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Mark SELLNAU, et al.

Gasoline-Direct-Injection Compression Ignition










http://www.technologyreview.com/news/427944/engine-could-boocst-fuel-economy-by-half/
May 17, 2012

Engine Could Boost Fuel Economy by Half

Delphi says its diesel-like engine runs cleanly on gasoline.

by

Kevin Bullis



Trial run: Delphi researchers tested a new combustion strategy in this single-cylinder test engine.

Delphi, a major parts supplier to automakers, is developing an engine technology that could improve the fuel economy of gas-powered cars by 50 percent, potentially rivaling the performance of hybrid vehicles while costing less. A test engine based on the technology is similar in some ways to a highly efficient diesel engine, but runs on gasoline.

The company has demonstrated the technology in a single-piston test engine under a wide range of operating conditions. It is beginning tests on a multicylinder engine that will more closely approximate a production engine. Its fuel economy estimates suggest that engines based on the technology could be far more efficient than even diesel engines. Those estimates are based on simulations of how a midsized vehicle would perform with a multicylinder version of the new engine.

The Delphi technology is the latest attempt by researchers to combine the best qualities of diesel and gasoline engines. Diesel engines are 40 to 45 percent efficient in using the energy in fuel to propel a vehicle, compared to roughly 30 percent efficiency for gasoline engines. But diesel engines are dirty and require expensive exhaust-treatment technology to meet emissions regulations.

For decades, researchers have attempted to run diesel-like engines on gasoline to achieve high efficiency with low emissions. Such engines might be cheaper than hybrid technology, since they don’t require a large battery and electric motor.

In conventional gasoline-powered engines, a spark ignites a mixture of fuel and air. Diesel engines don’t use a spark. Instead, they compress air until it’s so hot that fuel injected into the combustion chamber soon ignites. Several researchers have attempted to use compression ignition with gasoline, but it’s proved challenging to control such engines, especially under the wide range of loads put on them as a car idles, accelerates, and cruises at various speeds.

Delphi’s approach, which is called gasoline-direct-injection compression ignition, aims to overcome the problem by combining a collection of engine-operating strategies that make use of advanced fuel injection and air intake and exhaust controls, many of which are available on advanced engines today.

For example, the researchers found that if they injected the gasoline in three precisely timed bursts, they could avoid the too-rapid combustion that’s made some previous experimental engines too noisy. At the same time, they could burn the fuel faster than in conventional gasoline engines, which is necessary for getting the most out of the fuel.

They used other strategies to help the engine perform well at extreme loads. For example, when the engine has just been started or is running at very low speeds, the temperatures in the combustion chamber can be too low to achieve combustion ignition. Under these conditions, the researchers directed exhaust gases into the combustion chamber to warm it up and facilitate combustion.

Mark Sellnau, engineering manager of advanced powertrain technology at Delphi Powertrain, says the engine could be paired with a battery pack and electric motor, as in hybrid cars, to improve efficiency still more, although he notes that it’s not clear whether doing that would be worth the added cost.



http://www.delphi.com/

http://www.delphi.com/docs/default-source/old-delphi-files/3ca4118c-f7a9-435d-9a6e-e01ae887354c-pdf.pdf?sfvrsn=0
Fuel System Pressure Increase for Enhanced Performance of GDi Multi-Hole Injection Systems

http://www.delphi.com/docs/default-source/old-delphi-files/d43a37d5-4e16-45ce-852d-df2ba4773e56-pdf.pdf?sfvrsn=0
Development of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Engine

http://www.delphi.com/docs/default-source/old-delphi-files/8561cdc8-3a7d-4d67-a455-301fb139336a-pdf.pdf?sfvrsn=0
Ethanol Flex Fuel system with Delphi Heated injector application

http://www.delphi.com/docs/default-source/old-delphi-files/b289d6b7-c278-4dcd-9e27-a063d3aeed41-pdf.pdf?sfvrsn=0
GDi Nozzle Parameter Studies Using LES and Spray Imaging Methods





PATENTS

http://worldwide.espacenet.com/advancedSearch?locale=en_EP

PISTON AND BOWL FOR GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION (GDCI)
WO2014172457

A piston (166) for use in a GDCI engine (12) cooperates with the wall (64) of a cylinder defined in the engine (12) and with a cylinder head to define a combustion chamber (28). The surface of the piston (166) that faces the cylinder head defines a bowl (176) that is configured to receive fuel (68) that is dispensed from a fuel injector (30) that is located in the cylinder head substantially along the central axis (A) of the cylinder. The bowl (176) is configured such that substantially all of the injected fuel (68) associated with a combustion event reaches a localized equivalence ratio greater than 0.0 and less than or equal to 1.2 at a time immediately preceding initiation of the combustion event.



*****

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONDITIONING INTAKE AIR TO AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
US2013298554

A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.




*****

High-Efficiency Internal Combustion Engine and Method for Operating Employing Full-Time Low-Temperature Partially-Premixed Compression Ignition with Low Emissions
US2013213349

An engine system and a method of controlling a combustion process in an internal combustion engine are disclosed. The combustion process is based on compression ignition of a stratified air-fuel mixture using a high octane fuel such as gasoline. Multiple fuel injections may be used in a given combustion cycle. Fuel injection timing, EGR, exhaust rebreathing, late intake valve closing, and intake boost are controlled to enable autoignition over essentially the entire speed and load operating range of the engine, while providing reduced emissions, low noise, and low fuel consumption.




*****

VALVE TRAIN SYSTEM FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
US2012222639

A valve train system for an internal combustion engine includes an exhaust valve moveable between an exhaust closed position and an exhaust open position. A camshaft includes a main exhaust lobe for moving the exhaust valve between the exhaust closed position and the exhaust open position for expelling exhaust constituents from the combustion chamber and an exhaust rebreath lobe for moving the exhaust valve between the exhaust closed position and the exhaust open position for allowing exhaust constituents into the combustion chamber. A two-step device is provided for transmitting motion from the camshaft to the exhaust valve and is switchable between a motion transmitting position and a motion preventing position such that the motion transmitting position allows motion to be transmitted from the exhaust rebreath lobe to the exhaust valve and the motion preventing position prevents motion from being transmitted from the exhaust rebreath lobe to the exhaust valve.

*****

ENGINE COMBUSTION CONTROL USING IGNITION DWELL
US8408191

An engine control system, a controller for the engine control system, and a method of controlling a combustion process in an internal combustion engine operating at an engine operating condition. The engine control is based on closed-loop control of ignition dwell. Ignition dwell is defined as time or crank angle difference between an end of fuel injection (EOI), or some other aspect of an injection control signal, and a start of combustion (SOC), or some other aspect of an internal combustion event. One or more engine control devices, such as a fuel injector or an exhaust gas recirculation valve may be varied to control ignition dwell. By providing such a closed-loop engine control based on ignition dwell, the air/fuel charge mixture, and/or stratification present in the combustion chamber at the moment combustion starts may be controlled.; Advanced combustion systems utilizing premixed compression ignition (PCI) offer the benefit of low temperature combustion for simultaneous low NOx and particulate emissions with high fuel economy. Combustion control based on ignition dwell can be used to optimize engine emissions and fuel consumption for PCI over the operating range.

*****

COMBUSTION CONTROL OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
US7454286

The present invention relates to: self-tuning engine control algorithms using inputs from transducers that measure pressure in the engine cylinders, and from an engine crankshaft rotational position sensor; methods of processing the input signals to "self-tune" or learn accurate values for a) pressure transducer voltage offset, b) crank position encoder error and c) engine compression ratio; improved pressure-ratio-based algorithms for calculating cylinder heat release fraction as a function of crank angle.
  


*****

DUAL CATALYST NOX REDUCTION SYSTEM FOR LEAN BURN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES EXHAUST
US8245500

A method and apparatus for reducing the percentage of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide in an exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine, comprising the steps of injecting a hydrocarbon compound and optionally hydrogen into the exhaust gas stream; passing the exhaust gas through a first catalyst for selective reduction of a portion of the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen, ammonia, and N-containing species; passing the exhaust gas through a second catalyst for selective reduction of a portion of the nitrogen oxides with ammonia to molecular nitrogen; sensing ammonia concentration in the exhaust gas stream after passage through either or both of the first and second catalysts; and controlling by a controller in a feedback loop the injecting to an amount of hydrocarbon that will produce a predetermined concentration of ammonia and nitrogen oxides at the sensor that will lead to high NOx conversion.

*****

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC LOST-MOTION VALVE TRAIN
US7077083

An electro-hydraulic lost motion system for variable valve activation including a master piston and an accumulation piston in a first bore, defining a hydraulic pressure chamber therebetween, in response to rotation of an engine cam. A slave piston in the engine head and hydraulically connected to the pressure chamber opens and closes an engine valve. A servo-valve behind the accumulation piston controls the mobility of the accumulation piston via a fluid control chamber. When the control chamber is made hydraulically rigid, the system actuates the engine valve. When the control chamber is vented through the servo-valve, the accumulation piston is movable in lost motion, preventing the engine valve from opening. All intermediate degrees of valve opening are possible.; Preferably, the servo-valve, control chamber, accumulation piston, and a control piston are comprehended in a modular subassembly which may be positioned adjacent the master piston or the slave piston.

*****

Method for 3-step variable valve actuation
S6810844

A method of variably actuating a valve of an engine includes selecting one of three valve lift profiles dependent at least in part upon engine operating conditions and parameters. The selected valve lift profile is phased relative to the angular position of the engine crankshaft dependent at least in part upon engine operating conditions and parameters. The valve is actuated according to the selected and phased valve lift profile.

*****

Method and apparatus for optimized combustion in an internal combustion engine utilizing homogeneous charge compression ignition and variable valve actuation
US7308872

A valvetrain system mechanization for an internal combustion engine using compression ignition, including homogeneous charge compression ignition, having two intake and one or more exhaust valves per cylinder. The valves are operated by dual overhead camshafts having two-step cams. The intake and exhaust camshafts are provided with phasers for varying the opening and closing of the intake and exhaust valves. A two-step roller finger follower is disposed for each valve between the cam lobes and the valve stem. The two sets of intake and exhaust valves are controlled by separate oil control valves. Swirl of gases may be introduced by mismatching the lifts of the valves. The valve opening times, closing times, lifts, fuel injection, compression ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation may be varied to optimize combustion conditions for a range of engine operating modes.

*****

Apparatus and method for early intake valve closing
US6600989

A method for early intake valve closing in an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and at least one exhaust valve, the crankshaft having a top dead center position and a bottom dead center position, includes the step of determining engine operating load conditions and parameters. One of a plurality of predetermined valve lift profiles, each of which correspond to a respective range of engine operating load conditions and parameters, is selected dependent at least in part upon the engine operating load conditions and parameters.; The engine is commanded to operate the engine intake valves according to the selected one of the plurality of predetermined valve lift profiles to thereby optimize fuel economy and reduce emissions at light to moderate engine loads, to improve torque and power at relatively full engine loads, and improve cold start engine operation under cold start engine conditions.

*****

Annular electrical connector assembly
US6406307

Multiple annular electrical connectors are each positioned floatably through a respective aperture of a tray. A shield plate is secured over the tray by bolts which thread into a cylinder head. The shield plate has holes centered above the apertures for access to spark plugs disposed below. Each annular electrical connector is centered about an annular pressure sensing device which encompasses the spark plug. The inboard side of the electrical connector is in electrical contact with the outboard side of the sensing device beneath the tray. Insulated wires extend between the tray and shield plate from each electrical connector and connect to a common panel mounted electrical connector at one end of the tray.

*****

Onboard misfire, partial-burn detection and spark-retard control using cylinder pressure sensing
US6560526

A method is disclosed for detecting misfire or partial burn and for controlling spark retard in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine operated under the control of a microprocessor and utilizing signals indicative of the pressure in said cylinder at crank angle positions before and after initiation of combustion. A ratio of the actual pressure to the motored pressure in the cylinder at one or more predetermined crank angles is used to estimate the fraction of fuel burned which, in turn, enables a determination of combustion failure in said cylinder cycle. Confirmation of said misfire or unacceptable partial burn leads to correction of engine operation by said controller and/or to a diagnosis of possible damage to the vehicle's catalytic converter. This method also permits better engine operation under conditions of high spark retard.

*****

Combustion pressure sensor
US4969352

This invention is an annular sensor that measures combustion chamber pressure in an internal combustion engine. The sensor is located in an engine component opening, such as a spark plug well, and is engaged with first and second walls that define the ends of the opening. The first wall is located near the combustion chamber and flexes in response to varying combustion chamber pressure. The second wall is located away from the combustion chamber and remains relatively rigid. Movement of the first wall relative to the second wall due to varying combustion chamber pressure transmits a load to the sensor. The sensor generates an output signal that corresponds to that load which may subsequently be used to control engine functions.

*****

Process and system for improving combustion and exhaust aftertreatment of motor vehicle engines
US7293409

A diesel combustion engine system providing improved fuel combustion and exhaust aftertreatment includes: a diesel combustion engine having a liquid fuel intake, an air intake, a reformate intake, and an exhaust outlet; a liquid diesel fuel source in fluid communication with the liquid fuel intake and an on-board catalytic partial oxidation fuel reformer that receives a supply of hydrogen-containing liquid diesel fuel and a supply of air and produces therefrom a hydrogen-rich reformate. An exhaust conduit in fluid communication with the exhaust outlet and the reformer includes a reformate conduit upstream from exhaust aftertreatment components. The system provides for supplying: under conditions of low engine load, reformate or a combination of liquid diesel fuel and reformate to the engine; under conditions of medium engine load, a combination of liquid diesel fuel and reformate to the engine; and, under conditions of high engine load, liquid diesel fuel only to the engine and reformate only to the exhaust conduit.

*****

Signal amplifying circuit
US6204715

Circuitry for amplifying a single-ended analog sensor output includes a field effect transistor (FET) having a gate connected to a first end of a capacitor, the second opposite end of which is connectable to the sensor output. The gate of the FET is also connected to a first end of a resistor and to a cathode of a diode. The anode of the diode, the opposite end of the resistor and the drain of the FET are connectable to a ground reference, and the source of the FET defines an amplifier output that is connectable to a constant current source. The capacitor, resistor and diode are operable to bias the FET to thereby prevent clipping of the output signal at the amplifier output. A high-pass filter is also provided at the second end of the capacitor, and a number of diodes are preferably included for providing for amplifier input protection, electrostatic discharge protection and output DC overvoltage protection. When the amplifying circuit of the present invention is implemented integral with a single-ended, case grounded sensor configuration, only one wire per sensor is required.

*****

Non-intrusive cylinder pressure sensor
US5329809

A cylinder pressure sensor of the annular insert type disposed within an access well to measure the flexure of a first wall relative to a second wall along a response axis has low-cost components thereof requiring only simple sequential assembly in axial stacked fashion providing contaminant protection and electrical shielding of the sensing element.

*****

Non-intrusive cylinder pressure sensor having improved response characteristics
US5367904

An improved combustion pressure sensor of the type measuring flexure of a first wall relative to a second wall along a response axis is characterized by linear response over a relatively wide range of preload forces. Various sensor engagements provide for minimal transmutation of forces along the response axis to any other direction, thereby improving linearity of response, durability and serviceability of the sensor.

*****

Combustion chamber pressure sensor
GB2235299

An annular sensor (36) that in an internal combustion engine (10) is measures combustion chamber pressure located in an engine component opening, such as a spark plug well (30), and is engaged with first (32) and second (31) annular walls that define the side of the opening. The first wall is located near the combustion chamber (19) and flexes in response to varying combustion chamber pressure. The second wall is located away from the combustion chamber and remains relatively rigid. Movement of the first wall relative to the second wall due to varying combustion chamber pressure transmits a load to the sensor. The sensor generates an output signal that corresponds to that load which may subsequently be used to control engine functions.; As shown a piezoelectric sensor element (40) is held between a shoulder (33) machined in the well (30) and a threaded bush (37) which forms part of the sensor assembly and has a slot (45) and recess (59) holding output leads and a connector.




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