Andre-Louis STARCK
Knoller-Betz Effect Airplane

This small aircraft had exceptional capabilities produced by application of the "Knoller-Betz Effect" :

- large decrease of energy consumption for take-off and flying (big efficiency);
- wide flying range and autonomy, with low energy consumption;
- extremely low stall speed and and high critical angles;
- short take-off and landing (STOL) -- cheap and easy.

FR 924449
Dispositif de commande d'aileron pour aéronef

[ PDF ]
Control for Aircraft Aileron

Publication date:     1947-08-05
Classification: - international:     B64C13/30 - European:     B64C13/30

Uncorrected machine translation:

The trends aeronautical technology modern to increasing speeds grMdes it leads to. a increase cons as unit loads. of cells above temptresses. The large speed necessary â. the sustenance modern aircraft if necessary aus a-racing . Off and-d 'at terrissage more and longer.

-To reduce this speed of takeoff and especially the vitl-se landing within limits compatible with security, and obtain thereby .of racing of @ Take- lodge and landing under long have been proposed to introduce In the cell extra devices to temptress of ac- grow temporarily bearing strength of this cell, at times where-eet . Accroiase- ment becomes necessary.

These device are lift constibnés by of fluttered to intradermal, ailerons, flaps curvature, -components of. curvature sim P'e or slot.double slot etc..

Cep ailerons or flaps are mounted on the trailing edge of the wing and generally on. middle part of this board leak the party; extremes of the trailing edge is used for the location of fin-warping.

In these devices @ Conmis, only h.-IRTI the trailing edge of the wing estutilisée for location-component or fin hvpei # sustainers and therefore only the por- tion wing whose trailing edge is by inter se : These fin lift is subject to increased force bottom-up sionneilé and therefore limited.

In order to remedy.vantages of these drawbacks, we made of aircraft in which the cell sustenance such AIL, combined with a wing joint playing both the role of spoiler high lift or curvature and @ E role Fin ment on the left, thisallowing . Of interest entire length of the trailing edge of this wing is to the effect of high lift, or effect of warping, either these two effects com bined, which ultimately makes a cel lule sustenance adapted to both gran speeds and take-offs and landing at reduced speed.

The present invention aims to realistic edged a simple and robust demand com fins mixed. Described above.

The invention concerned, for this purpose, say a positive @ Command .of Mixed ailerons of an aircraft, characterized by the combination of a set of left control levels and a control unit of curvature, all control gau enrichment is likely to turn Tsur the frame of the aircraft under action .the control lever left, the control assembly of curvature being susceptible e to rotate relative to the entire corner of demand warping, se and be immobilized on the latter in a position chosen, crew total .algebraically the rotation heaven sets for the tram to the ailerons mixed.

According to the invention, the crew totalizer tor has two control elements such as rods Main related to the timo of neries order aileron mixed control these bodies according to inclination sounds all , Left control ment without turn der compared to deny and Commander so differentially the fin mixed for- Zauche.

Next a form of the invention or the control organs such as rods main rotor blades may differ or be closer sy metrically one of wallowing in turning on all ment control on the left, under the effect of the rotation @ De ENSEM- ble control by curvatureover all ment left control, which allows it. organs De com demand to transmit to the ailerons are mixed inclinations than the algebraic sum tilt ide in the curvature and warp clinaison.

The invention finally FEATURES for described below and their various combinations possible.

Device order to-aircraft according to the invention is represented, for example, the drawing This joint, in le- what The figure 1 is a perspective perspective the overall system; L figure 2 is a viewelevation of the body.central control; The figures 3, 4 and 5 represent in three different positions of the rudder dragging the rods transmission; The figures 6, '7, 8 and 9 show in cross schematic four kinds of wings, which can apply including the positive control say thatbeen in the Convention.

The control device shown in Fig. January-May has essen tial elements following the A set. gau enrichment control mounted on a torque tube ex TER AL 1 susceptible are to turn in bearings ball 2 ', 22 set 3 to the frame of the aircraft.

This tube torsion exterior door at its , Top the handle lated brush 4 articles on a transversal axis @ 5 attached to the tube. At this joystick is connected by a hinge 6-7 wheelhouse command ing the elevator.

The torque tube further comprises:. At its front end an eight-notched area. 92, 93; At the rear a rudder of com- 10.

These Both are set to tube twist outside 1 by welding for example, and running with it when the handle broom 4 is moved to the right or left.

2 A set of command Court frieze mounted within a torque tube 11 engaged in the tube torsion outside and a likely, turn in this tube ex outside.

The torque tube inside I1 ge is prolonged in front by an angled portion 12 terminating in a handle 13. This panied poi 13 is coupled by a lever 14 articular Lé ale on a 15 fixed to the angled portion 12 and secured to a finger 16 of tible likely to engage in the slots 9 ', 92, 93 sector 8 and immobilize so the torque tube 11 inside the tube tor sion in an outdoor different angular positions. A spring 17 interposed between the handle 13 and the lever 14 maintains the finger 16 engaged in the notch 9 ' 92, 93. By pressure the lever 14 can be drawn from the finger 16 the notch 9 ' 92, 9 'ming compressed spring 1'7 and one can then rotate the torque tube 11 within the torque tube tixtérieur 1 to put it in the desired relative position.

At the opposite end inside the torque tube 11 is secured to a plate Ifi set for example by welding.

3 Uii Crew rods with a.Two control devices such as rods Main 19 " 192 articulated eb'a- CUNE One by a pin 20 ', 202 to the ex tremiti rudder Command 10; On the other hand by linen axis 21 'to 212 ti- MONERIE 221, 222 transmission tively soft fins.

b.Two rods 231, 232 articulated CUNE each one hand by a shaft 241, 242 and 18 on the ceiling attached to the tube torsion integral Interior 11; other hand by an axis 2A1, 252 on rod corresponding principal 191, 192. 4 A wheelhouse control of wing Rons which may include, for example on either side of the aircraft: A rod 222, a crank, elbow 262 forming reference; A rod 272 articulated a mani Velle 282 fixed to the axis of rotation 292 of fin '302.

The device below, above works as described Next Position 1: cruising flight.

The finger 16 of the handle 13 is engaged in the first notch 9l sector 8. T plate 1f is compared to the rudder 10 in the relative position of the Fig. 3.

In walking straight Aircraft have the Leron 301, 302 are in the extension Part Fixed Of wing was operating so as to pose no resistance to Vavances.

When the pilot side will tilt Regulation (device to change direction, ii tilt the joystick sideways causing 4 all forming block : The you will be, an external torque, and within 11, of- rudder 10, the.plate 18 and the crew of rods 191, 192 and rods 231, 232, this assembly being secured by the finger 16 committed in the groove 91 8 sec tor.The inclination of the pa'onnier 10 SHARE differentially fins 301, 302 through the wheelhouse 221, 222, ee which produces the lateral inclination of the device in its path and its deviation from its initial direction.

When the driver returns the handle 4 ba lai in his position vertical the fin 30 ', 302 back in line wings.

2 position off.

The finger 16 of the handle 13. Is engaged in the notch median 92 . Sector 8.The tray is 18, compared to the rudder 10, in the relative position of Fig. 4. The axes 211, 212 are in the game rods 931, 232, symmetrically to the back, vertical median plane of the spreader 10.

Running straight from the aircraft the two fins 301, 302 are turned down at an angle of 15 For example, they work in high-lift wings and reduce the time and . Race take-off.

The fin 30 ', 302 are in this po sition angle, if the pilot wants to tilt the device, ii activates the joystick iatéra '.cally, which will produce the rotation of the two-block tubing Torsion 1, 11, and differential control of fin 30 ', 302 by the crossbar 10; fun of fin 301 increasing its initial inclination, the other decreasing it 302,. This action différentiell.e- producing tilt and.deviation the device- the path.

3 landing position.

The finger 16 of the handle 13 is engaged in the notch side 93 sector 8. The tray is 18, compared to . Spreader 10, in. relative position of the Fig. 5. The axes 211, 212 articulation of the wheelhouse.92 ' 222 of aikrons are brought svm6tri- cally closer to their maximum.

Running straight from the aircraft's two wings 301, 302 are turned down a Angle 40 per example; they function fying themes act as ailerons lift and reduce the landing rissage race.

If the driver wants to tilt the camera as he acted ra in the normal case, but thecom- demand Differential fins 301, 302 by tilt ra of the spreader 10 increases. tilt initia'e one of: 301 fins,: decrease: the fin 302 and will produce the opposite change in inclination of sire.

In all these Snacks fins hypersus- tempting work together in fins ï s left to the inclination its of (aéronef.

The figures 9 and 9 represent for example, in schematic section, four types of wings Lesquer's the device can be used re vendiqué. advantageously.

The Fig. 6 shows a wing 31 coupled with a regular component of curvature of 32 common type articulated around an axis 33.This is the case of the wing. represented on Fig. 1.

The Fig. 7 shows a wing 34 combi born in a wing 35 articulated on an axis ex TER AL . '3 Ti. Entrel'aile 34 and the fin 35 is formed a slot 37 inclined relative to the direction of movement.

The Fig. 8 shows a wing 38 combined INEE to . Two fins 39 and 40 articulated two external axes 41, 42 and forming two slots 43, 44.

The Fig. 9 relates to a double wing composed 45 of a wing and a flap 46 hinged around an axis 417 ment net and detached from the wing.

The control device described above to this particular benefits following a tech niques, it allows a total hypersusten tation of the cell lift, and then the Wings are interested in all their major by the ailerons mixed when function as lift. In CUNE portion of the trailing edge of these wings, no longer in Indeed, be reserved to have to Leron warping; 2 The aircraft ity has a large mania around the roll axis, because the wing is interested along its entire length by the ailerons mixed when, '. s com me work.fin warping; 3 The construction of a wing is simplified, since each wing has a single ron wing joint, instead of two, one sustains tell r, the other warp.

Transmission linkages, of eomm #. qn- of, are also reduced.

There, in a saving in weight and cost, simplicity and increased security.



"Science and technichs", no. ( 8/1970 and 11/1983 ) ,

Stark AS20 of 1942

Not a captured aircraft, this machine was designed and flown under the German occupation and was painted with a swastika for flight evaluation only. André Starck started to design his first aircraft, the AS20, in 1938. It was to have the so-called Nénadovich biplane configuration with the tandem-mounted wings providing a continuous slot effect for exceptional c.g. travel and very low stalling speed. In 1941 construction commenced with the permission of the German occupation authorities. The first flight with André Starck himself as pilot took place on 23 October 1942. The aircraft reached speeds of more than 200 km/h. The flight evaluation resulted in some modifications. When the French pilot Finance failed in his 'escape bid' to Great Britain with the Holste MH20 (he had to make a forced landing) all flying of French-owned aircraft was prohibited by the German authorities. Minus its engine the AS20 was stored at Villacoublay where it still remained after the war.

A photo of this machine was published in the German magazine "Der Sportflieger" of 1942.

Re: Les avions d'André Starck

Messagepar bibendum » 16 Jan 2011, 13:19

On ne trouve que très peu d'information sur le constructeur André Starck.

Il faut quand même savoir que c'est un avion Starck qui a reçu le premier CNRA juste après la guerre.

Pour un avion de 1946, ce Starck AS 70 quelque peu modifié dans les années 70 à quand même de la gueule

photo -- as70

Starck AS-07 Stabiplan


 Eric Jamier   

19 Septembre 2008


André Starck fait partie de ces concepteurs d'avions légers en marge de ses contemporains.

Discret, il conçut néanmoins une véritable lignée d'avions de sport dès les années 1940, qui, pour certains marquèrent leur temps, tel que l'AS - 10, biplace à moteur en étoile.

Au début des années 1970, les sports aériens s'orientèrent vers une discipline émergeante du vol libre, qui provoqua un bel engouement populaire : le deltaplane.

André Starck, quant à lui, étudia la plupart de ses appareils autour d'un concept d'ailes décalées, dotées d'ailerons, à l'inverse de la formule Pou du Ciel, qui en était dépourvue.


André Starck créa notamment l'AS - 37, un curieux avion à ailes décalées reliées entre elles, monomoteur, mais propulsé par deux hélices de part et d'autre du fuselage et dirigées vers l'arrière.

En 1974, s'intéressant à la cause des pilotes sportifs et ultra - légers, Starck se pencha sur un planeur léger, toujours caractérisé par sa formule d'ailes décalées et rejointes entre elles à leurs extrémités. Ce planeur respectait le pilotage manuel, fidèle aux deltaplanes, mais ses caractéristiques, notamment en matière de sécurité et de performances, surclassaient les ailes dites delta.

Starck le diffusa sous la forme de plans destinés aux constructeurs amateurs et, en vendit de nombreuses liasses.


Le Stabiplan, baptisé ainsi par André Starck, fait partie de ces machines volantes un temps soit peu fantaisistes... On ne sait pas si cette aile volante, formule Starck, volait bien, malgré la centaine de liasses diffusées.
En outre, poursuivant l'étude de son appareil, André Starck extrapola aussi une version ULM - Ultra Léger Motorisé - de son appareil, qu'il désigna AS - 07 M. Un moteur de tronçonneuse suffisait à le propulser...

L'AS - 07 Stabiplan se présentait comme un biplan de sécurité à fente pilotable, à structure auto - compensée de 23 kg.

De bonnes finesse et stabilité, il était doté d'empennages dits papillon, en forme de V, qui le différenciait des deltaplanes traditionnels.

L'appareil possédait l'avantage de ne pas décrocher.

Il était de fabrication simple et légère en tubes de duralumin entoilés et , pouvait être démonté rapidement.


Envergure : 7 m.
Longueur : 4,80 m.
Masse à vide : 23 kg
Surface alaire : 15 m²

Offline Mole
Nenadovich biplanes?
April 08, 2011

In the French press I have seen the term "Nenadovich biplane" applied both to tandem-wing designs (Mignet, Delanne, etc.) and to aircraft with conventional tail surfaces but using two biplane wings in a staggered, box-wing configuration (Stark AS.27 and AS.37, for example).  The key concept seems to be the slot effect between the two wings.  Does anyone know any more about the origin of this terminology and, presumably, the aircraft designed or built by Mr. Nenadovich that inspired it?

Matthew William Long
Rabat, Morocco
Offline Retrofit

April 08, 2011

Miroslave Nenadovitch was working at the Institut Aeronautique of St Cyr, close to Paris, in 1936.

Rush translation of the article (below) from Aviation magazine concerning the Starck AS-27 (date ?).

"Nenadovitch tested in wind-tunnel around 150 biplanes configurations. His configuration presented a lower Cx max and higher Cz max than an equivalent monoplane formula. His configuration did not stall at high incidence angles. In fact the top of the polar was absolutely flat. The two planes parameters interacting as a big slot always open."

I don't think he designed an aircraft as such, out of his wind tunnel tests. But André Starck did design and test his AS-20 in 1942 retaining this formula, then he used it on his AS-27 and AS-37.

Extracts from:
Aviation Magazine (Date ?)
Sport Aviation August 1976

Andre Starck has gone out of his way to design a biplane racer that is most definitely "pas comme les autres." Finished last July after three years and ...

André Starck

Starck AS-20

Monoplace expérimental. Premier vol le 23 octobre 1942. 1 exemplaire construit.
Envergure :    5.84    m    Longueur :    5.30    m
Surface portante :    8.00    m²
Masse à vide :    226    kg    Masse totale :    373    kg
Motorisation :    1 Régnier 4D2 de 74 ch
Vitesse maximale :    240    km/h  à 0 m
Plafond :    7500    m
Autonomie : 1400 km

Starck AS-37
Biplace de tourisme.
Biplan Nedanovitch. Moteur dans le fuselage entrainant 2 hélices placées entre l. Bois et plastique.
Envergure :    6.30    m    Longueur :    6.00    m
Hauteur :    1.60    m     Surface portante :    13.60    m²
Equipage    2                    
Masse à vide :    400    kg    Masse totale :    620    kg
Motorisation :    1 Citroën G-12 de 60 ch
Vitesse maximale :    185    km/h

Starck AS-57/3
Biplace de tourisme.
Monoplan aile basse. Construction en bois..
Envergure :    8.80  
 m    Longueur :    6.90    m
Surface portante :    11.60    m²
Equipage    2                    
Masse à vide :    425    kg   
Masse totale :    767    kg
Motorisation :    1 Régnier 4EO de 90 ch
Vitesse maximale :    220    km/h
Vitesse de croisière :     180    km/h
Plafond :    4500    m
Autonomie :    530    km

Starck AS-57/4
Biplace de tourisme.
Monoplan aile basse. Construction en bois.
Envergure :    8.80    m  
Longueur :    6.90    m
Surface portante :    11.60    m²
Equipage    2                    
Masse à vide :    430    kg   
Masse totale :    660    kg
Motorisation :    1 Walter 'Minor' 4-III de 105 ch
Vitesse maximale :    220    km/h
Vitesse de croisière :     180    km/h
Plafond :    4500    m
Autonomie :    530    km

Starck AS-57/5

Biplace de tourisme.
Monoplan aile basse. Construction en bois.

Starck AS-70 'Jac'
Monoplace de sport de construction amateur. Premier vol le 23 mai 1945.
Monoplan aile basse.
Photo by Hubert DECHANET
Envergure :    7.40    m   
Longueur :    5.35    m
Surface portante :    8.00    m²
Equipage    1                    
Masse à vide :    202    kg    Masse totale :    310    kg
Motorisation :    1 Salmson 9Adb de 45 ch
Vitesse maximale :    185    km/h
Plafond :    6200    m
Autonomie :    420    km

Starck AS-71
Monoplace de sport de construction amateur.
Monoplan aile basse.
Envergure :    7.40    m   
Longueur :    5.50    m
Surface portante :    8.00    m²
Equipage    1                    
Masse à vide :    212    kg    Masse totale :    320    kg
Motorisation :    1 Walter 'Mikron' II de 60 ch
Vitesse maximale :    207    km/h
Plafond :    7400    m
Autonomie :    370    km

Starck AS-80 'Holiday'

Biplace de tourisme de construction amateur.
Envergure :    10.00    m   
Longueur :    6.60    m
Surface portante :    15.50    m²
Equipage    2                    
Masse à vide :    327    kg   
Masse totale :    550    kg
Motorisation :    1 Régnier de 75 ch
Vitesse maximale :    158    km/h
Vitesse de croisière :     142    km/h
Plafond :    5600    m
Autonomie :    315    km

Starck AS-90 'New Look'
Monoplace de sport de construction amateur. Premier vol le 11 juin 1950 piloté par Eric Nessler.
Monoplan aile médiane. Construction en bois, revêtement entoilé.
Envergure :    7.40    m   
Longueur :    5.35    m
Surface portante :    9.40    m²
Equipage    1                    
Masse à vide :    120    kg   
Masse totale :    210    kg
Motorisation :    1 Aubier-Dunne V-2D de 18 ch
Vitesse maximale :    90    km/h
Plafond :    3000    m
Autonomie :    200    km

The Starck AS80 Holiday was designed in 1947 by French designer Andre Starck. It is a two seater in a similar class to the Piper Cub; its 75hp Regnier engine enables it to cruise at 90mph, and it has a range of 200 miles. Gross weight is 1,210lb; it is 21 feet 5 inches long and has a wing span of 32 feet 5 inches.

This one visited Cranfield, July 1987

No. 7618. Starck A.S.80 Holiday (G-BJAE c/n 04)
Photographed at Bagington, UK, June 8, 1989

Starck A.S.80 Holiday

03/31/2008. Avions André Starck of Boulogne-Billancourt, France designed a half a dozen single and two-seat light aircraft. Intended for the homebuilder, the Holyday two-seater of 1947 was the largest with a span of 32 ft 10 in (10.0 m). The prototype was powered by a 75 hp Régnier four-cylinder in-line inverted air-cooled engine, a range of 65 to 75 hp alternative engines could be used. At a cruising speed of 88 mph (142 kmh) the aircraft had a range of 200 mls (315 km).

The pictured aircraft was produced in 1948 by Mr. Lavadoux and was first registered as F-WGGA, after it received its CofA it was reregistered as
F-PGGA. It came on the UK register on June 17, 1981. It is powered by a 65 hp Continental A65-1 engine.

No. 7763. Starck A.S.70 (F-AZGY c/n AG-01)
Photographed by Walter van Tilborg

 Starck A.S.70

04/30/2008. Remarks by Walter van Tilborg: "The small company of André Starck built several light aircraft designs after WW2 and the A.S.70 was first flown on May 23, 1945. The aircraft had one 45 hp Salmson 9Ad radial engine and was during the 1990s completely restored and is still active as homebuilt. However, rather then being registered in the F-P... homebuilt series, it retained its F-AZGY registration in the antique/classic series. The sole A.S.70 was followed by a small number of aircraft, A.S.71 to A.S.75 (differing in the engine installed) and by the A.S.27, A.S.37, A.S.57, A.S.80 and A.S.90 designs."

Notice the similarity to DeLouise's "DaVinci" plane --

and --

Mechanix Illustrated ( October 1945 ) ( ? )

The Knoller-Betz Effect
AIAA Journal, vol. 36, issue 7, pp. 1240-1246

Experimental and Computational Investigation of the Knoller-Betz Effect
Jones, K. D.; Dohring, C. M.; Platzer, M. F.

Abstract -- The ability of a sinusoidally plunging airfoil to produce thrust, known as the Knoller–Betz or Katzmayr effect, is investigated experimentallyandnumerically.Water-tunnel experiments are performed providing owvisualization and laser Doppler velocimetry data of the unsteady wakes formed by the plunging foils. Vortical structures and time-averagedvelocity pro les in the wake are compared with numerical computationsfrom a previously developed inviscid, unsteady panel code that utilizes a nonlinear wake model. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are excellent over a broad range of reduced frequencies and Strouhal numbers, indicating that the formation and evolution of the thrust-indicative wake structures are primarily inviscid phenomena. Results at Strouhal numbers greater than about 1.0 (based on plunge amplitude) demonstrate nonsymmetric, de ected wake patterns, where both an average thrust and an average lift are produced. These highly nonlinear wake formations are generated reproducibly, both experimentally and numerically.

Optimization Approach on Flapping Aerodynamic Characteristics of ...

The Knoller-Betz effect seems the first theory to explain the flow mechanism on generation of lift/thrust force due to plunge ...

Numerical Analysis of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics
by MA Ashraf

Knoller-Betz effect in 1922. He placed a stationary airfoil into a sinusoidally oscillating wind stream and measured an average thrust force. ...

Frequency and Amplitude Effects in the Wake of a Plunging Airfoil

by J Young

Computational Investigation of the Knoller-Betz Effect, AIAA J. 36(7), 1998, 1240-1246. [13] Lai, J.C.S. & Platzer, M.F. The Jet Characteristics of a ...