Detonation cycle gas turbine engine system having
intermittent fuel and air delivery
A detonation cycle gas turbine engine includes a turbine rotor
contained within a housing. Exhaust ports of respective valveless
combustion chambers on opposite sides of the rotor direct
combustion gases toward the turbine. The chambers are connected by
a valveless manifold fed with fuel and oxidizer. When combustible
gases are detonated by an igniter in one of the combustion
chambers, the back pressure from the detonation shuts off the fuel
and oxidizer flow to that chamber and redirects the fuel and
oxidizer to the opposite chamber, where detonation occurs, the
process repeats cyclically. Power is taken off the rotor shaft
mechanically or electrically.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The invention described hereinafter is directed to the field of
detonation cycle gas turbines and to the methods and apparatus
constituting said turbine system.
In the field of gas turbines and piston engines, there are
different methods and apparatus which are utilized to convert the
kinetic and thermal energy of gas reactions in combustion chambers
to extract useful work. The design of the combustion chambers, the
expanders, the type of fuel, the fuel-air ratio, the pressure of
the fuel-air mixture prior to ignition, and the type of ignition,
all determine the rate of oxidation. The rate of oxidation
determines and defines whether the fuel and the oxidizer produce a
constant propagating flame, a deflagrating explosion and
accelerated flame front, or a detonation and high velocity shock
waves. In either case, the oxidizer must be activated or raised to
a higher energy level by some means to initiate the oxidation
reaction. The manner of the activation will vary the rate of the
reaction and produce the variation in result from a flame, to a
deflagrating explosion, to a detonation.
The methods and apparatus utilized in an Otto cycle spark ignition
gasoline piston engines are variable volume--constant
pressure--combustion chambers, that induce and compress air and
fuel mixtures to 6 or more atmospheres reducing the atmospheric
ignition temperature from 1,000 degree F to 500 degree F, then
ignite the mixture with an electric spark producing low power
photolytic and radiolytic radiation, typically 80 millijoules,
that activates and disassociates oxygen and hydrocarbon molecules
in the immediate proximity of the electric spark, resulting in a
deflagrating explosion with an accelerated flame front. The
thermal energy of the flame front propagates throughout the
mixture, thermally activating and chemically combining remaining
reactants in a "chain burn" with typical mean pressures of 90
pounds per square inch gauge over a time period of 8 to 16
milliseconds while expanding the pistons down the chambers. The
methods and apparatus utilized in Otto cycle engines are not
useable with Diesel cycle engines, Brayton cycle or Detonation
cycle turbines. Otto cycle engines in the 200 horsepower range
typically utilize 9 pounds of air and 0.6 pounds of fuel per
horsepower hour while producing 9.6 pounds of exhaust gas per
The methods and apparatus utilized in Diesel cycle compression
ignition diesel fuel piston engines are variable volume --
constant pressure -- combustion chambers, that induce and compress
air to 15 or more atmospheres, and injects compressed fuel in the
top of the chamber at the top of the compression stroke. Molecules
of oxygen and hydrocarbons disassociate when compressed against
the hot head of the combustion chambers resulting in free radicals
that chemically combine exothermally in a deflagrating explosion
with an accelerated flame front. The thermal energy of the flame
front probagates throughout the mixture, thermally activating and
chemically combining remaining reactants in a "chain burn" with
mean pressures typically in excess of 90 pounds per square inch
gauge over a time period of 12 to 24 milliseconds while expanding
the pistons down the chambers. The methods and apparatus utilized
in in Diesel cycle engines, are not useable with Otto cycle
engines, Brayton cycle or Detonation cycle turbines. Diesel cycle
piston engines in the 200 horsepower range typically utilize 11
pounds of air and 0.55 pounds of fuel per horsepower hour while
producing 11.55 pounds of exhaust gas per horsepower hour.
The methods and apparatus utilized in Brayton cycle compression
ignition turbine fuel gas turbines are constant volume -- constant
flow -- constant pressure combustion chambers; a compressor that
compresses air from 3 to 6 atmospheres; a pump that compresses
fuel up to 40 atmospheres; and an axial flow or radial inflow
turbine expander. Compressed air is fed into the combustion
chamber and combined with the hot compressed fuel. An Infrared
glow plug is often utilized to increase the thermal activation of
the oxygen and hydrocarbon molecules, at the surface of the plug,
to bring the mixture to the ignition temperature. Ignition occurs
as a very low pressure deflagrating explosion with a constant
pressure flame front. The thermal energy produced by the flame
front radiates thermal waves with sufficient energy to
continuously ignite the constant flowing high pressure fuel-air
mixture and expand the surplus air in the burn plennum to drive
the turbine while maintaining a constant pressure. Maintaining
constant pressure is critical. Variation of pressures in the
combustion chambers will cause flame out. Over pressure in the
plennum will stall the compressor. The methods and apparatus
utilized in a Brayton cycle turbine are not useable with Otto
cycle or Diesel cycle engines, nor Detonation cycle turbines.
Brayton cycle gas turbines In the 200 horsepower range, operated
in an open cycle configuration at sea level, typically utilize 40
pounds of air and 1.2 pounds of fuel per horsepower hour, while
producing 41.2 pounds of exhaust gas per horsepower hour.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The methods and apparatus utilized in this invention, a Detonation
Cycle Gas Turbine, are two constant volume--cyclic
flow--combustion chambers connected by a common manifold; a blower
that produces and supplies low pressure air to the manifold; a
fuel pump that supplies low pressure gaseous fuel to the
combustion chambers; and a constant visible arc ignition; and a
positive displacement turbine. The blower supplies air to the
combustion chambers via the manifold. Fuel is Injected into
venturis in the manifold next to the combustion chambers. The high
power, 300 joule, arc ignitions, producing photolytic and
radiolytic particles and waves disassociates oxygen and
hydrocarbon molecules throughout the combustion chambers,
producing complete detonation and high velocity shock waves that
kinetically compress the remaining inert gases in the combustion
chambers. Detonation pressures exceed 80 atmospheres and produce
mean chamber pressures of 20 atmospheres to drive the turbine. The
methods and apparatus utilized in Detonation cycle gas turbine are
not useable with Brayton cycle gas turbines, nor Otto cycle and
Diesel cycle engines. The Detonation cycle gas turbine, operated
in an open cycle configuration at sea level in the 200 horsepower
range, typically utilizes 5.2 pounds of air and 0.3 pounds of fuel
per horsepower hour while producing 5.5 pounds of exhaust gas per
This invention utilizes a modified Pelton Water Wheel, as the
turbine wheel, with blades that are positively displaced through a
blade race by kinetic impact and expansion of gases exiting from
combustion chambers via nozzles, rather than pistons, axial flow,
or radial inflow expanders.
This invention utilizes a turbine housing with a turbine wheel
chamber that directs expanding gases through a positive
displacement blade race tangentially followed by an expanded blade
race to an exhaust port.
This invention utilizes a blower, rather than a compressor, to
supply less air per horsepower hour than required by existing gas
turbines or piston engines, thereby producing less exhaust gas per
This invention utilizes a blower, rather than a compressor, to
supply low pressure air, less than 2 atmospheres, via a single
manifold to two combustion chambers simultaneously.
This invention utilizes a blower, rather than a compressor, to
supply less air at lower pressure; thereby consuming less work to
complete a detonation cycle, resulting in higher thermomechanical
efficiencies than gas turbines or piston engines.
This invention utilizes manifolds, combustion chambers and
ignition systems that have the capability of cyclically detonating
fuel-air mixtures without utilizing valves.
This invention utilizes fuel pumps and vaporizers to gasify wet
fuels prior to mixing with combustion air to produce more complete
combustion of fuel-air mixtures in the detonation process.
This invention utilizes venturis in the manifolds to uniformly mix
gaseous fuels with combustion air prior to injection in the
combustion chambers to produce complete combustion of fuel-air
mixtures in the detonation process.
This invention utilizes a plasma arc ignition, a visibly constant
illuminating plasma flame between two electrodes, to detonate fuel
air mixtures and does not require critical Ignition timing.
This invention utilizes low pressure air and fuel mixtures that
are detonated instanteously, in less than one millisecond,
producing high velocity shock waves that kinetically compress
inert gases resulting in higher working pressures than the
pressures produced in constant pressure heating utilized in
Brayton cycle turbines, Otto and Diesel cycle piston engines.
This invention utilizes a detonation cycle that utilizes less
working fluid and produces significantly less exhaust gas per
horsepower hour than Brayton cycle turbines, Otto or Diesel cycle
At least one turbine is provided in driving relation to a shaft
supported in bearings mounted in opposite end walls of a housing
for the turbine. The side walls of the housing are ported to
accommodate combustion chambers, expansion chambers and exhaust
ports. The combustion chambers are secured to the housing over
each respective port, with the firewall end of the chamber facing
the periphery of the turbine. Expansion chambers and exhaust ports
are positioned downstream from the combustion chambers. Nozzles
are ported in the firewalls of the combustion chambers, extend and
are directed to the periphery of the turbine. High-voltage
electrodes are positioned in the wall of each combustion chamber
and are continuously fired by high frequency high-voltage
transformer and capacitor networks. A low static pressure rotary
blower is driven by the turbine shaft to supply air as an oxidizer
via a common manifold feeding two combustion chambers. Fuel gas,
injected into venturi turbes on the downstream end of the
manifold, mixes with the oxidizer and is fed into the combustion
chambers at low static pressure. Both radiolytic and photolytic
radiation produced by the high voltage-high frequency plasma arcs
in the combustion chambers atomizes and ionizes oxygen molecules
initiating instantaneous oxidization and detonation producing
high-pressure shock waves that kinetically compress Inert gas
molecules in the chambers. The resulting high-pressure compressed
gases are directed from the combustion chambers to the periphery
of the turbine via nozzles. The high pressure compressed gases,
when exhausted from the nozzles, kinetically impact positive
displacement blades on the periphery of the turbine, imparting
momentum to the turbine. As the turbine rotates, the compressed
gases expand across the periphery of the turbine blades into an
expansion chamber further accelerating the turbine. The compressed
gases continue to expand via the respective exhaust ports. The
torque produced by the acceleration of the turbine and shaft is
converted to work or power by conventional mechanical or
electrical means. Acceleration, torque, and resulting power output
can be increased or decreased by the volumes of combustion
chambers, the number of combustion chambers and turbines, the
radius of the turbines, and the amount of air and fuel utilized.
The principles of the invention will be further discussed with
reference to the drawings wherein preferred embodiments are shown.
The specifics illustrated in the drawings are intended to
exemplify, rather than limit, aspects of the Invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In the Drawings:
is a block diagram
of the turbine engine system;
cross-sectional view of the turbine engine, rotary blower,
manifolds and combustion chambers of the system shown in FIG. 1;
is a block diagram
of an acceleration testing system for a high inertia turbine
engine system of the present invention utilized as a fluidic
is a graph of total
temperature drop across turbines versus working fluid horsepower
for the turbine engine system of FIG. 3;
is a graph of
acceleration and torque versus RPM and shaft horsepower for the
turbine engine system of FIG. 3;
is a graph of
nozzle inlet and exhaust outlet acceleration gas temperatures
versus RPM and shaft horsepower for the turbine engine system of
is a graph of
working fluid horsepower versus shaft horsepower and the resulting
heat loss in horsepower across high-inertia turbines.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
In the illustrated preferred embodiment, the Detonation Cycle Gas
Turbine is illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. Referring to FIGS. 1 and
2, the turbine system includes a straight drive shaft 12 on which
are mounted for rotation with the drive shaft, a positive
displacement turbine wheel 11, a conventional rotary blower 48, a
conventional flywheel 49 and a conventional power take-off unit 35
operatively connected to a conventional alternator 37.
The turbine engine further includes a block 30 (FIG. 1) having end
walls in which the drive shaft 12 is journalled for rotation. The
block 30 has an internal cavity in which the turbine 11 is housed,
this cavity includes two axially opposite end walls and an outer
peripheral wall. The block 30 is suitably air, water or chemical
The turbine wheel 11 (FIG. 2) has a plurality of blades mounted on
the radially outer periphery thereof at a plurality of
equiangularly spaced sites. The individual blades extend axially
from end wall to end wall of the internal cavity, and from the
outer peripheral wall of the turbine wheel to the outer peripheral
wall of the internal cavity. Suitable slide bearing surface are
provided between the turbine blades and cavity walls. Accordingly,
a succession of chambers is defined in a series about the turbine
wheel 11 between angularly successive turbine blades.
The turbine engine has two combustion chambers, chambers 14 and 15
having respective firewalls 24, 25, provided at the inner end
walls thereof. Fuel-oxidizer manifold ports are provided through
the outer end walls thereof. A common inlet manifold 47 for
low-pressure oxidizer gas, is intersected at inlet venturi throats
20, 21 by fuel inlet orifices 18, 19.
In accordance with principles of the invention, the combustion
chambers are intersected between the inlet and firewall thereof by
electrodes 22, 23, the inner ends of which are disposed within the
combustion chambers, for providing a visible plasma arc therein
during operation of the turbine engine. Through each firewall,
directional nozzles 16, 17 communicate through the radially outer
peripheral wall of the internal cavity of the block 30.
Generally, one-eighth of the way around the internal cavity of the
block 30 from where nozzles 16, 17 intersects the outer peripheral
wall of the internal cavity, the internal cavity is provided with
expansion chambers 26, 27 leading outward to exhaust ports 32, 33.
The turbine, block, combustion chambers, inlets and outlets may be
made of materials and using constructional techniques that are
utterly conventional in the manufacture of piston and turbine
The fuel supply (FIG. 1) for the turbine engine includes two fuel
tanks. Fuel tank 42 is for gaseous fuels and fuel tank 43 for wet
fuels. Both are connected by a fuel line to both orifices 18,19,
via a throttle regulator valve 44. Fuel tank 43 has a motor 54
that drives a wet fuel pump 52 and sprays fuel into a fuel
vaporizer 53 that converts the wet fuel to gas which is fed to
throttle regulator valve 44.
The oxidizer supply for the turbine engine includes a manifold 47
connecting both venturi inlets 20, 21 with the output side of the
rotary blower 48. At an upstream end of the manifold 47, a check
valve 45 is provided for preventing compressed oxidizer backflow
towards the blower.
The electrical system for the turbine engine system includes a
battery 36, a starter motor 34, a voltage rectifer 31, a voltage
regulator 28, an alternator 37, a power switch 46, and two high
voltage ignition transformers 40,41. In operation, the power
switch 46 is turned on to actuate the system, and engages the
starter motor 34 with the battery 36. The starter motor 34 engages
the flywheel 49 thus turning the drive shaft 12, power take off
35, alternator 37, and the air blower 48. The air blower 48,
driven by the drive shaft 12, produces low pressure air that is
fed via the check valve 45 and manifold 47 to the inlet venturis
20,21. Fuel gas from fuel tank 42 or 43 is throttled via regulator
valve 44 into the low pressure air stream via orifices 18,19 and
into the chambers 14,15, via the venturis 20,21. The alternator 37
provides electrical power to high voltage transformers 40,41, that
supply high voltage to arc electrodes 22,23.
According to the preferred design, the low pressure air manifold
piping to the combustion chamber 14 is shorter in length than that
to the combustion chamber 15. Accordingly, the fuel-air detonation
occurs in combustion chamber 14, closely followed by one in
combustion chamber 15 and so, in alternation. The cyclic
detonations in combustion chambers 14 and 15 produce high pressure
gases that expand, and via the respective nozzles 16, 17,
kinetically impact and expand across respective ones of the blades
of the turbine wheel 11, thereby turning the drive shaft 12 to
provide rotary output to the power take-off unit 35. The power
take-off unit 35 turns the alternator 37 that generates DC power
via the voltage rectifier 31 and voltage regulator 28 to maintain
a full charge on the battery 36, and provides continuous AC power
to the high voltage transformers 44,41. The air blower 48 rotation
is sustained by the drive shaft 12.
By preference, the rotary blower 48, produces static air pressure
in the range of 3.5 to 15 pounds per square inch gauge, at the
output side of the blower.
The gaseous fuel contained in the fuel tank 42 preferably
comprises propane. However, other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen,
acetylene, butane, compressed natural gas can be utilized. The
liquid (wet) fuels contained in fuel tank 43 preferably comprises
gasoline, however, other wet fuels such as diesel fuel, methanol,
ethanol, or liquid natural gas can be utilized. The fuel delivery
pressure (obtained by pressurizing the fuel tank and/or by using a
wet fuel pump 52 and fuel vaporizer 53 for boosting fuel pressure
in the fuel delivery line to the orifices 18,19) is preferably in
the range of 7.5 to 20 pounds per square inch gauge, and at least
slightly higher than the aforementioned air oxidizer pressure.
The high voltage transformers 40,41 preferably includes a 60 to
400 cycle, 120 volts AC, primary winding with a 15,000 volt AC
center-tapped secondary winding with capacitors in parallel across
each winding, creating an electrical tank circuit that oscillates
at high frequency and supplies electrical power to the arc
electrodes 22 and 23. Each 7,500 volt secondary transformer
winding and capacitor network oscillates at 100,000 cycles per
second at 40 milliamperes, delivering 300 joule to each of the arc
Each arc electrode 22,23 produces electromagnetic radiation, both
photolytic and radiolytic, from the high frequency plasma arc
gaps. The density and power of the radiated photons and charged
radiolytic particles produced by the arcs at electrodes 22 and 23
scatter throughout the chamber and the low pressure air fuel
mixture, kinetically impact and split oxygen molecules. The oxygen
atoms, oxidize the fuel molecules instantaneously throughout the
chamber producing a detonation and high velocity shock waves
through the chamber.
The pressure of the shock waves resulting from the detonations
compress remaining inert gases in the chambers into high pressure
masses. At the time of each detonation, the overpressure
momentarily shuts off the air and fuel flow at respective orifice
18, 19 and venturi turbe 21,22. The compressed gases that exhaust
via the respective directional nozzle 16,17 disposed in the
firewall section 24,25 of respective combustion chamber 14,15
kinetically impact the elliptical blades in the peripheral
cavities 13 on the outer radial surface of the turbine wheel 11.
The turbine wheel 11 rotates on and turns the drive shaft 12 in
the direction of the impact of the pressurized gas masses. The
expanding gases expand over the tops of the turbine blades which
are positioned on the radial surface of the turbine at intervals
that permit impulse and expansion of the compressed gases into the
expansion chamber 27, further accelerating the turbine. During the
cut off period of orifice 18 and venturi 21, the blower air or
other oxidizer is redirected via the manifold 47 to combustion
chamber 15 via venturi 20 and fuel orifice 19 where the detonation
process is repeated.
The blower 48 volume, manifold 47 volume, combustion chambers 14,
15 volumes and nozzles 16, 17 volumes are preferably balanced to
produce an average displacement that results in fifteen
detonations per second per chamber.
The mean inlet temperature at the outlets of nozzles 16 and 17 are
the average temperatures of the compressed gases impacting the
turbine 11 and elliptical bladed cavities 13 and are controlled by
the number of detonations per second per chamber. The temperature
drop across the turbine 11 is equal to the inlet temperature at
the outlet of nozzle 16 less the outlet temperature at exhaust
port 32, plus the inlet temperature at the outlet of nozzle 17,
less the outlet temperature at exhaust port 33.
The speed of rotation of the turbine 11 during operation can be
regulated by changing the fuel flow input into the combustion
chamber 14 and 15 via orifices 18 and 19 with fuel valve 44. As
the fuel is leaned, the detonations become less powerful,
therefore slowing the turbine 11 and blower 48. As the fuel is
enriched, the detonations become more powerful and the turbine 11
and blower 48 increases speed. The greater the range of the
flammability of the fuel, the greater the range of control over
the speed of the turbine 11 rotation.
Typical input requirements, at mean operating power, for the
preferred embodiment of the system are as follows:
Fuel 0.3 pound propane per horsepower hour.
Air 5.3 pounds per horsepower hour.
This is about one-half the air and fuel needed per horsepower of
output for Otto cycle and Diesel cycle piston engines, and about
one-eighth that required for the same output by Brayton cycle
Operation of the Detonation cycle turbine is terminated by closing
fuel regulator valve 44 and disengaging switch 46.
It is within the contemplation of the invention that a plurality
of the turbines, all in the same block, or in a succession of
blocks be constructed and jointly operated in the same manner to
drive the same drive shaft 12.
Reiterating the cyclic operation, and the methods and apparatus
utilized in the invention; the switch is engaged connecting the
starter to the battery; the starter engages the flywheel and
rotates the shaft, the power take-off, the air blower, and the
alternator. Air is fed into the common manifold connecting the two
combustion chambers. Gaseous fuel is injected into the venturis
and mixed with air. The fuel-air mixture is injected into both
chambers. Photolytic and radiolytic radiation produced by the
plasma arcs across the high voltage electrodes in the chambers
atomizes the oxidizer and produces a detonation in one of the
combustion chambers. The overpressure of the first detonation, in
the respective combustion chamber, momentarily shuts off the fuel
and oxidizer flow at the combustion chamber input orifice and
venturi tube and the fluid flow reverts to the opposing combustion
chamber, via the manifold, where the second detonation occurs. The
overpressure mass, compressed gases, products of the cyclic
deonations, are cyclically exhausted via nozzles into elliptical
bladed cavities on the peripheral surface of the turbine. After
each detonation, the pressure in the respective combustion chamber
and manifold drops below the air and fuel injection pressure on
completion of exhausting the combusted gases via the nozzle, and a
new charge of air and fuel is injected by the manifold and
respective venturi tube, into the respective combustion chamber,
and the detonation repeats. The impulse of the high-pressure
high-velocity mass kinetically impacts the elliptical blades of
the turbine forcing it to rotate. As the turbine rotates the
compressed gases expand out of the cavity and across the periphery
of the elliptical blades into the expansion chamber and out the
exhaust pushing the turbine into faster rotation. The torque
produced by the acceleration of the turbine and shaft is converted
mechanically and/or electrically. Acceleration and torque are
determined by various volumes of fuel-oxidizer mixes, volumes of
combustion chambers and nozzles, number of combustion chambers and
number and radius of turbines.
The invention may be further understood with reference to the
concrete example, a prototype engine test, that is illustrated and
graphically presented in FIGS. 3-7.
In FIG. 3, there is shown a turbine engine system of FIGS. 1 and
2, incorporated in an acceleration testing system, results of the
operation of which are described below in relation to the charts
shown in FIGS. 4-7.
The engine and test system used in the system of FIG. 3 had the
BLOCK: Made of machined aircraft aluminum. Measured
TURBINE ASSEMBLY: Two 6.7" diameter turbines, 3" wide, weight
19.35 lbs., each mounted on 2".times.26"- 10-lb. shaft supported
by ball bearings. Total weight of turbines 38.7 lbs. Total weight
of turbine assembly--48.7 lbs.
COMBUSTOR ASSEMBLY: Four 140 ci combustors connected by two
crossover manifolds. Each combustor was fired by a single
electrode powered by the electrical device described herein. Each
had an exhaust nozzle orifice measuring 563/1000", with a
cross-sectional area of 0.248378 square inches, a total of 0.9935
square inches for four nozzle orifices.
ENGINE ASSEMBLY TOTAL WEIGHT: Total weight: 262 lbs.
AIR SUPPLY ASSEMBLY: A Roots blower, driven by a 10 HP electric
motor turning 1760 RPM, produces 17.5 lbs. of air/min., 231 SCFM.
FUEL SUPPLY ASSEMBLY: Two 30-lb. propane tanks with pressure
regulators and control valves supply fuel to each combustor via an
intake port on each manifold. For safety, only two combustors were
fuel by each tank by separate fuel lines. Mean combustion heat of
the propane was 20,500 BTU/lb.
TEST EQUIPMENT: A standard pounds scale was used for weighing
propane tanks. A Photo-Tachometer was used to measure motor and
Roots blower RPM and shaft RPM of the engine. A stop watch was
used for timing acceleration run time. A pyrometer was used for
measuring inlet gas temperatures at nozzles and outlet
temperatures at exhaust.
COMBUSTION OVERPRESSURE ACCELERATION OF TURBINE ASSEMBLY FROM 0
Atm Temperature: 88.degree. F. Aim Pressure: 14.7 psia
Fuel tanks were weighed.
Fuel tank #1 weight: 51 lbs., 2 oz.
Fuel tank #2 weight: 51 lbs., 4 oz.
Both fuel tanks were then connected to their respective fuel
The power switch was engaged, activating the air supply assembly,
producing 17.5 lbs. of air/min., 231 SCFM, at a velocity of 558
fps at 1.2 Atms.
Simultaneously, the ignition switch was engaged; the fuel valves
on both tanks were opened; and the stop watch was started. The
engine shaft acceleration was measured by the photo-tachometer at
30, 60 and 90 second intervals. At an elapsed time of 90 seconds,
the shaft RPM was recorded at 12,587 RPM. The fuel valves were
closed. The ignition switch was turned off. The air supply
assembly continued to operate for 3 minutes, cooling the engine.
The air supply assembly was switched-off and the turbines wound
down to stop.
Engine Shaft 0-8,270 RPM 0-11,237 RPM 0-12,587 RPM Acceleration
Acceleration Time 30 sec. 60 sec. 90 sec.
The fuel lines were disconnected and the fuel tanks weighed.
Fuel tank #1 weight: 50 lbs., 6 oz.
Fuel tank #2 weight: 50 lbs., 12 oz.
Total Fuel Consumed in 30 Seconds: 0.50 lbs.=0.01666 lb./sec.
Total Fuel Consumed in 103 Seconds: 1 lb., 4 oz.
Nozzle Inlet Temperatures initial 1792.degree. F. Final
Exhaust Outlet Temperatures initial 360.degree. F. Final
MEASURED ACCELERATION TEMPERATURE DROP IN WORKING FLUID ACROSS
Nozzle inlet Temperatures
Initial Temperature=1792.degree. F.
Final Temperature=1544.degree. F.
Exhaust Outlet Temperatures
Initial Temperature=360.degree. F.
Final Temperature=842.degree. F.
Total Temp. Drop Across Turbines--4 Nozzles to 4 Exhaust
Initial Drop=5728.degree. F. Final Drop=2808.degree. F.
Average Total Temp. Drop Across Turbines--4 Nozzles to 4 Exhaust
Average Drop=4268.degree. F.
THERMAL--THERMOKINETIC--HORSEPOWER EQUIVALENTS TO TOTAL
TEMPERATURE DROP IN WORKING FLUID ACROSS TURBINES
Thermal Equivalent (TE)
Temp. .degree.F..times.Working Fluid lbs./sec..times.Working Fluid
Heat in BTU/lb/.degree.F.
TE=4268.degree. F..times.0.30832 lbs./sec..times.0.2095
Thermokinetic Equivalent (TKE)
TKE=275.68 BTU/sec..times.778 lbft/BTU=214,479 lbft/sec.
Horsepower Equivalent (HP)
Thermokinetic lbft/sec..div.lbft/sec./Horsepower ##EQU1## See FIG.
MEASURED ENGINE SHAFT ACCELERATION PRODUCED BY WORKING FLUID
OVERPRESSURE DRIVING TURBINES
Angular Acceleration (a)
a=Angular Speed w.div.Acceleration Time t
1) w=8,270 RPM.times.6.283 Radians/Rev=51,960 Radians/min.
a=w/t = ##EQU2## =1732 Radians/sec/sec
2) w=11,237 RPM.times.6.283 Radians/Rev=70,602 Radians/min.
a=w/t= ##EQU3## =1177 Radians/sec/sec
3) w=12,587 RPM.times.6.283 Radians/Rev=79,084 Radians/min.
a=w/t ##EQU4## =879 Radians/sec/sec See FIG. 5.
ACCELERATION TORQUE AND SHAFT HORSEPOWER PRODUCED BY WORKING FLUID
OVERPRESSURE DRIVING TURBINES:
T=Turbine mass (m).times.Turbine Radius Squared
(r.sup.2).times.Shaft Accel (a)
1) T=mr.sup.2 a=1.209 lbsec.sup.2 /ft.times.0.279 ft.sup.2
2) T=mr.sup.2 a=1.209 lbsec.sup.2 /ft.times.0.279 ft.sup.2
3) T=mr.sup.2 a=1.209 lbsec.sup.2/ft.times. 0.279 ft.sup.2
/Rad.times.879 Rads/sec /sec
T=83 lbft ##EQU5##
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