation to the rhythm of the explosions. The faster the engine works, the fewer areas of low pressure. One result of the use of this device is the transformation of these variable periods of low pressure into small constant periods. As a result, the exhaust system is able to produce the necessary counter-pressure for better use in the system involving valves, gas escape, and fuel injection. The result is the reduced emission of gases and reduced fuel consumption.

[0043] As shown in FIG. 4, the gas 402 leaves the exhaust pipe 401 and enters the proximal end of the device 101. In the illustrated embodiment, the gas flows first through the diaphragm 8 and, because the diaphragm is formed into a conical shape in such a manner that a portion of the gas 402 is allowed to escape through the side of the diaphragm 8 because, as discussed above, the sides of the diaphragm 8 may not be secured together. Some portion of the gas 402 also passes through the diaphragm whereupon particulates in the gas 402 are removed and the cleaned gas escapes into the atmosphere. Finally, a portion of the gas proceeds past the distal end of the diaphragm 8 and enters the proximal end of the bobbin 6.

[0044] FIG. 5 shows a side cut view of one embodiment of the device, indicating the flow of the gas waves proceeding from the engine's exhaust system. The serial explosions that transform the chemical energy to mechanical energy, there are periods of low pressure. These periods of low pressure are variable in relation to the rhythm of the explosions.

[0045] As illustrated in FIG. 6 and FIG. 7, the device 101 carries through various functions in its operation, being able to be installed in any part of the exhaust system, meaning, after the collector 601, or before, of the catalytic converter 602, or before, of after the muffler 603, or intercalated or later. In short, the efficacy of the device of the present invention does not depend on the positioning inside the exhaust system.

[0046] So that the device 101 can be installed in the various parts of the exhaust system as described in the paragraph above and illustrated in FIG. 6 and FIG. 7, in an alternative embodiment the device 101 is installed internally to a lodging carcass 9, endowed with entrance 9a and exit 9b for the gas 402. Its functioning depends on the combustion engine to be working and emitting gas 402 to create the explosions. Periods of low pressure (LP) are produced during low rotation of the engine. When gas 402 enters the device 101 the amplitude is reduced by the conical configuration of the diaphragm 8, this effect reduces the potential energy of the gas 402, reduces its speed, distributes it across the area impacted by the gas 402 in the bobbin 6, and spreads the energy of shock of the wave 402 across the bobbin 6.

[0047] The bobbin 6 causes a restriction in the flow of the gas 402 thereby restricting the necessary compression to reduce the periods of low pressure (LP) between the waves of gas 402. This effect causes a chain of events in the waves of gas 402 during exhaust, reducing the periods of low pressure (LP) between the waves. By increasing the speed of the cycle of the explosions, the pressure of the waves 402 on the diaphragm 8 and on the bobbin 6 increases. The increase of the pressure on the walls of the diaphragm 8 causes the fibers to allow a bigger gas outflow between them, balancing with the elastic energy of the fibrous material thereby regulating the excess of the counter-pressure returned to the system. The increase of the cycle of the explosions also increases the waves of shocks on the bobbin 6 by the energy stored from its spring effect. When the bobbin is configured by wrapping two metals together, the energy of the shock waves of gas 402 causes the bobbin 6 to move in the opposite direction to its mechanic memory, thereby producing a bigger gap between its parallel segments and regulating the counter-pressure with the increase of the permission of flow of the gas waves 402. With the energy in the shock of the wave, the elastic energy of the bobbin 6 increases, and the bobbin allows greater gas flow between coated plates in a circular movement. Once the balance of the bobbin 6 is reestablished it returns to its initial configuration.

[0048] When the speed of the explosions reach the point when periods of low pressure (LP) are de minimus, it causes the counter-pressure offered by the diaphragm 8, in the overlapping of the material in its conical form, to be moved allowing extra flow of gases, thereby normalizing the counter-pressure of the exhaust system. When moving to the overlapping of the material of the diaphragm 8 it offers a radial increase of the proximal side of the cone, having its maximum opening limited by the fibrous blanket 7. This causes the waves of gases 402 to be radially shocked against the walls of the fibrous blanket 7, allowing a regulable counter-pressure in relation to the gases that enter its walls and in relation to the forced passage until the exit of the gases. The metallic carcass 1 concentrates and directs the exit of the gases through its exit in diagonal cut 2 directed towards the ground. This effect produces a controllable counter-pressure in the exhaust system taking advantage of the system of exhaust versus valves, resulting in improvement in the engine's performance and reducing the consumption of fuel.

[0049] Both the bobbin and the fibrous blanket 6 and 7 that are part of the device 101 act as material particle filters. In the bobbin 6, the gathering of material particles is accomplished by the collection of shock of particles in the walls of the mesh of the fibrous blanket 7a and of the bobbin 6b. The particles agglutinate as a result of the lost of speed and due to their own physical characteristics. The fibrous blanket 7 and 8a collects material particles that do not pass through the material. These two systems of gathering of material particles are efficient and can be cleaned and reused.

[0050] The bobbin 6 may be constructed using different metals, such as aluminum, zinc, copper, iron and others, to generate an electric or voltage differential that makes available ions to the system. These ions generated in the bobbin 6 affect the catalytic capacity in the gases emitted in the fuel engines at low temperatures, or until the end of the process of catalyses of gases initiated in the catalytic system of the fuel engines that, due to the speed of the waves 402 in the exhaust system, did not provide enough time to conclude the necessary catalytic reactions, or even when there is deactivation, for diverse reasons (temperature, contamination of the oil of the engine, excess of SO2) in the catalytic converter.

[0051] Another important effect is the reduction of the sound emitted from the device resulting from the dampening of the shockwaves of gases against the bobbin 6 and the fibrous blankets 7a and 8a.

[0052] While the present system and method has been disclosed according to the preferred embodiment of the invention, those of ordinary skill in the art will understand that other embodiments have also been enabled. Even though the foregoing discussion has focused on particular embodiments, it is understood that other configurations are contemplated. In particular, even though the expressions "in one embodiment" or "in another embodiment" are used herein, these phrases are meant to generally reference embodiment possibilities and are not intended to limit the invention to those particular embodiment configurations. These terms may reference the same or different embodiments, and unless indicated otherwise, are combinable into aggregate embodiments. The terms "a", "an" and "the" mean "one or more" unless expressly specified otherwise.

[0053] When a single embodiment is described herein, it will be readily apparent that more than one embodiment may be used in place of a single embodiment. Similarly, where more than one embodiment is described herein, it will be readily apparent that a single embodiment may be substituted for that one device.

[0054] In light of the wide variety of possible filters, the detailed embodiments are intended to be illustrative only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of the invention. Rather, what is claimed as the invention is all such modifications as may come within the spirit and scope of the following claims and equivalents thereto.

[0055] None of the description in this specification should be read as implying that any particular element, step or function is an essential element which must be included in the claim scope. The scope of the patented subject matter is defined only by the allowed claims and their equivalents. Unless explicitly recited, other aspects of the present invention as described in this specification do not limit the scope of the claims.


United States Patent Application   20070012006

Constructive disposition in a particulate matter sealing device existing in gas originating from fuel burning and/or chemical reaction when running internal combustion engines

January 18, 2007

Abstract -- A value-adding solution to the sealing product both from the point of view of minimizing the impact caused in nature by particulate matter uncontrolled emission, that its application on mobile or stationary combustion engines, does not interfere with their good performance, thanks to an unpublished constructive and functional concept that in addition to the technical nature advantages allows it to present low manufacturing cost. In order to make the hereinafter-claimed invention feasible, a functional concept is applied to the particulate matter sealing device, which leads to particulate matter flow speed reduction (Fp), which is released in the exhaust pipe (1), a reduction verified thanks to mechanical shocks of these particles at manifold blade components (C4) and manifold coil (C5), causing particles to agglutinate, by obtaining as a practical result a reduction between 60 and 90% in their emission to the environment. One also considers as a differential of the invention the fact that it reduces the noise level transmitted through the exhaust pipe (1). Particularly the hereinafter claimed invention is shown to be extremely valuable to the extent that in a saturation situation of the manifold coil component (C5) it does not cause the back compression effect, preventing combustion engine overload, which in turn prevents fuel consumption increase, and further may in this saturation condition be removed for washing and reutilization. Its applicability shows great flexibility and it may replaced the muffler component, and by applying to all kinds of combustion engines, such as those used by automotive vehicles and further in stationary engines.

U.S. Current Class:  55/525; 123/434; 277/590; 422/176; 55/410; 60/272
U.S. Class at Publication:  055/525; 422/176; 060/272; 123/434; 277/590; 055/410
Intern'l Class:  B01D 46/00 20070101 B01D046/00; F01N 3/10 20060101 F01N003/10; F02M 37/00 20060101 F02M037/00; F01N 7/14 20060101 F01N007/14

 Description

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] Applicant claims priority under 35 U.S.C..sctn.119 of European Application No. 05380147.8 filed on Jul. 1, 2005.

[0002] This patent application deals with a "CONSTRUCTIVE DISPOSITION INTRODUCED INTO A PARTICULATE MATTER SEALING DEVICE EXISTING IN GAS ORIGINATING FROM FUEL BURNING AND/OR CHEMICAL REACTIONS WHEN RUNNING COMBUSTION ENGINES" where applicant presents an unpublished solution for treating gases emitted by combustion engines, commonly released into the environment through exhaust pipes of moving equipment, such as automotive vehicles and/or stationary equipment, for industrial use, whose aim is to cooperate with environmental pollution rate reduction, and consequently improve living conditions, as far as the flora and fauna of planet Earth are concerned.

[0003] The demand for a solution of this nature is latent to the extent in which present-day mankind sees at naked eyes the nefarious effects caused by environmental degradation, worldwide, pollutant gas emission having consistent participation in forming the contaminated environment to which the entire planet population is exposed.

[0004] In this manner the now claimed invention presents a series of advantages, which can be ranked as ecological order advantages, namely the invention directly implies improvements in the environment, because one sees significant reduction of high-particulate matter content gases, a fact contributing to minimize, for instance, the harmful effects of the environmental phenomenon known as "greenhouse effect", being that all preliminary data obtained from the particulate matter seal indicate a reduction ranging between 60% and 90% of particulate matter emission.

[0005] In turn, it is possible to identify operating order advantages, where by using the now claimed invention the combustion engine performance is not compromised, thanks to an exclusive constructive concept that does not interfere with back compression in exhaust pipes, this positive feature having direct implication in fuel consumption saving and further it does not overload the engine components during its running, increasing its service life and minimizing the need for corrective maintenance.

[0006] The now claimed seal also has an advantage from the point of view of the retaining product itself, where said constructive concept is shown to be of outmost simplicity and practicability, a factor that collaborates to reducing overhead involved in its manufacture and therefore make the end price accessible to a more popular consumer market.

[0007] The economic aspect is further evidenced when one takes into account that the now claimed seal can be used indefinitely, because when it is shown to be saturated it can be removed and washed in a proper location, eliminating accumulated particulate matter, always in compliance with environmental legislation standards in effect, and can be reinstalled and allowed to return to its operation.

[0008] There is still one last differential to be mentioned, referring to ergonomic features, in this specific case that translated into low-level noises and vibration of the exhaust pipe system.

[0009] Due to all these aspects applicant understands that the now claimed solution represents an innovation known by the technical state, notoriously in the application area of the technology industry for sealing element devices.

[0010] As already known by the technical state a wide variety for particulate matter present in gases generated by combustion and/or chemical reactions is made available. However, after a detailed study of results obtained from using these devices, applicant can, via value analysis, identify a series of faulty points in their constructive and functional system, that leads to compromise the main goal to be achieved, namely, reducing environmental pollution rates.

[0011] For this assertion to become affirmative applicant has based his studies from the premise that the functional efficiency of combustion engines is directly related to correct air and fuel exhaust, or in other words, there must be a suitable amount of these components and at a given, precise time, which becomes fundamental to gas emission control, such gases that take with them a considerable amount of particulate matter.

[0012] Upon defining the mandatory condition for a perfect combustion engine performance applicant begins to have a consistent reference to identify the causes of low performance of these engines, wherever they are in intended manner or further by sheer negligence in relation to preventive and corrective maintenance, the lack of suitable engine tune-up makes a difference in the ideal proportion of air and fuel, preventing obtaining at the precise time the mandatory condition for its correct operation, having as a consequence particulate matter gas emission increase top the environment, being that, poor fuel burning is also translated by the amount of oxygen in the air 23% remaining air is burned making final quality of fuel burning difficult.

[0013] Particulate matter composition varies in accordance with the composition of the fuel to be burned, with the engine state of conservation and further its operating temperature, being that this particulate matter is formed from the agglutination of unburned hydrocarbons, water and impurities of this same fuel to a carbon chemical element core.

[0014] In turn, particulate matter shows a large dimensional variation of particles, such variation leading any kind of porous filter to early saturation, which in turn cause functional overload on engine components, such overload resulting in increased fuel consumption, engine power drop and increase of emitted gases during the combustion process.

[0015] One has further to consider the fact that particulate matter remains suspended in the air, because the above-mentioned filtering ensure its full sealing, and in this manner, smaller-size particles can be inhaled by the individual, lodging themselves in deep areas of the human lungs, for example, being an irritating agent to sight and the breathing system, which mainly afflict children and the elderly, particularly in the season of the year when temperatures are extremely low, a fact that potentializes particulate matter concentration.

[0016] This entire contamination process potentializes carcinogenic action that possible exists in particulate matter. One further considers the undesirable effects observed in the atmosphere, such and visibility and contrast reduction, and also increased "greenhouse effects", where, studies show that particulate material when deposited on mountaintop glaciers or the planet's poles concentrates solar energy producing thawing and increased global temperature.

[0017] In order to bestow more credibility on the above-described subject applicant mentions an official document issued by the renowned, trustworthy company of the automotive industry, Mercedes-Benz do Brasil, issuing in the form of a report by the Development and Experimental Engineering Management, upon the development of a filter type for particulate matter, such document being called "Commercial vehicles and the environment". In addition to this study, the existence is known of specific tests for a particulate matter filter version used by the vehicle fleet circulating in the urban area, this study, in turn, being undertaken by Mercedes-Benz AG. Germany, where a version of the sealing device is used whose filtering is performed by a ceramic wire network rolled in a pipe, which in turn is installed inside a housing, which replaces the muffling element installed in the exhaust pipe of the automotive vehicle.

[0018] In this case a catalytic regeneration system is employed in particulate matter burning, which is deposited in the filter, keeping gas restriction within levels acceptable by environmental legislation in force, being that the device is automatically activated during the automotive vehicle operation. Notwithstanding the rumored efficiency of the described and known technical state of the seal system, it is known that it has high manufacturing costs, and therefore being impracticable from the commercial point of view, at least for its application in the great majority of automotive vehicles in circulation. Having said this, applicant, taking advantage of undeniable available advances and also using a serious study and observation of particulate matter behavior, characteristics and composition, a study backed by conclusive trials and tests on obtained effectiveness, particulate matter sealing type product has been developed, identified in this paper by the initials "R.M.P.", highly efficient, reducing its level in the environment, in order to cooperate with improving environmental conditions on planet Earth, where allied to this aspect keeps usual back compression conditions found in combustion engines, preventing fuel consumption increase and reducing the need for corrective maintenance, being a supplement to a feasible solution from the industrial and commercial point of view.

[0019] Supplementing this description, in order to obtain better understanding of this characteristics of this invention claim and application, this description is accompanied, as attachment, a set of drawings where a form of preferred performance is made graphically for the particulate matter sealing device, which is accompanied by five constructive variants, aimed at demonstrating how encompassing its application is, where:

[0020] FIG. 1 is a representation in view perspective of the preferred form of performing the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0021] FIG. 2 is a view perspective of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0022] FIG. 3 is a blown up perspective of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0023] FIG. 4 is a side-section view representation of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention, demonstrating its functional concept;

[0024] FIG. 5 is a blown up perspective view of the first variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0025] FIG. 6 is a side-section view perspective of the first variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention, demonstrating its functional concept;

[0026] FIG. 7 is perspective view representation of a second variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0027] FIG. 8 is a blown up perspective view of a second variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0028] FIG. 9 is a side-section view perspective of a second variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention, demonstrating its functional concept;

[0029] Detail 1 is a blown up front view representation of a blade element pertaining to the manifold blades;

[0030] Detail 2 is a blown up view representation of the manifold coil component with its respective component elements;

[0031] FIG. 10 is an upper view representation a third variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0032] FIG. 11 is a an upper view representation a fourth variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0033] FIG. 12 is a frontal view representation a fourth variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0034] FIG. 13 is a back view representation a fifth variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention;

[0035] FIG. 14 is a side-section view perspective of a fifth variant of the preferred performance manner of the now claimed particulate matter sealing device invention, demonstrating its functional concept; and

[0036] FIG. 15 is a front sectional view of the embodiment of FIG. 14.

[0037] With reference to the drawings illustrating this invention patent application, FIGS. 1, 3 and 4 respectively refer to the manner of preferred performance for the horizontal particulate matter sealing device (A), applied in horizontal-type exhaust outlets, which shows a constructive concept consisting of a frontal canopy (A1), notably with tubular wall and frontal cover (A1'), which is formed by hollow elements, forming a sieve-shaped representation, where treated gas outflow is possible (Fa). The frontal canopy component (Al), receives inside the manifold coil component (A2), which presents a braided mesh element (A2'), concocted in (Fp) originating from the gas flow (Fg). In turn, the set consisting of the frontal canopy components (A1) and manifold (A2) is fastened to the main housing component (A3), which presents a tubular shape, being that in its back and lower portion, a chamfer is defined (A3'), whose primary function resides in assisting gas outflow (Fg), required for relieving the saturation of the manifold coil component (A2) as indicated in FIG. 4.

[0038] In time, the main housing component (A3) is fastened to the exhaust type (1) through a clamping component (A4). A first variant to the preferred performance manner is graphically represented through FIGS. 2, 5 and 6 respectively, through the vertical particulate matter sealing device (B), being that it presents the same frontal canopy components (A1) and manifold coil (A2), being differentiated in relation to the main housing component (A5), where it has a horizontal packing nozzle (A6) where the exhaust pipe fastening is located (1), being that in perpendicular position to the main body a vertical packing nozzle is predicted (A7), which receives the vertical exhaust pipe fastening (2) whereby part of the treated gas flow passes (Fa), as represented by FIG. 6.

[0039] A second variant to the preferred performance manner is graphically represented through FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 respectively and detail 1, through the enclosed particulate matter retaining device C), which presents a differentiated constructive concept in relation to the previously described models, that obeys the constructive similarity criterion, and can therefore be an integral part of the patent claiming picture in description. The constructive concept of the enclosed particulate matter sealing device (C), is based on a front cover component (Cl), trapezoidal trunk-shaped, being that in its end portion the front fitting area is defined (C1') destined for fastening it to the exhaust pipe (2).

[0040] This font cover component (C1) is assembled together with the main housing component (C2), which is in tubular shape with rectangular cross-section.

[0041] The interior of the main housing component (C2), receives the manifold blade component assembly (C4), whose useful area is permeated by retaining holes (C4''), which are supported by structural rod elements (C4'), as indicated in detail 1 In turn, manifold blade components (C4) present a hollow area (C6) in their central region.

[0042] Together with the manifold blade component frontal portion (C4) the manifold coil component is fastened (C5) presenting a braided mesh element (C5'), concocted in knitted steel-based material, as indicated in detail 2.

[0043] The above-described constructive concept further results from the formation of a main decompression (C6'), as represented in FIG. 9.

[0044] Finally, the back portion of the main housing component (C2), is contemplated with a back cover (C3), this one with a similar profile and structure to the one observed for the front cover component (C1), being that in its end portion the front fitting area is defined (C3') destined for fastening it to the exhaust pipe (1).

[0045] The front cover component inner walls (C1) and the back cover (C3), present the trapezoidal trunk-shaped profile as in order to provide a suitable assembly of the manifold blade components (C4) through their interference with structural rod elements (C4').

[0046] Applicant stresses that the economic aspect refers to a low-cost solution for solution performance manners described in this paper, where the particulate matter sealing device (A), vertical particulate matter sealing device (B) and enclosed particulate matter sealing device (C) are manufactured by using low-cost raw material, such as steel and aluminum. The enclosed particulate matter-sealing device (C) can be credited with a last positive aspect, which resides in the fact that once it is installed it allows eliminating the automotive vehicle-muffling component.

[0047] In order to bestow greater credibility to the constructive and functional concepts introduced in order to make the now claimed invention feasible, applicant now describes, in the following paragraphs, the scientific foundation that has generated the differentiated qualities previously described in this paper.

[0048] Applicant has based his studies on the knowledge that in gas emission (Fg) with particulate matter (Fp), chemical element molecules when released from the exhaust pipe to the atmosphere, perceive an expansion, where particulate matter is committed by the release inertia, tending in this manner to make a straight-line route with a small dispersal degree caused by the mentioned gas expansion.

[0049] The primary function of the enclosed particulate matter sealing device (C) resides in causing the particulate matter (Fp) released by gases (Fg), once it is involved by said inertia, to have its speed reduced, a reduction that should reach zero speed, which is justified by a series of mechanical shocks against the walls of the manifold blade components (C4) and manifold coil component (C5), retaining and agglutinating said particles, therefore, such agglutination is characteristic of carbon-based elements making up the particulate matter.

[0050] Manifold blade components (C4) in turn are structured by structural rod elements (C4'), so that it allows them to be spatially positioned and parallel among them.

[0051] In turn, the manifold coil component (C5) shows a braided mesh element (C5'), concocted in knitted steel-based material, but this component creates a treated gas outflow restriction around 27%.

[0052] In order to prevent a back compression effect at the exhaust system, caused by the above-mentioned gas outflow restriction, the constructive concept of the enclosed particulate matter-sealing device (C) defines that manifold blade components (C4) present a hollow area (C6) in their central region. Allied to this hollow area (C6) a main decompression area is also defined (C6'), being that their sum potentializes decompression inside the enclosed particulate matter-sealing device (C) upon gas expansion.

[0053] In order to have the desired effect feasible a mandatory condition is that the area resulting from the sum between the hollow area (C6) between the manifold blade components (C4) and the main decompression area (C6'), is to be at least equal to the area found in the exhaust pipe (1).

[0054] Applicant further makes a reservation in order the make the nature of the particulate matter sealing device explicit (C) which does not have the primary function of a filter, because it prevents with the above-described feature loss of the combustion engine output, keeping fuel consumption suitable and increasing its service life time.

[0055] The particle sealing capacity afloat the manifold coil component (C5), can be predicted through a simplified formula, upon its utilization in automotive vehicles, where: Ssaturation=Vr*Ts, being:

[0056] Ssaturation=Space run by the vehicle until saturation of the manifold coil component saturation;

[0057] Vr=Relative average speed of the combustion engine shaft transfer to the vehicle's tires;

[0058] Ts=Saturation time analyzed by the particulate matter emission volume emitted by the combustion engine versus filling the total volume of the manifold coil component.

[0059] The practical result observed by applying this formula reports to an estimated mean for an automotive vehicle emitting 0.0048849 grams of particulate matter per minute, where saturation of the manifold coil component (C5) will occur after running approximately 13,000 kilometers, which is translated into high durability, allied to the fact that once saturation is reached the enclosed particulate matter sealing device (C) can be easily removed for washing in an appropriate location, where at the end of this washing it can be assembled again at the automotive exhaust system, being renewed to perform without problems for the next 13,000 kilometers.

[0060] Finally, in relation to ergonomic use features it is translated into low-level noises and vibration of the exhaust pipe system, this vibration is obtained thanks to the transformation sound waves into mechanical energy at the manifold blade component walls (C4) and manifold coil (C5).

[0061] In order to expand the scope of possible applications for the now claimed particulate matter seal applicant illustrates a third constructive variant for it, represented by FIG. 10, being very resembling to the model presented for the vertical particulate matter sealing device (B), but it presents as a differential the main housing (D), whose end portion is defined by a closed ball-shaped terminal (D1).

[0062] In turn, FIGS. 11-12 are part of graphic representation of the fourth constructive variant, which presents a main housing (E) whose end portion receives the assembly of a screen (E1), whose function resides in providing first stage of treated gas release (Fa).

[0063] Applicant further presents a fifth constructive variant, represented by FIGS. 13-15 respectively, where the particulate matter seal (F) is installed at the end of a vertical exhaust pipe (2), in the back upper portion of a collective transport vehicle, being defined by a main housing (F1), whose side presents a decompression hole (3), this housing receiving in its nozzle the assembly of a cover component (F2), which presents hollow elements (F2').

[0064] The interior of the main housing (F1) receives the assembly of manifold blade components (C4), which are permeated by sealing holes (C4'') and manifold coil (C5), this assembly being supported by structural rod elements (C4'), where said components are identical to the ones applied at the second constructive variant, called enclosed particulate material sealing device (C). Though the hereinafter-claimed invention has been explained with reference to the graphic representation of its specific drawings the hereinafter-mentioned explanation is of illustrative nature, the invention being limited only by the claims attached to this paper.

[0065] Due to all that has been described and illustrated that it deals with a "CONSTRUCTIVE DISPOSITION INTRODUCED INTO A PARTICULATE MATTER SEALING DEVICE EXISTING IN GAS ORIGINATING FROM FUEL BURNING AND/OR CHEMICAL REACTIONS WHEN RUNNING COMBUSTION ENGINES", which perfectly fits into the standards governing the Invention Patent, in light of the Industrial Property Law, due to filling an important gap existing in the market, moreover because its provides a technical, operating alternative in particulate matter sealing systems, being worthy due to what has been exposed and as a consequence, of the respective privilege.


Installers & Retailers

United States

Arizona

Phoenix

Autoworks
645 W. 1st Street
Casa Grande, AZ 85222-3201
Phone: 520-421-2010
Contact: Jim Hawver

Kenny Speed's Tire & Performance Center
10 W. Southern
Mesa, AZ 85210
Phone: 480-834-1847
Contact: Kenny Vasseur

Good Guys Automotive
15812 North 32nd Street.
Phoenix, AZ 85014-4744
(602) 923-6641

Loper's Service Center
902 East Indian School Rd.
Phoenix, AZ 85014-4744
Phone: 602-264-5450
Contact: Mike Kelly

Mighty Automotive
10034 N. Cave Creek Rd.
Phoenix, AZ 85020
Phone: 602-944-5785
Contact: Jim Shaw

California

Alameda Oakland Complete Auto Service
1825 Webster Street
Alameda, CA 94501
Phone: (510) 521-1541
Contact: Julie

Anchor Muffler &  Auto Service
750 N. Anaheim Blvd
Anaheim, CA 92805
Phone: (714) 535-7520
Contact: Carlos, or Pat

The Muffler Shop
10227 Canoga Avenue
Chatsworth, CA  91311
Phone: 818-886-4705
Contact: John Ayvazian

Celebrity Muffler & Brake Shop
2436 Hyperion Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90027
Phone: 323-953-1666
Contact: Greg Edahur

Collins Muffler Brake & Trailor Hitch
25721 Obrero Drive, Suite C
Mission Viejo, CA 92691
Phone: 949-830-6687
Contact: Randy Collins

Gil's Muffler Shop
18437 Roscoe Blvd.
Northridge, CA 91325
Phone: 818-885-8867
Contact: Dale Schirmeister

Sierra Muffler
5820-B Clark Road
Paradise, CA 95969
Phone: 530-876-1320
Contact: Bob Humpal

Cars Muffler Service
2617 Artesia Blvd.
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
(310) 371-7055

Doug Moore's Muffler Service
1504 N. Ave De La Estrella, Unit H
San Clemente, CA 92672
Phone: 949-492-5540
Contact: Doug Moore

A New Way Auto
2874 Garnet Avenue
San Diego, CA 92109
Phone: 619-263-9929
Contact: Ed Dorszynski

South Coast Muffler Hitch & Welding
33011 Calle Aviador
San Juan Capistrano, CA  92675
Phone: 949-493-5977
Contact: Jim Tebbets

Connecticut

City Tire Company
82 Boston Post Road
Waterford, CT 06385
Phone: 860-437-3382
Fax: 860-437-3386

Illinois

Addison Shell
3552 North Ashland Ave
Chicago, IL 60657
(773) 477-5242
Ask for: David Steele

Tuffy Auto Service Centers
1400 West Diversey Parkway
Chicago, IL 60614
(773) 929-3622
Ask for Chris Zelasko, Manager

Indiana

Tom Cherry Muffler
1203 N College Ave
Bloomington, IN 47404
Phone: (812) 323-1456
Contact: Eric Tezer

John Staples Custom Pipes &  Mufflers
2519 25th St
Columbus, IN 47201
Phone: (812) 372-6833
Contact: John Staples

Kyle's Auto Repair Inc.
1739 Lincoln Way E
Mishawaka, IN 46544
Phone: (574) 255-6152
Contact: Kyle Patti

Massachusetts

Awon's Auto Repair
530 N. Main Street
Brockton, MA 02301
(508) 427-0007

One Stop Auto
(800) 290-9889
312 N. Montello Street
Brockton, Massachusetts 02301

Woodward's Auto Services
148 N Montello St
Brockton, MA 02301
(508) 586-8032

Godfrey's International Metrowerks
(508) 230-2100
812 Washington Street
Easton, Massachusetts 02334

City Tire Company
1385 Memorial Drive
Chicopee, MA 01020
Phone: 413-534-2946

Jay Martin Auto
(508) 350-0011
394 Spring Street
E. Bridgewater, Massachusetts 02333

Lodge Tire Company
177 French King Highway
Greenfield, MA 01301
Phone: 413-772-2561
Fax: 413-774-4106

City Tire Company
560 Hubbard Avenue
Pittsfield, MA 01201
Phone: 413-445-5578
Fax: 413-499-6318

St. Pierre's Garage
97 Ocean Avenue
Salem, MA 01970
Phone: (978) 745-4508

McGillis Automotive
55 Turnpike St.
West Bridgewater, MA 02379
Phone: (508) 580-8771
Contact: Paul Mcgillis

Sparky's Repair
(781) 857-2222
845 A Temple Street
Whitman, Massachusetts 02382

City Tire Company
2830 Boston Road  Wilbraham, MA 01095
Phone: 413-596-2514
Fax: 413-596-5230

Worcester Tire Company
451 Southbridge Street
Worcester, MA 01610
Phone: 508-755-2221
Fax: 508-798-4999

New Hampshire

B&B Fabricators
466 RT 11
Farmington, NH 03835
Phone: 603-755-9113

City Tire Company
124 Main Street
Keene, NH 03431
Phone: 603-357-1332
Fax: 603-357-1306

City Tire Company
38 Railroad Avenue
West Lebanon, NH 03766
Phone: 603-298-0497
Fax: 603-298-0499

New Jersey

Jim's Service Station
132 N. Black Horse Pike
Bellmawr, NJ 08031
Phone: 856-931-8794

Meineke Car Care Center
19 S. White Horse Pike
Berlin, NJ 08009
Phone: 856-768-2100
Contact: Tammy Minghenelli

Meineke Car Care Center
850 U.S. Highway 206
Bordentown, NJ 08505
Phone: (609) 324-9235
Contact: Tom Pfau

Gattuso's Auto Service
229 Kings Hwy
Clarksboro, NJ 08020
Phone: 856-423-5757
Contact: Lou Gottuso

D. Speed Sound & Muffler
273 12th Avenue
Clifton, NJ 07014
Phone: (973) 341-9646
Contact: Junior Trump

Jafstram Import Car Specialist
869 Haddon Ave.
Collingswood, NJ 08108
Phone: 856-854-8345

Connell's Transmission & Automotive Repair
1725 Delsea Dr.
Deptford, NJ 08096
Phone: 856-464-9250
Contact: Tom Connell

Dom's Auto Repair
1255 Delsea Dr.
Deptford, NJ 08096
Phone: 856-845-3777
Contact: Dominic Maiese

George Lee's Auto Service
1348 Glassboro Rd
Deptford, NJ 08096
Phone: 856-468-9897

Joe's Service Center
1251 Hurfville Rd.
Deptford, NJ 08096
Phone: 856-228-4420

Bruce's Used Auto Parts
233 Pennsylvania Ave
Franklinville, NJ 08322
Phone: 856-694-5155
Contact: Bruce Sharp

D & R Transmissions
2756 Williamstown Rd.
Franklinville, NJ 08322
Phone: 856-728-8070
Contact: Bill Rohe

J Auto Repair
2406 Delsea Dr
Franklinville, NJ 08322
Phone: 856-694-1051

Hoagland's Auto Repair
Broadway & Burlington
Gloucester City, NJ 08030
Phone: 856-742-0194
Contact: Rich Hoagland

Arrow Auto Repair
1174 US Highway 46
Ledgewood, NJ 07852
Phone: 973-927-7021

Atrex Transmissions
1609 Route 38
Lumberton, NJ 08048
Phone: (609) 261-3300
Contact: David Alberto

After Hours
1871 Glassboro Rd
Monroe Twp., NJ 08094
Phone: 856-863-2121
Contact: Forrest Reitz

Ed's Repair Service
440 Bridgeton Pike
Monroeville, NJ 08343
Phone: 856-358-8750
Contact: Ed Dorrell

Georg & Son Auto Repair
81 Groff Rd.
Monroeville, NJ 08343
Phone: 856-358-8427
Contact: Fred Lesti

Clark's Auto World
210 N. West Blvd
Newfield, NJ 08344
Phone: 856-692-8788
Contact: George Clark

Advantage Auto Repair, Inc.
208 S Salem St
Randolph, NJ 07869
Phone: (973) 366-4426
Contact: Bob Herburger

Charlie's Complete Auto Service
349 E. Clements Bridge Rd
Runnemede, NJ 08078
Phone: 856-312-1624
Contact: Charles Schmidt

Express Gas & Auto Repair
1008 Kings Hwy & Glen Echo
Swedesboro, NJ 08085
Phone: 856-467-5358

Ed's Auto Service
759 Foster Avenue
Vineland, NJ 08360
Phone: (856) 457-3538
Contact: Bill Michaels

Elwell's Auto Center
228 Haddon Ave.
West Berlin, NJ 08091
Phone: 856-719-6881
Contact: Chuck Elwell

Everett's Specialty Repair
39 Saybrook Ave.
Williamstown, NJ 08094
Phone: 856-629-2660
Contact: Steve Everett

Frank's Auto Repair Center
2063 N. Black Horse Pike
Williamstown, NJ 08094
Phone: 856-875-0010
Contact: Frank Camiolo

Fryer Norman Automotive
444 Fryers Lane
Williamstown, NJ 08094
Phone: 856-629-6995
Contact: Phil Fryer

Accurate Collision
663 Mantua Pike
Woodbury, NJ 08096
Phone: 856-845-1333
Contact: Sal Arena

Lakeland Supply
536 Niagra Falls Blvd
Buffalo, NY14223
Phone:716-834-2777
Contact: Bill Stanbro

Oregon

Quality Muffler & Brake
5494 Table Rock Rd.
Central Point, OR 97502
Phone:(541) 664-5494
Contact: Contact: Rich Aquila

Texas

Midas
3120 W Pioneer Parkway
Arlington, Texas 76013
817-274-3393
Contact: Bobby

Midas
5861 S Cooper Street
Arlington, Texas 76017
817-468-1661
Contact: David

Midas
3004 E. Pioneer Parkway
Arlington, Texas 76010
817-640-8324
Contact: Steven Perez

Muffin Muffler
(512) 453-5287
6615 Shirley Avenue
Austin, Texas 78572

Brake Specialists
5528 North Lamar Blvd
Austin, Texas 78751
(512) 450-1570

Brake Specialists
8405 Research Boulevard
Austin, Texas 78758
(512) 339-4199

Brake Specialists
12990 Research Blvd
Austin, Texas 78750
(512) 331-5166

Brake Specialists
1607 West Parmer Lane
Austin, Texas 78727

Brake Specialists
1303 South Lamar
Austin, Texas 78704
(512) 447-7992

Brake Specialists
1417 West William Cannon Blvd
Austin, Texas 78745
(512) 440-8878

Brake Specialists
118 Trademark
Buda, Texas 78610
(512) 312-2117

Brake Specialists
1915 South Bell Boulevard
Cedar Park, Texas 78613
(512) 250-8381

Brake Specialists
3996 Hwy. 290
Dripping Springs, TX 78620
(512) 858-2796

Brake Specialists
303 RR 620 South
Lakeway, Texas 78734

Brake Specialists
900 West Pecan
Pflugerville, Texas 78660
(512) 251-7037

Infinity Conversions
1942-A Picadilly Drive
Round Rock, Texas 78664

Brake Specialists
1800 South IH 35
Round Rock, Texas 78681
(512) 310-2890

Vermont

City Tire Company
740 Marshall Avenue
P.O. Box 1546
Williston, VT 05495
Phone: 802-951-9999
Fax: 802-951-9997




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