by John Bigelow
In a book titled The Physics of the Primary State of Matter, published in the 1930s, Karl Schappeller described his Prime Mover, a 10-inch steel sphere with quarter-inch copper tubing coils. These were filled with a material not named specifically, but which is said to have hardened under the influence of direct current and a magnetic field [electro-rheological fluid]. With such polarization, it might be guessed to act like a dielectric capacitor and as a diode.
The same material is inside the rotor. The transfer of electrons upward, and the magnetic field of the sphere combine to turn the rotor. No direct conversion of this energy to electricity is described, but the rotor could be attached to a generator...
According to Schappeller, the amount of this sustaining rotation of the device would be termed ‘glowing magnetism’ and be located at the center of the sphere. Present day terminology might be ‘plasma’.
The Physics of the Primary State of Matter
by Cyril Davson
The New Technique ~
The important fact from the point of view of the New Technique is that the only source of primary magnetism is glowing core of hydrogen energy, or the primary magnetism as force is magnetism in the glowing state, or glowing magnetism, which is the Primary Force, or if we must use the present terms, the atomic force, the chemical composition of which is a hydrogen energy core interacting through mobility with its complementary cold oxygen energy stress field, the physics of which has already been explained.
The fulcrum or basis of the New Technique based on the physics of the Primary State is thus the production of a core of glowing magnetism, the greatest available force within the reach of man, and in the Cosmos the great creative origin-force in all Nature.
In the cosmos we learned that the essential factor to the formation of a glowing core was the establishment of a magnetic point of inequality in the otherwise latent homogenous stress field.
Obviously, we have not the same faculties as are available in the cosmos, and so the crux of the whole problem in the New Technique is this forming of a point of inequality in the ether, under such conditions that a glowing hydrogen core, or glowing magnetism, will form as a space-form impression entity and be maintained as such.
Primary magnetism, or a glowing hydrogen core of energy, is always spherical, because it forms radially concentrically on the point of inequality.
It is therefore clear that the first technical problem we have to solve is: what form of technical appliance is there which will put a spherical stress on any given point in the ether? The stress must, of course, be magnetic or electromagnetic in quality and thereby exert a suction on the ether on and to this point so that the surrounding ether will be drawn in, catalyzed, and finally radiated out as a stimulated stressfield which can be made to perform work of all kinds, just as the electric current is now used to produce mechanical power, light, heat and electrolysis for all forms of industrial purposes. There is a similar medical application to healing, radiology, diathermy and electrotherapy through ionization of the particular salts or drugs required by any given condition of the body, and multifarious other applications (See Part III).
So we now have as our guide the fact that the appliance must be capable of continually receiving and holding an electromagnetic charge, the form of which must be spherical.
The appliance nearest to this at present available is perhaps the solenoid, which is simply a coil of wire through which an electric current is passed. The electric current produces a magnetic field round the wire coil on which the ether exerts a force of attraction or a suction force, because the ether itself is latent magnetism; and we know that if through the center of this coil or solenoid we insert a bar of steel the magnetic stress from the solenoid will be induced into the steel bar, and the bar will be said the be magnetized.
Suppose, therefore, we produce a magnetic field of spherical form, that is, wind our wire in the form of a sphere, and provide it with a suitable support and covering. This would hardly satisfy our requirements,
(1) because an electric current will always have to be supplied from an exterior source;
(2) because this type or quality of magnetic field would only magnetize a piece of iron or steel placed in the center of the spherical solenoid and the Ether would not react to this type of gauss field;
(3) the current in the solenoid is held adhesively to the cohesive force of the wire and cannot therefore put a stress on a point in the geometric center of the spherical solenoid, as its complementary stressfield in this case is the cohesive force of the wire itself and it has thus no complementary stressfield or contra-pole external to its Space-form.
It will thus be perfectly clear that a field produced as at present through the medium of passing a current through a copper wire would not fulfill the purpose, and that we require some form of field which will spring out on to its geometrical center and thus draw with it the surrounding Ether, until finally the pressure on the point from the ether compression on the constantly inrushing ether brings it to the glowing state and a physical point of origin is formed on the geometrical center of the Sphere, or, as Schappeller terms this apparatus, the Stator.
The Electret ~
We have seen that the numerous so-called "effects" in Physics owe their origin to the crossing of two stressfields, e.g., Nernst, Ettinghaus, Hall, Leduc, Peltier and Thompson effects; these may be said to ring the charges between, say, heat and electricity, electricity and magnetism, and so forth; others have been cited, producing different effects, but all are caused by the same principle or law -- that energy can neither be produced nor transformed without the crossing of two stressfields.
An experimental physicist once declared that he had nothing to do with the "crossing of stressfields". Neither has the housewife anything to do with the "boiling of water"; she merely places the kettle on the fire, then Nature crosses the stressfields, i.e., the heat stress crosses the cohesive force or stressfield of the water. This is the case in all the effects cited above; but the components, and thus the products, differ in each case.
The deeper the study of present Physics, the more this law is firmly established.
We are now about to examine another effect, which plays an important part in the New Technique, viz., the Permanent Electret, named by the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan in 1920.
Prof. Mototaro Eguchi (Prof. Of Physics, naval College, Tokyo) produced his own special electret, which constitutes really the permanent magnet of the electrostatic sphere.
He used as the dielectric, carnauba wax and resin with or without a percentage of beeswax and kept it in a strong electric field whilst slowly baking until solidification set in. Once again we have the crossing of the two stressfields, the cohesive force of the dielectric, but this time with an electric field, aided by heat stress.
The heat stress was in a plastic condition as a slowly solidifying dielectric, and the resulting effect was the permanent electrisation of the dielectric, effecting a kind of dielectric polarization.
The nature of the electric charge produced in the dielectric is a permanent internal electrisation entirely different from the superficial electrification.
For example, the electrisation cannot be destroyed by different treatment applied to the surface, e.g., a Bunsen flame, x-ray exposure washing with solvents, planning with a knife, or by applying electric force in any sense.
Electrisation, as opposed to mere electrification, is really therefore the electrification of the whole bound stressfield of the dielectric in question.
Heaviside coined this new term "electrisation" to signify an internal electrical change of a material, which is quite different from superficial electrification.
The PP [Primary Physics] explanation of this phenomenon is that the electric fielding H and Of energy, the stressfield of the dielectric, that is, its cohesive force or energy structure, is likewise H and Of energy, and the crossing of the two stressfields brings about permanent and complete electrification of the whole mass under treatment.
It is what might be termed "occlusion", not as with gases and porous material, but "energy occlusion" made possible only by the plastic state in a slowly solidifying condition.
Eguchi declares that such an electret shows so great an intensity of electrisation that the electric force exerted in front of the surface of the electret may attain the greatest sustainable value in the atmosphere -- the permanency being also so good that no sensible decay was detected for three or four years after its preparation.
The maximum attainable surface densities by mechanical friction are:
Rubbed on Wool ~ Rubbed on Silk ~
Max. surface density Max. surface density
Sealing wax 5.70 ESU 5.40 ESU
Shellac 5.57 -- 5.12
Sulfur 5.48 -- 5.30
Ebonite 4.82 -- 4.43
Amber 4.18 -- 4.11
Glass 2.65 -- 2.90
Whereas the Permanent Electret has densities of the order of 6 to 6.2 ESU and in air in front of the surface, 7 to 7.8
The actual surface density (d) of the free charge of an electret may be calculated from observed numbers as follows:
C = Capacity of the condenser system,
V = Potential read on electrometer
R = effective radius of surface induction plate, i.e., radius of plate plus ½ of air gap;
D = CV/ 3.14 r2
For full details of the Eguchi Electret see, Phil. Mag., 1925, 1, Vol. 49)
Enough has been said to show that the electret is a fact established by actual experimentation, although here we are not concerned with the Eguchi electret, but merely with the principle involved and its significance, viz. the production of a permanent magnet in the electrostatic sphere.
This principle forms the basis or nucleus for our spherical field. Schappeller has not used either Eguchi’s or any other form of known electret, and the purpose of citing Eguchi’s experiments is merely to establish beyond all doubt that this principle is a practical and proven fact. The composition and preparation of Schappeller’s electret or what he calls his "sublimate", requires a special plant and involves a continuous process of perhaps six weeks’ duration. Suffice it to say that the principle in the design of this new plant is "transpiration" or drawing energy from the ground by producing a stressfield above the ground and then binding it as an energy sublimate to a suitable "electret material" to form the permanent magnet for our new form of field.
This plant, although worked out in detail, is entirely new and has no parallel in present Science; it is as important in the New technique as the cyclotron, or equivalent apparatus is in the attempt to obtain atomic force by the "splitting up" instead of the building up, of the atom from atomic potential in the free, unbound state, but with this difference, that once it has performed its part of producing the sublimate, it will never be required again, because the products can then be reproduced anywhere and everywhere as desired.
We have already dealt with the origin of magnetism in the latent form, then polarized as vacuum or atomic force in the cosmos, and finally functioning as a sun or other variant.
We have also examined the method by which magnetism is produced and utilized in electric generators of the present day, that is the solenoid and its core; the core is then said to be polarized, and each unit of such an apparatus is termed an electromagnet. If we place a small piece of steel in the neighborhood of the poles of such a magnet, when the solenoid is carrying the current, the steel will be attracted because the field around the end of the pole will be induced into the cohesive force of the steel and it will finally be held against the face of the core or magnet.
Or we may consider a bar magnet which as only residual magnetism, the shape of the field being so well known that it need not be shown here. The bar is then said to be magnetized; the magnetism in the bar is polarized magnetism, the one pole, as we have seen previously, is hydrogen and the other oxygen energy; the neutral center is carbon energy, and the polarizer is carbon energy in the steel.
Now there is a law in this kind of magnetism that "magnetic lines of force are always closed".
This means that each line of force has N and S, or H and O energy, and that the pull exerted is through a form of restricted mobile interchange; in other words, the field itself as such is neutral. But place a piece of steel in the field and the magnetism or static (mobile) interchange will cease and the N and S, or H and O energy, the two components of all magnetism, will once again be separated out as a polarization.
The shape of the field shows that due to compression in the metal it exerts a pressure outwards and also an attraction or pressure inwards, but only as a static field, not in the free form with true mobility.
Suppose we could bring this magnetic field to the "glowing state"; we should then have mobility, breathing, transpiration, the Primary Force. But this is not possible. We require for this an entirely new form, and an entirely new condition of magnetism, and obviously therefore a new form of magnet.
It will be clear at once that steel will not fulfill the required conditions for our new magnet.
We can even venture on a further assertion and say that no substance exists which will satisfy the required conditions for the new form of magnet or magnetic field which is an essential of the New Technique, the purpose of which is to produce the Primary Force.
Now there is polar and impolar magnetism, and we appear to require a modification, or perhaps more accurately expressed, a combination of the two.
The three essentials to any magnet are two poles and a neutral. We require a uniform, coherent and concentrated magnetism and we refer now to the magnetism itself and not to the field producing it. This is the reason that no substance of any form could fulfill these conditions, which means that our magnet must therefore be throughout of magnetism; the two poles and the neutral must be centralized, united, in the form of the basic sign of all life force, the "trinity in unity".
But to accomplish this artificially, that is, through apparatus, the form of apparatus must be polar and the electric current must be polarized. The electric current is self-produced in the Stator without the aid of any external generator, and is only required at all for stimulating a specially designed Rotor, not for driving it, and even then only when the Stator is required for the purpose of generating mechanical power in combination with the Rotor.
The figures show the new form of magnetic field.
Figure 12: External View of Stator Figure 13: Internal Section of Stator
Both are, of course, purely diagrammatic and only show the principle. Drawings are available at the end of this Part II, i.e.:
(1) A Schematic diagram showing the complete circuit.
(2) A Scale sectional drawing through the whole Stator
(3) A Force diagram.
There is no such thing as magnetism without the characteristic N, S and neutral, and here they meet... the trinity in unity
So the Stator is a sphere formed in two parts -- a top and bottom half or a north and south pole, both of which project into the interior of a free, hollow, central space; the diagrams represent the central hollow space of the Stator only, and not the outer covering.
The whole of the space in Figure 13 is filled with glowing magnetism when the Stator is in operation -- the glowing magnetism being simply the induced, highly compressed energy-material, exactly as is the case with a sun or other newly formed variant.
We know from the PP that the origin of all heavenly bodies must be the Ether, being the one and only material available out of which cosmic bodies can be formed. The ether does not form a cosmic body; the cosmic body is formed out of the ether, technically perhaps a distinction without a difference, but basically one of great importance, because we are dealing here not with the dead or rather devitalized force of the electric current, but with the great biomagnetic static Primary Force.
It is the conscious sense energy in the Ether which causes cosmic bodies to form and gives each of them their characteristic destiny to perform.
It was explained in the earlier part of this book that the Ether is latent conscious energy; the core of a sun which is out of the Ether (being merely polarized highly compressed hydrogen component, but complete with its complementary oxygen stressfield) must also be "conscious" -- i.e., a living entity but not yet organic.
There is only one ether material; it must therefore be the same ether which is finally formed to the glowing state as glowing magnetism; only the method by which this is brought about artificially differs.
The northern half of the spherical glowing magnetism is stimulated as one pole and the southern half likewise as the other pole, therefore the diametric central surface is neutral. This trinity in unity can only exist in the pure energy state.
Three candle flames can be merged into one, but the products of combustion would be externally ejected; only their energies remain within, separate, yet united. It may be said that ten candle flames can thus be merged into one, so why call it a "trinity"?
Exactly so, but this is merely an additive process, not a basic law; the separate candle flames are in no way essential components of the whole. A single candle flame was just as complete, singly. Whereas the N and S poles and the neutral constitute the three basic components of magnetism, without which no polarized magnetism can exist.
It may be asked, then, where is the neutral in thelatent magnetism of the ether? It has, however, previously been explained that the N and S poles are the H and Of components and that the neutral is the carbon before polarization and this is the unity in the trinity.
Exactly the same exists here from this artificial polarization, the carbon neutral being, however, merely in this case a Euclidian diametric surface as homogeneity exists throughout.
It is obvious that innumerable questions arise, which require an answer, but let us clear them up one by one without haste and thus without confusion.
The study of "origin" requires not only immense patience and a restful mind cleared of prejudice, but also great tolerance, before it can be intelligently assimilated!
Primary Magnet (Poles pointing inwards. Windings internal. Field internal)
Secondary or Electromagnet (Poles outward. Windings external. Field external)
The bare statement has been made that the glowing magnetism forms in the central hollow space of the Stator, which merely explains what this central space is for, and that in being the seat of the glowing magnetism it is the purpose for which the whole Stator is designed.
The purpose for which a gun is designed, complex mechanism as it is, is nevertheless merely to fire a shell; and the purpose for which this new apparatus, the Stator, is designed is solely for the production and maintenance of a glowing magnetic core, which we now see is formed and maintained in this central hollow space.
The questions arise, how and when is the glowing magnetism formed and maintained? We now know where this takes place.
As we already know, the first essential to its formation is to produce a point of inequality in the homogenous ether, in the geometric center of the hollow space, in order that a physical center may be formed.
But we have not the facilities of the Cosmos, and so we can only accomplish this by setting up a magnetic field which will concentrate a pressure on the center of the hollow space; but this must not, as we have seen, be a gauss field.
The coils instead of being wires must be tubes, or if we prefer the term, tubular wires, as they are of very small diameter -- perhaps of the order of ¼ inch.
Of what substance should these coils of tubular wire or tubes be made?
In this form of electromagnetism it may be said that a conductor is an insulator and that a dielectric field holds a charge, and in one sense for static electricity it is thus, as it were, a static conductor. So our wires or tubes would be made of copper...
The drawings for the Rotor have also been worked out and the author is able to state that no further mechanical or electrical difficulty presented itself in the design of either of these two entirely separate units, which together constitute the complete Prime Mover for the production of mechanical power in the New Technique. Furthermore, the Stator, when suitably designed, can be used for the production of light and heat, of course without a Rotor (which later would obviously only be required when the purpose was the production of power), and likewise for many other purposes including radiology in the treatment of diseases, etc., etc.
But hollow copper wires or tubes alone will not enable a suitable magnetic field to be produced. The purpose of hollow tubes is to fill them with a suitably chosen and suitably prepared combination of substances, the actual composition and preparation of which is Schappeller’s secret. It is the equivalent of Eguchi’s Electret, but whereas Eguchi’s Electret was in the nature merely of an experiment in Physics to establish a phenomenon or "effect", Schappeller’s sublimate is the outcome of experiment guided by immense original research relevant to the various specific purposes for which this sublimate is to be produced.
The new plant for the production of his sublimate is entirely of his own design, based on a deep knowledge of the application of the laws of the Primary Physics, but presents no constructive or mechanical difficulties, and brings the production of the sublimate to a fine art. The general principles of the design of this plant and apparatus are known to the author, but it would not be legitimate for him to reveal them here, and it is furthermore unnecessary at this juncture.
That a sublimate can be produced is a proven fact from the Eguchi experiments.
Quality of Energy
Now before we leave the subject of the sublimate an important question arises: why will not any sublimate serve the purpose? This, in the New Technique opens up a large new field as yet entirely hidden from Science -- "quality of energy".
Some scientists are trying to being to think in terms of quality of energy, but for them at present no such thing as quality of energy exists.
As was pointed out in an earlier Chapter, the transformation of the sun’s electromagnetic radiation into light and heat on this earth does not mean that light and heat are different qualities of energy. How could they be, since they are from the same source. They are merely different conditions of electromagnetic radiation, the quality of which was characterized by the sun.
We can have different qualities of coal gas, because it is merely a mechanical mixture suitable adjusted for various purposes -- light or heat; but there is no such thing as different qualities of steam -- saturated and superheated steam are different conditions, not different qualities, as both owe their origin to water.
In the case of the electric current or a magnetic field derived fro it there is neither a change in quality nor of condition, only of form, e.g., DC or AC current and various forms of fields.
To produce magnetic fields of different qualities we require a sublimate and the quality is, therefore, characterized by its specific composition; herein lies the immense importance of the sublimate, and that is why Schappeller has reduced this portion of the work to a highly developed art. In view of the evidence given of the Electret, there appears to be little reason to doubt that he can produce this in special forms to suit the innumerable conditions demanded in he application of his New Technique.
The quality of energy required for mechanical power is obviously different from that required for specific purposes in radiology, although the radiation even from a power Stator would be generally beneficial to the human body, as both the Stator’s energy and that of the human body are biomagnetic.
We are, however, at present simply concerned with the design of a Stator for the production of mechanical power. We will now assume that the correct composition of sublimate has been prepared; it is then forced into the two cols of tubing (that is, the tubing which is to constitute the N and S poles, or two halves of the Sphere or Stator) until the tubes are completely filled throughout.
These tubes are now embedded in a suitable material of ceramic composition which, when it cools and solidifies, holds the two coils firmly in position. This ceramic material performs various functions; it holds the tubes in position, protects them, refines the ether radiation or induction into the center, and its inner periphery or surface presents a heat-resisting face to the glowing magnetism. It is also electrically an insulator.
The Charging of the Sublimate
The sublimate must be charged with electric current, after which, provided no power is taken from it, it will retain its charge as we saw in the case of the Electret; the Sublimate in this case is an energy sublimate (produced by the new plant referred to above), but this sublimate is bound to a composition of substances in the solid form with which the tubular coils are tightly filled.
The charging plant required is merely that necessary to give the required number of amperes, the plant being composed of the requisite generators and units, according to whether the grid current is available or an entirely different supply is required, or both as a "standby". Such plants will, of course, supply direct current.
A ceramic lining or casing is fixed on the inside of a steel casing, the whole being on two journals supported on trunnions.
A lever with handle is connected to one side of the trunnion outside the journal, by means of which the Stator’s sphere can be tilted from the position of N-S vertical to the limiting angle required for the directional magnetic concentration of the Rotor, as we shall see later
Starting from the top half of the Stator, the coil of tube containing the sublimate is fixed to the North Pole, finally emerging through the hollow axle on which the Sphere of the Stator is supported, the bottom half of the Sphere being similarly provided with a coil of tube attached to the South pole and emerging on the other side through the hollow axle.
Wires (ordinary copper conducting wires) are connected to the two ends of the nests of tubes, after which they emerge through the hollow axle and are brought down to two terminals conveniently situated. These wires complete the circuit through the Rotor, which is mechanically an entirely separate unit, standing on its own base and at a specific calculated distance from the Stator; the Rotor is fixed to the shaft to be driven.
The central terminal is for the "earthing connection" through a battery (needless to say, of special design and having no relation to any form of battery at present known to the SP [Secondary Physics]), and the Sphere is earthed through the battery -- the whole of this connection from the center terminal to the "earthing disc" itself being a tube filled with sublimate exactly similar to the tubes forming the Stator field.
The disc or earthing plate is also of special design, according to the purpose to be served.
The battery is not essential where the Stator is merely for the production of power, as it is really a refining apparatus -- that is, for refining or qualifying the energy for each specific purpose to be served.
A study of the Schematic Diagram and Scale Drawing of the Stator should now make this clear.
This is really a steel wheel of special design fixed actually on the shaft to be driven...
[The construction of the Rotor] consists of a steel wheel of special design with short spokes, and, finally, a periphery or rim in which in which there are magnets -- always an odd number, five or seven and so forth, to avoid the possibility of a dead center.
This has been worked out in detail just like the Stator, but the author regrets that he has no drawing of the Rotor available at present.
The body, spokes and part of the periphery, including of course the magnets, which later are also hollow, are entirely filled with sublimate and energized through the electric current, as shown in the Schematic Diagram. The moment the Stator is switched on.
What actually does "switching on" mean?
It means "earthing" the Stator. In the "off" position the earthing connection D1 is broken, the Stator or Sphere of the Stator being exactly n the N-S vertical. So switching on means pulling the lever provided on the Stator spindle and thereby taking the Sphere of the Stator off the neutral stud; the Sphere is then earthed through the connections shown and aired through the N pole at the top, which may even accumulate outside the Sphere in a cross filled with electret or sublimate material, or in a Sphere, in place of an ordinary screwed plug (See drawing of Stator).
The complete theoretical energy cycle is shown in the Schematic Diagram. The dotted line represents the return to the earth, really a theoretical consideration.
The position of the Rotor relatively to the Stator is the position of the reader when studying the drawing. If the reader pulled the lever towards him the N pole would finally point exactly to his eyes. Imagine that his eyes are a magnet just appearing over the top of the Rotor periphery. The Stator in this position will be exerting its maximum force on the Rotor, because half the core is concentrated on the Rotor.
The Rotor will be set with its axis, that is, the axis of the shaft to be driven, parallel to the axis of the Stator shaft through the trunnion, and at any convenient distance within the Stator’s amplitude’ Schappeller declares that a suitable distance between the shaft of the Stator and that of the Rotor is seven times the outside diameter of the Stator (7d).
Force Exerted by Stator on Rotor
Referring now to the Force Diagram, the dot and dash line XX represents the center line (in a horizontal plane) of the Sphere of the Stator through the journals and trunnion. The line (dot and dash) YY is the center line through the Stator Sphere and the center line of the peripheral circle of magnets, tangential to the radius of the Rotor at this circle.
The distance between center of Sphere and center of magnet appearing on periphery will bar a definite proportion to the angle at which the lever is placed with relationship to the YY axis.
Line A2B2 represents pull for lever at 10 degrees
Line A1B1 represents pull for lever at 30 degrees
Line AB represents pull for lever for maximum position
The above, of course, are the rectangular projections of the N pole, or a graphic representation of the useful component of force directionally available for exerting a pull on the Rotor.
The Z line is the position of the lever for maximum force.
The Rotor for the first demonstration has been designed for 15 HP only, but with the present Stator dimensions, so that enormous surplus power is available.
There will be a demagnetizing or "braking" effect on that portion of the pole not in mobile exchange with the Rotor, which at AB max. will be zero, at A1B1 (corresponding to a lever position in the diagram of 30 degrees) is represented by the smaller area and sloping section lines, and at A2B2 (for lever at 10 degrees) is represented by the larger area shown by vertical section lines. The value of these two braking effects is represented by the projection of B1A1 and B2A2 respectively, to the limiting lines A0.
This theoretical diagram would be modified when set out for any actual Prime Mover:
(a) by the relative positions of the Stator and Rotor;
(b) by the diameter of the Rotor magnet, represented here as a point.
Let us now obtain through calculation some impression of the maximum directional force exerted by the Stator. We must remember that this is not "steel magnetism", but magnetism from a glowing core in the primary state, for which the laws of magnetism will be modified.
Coulomb’s law F = k (m1m2/r2) is not a convenient form to make the first calculation; we will therefore use the form F = B2A/8 pi.
Now, if we are, with this form of primary magnetism, within the amplitude at 7d, it is legitimate to make a preliminary calculation based on this formula, if only to demonstrate the principle on which the force is exerted.
Remember, in this connection, that here it is the electricity that is stationary and magnetism that is radiated, as we shall see shortly when we examine the functioning of the whole Stator and Rotor.
The next consideration is the introduction of the Schappeller constant.
He derives this on the principle that water is to air as 1000:1 (as weight or density), and that air is to atmosphere (as stressfield) as at lest the same, 1000:1. Therefore the expansive power of the ether is at least 1000 times that of air and likewise of a present gauss field, whose expansive power as a field is negligible, relatively. In other words, the capacity of the ether for stimulation as a stressfield, for all practical purposes, is infinite, and the force inducing ether stimulation has its seat or origin in the magnetic-heat potential, e.g., the sun’s magnetic-heat potential and its infinite stressfield.
So Schappeller takes as his constant that this primary magnetism is 1000 times more powerful than a magnetic field of present magnetism -- a gauss field -- which, when the full significance of a primary stressfield and its origin-force has been assimilated, may be regarded as quite a moderate figure.
It may be said that the field from the earth’s core, which is, of course, also glowing magnetism, is only 981 -- yes, but I we take the present estimate of the core at 2000 miles radius, this flux of 981 is for a distance of 2000 miles.
Calculations on the Stator
Given a Stator Sphere of 15 cm diameter, what HP is available?
Take B for steel at a flux density of 15,000 gauss (Maxwells per cm2).
A = surface area of Sphere = say, 600 cm2. Then:
F = B2A/8 pi = 150002 x 600/8 pi = 225 x 106 dynes x 600 cm2/25 x 981 x 1000 = 5400 kilos pull exerted just outside the surface of the Sphere.
But we must now introduce Schappeller’s constant 1000. The author halves this again and calls it 500 -- a very low figure.
Therefore, Pull = 2,700,000 kilos, but only half of the Sphere is directly or directionally active. Therefore, Pull = 1,300,000 kilos, says, 50% efficiency between field of Stator and field of Rotor -- loss due to slip, not heat (See Chap. XXIV, p. 172, para. 2). Thus, Pull = 675,000 kilos
Take this as operating at 1 meter/second, and we have 67500/75 = 9000 HP, which is the same figure as that which we obtained from the Mathias value of lightning-material (See Chapter on Lightning).
Now, Physics tells us that the earth’s field varies as the square of the distance from the center of the earth, but that the earth’s core probably has a radius of 2000 miles. Therefore the crust is 2000 miles thick.
The PP establishes the earth’s core as glowing magnetism; therefore this 981 is at 2000 miles.
But 77 miles is about the 26th part of 2000 miles, and the square of 26 is approximately:
680 x 981 = 675,000 approx.
Therefore, on this calculation the earth’s field would have an equivalent or exert an equivalent pull to that exerted by our Stator at 77 miles from its core periphery.
If we make the calculation from the geometric center of the earth on a radius of 4000 miles, instead of 77 miles we should have, say, 150 as the equivalent distance for the earth’s core to exert 675,000 dynes per square cm., which, as the core itself is 2000 miles radius, is reductio ad absurdum. This shows that we are well within the estimate for the force exerted by primary magnetism from a glowing core.
The earth’s field is, of course, vastly greater than that of our Stator, so much greater that on this calculation it has a magnetic field at 77 miles from its core periphery equivalent to the field produced by our little Sphere at a distance of, say, one meter from the Stator core.
The actual pull exerted on a magnet on the Rotor periphery depends on the intensity of stimulation given to the Rotor magnets, and may, for the examination of the principles, be represented by
F = k (m1m2 / r2)
Where m1 is the Stator field and m2 the field of any given Rotor magnet.
As regards the actual power transferred to the Rotor, we have three adjustments available:
(1) The strength of the Stator field, which must have a minimum strength sufficient to bring the Ether concentration to the glowing state.
(2) The resulting pull exerted on the Rotor, according to the position of the lever as shown in the Force Diagram.
(3) The stimulation given to the Rotor magnets through the electric current generated in the Stator. This will be direct current, the strength of which can, of course, be entirely controlled through the present known means.
It will be obvious that more data is required to make the actual calculation, e.g., a "constant of stimulation" will have to be introduced depending on the composition of the secret sublimates, and there are other considerations.
But let us now again make a calculation of the available HP from the Stator, but on quite a different basis. We mentioned in one of the earlier chapters that this might bear some relationship to Electrochemical Equivalents.
Now with electrolytic action:
1 amp deposits 0.329 mgm of copper per second
3 amps deposit 1.00 mg copper/sec.
Now each 8.9 gm copper occupies 1 cm3
But 1 liter -- 1 dcm3 = 1000 cm3
There are thus, say, 9000 gm Cu in 1 liter. So in a1 liter Stator we have 9000 gm Cu or 3 x 1000 x 9000 = 27 x 106 amps.
Assume 1 volt and 27 x 106 / 746 = 36000 HP
But maximum available at 50% for half the Sphere is 9000 HP, as was obtained in the last case by the Mathias figure (See Chapter on Lightning). This must be regarded as taking place within a second, because the deposition figure is per second per ampere; this energy is, however, instantly available.
It should nevertheless be realized that this is an energy-capacity measurement, whereas the resulting stressfield is per unit surface, a surface measurement. The capacity measurement is "indication" and thus we cannot multiply by the Schappeller factor here.
Now, it may be said that 1volt would not bring the Ether to a glowing state, which is perfectly true, although this will be made clearer shortly.
In the energy form or state we may assume a high "transference or conversion efficiency". The commercial efficiency is, of course, about 100%, because the fuel costs nothing and is inexhaustible.
The earth, a has been previously explained, is the storehouse of energy, which energy is available to replenish continuously the Stator Field as and when the Rotor draws energy from the Stator through the medium of the energy cycle.
Electropy then ensues promoting continuous induction of the Ether towards the center, just as it takes place in the sun through the induction of its complementary stressfield; but here, through the pressure exerted on the hollow center of the Stator due to the intensity of the Electret or sublimate field.
It was explained in the Chapter on the Electric Current that amps are merely densified volts, and this must be so because an inspection of the basic formula or Ohm’s law sows that power is obtainable from any given electric current in direct proportion to the product of volts and amps, volts representing the stress or energy potential, and amps per unit of time being the quantity -- the actual unit being the Coulomb.
The best illustration of this in the electrotechnique of the present day is perhaps the transformer, which actually converts volts into amps, or vice versa. It follows that what we are doing here is merely to convert volts into amps.
The volts in the sublimate through electrization constitute the static electric field, which field is constantly concentrating its energy onto the center point of the Sphere and densifiying, or sublimating, because amps are really a sublimation out of an electric stressfield produced artificially by compression of the cohesive force in the space-form of a wire.
In the present electrotechnique volts are densified to amps through compression in a wire, the denser amps requiring a larger section for their accommodation, that is, the sublimate, being energy-material, requires more space than the stressfield from which it originated, hence the larger section required in the secondary winding of a transformer in "stepping down".
In the New Technique all this takes place in the free state, through compression on a center, till densification and ignition and we then really have amps as the glowing core surrounded by its complementary volt-stressfield which together, in this form, constitute the true atomic or Vacuum Force.
But we saw in our previous calculations that the Stator had a calculated capacity of 36,000 HP or an effective maximum capacity of 9000 HP.
Let us now work backwards; assuming that the full capacity of the Sphere is used, which it never would be, because of engineering considerations, the Stator must be capable of 36,000 HP continuously.
The primary static charge on the field must be only of such capacity that it will occasion induction of the Ether and in the initial stage cause implosion, and afterward sustain this densified Ether in the glowing state to the capacity of the load when connected between the PD earth-atmospheric stressfield.
But if the Stator is to be loaded to its full capacity, which we have seen is calculated for practical purposes as 9000 HP (effective), then 36000 HP of energy must be drawn from the earth.
Now let X = the amps charge required by the field; then
500 x X x 100 / 746 x 9000 = 135 amps at 100 volts,
or let us say 13,500 watts, which is converted into glowing energy 500 times as powerful (taking a value of half of Schappeller’s constant).
This really signifies that the Stator field must be able to hold and transfer 13,500 watts per minute, which, as has been explained, is actually supplied or drawn up from the earth through the earthing connection shown in the drawing and diagram. The voltage required for the charge is only that necessary to impress the charge into the sublimate.
After electropy has taken place there are, speaking the language of the present elelctrotechnique, no volts in the actual core, as they are densified to amps. Hence we say 1 volt for purposes of calculation.
Thus the capacity of the field in any given design depends on:
(1) The rate at which power is to be drawn;
(2) The total effective area of the nest of tubes, which may have three or four rows, arranged concentrically as one continuous field.
The designs and drawings which have already been prepared are actually for a 15 HP Prime Mover, the Stator being odthe dimensions given in the calculation. So that instead of supplying 9000 HP it has in the first demonstration only to supply 15 HP.
The above calculations are thus only intended to show the function which this type of field has to perform.
The 15 cm Stator is about the smallest that is mechanically practical to produce.
Here, it should perhaps be made clear that the cost of a complete Prime Mover (Stator and Rotor) is negligible. The main cost of demonstrating the application to mechanical power lies in the purchase of the charging plants and standby sets, which later are absolutely necessary for certain reasons, and also Schappeller’s special plant for the production of the initial sublimate by occasioning transpiration, followed by condensation and sublimation, all in the energy form.
Let it therefore be clearly understood that any suggestion of small laboratory models or the like is out of the question or they would obviously have been used and the application of the Primary Force to mechanical power would long since have been tested out. The transpiration could not be produced by models and the essential sublimate could not therefore be produced except by a plant of certain minimum dimensions capable of producing transpiration, and this also applies to the Stator and Rotor which is obvious here when the design of the Stator is carefully examined.
The Functioning of the New Prime Mover
From a careful study of the Force Diagram it may be said that a very small initial movement of the lever represents an inconceivably large "available force", but the diagram also shows, in relation to this, that the "braking effect" at small angles of movement of the lever is much greater than at larger angles, as shown by the cross-hatched and hatched areas; and if the two units (Stator and Rotor) of the Prime Mover are carefully designed, and set for the average and maximum loads required in each case where such Prime Movers are to be installed, the "graduation curve of force" relative to lever angles can be favorable, within the ranges of power required in each particular case.
It will thus be seen that there is a characteristic curve for this, just as there is for every motor or generator in the present electrotechnique; or it is perhaps the equivalent of the Zeuner diagrams for reciprocating steam engines.
For the moment, however, we are not concerned here so much with the design as with the actual functioning of the Prime Mover.
We have seen that whichever way we make our preliminary calculations for estimating the power available, the power exerted on the Rotor is in the form of a pull as between the poles of two magnets. It is, however, from the mechanical engineer’s standpoint, somewhat doubtful whether this force exerted as described here would prove to be an entirely satisfactory method of producing mechanical power, but happily this point is of little or no importance, as it is not the way in which the rotary motion is produced. The pull exerted on the Rotor magnets gives the Rotor periphery its directional motion, but the motion is afterwards sustained or maintained by the crossing of two stressfields, i.e., the Stator stressfield crossing the stressfield of the Rotor -- the means by which the earth gives the sun its rotation on its axis. In other words, it sets up a condition of dynamic balance, or an equilibrium which can only be satisfied by producing the requisite motion.
The sun is a product of the earth’s stressfield and is thus biomagnetically characterized by it and to it.
Likewise, in the case of the Stator and Rotor, the Rotor being energized entirely -- both qualitatively and quantitatively -- by the Stator, rotary motion is imparted and maintained in the Rotor provided always that directional pull has been given, and here it is also sustained, i.e., the direct pull on the magnet.
In the case of the earth and sun we have motion imparted and sustained in the latter’s core of glowing magnetism, which is crossed -- and thus energized and characterized -- by the earth’s stressfield, whereas with the Stator and the Rotor we have artificially not exactly a similar, but an equivalent condition, viz., we have set up in a Rotor an energized field stimulated and characterized for a given Stator, but here, since the Rotor field is in the cold condition and the Stator field, although exactly similar in quality, is in the glowing or hot condition (energy form), a magnetic-heat potential exists between the two units of the Prime Mover.
This is a striking example of the Schappeller discovery shown graphically in the first of his symbols in Chapter VII, viz., magnetism and heat as one, which does not exist in the present Physics, that is, magnetism with heat-potential, the source of the greatest force which exists in Nature.
It is for this reason that the whole body of the Rotor with its spokes, in addition to the actual magnets, is filled with sublimate and energized through an electric current generated directly in the Stator itself. Directional pull is then given directly on the peripheral magnets and the whole energized Rotor is then cutting lines of force at a speed determined by the magnetic-heat potential and the load, adjustable as follows:
(1) By the strength of the current supplied to the Rotor sublimate being variable as in the present electrotechnique.
(2) By the Stator field heat-potential which, according to Schappeller, may be of the order of 50-300° C, whereas the Ether or cold latent magnetism will always be constant, probably as low as -270° (more or less) even near the earth’ surface. The intensity of the field and heat-potential will vary with the initial charge given to the sublimate.
(3) By moving the Stator lever and thus altering the angle of the N-S poles in the Stator Sphere with relation to the rotary periphery.
(4) By adjusting the relative positions of the Stator and Rotor. Stator N-S line need not be vertical when on the neutral position.
The Rotor is laminated to prevent eddying and the magnets do not project; the Rotor periphery is thus entirely equiradial. The Rotor is fixed to the shaft to be driven and the Stator is fixed about a meter above the earth’s surface. This latter is, of course, flexible because the earth can include the sea or even the floor of an ether-ship.
From one standpoint the Stator may be regarded as a body in Space. The concentration of the ether or latent magnetism takes place over the entire surface of the Sphere, in the same way as in the case of the Earth itself. It represents as it were a "power-field" concentrating on the central point of the Sphere. But actual concentration will take place only if and when a potential difference exists between the density in the latent magnetism outside and inside the Sphere cavity, which again will depend on the existence of a heat potential.
When the Sphere cavity is full of air the ether density will be balanced, and this is, of course, the position when the lever is first pushed off the stop or neutral position.
A power field therefore exists outside the cavity (or hollow center of the Stator Sphere) which is ever ready to concentrate with tremendous energy or atomic pressure at the center point of the cavity the moment a heat-potential exists or is produced.
Now the instant the lever is pushed off the neutral point the Stator Sphere is polarized, or possesses an N and S pole although the N and S line may only be a few degrees out of the vertical neutral position. The Force Diagram s set out for the vertical at the "neutral position" but it need not be.
The field is energized the moment the Stator is switched on. The ether balance inside and outside is no longer stable; pressure due to the field is exerted on the center of the cavity, and stream of cold latent magnetism (or ether) flows from the N to the S pole, the only pathway at present available as the air is still in the cavity.
An aver-increasing pressure from the field concentrates on the center and the air (which is merely a sublimate out of the ether) is disintegrated; that is, the nitrogen and residue (the noble gases) are reconverted into the energy form as hydrogen, and the oxygen to oxygen energy; in other words, the whole is reconverted into ether and concentrated.
The now powerful concentration of the field on the center of the cavity, after removing the air, induces an inrush of ether through the entire surface of the Sphere, resulting in a tremendous concentration of ether in the cavity. The pressure increases until finally the whole ether mass reaches a density corresponding to a critical temperature above which this densified ether enters into the glowing state and a powerful heat-potential is established.
But it will be clearly understood by now that this is not merely heat-potential such as operates a thermodynamic cycle, but a magnetic heat-potential due to magnetism as densified in the glowing state.
In the Chapter on the Electric Current the formula Current = gauss/0 was given as being the equivalent of Ohm’s law for the production of electromagnetism by the new Primary Technique, and the significance of the factors in this formula can now be understood.
C = gauss (vacuum)/0
C = current, but current as such does not exist in the Primary technique because, as we know, here the electricity is static and the magnetism moves -- hence the term dynomagnetism.
C in the Primary Technique thus signifies not current as such, but its static potential, viz. densified volts or amps.
As has been explained, the BEMF is lifted and becomes the surrounding stress designated in the formula as the field under the term gauss. Here, however, this does not mean merely the field produced by the sublimate as such, but rather the complementary other half of the glowing magnetic core or ether concentration as volts. The two, i.e., glowing core (amps) and complementary stressfield (volts) constitute (as in the case of the sun and its complementary stressfield) a primary vacuum -- hence the word vacuum in brackets next to gauss.
Now this concentration of the stressfield is virtually on one point, which produces and sustains a physical center.
The Euclidian definition of a point is that it has no magnitude, so mathematically its dimensions are zero or 0, and C is therefore (theoretically) infinity.
The reason that it is not actually infinity is because of the limitations of "form" due to the construction of the apparatus. The sun’s resultant magnetic field is so vast that it may be termed for all practical purposes infinite in extent.
We have thus constructed artificially an apparatus which will set up the conditions in which Primary vacuum will form and be maintained, or, speaking technically, an artificial sun and its surrounding stressfield. This is the biomagnetic static force, the atomic force, for which scientists are researching, but in its free original state as a potential difference by the building up of the atom, instead of endeavoring to obtain this force in its secondary form, where it appears as Cohesive Force in material, and then attempting to split it up, when it is neither collectible nor biomagnetic but devitalized.
It should be clearly understood that it is impossible for any apparatus to produce glowing magnetism, just as it is impossible for any kettle or boiler to produce steam; such apparatus can only be constructed to bring about the conditions in which these phenomena will obtain. In purely colloquial language it is, of course, exactly the same thing, but speaking strictly scientifically it is very important to keep this clearly in our minds.
But to continue with the Technique. This glowing magnetism in the central cavity has not merely enormous suction force, in that the surrounding ether concentration is induced into it through and by the powerful field concentration on the center point, but it acts as a catalyst, that is, it catalyzes the carbon energy static (the Ether) and compresses it; the reaction must therefore be the opposite -- expansion -- and it is thus radiating it out as a stimulated (instead of latent) H and Of power field, or true bioelectromagnetic radiation or stress.
It draws between the potential difference earth-atmosphere (as a stressfield) -- this is the PD -- but the reservoir of energy from which it draws is the biomagnetic saturation of the earth (H and O energy) which the earth derives from its central core, hence the imaginary doted line in the Schematic Diagram showing the return of the fundamental energy cycle to the earth’s central core, in principle.
The actual suction exerted is to supply the energy taken from the Sphere by whatever load is being carried (the load need not necessarily be mechanical power -- it may be reproduction of primary light or heat, curative radiation, or the production of one of the essential elements, or for various other purposes) is drawn up through the earthing tube as dynomagnetism, and this energy travels up this tube into the Stator field on the "energized sublimate" and is then projected out of the spherical field by Electropy, due to the central pull exerted on the spherical field by the physical center or core caused by the load.
The suction exerted by the glowing magnetism through the field could only draw energy up on energy, that is, on an energized sublimate, and then only if the Stator constitutes a physical link between the magnetic potential difference occasioned by magnetism bound (as in the earth’s crust) and in the free state as ether or the surrounding earth’s atmosphere -- thus operating the Primary Cycle.
Bu this action, followed by the reverse, this "energy-breathing" or transpiration occasioned by mobility (as we saw in the case of the sun) does not happen simply because it does.
It is ordered, disciplined, and in fact occasioned by entropy.
In that instant when the concentration of magnetism is brought to the glowing state the energy spiral or entropy spiral starts functioning up and down the Stator windings, and, of course, always in one sense and with a high frequency which Schappeller declares is probably of the order of 104 cycles per second.
This entropy spiral is always present in that instant when mobility obtains sue to a glowing core functioning in a fundamental PD -- and here we have produced these essential conditions artificially through apparatus, the classic example previously given being the sun or any cosmic variant.
It may be said that frequencies in the radio technique of today are far higher, but the work performed in one cycle is very much less. In the Primary Technique the concentrated stressfield is drawn in, catalyzed, and forced out in one cycle as a stressfield.
This stressfield, or radiating magnetic stressfield, is available as an attractive or repulsive force for the production of mechanical power if a complementary unit of the Stator, that is, a suitably designed Rotor or mechanical appliance (to be driven) itself contains a like substance, upon which magnetism produced in this atomic state, or energy form, can react -- the whole, that is the two separate and complementary units, viz., Stator and Rotor, constituting a single Prime Mover, as has already been explained.
The Force Exerted on the Stator
Let us now consider what reaction must be supported or sustained by the Stator where mechanical power is being produced in its complementary unit, the Rotor.
The figure for directional pull, according to our calculations, was 675,000 kilos -- the maximum effective power obtainable from a Prime Mover of this size, but which would never be used in practice.
Obviously, as can be seen from the drawing, the Stator would be bolted down and presumably these bolts would have to take the reaction arising from the attraction exerted on the peripheral Rotor magnets of 675,000 kilos. But mysterious as it may sound, the casting and bolts of the Stator would experience no reaction whatever although the same law holds here, viz., that wherever there is an action there must be an equal and opposite reaction. In this case, however, the action arises not between magnetism bound to two opposing pieces of steel, in which the two pieces of steel will experience the action and reaction, that is, for example, the Stator of an induction motor of the field magnets and yoke of a DC motor which take the torque reaction exerted on the Rotor, or armature, respectively.
Here the action arises from the force of attraction exerted by a free mass of glowing magnetic energy bound to no material whatever; the reaction therefore will be upon the glowing magnetic core as such, which in its turn will be taken by the complementary stressfield. In other words, the reaction of the pull exerted on the Rotor magnets will be taken on the ether concentration arising from the Stator core.
Now consider the reaction on the Rotor. Here, as regards this force, we have similar conditions to those in electric motors of the present day, because the energized sublimate on which the pull is exerted is within or embedded in the steel Rotor casting and the pull will thus be transferred to the casting and thence to the shaft to be driven, and of course will be proportional to the speed and load.
It is obvious that in every case the Stator would be firmly bolted down for stability, but not in order to take the reaction. The important engineering consideration here is that the casting would not have to be designed to take this stress.
Fatigue of Metal
The steel casting of the Stator would, however, experience fatigue with time, due to the primary flux and, allowing a suitable factor of safety, warship engines, for example, might be renewed say every eight to ten years -- not a serious consideration, since engines or propelling machinery would then consist merely of Stators and Rotors, and the Rotors would not experience anything like the same fatigue.
Furthermore, with the introduction of the Primary Force new forms of instruments would be available for every kind of measurement, including this form of "metal fatigue".
Temperature of the Stator
At first sight it might be thought that the production of an "artificial sun" or glowing magnetism core would involve with it the inevitable production of enormous temperatures, and although this has already been dealt with, a few words here in the Technique may not be out of place.
Temperature is a word that we are accustomed to use when we wish to express the intensity of heat, whereas a calorie is a unit expressing quantity of heat, rather perhaps the equivalent in electrotechnique of volts and amps. But heat expressing both the above measurements is a phenomenon which is associated with air. There is no air in the Stator. If the stem of a thermoelectric pyrometer were allowed to project into the Sphere cavity, the terrific compression and densification brought about when the Stator was switched on would cause it to disintegrate and disappear; no material of any kind could exist, as such, in a glowing core. So, the light-material produced in the Stator (as in the sun) is the product, not of temperature, but of compression through densification.
This glowing core is the densest material that can exist, for two definite reasons:
(a) because it is all energy-material and there are no interstices;
(b) because this primary magnetic material is not merely under exterior compression but is itself the cause of this compression, since every particle of this energy exerts attraction on every other particle and towards a common center.
In compressing or exerting compression upon itself it is "doing work" only upon itself; there is neither air nor a material (gaseous, liquid or solid) within the core which could absorb, transmit, reflect or convert this energy into heat.
But the periphery of the core contacts with the special inner lining -- a suitable ceramic -- of the Stator Sphere, and this peripheral or surface energy will be converted into heat, but on a relatively very moderate scale. Schappeller gives this figure at between 50-300° C., according to the density required, whereas the periphery of the steel Sphere casing would be much less than this (See Chapter XXIV, p. 172, para. 2).
The Arrangement of the Plant for Power Production
Let us first consider the problem as applied to marine propulsion. Given a single propeller shaft to transmit, say 8000 HP, we should not use one Sphere but perhaps eight, distributed on each side of the shaft, or any convenient number to give a rational compromise between a good characteristic curve and a well-distributed torque on the shaft, the propeller shaft being provided with an equal number of Rotors.
The Universal Transmission of Electromagnetic Power
This title expresses the dream or final goal of the great physicist Nikola Tesla (about 1905). In his British Patent No. 8200, he claims to have devised apparatus capable of generating "electrical disturbances" not only approximating to, but even surpassing those of lightning; and he further claims to have reproduced by the aid of such apparatus the phenomenon of "stationary waves" on the earth. Or World-waves. By means of such waves he professed to transmit electrical power without the employment of cables.
This dream is now within the reach of Science through the new Primary Technique.
Let us compare the principles of Nikola Tesla and the present radio-technique with that of the work of Karl Schappeller.
The whole of modern radio-technique depends on making a disturbance in the ether through the generation of electrical resonance.
During a thunderstorm Tesla noted that the earth appeared to behave, despite its vast extent, like a conductor of limited dimensions.
He suggested that the wholesale distribution of electrical energy might be possible by means of stationary waves on the earth’s surface, using the entire world as a conductor.
So whilst Tesla regarded the earth merely as a conductor, Schappeller discovered that it was the obvious source and storehouse of all available energy, in addition to being a conductor.
Tesla’s discovery was of a secondary nature and led him to produce and transmit power by causing a disturbance in the ether through wave propagation by resonance, in which the earth functioned merely as a conductor.
Nearly 40 years have elapsed but it is still not feasible to transmit power as such on the Tesla system [ed.: only because of industrial politics], although the radio-technique has been developed with great success.
Schappeller has always regarded the "causing of a disturbance in the Ether" for the purpose of transmitting power on a large scale as neither feasible nor desirable, and even for small powers, such a are used in the radio-technique, he regarded it as an "invert method".
The Cosmos itself functions, as we have seen, by stressfield on stressfield or vacuum on vacuum.
The secret for the transmission of power on a large scale over considerable distances lies in the rhythmical stimulation of the Ether membrane, of like kind, rather than a disturbance produced by an entirely artificial propagation of what, at present, is termed "wave formation".
The production of a spark is a disruption, whereas the formation of a sun or other variant is not, because the latter is the orderly or disciplined formation of a sublimate out of one of the ether components itself, through polarization -- Nature’s universal method.
Again, resonance is a disturbance; a power or biomagnetic stressfield is not. On the contrary, it is a stimulation which can be utilized through the New Technique for power transmission, telegraphy, telephony, television, production of light and heat, sublimation in place of transmutation of metals, and in the curative applications already cited -- and all these in a manner far in advance of that made possible by the highest and latest developments of the techniques based on the Secondary Physics.
Schappeller, in principle, cannot be wrong in this because it is the method by which Nature herself operates in the Cosmos, and the only method available to her.
So magnetism is radiated which, from the physiological point of view, is not merely harmless but actually beneficial and stimulating to desirable forms of life (a subject dealt with in the medical Section).
The transmission of great power is accomplished by the installation of Power Centrals, that is, Stators of larger dimensions designed for transmission of energy to the thousands of power or telephone (new form) Stators throughout a given district -- the equivalent of the present transformers or boosters, which will in fact constitute the "new grid". But this dynamic or "energy grid" is free, mobile, unbound to material or wires, and in its turn is supplied from a Central Station of powerful Stators.
This is the ultimate application of the Primary technique as a whole; in the earlier stages, the present generating stations and grid could be utilized, substituting for turbo- or hydro-electric Prime Movers the new Stators and Rotors, the Prime Mover set of the New Technique.
The distributing Central Spheres of "Centrals" or mobile grid boosters, Schappeller declares, will have an effective range of up to 10 kilometers.
It will probably by now be obvious that since this is "biomagnetism" there will be technical and other applications of the Primary Force of a fundamental character, the nature of which cannot yet be either conceived or visualized.
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