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Sci-Tech News & Olds, &c.
[ Updated 29 March ][ Archives ]
& The Ads They be a-Clique'n' :
Covid19 Updates:https://flutrackers.com/forum/ 2019-nCov (new coronavirus)
https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6 2019-nCoV Global Cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9W4zyQ_dqxI nCV Updates // Dr. John Campbell
Coronavirus: The High Cost Of Being Wronghttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ESBl3GTbTo&feature=youtu.be
Chris Martensen/Peak Prosperity
Celeste Solum - "COVID-19: Disruption By Design - The One World Government Cometh"
An Alarmist Take on the CoronaVirus - SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19
Coronavirus: The Solution Is Becoming Clear
Chris Martensen / Peak Prosperity
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Feb; 77(3): 794–802.
Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper SurfacesAbstract
Christophe Espírito Santo, et al.
Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene.
For many organisms, the trace element copper is an essential nutrient. It serves as a cofactor in respiration, and thus copper is required for aerobic metabolism. However, when copper is in excess, it is also highly toxic (29). This is because accumulation of copper ions or intracellular release of free copper ions from proteins causes cell damage. Copper readily catalyzes reactions that result in the production of hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions (13, 14). The highly reactive oxygen intermediates cause lipid peroxidation and oxidation of proteins (14, 16, 33). Free copper ions are able to oxidize sulfhydryl groups, such as cysteine, in proteins or the cellular redox buffer glutathione (15, 34). Specifically, copper ions inactivate proteins by damaging Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic hydratases. In Escherichia coli, these are dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (IlvD) in the branched-chain amino acid synthesis pathway, isopropylmalate dehydratase (LeuC) in the leucine-specific branch, fumarase A (FumA) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase in the pentose phosphate pathway (Edd). All were recently found to be damaged by copper ions (17). Thus, these proteins constitute specific targets for copper-induced toxicity. In Bacillus subtilis, copper ion toxicity was shown to interfere with the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters and increased production of cluster scaffold and target proteins (5). In vitro exposure of DNA to copper ions causes mutations (36). It has also been thought that in vivo copper ion toxicity in bacteria is mediated by oxidative DNA damage, but this view was challenged because the growth rate of E. coli was found to be more strongly suppressed by copper ions under anaerobic conditions than when oxygen was present (28). Copper ions even decreased oxidative DNA damage when E. coli cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (18).
In recent years, it has become evident that copper surfaces with which pathogenic agents may come in contact, i.e., metallic copper touch surfaces, may help diminish surface-related hygiene problems. Dry copper surfaces in laboratory settings and in hospital trials proved to have great killing efficiency against a wide range of microbes (4, 9, 26). In most laboratory studies, cells suspended in buffer were applied to copper surfaces and incubated under ambient conditions. Usually, these cells were killed within hours (8, 25). We recently established a method that mimics contact of microbes with dry copper touch surfaces. Under these conditions, most microbes are killed within minutes (9, 10). Copper ions are released from metallic copper upon contact with bacteria (10) or with buffer alone (25). However, direct copper ion-mediated toxicity, targeting metabolic enzymes such as hydratases involved in amino acid biosynthesis (17), is unlikely to be the reason for contact killing because of the fast killing kinetics. Furthermore, extracellular supplementation with substances known to protect against oxidative stress, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, or the hydroxyl radical quencher mannitol, delayed the killing of E. coli cells on dry copper surfaces (10). Thus, while we have some insight into the molecular mode of action exerted by copper ions on bacteria, the specific modes of stress exerted by metallic copper surfaces and the identity of sensitive cellular targets have not yet been elucidated. Such knowledge is needed to better understand why surfaces made from copper alloys exhibited efficient antimicrobial properties in recent successfully completed hospital trials (4, 19, 23).
In this study, we investigated the mode of action of dry metallic copper surfaces against E. coli and other bacterial model organisms. Our results demonstrate that exposed cells accumulated copper ions and exhibited membrane and cell envelope damage. It is likely that membrane proteins or the membrane lipids constitute the major targets of copper surface toxicity, but contact killing did not involve lethal damage to the cellular DNA through mutations and lesions...
In conclusion, this study proposes cell envelope damage as the mode of action of contact killing mediated by dry metallic copper surfaces. The toxicity exerted does not target the genomic DNA in Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms tested, even though cells are overloaded with copper ions. Further research will be directed at identifying the molecular targets through which membranes are damaged upon contact with metallic copper. It will be interesting to test whether specific membrane proteins or the lipids themselves constitute the weakest link in cells exposed to this lethal challenge.
Copper Medicine: http://www.rexresearch.com/cumed/cuaspirinate.htm
Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles Attach to HIV-1 virus
By Syeda Z. Hamdani
In the first-ever study of metal nanoparticles' interaction with HIV-1, silver nanoparticles of sizes 1-10nm attached to HIV-1 and prevented the virus from bonding to host cells. The study, published in the Journal of Nanotechnology, was a joint project between the University of Texas, Austin and Mexico Univeristy, Nuevo Leon.
"Our article opens an important avenue for research," said Miguel Jose Yacaman, from University of Texas, Department of Engineering and one of the study's authors.
In this study, scientists mixed silver nanoparticles with three different capping agents: foamy carbon, poly (PVP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)."Not using a capping agent could result in the synthesis of big crystals instead of nanocrystals," explained Yacaman.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the silver nanoparticles in the foamy carbon matrix were joined together, but an ultrasonic bath in deionized water released a significant number of nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were of size 16.19 (+-8.69)nm and had the greatest variety of shapes, such as icosahedral, decahedral, and elongated.
"Because of the synthesis procedure, the foamy carbon-coated naoparticles are more likely to have broad shape distribution," said Yacaman. Scientists used the electron beam to release the remainder of the nanoparticles from the joined bundle.
For the PVP-coated silver nanoparticles, scientists used glycerine as a dissolving agent. These particles were of size 6.53 (+-2.41). In the third preparation, scientists used serum albumin, the most common protein in blood plasma. The sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen chemicals in BSA stabilized the nanoparticles, which were in the range of 3.12 (+-2.00) nm.
Scientists studied the absorption spectra of the different preparations to pinpoint their shapes. "Spherical nanoparticles absorbed in the blue region of the spectrum, for example," Yacaman said.
Also, the UV-Visible spectra graphs helped the group determine nanoparticle sizes. "The surface plasmon resonance peak wavelength increased with size," explained Yacaman.
Scientists tested, in vitro, each of three silver nanoparticle-preparations in HIV-1 cells. Yacaman and his colleagues incubated the samples at 37 C. After three hours and 24 hours, respectively, 0% of the cells were living.
The results showed that a silver nanoparticle concentration greater than 25 ug/mL worked more effectively at inhibiting HIV-1 cells. Plus, the foamy carbon was a slightly-better capping agent because of its free surface area. Size also played a role since none of the attached nanoparticles were greater than 10nm.
Scientists think the nanoparticles bonded through the gp120 glycoprotein knobs on HIV-1, using the sulfur residues on the knobs. The spacing between the knobs of ~22nm matched the center-to-center nanoparticle spacing.
Although this study shows silver nanoparticles may treat HIV-1, scientists need to research this relationship further. "We lack information regarding the long-term effects of metal nanoparticles," cautioned Yacaman. Scientists are forming a preventive cream for HIV-1, which they will test on humans.
Scientists are also studying other uses for silver nanoparticles. "We're testing against other viruses and the 'super bug (Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus).' Our preliminary results indicate that silver nanoparticles can effectively attack other micro-organisms," Yacaman said.
March 25th, 2020
Coronavirus: To zinc or not to zinc?
Zinc is no COVID-19 magic bullet, but it has shown to help with other coronaviruses.
By Todd Neff
Calling the specific virus that is causing COVID-19 “coronavirus” is a bit like calling the Ford Explorer “the SUV.” Both statements are true, but with both, one is part of the other. There are lots of different SUVs; there are lots of different coronaviruses.
Zinc is something that will not hurt you, and there may be some benefit when it comes to COVID-19, like with other coronaviruses. Photo: Getty Images.
Many common colds are caused by coronaviruses. Various scientific studies (we’ll get to those in a moment) have shown zinc lozenges to be effective in shortening the misery phase of common colds. So in the face of a coronavirus pandemic, here’s a big question many are asking: can zinc shorten the duration of – or even diminish the symptom load and thereby lessen the impact – of COVID-19?
The answer is we don’t know yet. But to twist the analogy: if changing the oil helps a Jeep Grand Cherokee avoid the shop, it’s a good bet that doing the same will benefit the Ford Explorer, too.
Dr. Ian Tullberg bears no responsibility for the above comparison. But as far as helping patients get over colds, “there’s good evidence that oral zinc works well,” the medical director of UCHealth Medical Group Urgent Care said.
With respect to the specific coronavirus that is causing the pandemic now, “the problem is that this is still so early that we don’t have the knowledge if it works or not,” Tullberg said. “However, zinc is something that will not hurt you, and there may be some benefit.”
Those who swear by zinc as a cold remedy know to take it when they first start to feel a scratchy throat. They try to hit it early – right when the cold’s coming on. Research spanning decades has shown that using zinc lozenges through the course of the cold does make a difference.
The data around Zinc and coronaviruses
A study published in 1996 shuffled 100 Cleveland Clinic employees who self-reported catching colds into two groups. Fifty took lozenges containing 13.3 milligrams of zinc gluconate – the dosage of today’s Cold-Eeze and other over-the-counter lozenges – every two hours as long as they had cold symptoms. Fifty others took placebo lozenges. The study was double-blind, so neither patients nor researchers knew which patients had the placebo. The findings: the zinc group cleared symptoms more than three days earlier – 4.4 days versus 7.6 days of the placebo group, and, until that point, suffered fewer days with cough, headache, hoarseness, nasal congestion, and sore throat (fever, muscle aches, scratchy throat and sneezing remained similar during the cold’s duration). Zinc has side effects – “bad-taste reactions” (understandable) and, among 20 percent of those taking zinc, nausea.
That study wasn’t, it turned out, a fluke. A Cochrane review updated in 2013 summarized 18 randomized controlled trials involving 1,781 participants across all age groups found that zinc – particularly in lozenge or syrup form – “inhibits replication of the virus” that cause the common cold and shortens average duration of the common cold when taken within 24 hours of onset of symptoms at a dose of more than 75 milligrams a day.
A 2010 study led by University of Leiden Medical researchers in the Netherlands sought to understand how zinc inhibited that replication. The team reported that zinc inhibits a cousin of SARS-CoV-2: SARS-CoV, the original SARS of the 2003 outbreak. Click through for details, which get into the biochemical nitty-gritty, but the gist is that zinc throws a wrench in the virus’s RNA-synthesis machine.
Now, there are caveats with zinc. First, like everything else, there can be too much of a good thing – more than 150 milligrams a day for adult. That’s about 11 lozenges; the recommended zinc-lozenge maximum for adults being six and just four for children ages 12-17 (research has shown younger children to not benefit from taking zinc). Second, zinc nasal sprays shouldn’t be used, Tullberg says. In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warned against such products because people who used them lost their sense of smell.
What does that background say about the effectiveness of zinc and the SARS-CoV-2 now known as coronavirus? It is, at best, effectiveness by association. But an email that recently went viral as a blog post indicates that Tullberg is in good company with his openness to zinc lozenges as a way to at least try and mitigate COVID-19 flu symptoms.
A virologist’s take on Zinc and COVID-19
The email was one that James A. Robb sent to friends and family. He is University of Colorado School of Medicine MD, a pathologist, and molecular virologist who, while at the University of California, San Diego in the 1970s, did pioneering work in understanding coronaviruses. He wrote:
Stock up now with zinc lozenges. These lozenges have been proven to be effective in blocking coronavirus (and most other viruses) from multiplying in your throat and nasopharynx. Use as directed several times each day when you begin to feel ANY “cold-like” symptoms beginning. It is best to lie down and let the lozenge dissolve in the back of your throat and nasopharynx. Cold-Eeze lozenges is one brand available, but there are other brands available.
Snopes.com, a website dedicated to debunking (or confirming) internet myths, investigated after his words were twisted by others and reposted with exaggerated claims such as zinc being a “silver bullet” against coronavirus. In an email to Snopes, Robb confirmed that he’d written the above and added, “In my experience as a virologist and pathologist, zinc will inhibit the replication of many viruses, including coronaviruses. I expect COVID-19 will be inhibited similarly, but I have no direct experimental support for this claim. I must add, however, that using zinc lozenges as directed by the manufacturer is no guarantee against being infected by the virus, even if it inhibits the viral replication in the nasopharynx.”
In short, if coronavirus is like an SUV, zinc lozenges may well be something like an oil change, though we’ll need many more miles to really know for sure.
Wild Oregano Oil & Black Seed Oil: Powerful Aids for Reducing Inflammation in the Lungs
by Dr. Cass Ingram, D.O.
What an impressive finding it is and highly newsworthy. It is mentioned throughout the news the issue of “cytokine storm” and the danger this poses to people. Yet, incredibly, a mere wild plant and its essential oil are medicinal beyond all drugs, in fact, a litany of them. Wild oregano is a powerhouse for reducing inflammation in the tissues. In a number of studies it has been found to inhibit the source of this condition primarily through its actions on inflammatory markers. Actually, the mechanism is truly profound, because wild oregano acts on the genes that lead to the synthesis of these markers. Repeatedly, it has been shown, oregano oil and its active components, including carvacrol and thymol, have demonstrated great powers against inflammation. In fact, in some studies oregano oil active ingredients were able to drop COX-2 inflammation levels by up to 80%.
Today, there is much concern about the inflammation that results from overwork of the immune system or might it be said, overreactions. In a study on T lymphocytes done via cell culture it was found that the wild oregano oil active ingredients exhibited a specific molecular action even more potent than drugs. Carvacrol and thymol both significantly reduced tissue levels of interleukin-2. In fact, the reduction was massive, two-thirds in the case of carvacrol. This makes it more significant in this regard than any drug. For gamma interferon, the reduction was nearly 30%. This proved that the oregano oil component modified the activity, that is more towards normal, during a crisis event. Correlating this to humans aggressive dosing would likely reduce this further.
In the lungs oregano oil has been found to curb reactive oxygen species or free radicals. This has led to in asthmatic patients a reduction in cytokine overload. Here, it largely shuts off the gene responsible for the immunological storm reaction. Whether in the lungs or the skin—or the rest of the organs—cytokines are no match for the powers of wild oregano.
In another investigation the oil was found to decrease inflammation in skin tissue, once again an action thought to be due to modulating immune function. Specifically, the oil was found to markedly act with actions to block excessive cell growth, known as anti proliferative activity, while also greatly inhibited markers of inflammation. These markers included various cytokines and also gamma interferon. In fact, through the powers of this oil nearly all elements associated with toxic inflammation are greatly reduced, including various collagen-associated molecules, cancer-inducing growth factors, and enzymes—the ones that can do us harm. “Strongly inhibited” were among the comments made by investigators. As well, it was found to decisively block those specialized genes directly associated with inflammation. This caused them to conclude that oregano oil is a “promising candidate for use” against inflammation and cancerous changes in skin tissues.
Also, to reiterate, according to Iranian investigators oregano compounds were found to reduce all the serious immune modulators. This was through a direct action on the genes. This led to a reduction in the excessive activity of T cells. The various inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced, including the highly noxious tumor necrosis factor alpha. This led the researchers to stated that oregano oil would be useful to combat diseases associated with over-activity of immunity.
Wild oregano is far from specific to the skin. It helps reduce inflammation all throughout the body, including within all internal organs. Nothing is an exception to its powers. Consider an investigation in artificially induced colitis in animals. Treatment of the colitis condition with oregano oil decreased levels of all pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha. A moderate dosage of oregano oil, only 1 per 1000, was sufficient to reduce all the key interleukin-based inflammation-promoters. The result was decreased mortality rate, combined with a better weight gain and reduced visible damage to colonic tissue. By influencing the genes, that is the production of the messenger form of RNA, it was concluded, oregano reverses the colitis pathology, a most significant finding.
In every conceivable animal model oregano proves itself invaluable. For instance, as shown by Chinese investigators oregano-treated pigs had Escherichia coli in the jejunum, ileum, and colon than the control. This was thought to be the result of the greater inactivation of inflammation, once again by curbing inflammatory reactions through a genetic influence. Essentially, the oregano shuts off the potentially dangerous gene, greatly reducing, even eliminating, toxic markers in the intestines. Microscopic analysis proves that the intestinal membranes of oregano-treated pigs were far different from those in controls, far healthier, even healthier than normal. The fact is with the oregano therapy all the inflammatory cytokines, the ones capable of causing severe illness, where fully depressed.
Black seed oil also offers this action. In a study in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal it was found to greatly alleviate airway restrictions and inflammation of the airways in bronchial asthma, once again through cytokine modulation. In yet another investigation it acted dramatically against the toxicity of artificially induced airway damage, largely by halting the immune system-provoked cytokine storm. This was to such a degree that black seed was held as a “useful” herbal medicine against inflammation and allergy-related lung conditions, including shortness of breath and asthma. Fennel and cumin were also found to have this action, both of which are found in specialized black seed oil capsules. Clearly, the spices have a most potent action against inflammatory changes in lung tissues.
Thus, when cytokine storm is described and discussed, there is no need for fear. It is just an excessive reaction by a typically compromised immune system. To halt this, even prevent it, wild oregano is the answer. This should be consumed as the wild, whole food, Mediterranean-source oil, the crude herb, ideally with Rhus coriaria, and the juice-essence or hydrosol. All are readily available and make the ideal supplements for daily use and prevention and also for intake to support a healthy, balanced immune response. There is no harm taking such whole food supplements with other formulas or even drugs. Wild oregano is the number one medicine for human health. Take it to your major benefit, and your delight and joy. After all, in Greek “ora-ganos” means “delight of the mountains.”
https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2010.13128Suppressive effects of black seed oil on ovalbumin induced acute lung remodelling in E3 rats
Swiss Med Wkly. 2010;140:w13128
MB Raza Asim, et al.
Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016 Jan-Feb; 6(1): 34–43.
Effects of Nigella sativa oil extract on inflammatory cytokine response and oxidative stress status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Vahid Hadi, et al.
Dr Thomas Cowan's Coronavirus Virus Hypothesis
Dr. Thomas Cowan, M.D. hypothesizes that Coronavirus may be history repeating itself and caused by 5G.
November 10, 2015
Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses
Copper can effectively help to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, which are linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), new research shows. Animal coronaviruses that 'host jump' to humans, such as SARS and MERS, result in severe infections with high mortality. Researchers found that a closely-related human coronavirus - 229E - can remain infectious on common surface materials for several days, but is rapidly destroyed on copper...
09/11/2015 Southampton, University of
Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses
New research from the University of Southampton has found that copper can effectively help to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, which are linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).
Animal coronaviruses that 'host jump' to humans, such as SARS and MERS, result in severe infections with high mortality. The Southampton researchers found that a closely-related human coronavirus - 229E - can remain infectious on common surface materials for several days, but is rapidly destroyed on copper.
A newly-published paper in mBio - a journal of the American Society for Microbiology - reports that human coronavirus 229E, which produces a range of respiratory symptoms from the common cold to more lethal outcomes such as pneumonia, can survive on surface materials including ceramic tiles, glass, rubber and stainless steel for at least five days. While human-to-human transmission is important, infections can be contracted by touching surfaces contaminated by respiratory droplets from infected individuals, or hand touching, leading to a wider and more rapid spread
On copper, and a range of copper alloys - collectively termed 'antimicrobial copper' - the coronavirus was rapidly inactivated (within a few minutes, for simulated fingertip contamination). Exposure to copper destroyed the virus completely and irreversibly, leading the researchers to conclude that antimicrobial copper surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce the spread of respiratory viruses and protect public health.
Lead researcher Dr Sarah Warnes said: "Transmission of infectious diseases via contaminated surfaces is far more important than was originally thought, and this includes viruses that cause respiratory infections. This is especially important when the infectious dose is low and just a few virus particles can initiate an infection.
"Human coronavirus, which also has ancestral links with bat-like viruses responsible for SARS and MERS, was found to be permanently and rapidly deactivated upon contact with copper. What's more, the viral genome and structure of the viral particles were destroyed, so nothing remained that could pass on an infection. With the lack of antiviral treatments, copper offers a measure that can help reduce the risk of these infections spreading."
Speaking on the importance of the study, Professor Bill Keevil, co-author and Chair in Environmental Healthcare at the University of Southampton, said: "Respiratory viruses are responsible for more deaths, globally, than any other infectious agent. The evolution of new respiratory viruses, and the re-emergence of historic virulent strains, poses a significant threat to human health.
"The rapid inactivation and irreversible destruction of the virus observed on copper and copper alloy surfaces suggests that the incorporation of copper alloy surfaces - in conjunction with effective cleaning regimes and good clinical practice - could help control transmission of these viruses."
Previous research by Professor Keevil and Dr Warnes has proved copper's efficacy against norovirus, influenza and hospital superbugs, such as MRSA and Klebsiella, plus stopping the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria to create new superbugs.
FYI: some relevant information -- Zhejiang hospital launches ‘Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment"
Colchicine( Autumn Crocus ) vs. Covid19:
Researchers study dirt cheap (to make) gout drug as CV19 treatment
Canadian researchers launched a study Monday into the use of a powerful anti-inflammatory drug to reduce the risks of pulmonary complications and death related to the new coronavirus.
Several COVID-19 patients have had severe complications from a surge of activated immune cells in the lungs — known as a “cytokine storm.”
In a cytokine storm, the immune system overreacts and damages lung tissue, leading to acute respiratory distress and multi-organ failure.
A team led by Jean-Claude Tardif, director of the Montreal Heart Institute research center and professor of medicine at the University of Montreal, are hoping the drug colchicine will work to moderate the overproduction of immune cells and their activating compounds — called cytokines — in COVID-19 patients.If it proves to be successful, the drug — which is already used to treat gout and pericarditis (inflammation of the heart membrane), and is readily available and inexpensive — could become a key tool in the pandemic fight.
At a news conference, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced Can$192 million (US$132 million) in funding for vaccine development and production in Canada, as well as several partnerships with firms to accelerate clinical trials and the eventual production of a vaccine and treatments.
“Once there are promising options, Canada needs the capacity to mass produce treatments as quickly as possible,” he said.
Those named by the prime minister included Vancouver’s AbCellera, Medicago in Quebec City, and Toronto-based startup BlueDot, which used artificial intelligence to flag the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan nine days before the World Health Organization, as well as the University of Saskatchewan and the National Research Council.
Tardif told public broadcaster Radio-Canada that he hopes to know if colchicine is effective in coronavirus patients within three months.
He said he became interested in its possible application as a COVID-19 fighter when it became clear that most children were resistant to the illness.
Children typically have reduced inflammatory responses to colds and flus, compared to adults.
In laboratory tests, animals whose inflammatory responses were blocked also lived longer after being exposed to influenza.
The hypothesis was worked on by 125 people and Health Canada approved the Quebec government-funded study within 24 hours.
According to a heart institute statement, the researchers are looking to recruit 6,000 Canadians with the coronavirus, for a clinical trial.
But there were only 1,430 cases of COVID-19 confirmed in Canada as of 2200 GMT Sunday, including 20 deaths. More than 100,000 Canadians have been tested, so far.
Trudeau also said the government was accelerating lab tests for the virus, and has asked research schools across the country for any spare masks and ventilators, while also looking at the possibility of 3D printing medical supplies.
Extraction of Colchicine : Grind 100 grams of colchicum seeds to powder; percolate with 2 volumes of ethanol and 1 volume of water. The solution contains approximately 4 milligrams of colchicine. Label the bottle and store it safely. Colchicine is toxic. Always wear rubber gloves when handling colchicine.
Breaking/Vital: Two ED Nurses from Southfield, Michigan Describe Yesterday, Helplessly Watching Patients Die (videos/warning)
24 March 2020
New York Doctor Shares Meds Dosage Info He claims Succeeded in Treating COVID-19
A doctor in New York is claiming he personally treated three-hundred-fifty people infected with coronavirus, and they all survived. The Doctor says he used:
200mg 2x daily Hydroxy Chloroquine
500mg 1x daily Azithromycin
220mg 1x daily Zinc sulfate
• Breathing restored 3-4 hours
• Zero deaths
• Zero hospitalizations
• Zero intubations
I cannot verify these claims. I publish this FWIW.
Specialists’ Initiative Saves Lives of All Coronavirus Patients in South-West Iran
“The innovative method of specialists at Taleqani hospital of Abadan on 30 coronavirus patients reduced to zero the death rate of patients in acute health conditions,” Deputy Head of Abadan University of Medical Sciences for Training and Research Sara Mobarak told FNA on Thursday.
She said that the new drug-based method was first tested on 5 patients hospitalized at an ICU ward which helped them recover and be moved to the general section, adding that in the second phase, the medicine was applied to 10 coronavirus patients in the ICU ward with low levels of consciousness.
The drugs showed desirable effects on the second group of the patients too and the level of their consciousness increased, Mobarak said.
She added that the drug combination has not been used in China or any other country before, noting that an essay about the results of the innovative application of the medicine on coronavirus patients in Iran will be released in scientific journals.
Also, last week, officials informed that Iranian researchers had discovered a medicinal compound which could treat the damage inflicted on lungs due to coronavirus infection.
“The new medicinal compound is not special to the coronavirus patients, but it treats respiratory and pulmonary diseases,” Chairman of the Biotechnology Development Council of Iran Mostafa Qaneyee said in a press conference.
He added that the new medicinal compound can decrease the time a coronavirus patient needs to stay at hospital to 4 days, noting that 40% of Iranian patients who received the combination of three drugs have been discharged from hospital in less than 4 days.
“In this treatment method, in addition to the protocols of the health ministry, the three drugs of Azithromycin, Prednisolone and Naproxen have been used as a compound,” Qaneyee said...
[ Excerpts from "Nostradamus & Plague" by R. Nelson ]
Nostradamus & PlagueC.1-16
The scythe joined with the pond toward Sagittarius
At the high point of its ascendant,
Plague, famine, death by military hand,
The century approaches its renewal.
According to Line 4, this quatrain apparently pertains to the close of the 20th century, but that be a general benchmark. Line 1 is an astrological indicator : the "scythe" refers to Saturn, the "pond" to Aquarius. Saturn will enter Aquarius in March 2020.
Near the gates and within two cities
There will be two scourges the like of which was never seen
Famine within plague, people put out by steel,
Crying to the great immortal God for relief.
This quatrain is vague and undated, but self-explanatory and pertains.
Pau, Verona. Vicenza, Saragossa,
From distant swords lands wet with blood:
Very great plague will come with the great shell,
Relief near, and the remedies very far.
France and Italy will be bloodied by "distant swords" -- e.g., Muslim scimitars, -- and struck with biological weapons delivered by airplane ( "the great shell" ). Apparently the Europeans eventually will be victorious against the jihadii, but medical aid will not be available in the meanwhile.
The fertile, spacious Ausonian plain
Will produce so many gadflies and locusts,
The solar brightness will become clouded,
All devoured, great plague to come from them.
Ausonia refers to Naples, Italy.
In the Cyclades, in Perinthus and Larissa,
In Sparta and the entire Peloponnesus:
Very great famine, plague through false dust,
Nine months it will last and throughout the entire peninsula.
Alternative translations of the false "dust" in line 3 : "ashes", or "exertions". "False exertions" suggests "false flag", that the plague is caused by biological warfare, and government efforts to contain it are fraudulent; the actual intent is to reduce the human population and impose totalitarian control.
Very great famine through pestiferous wave,
Through long rain the length of the arctic pole:
"Samarobryn" one hundred leagues from the hemisphere,
They will live without law exempt from politics.
This is one of the most famous of Nostradamus' quatrains; it appears to suggest that a colony will be established in high orbit above Earth and live safely while plague and famine desolate the planet -- Elon Musk, & Co.
Paterno will hear a cry from Sicily,
In the Gulf of Trieste all the preparations,
Which will be heard as far as Sicily,
From so many sails fled, the horrible plague fled.
Italians will take to sea en masse to escape the plague.
Chloroquine vs ChiComm Virus ( CCV )https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32150618
News is breaking all over the world that chloroquine, a prescription medication used to treat malaria, also appears to be effective against the coronavirus.
...Here’s a promising candidate herb that prevents malaria and tuberculosis
In the world of natural medicine, there are already powerful, well-known treatments against malaria that also happen to prevent tuberculosis, an aggressive infection of the respiratory tract. While nothing is yet proven to treat coronavirus, our review of herbal medicine studies and medicinal phytochemicals leads us to the conclusion that this Chinese Medicine herb may one day become known as the “natural cure” for coronavirus (although clinical trials are needed, obviously, to prove this).
The chemical is called artemesinin, and the herb is known as sweet wormwood. And no, we don’t sell it. This isn’t a commercial promotion, it’s an effort to help save millions of lives using medicine that’s available right now, all around the world.
Artemesinin is known for its ability to block the bacterial strain that causes tuberculosis, known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. That doesn’t mean it prevents coronavirus, which is a viral infection, but it’s a strong candidate for a number of logical reasons.
According to research published in the journal Phytomedicine, artemisinin / sweet wormwood has a “100% cure rate” for treating drug-resistant malaria, at least in a small trial involving 18 patients (all of whom were cured). As Herbs.news writes in this important story:
A study led by Pamela Weathers, a professor of biology and biotechnology at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), published in the journal Phytomedicine, describes how the Artemisia annua plant, commonly known as sweet wormwood or sweet annie, saved 18 patients with drug-resistant malaria from the brink of death.
The Congolese patients, who ranged in age from 14 months to 60 years, had all developed severe, untreatable malaria, with symptoms ranging from loss of consciousness, to trouble breathing and convulsions, among others. When they failed to respond to intravenous treatment with an ACT, compassionate doctors decided to try the dried leaves of the Artemisia annua plant as a last resort. After only five days of the treatment, all 18 patients were fully recovered, including one child who had been in a coma. Blood tests revealed that absolutely no parasites remained in their blood...
CN109125609A -- Traditional Chinese medicinal composition for treating malaria of pet dogs and preparation method
Chloroquine nanoparticles : CN109288816A Chloroquine gel and preparation method and application thereof
CoVid 19 Frequency Solutions Found, Not a Typical Virus w/ Sharry Edwards & James Marshall
These frequencies are being provided free of charge but the information herein remains the intellectual property of Sharry Edwards; Credit should be given. No claims can be made as to the efficacy of these frequency sets
Frequency list here:
Russia Blames Porton Down, DARPA-Pirbright, CQ vs India's Golden Cow Urine - Part 13 COVID[ Excerpt re: Chloroquine ]
By Yoichi Shimatsu
A "cure" worse than the diseaseChloroquine (Aralen), the "COV cure" touted by health authorities in China and being hyped in Europe and the USA as a proven remedy for patients, at least those who haven't been killed by it. Derived from the coal that Greta Thunberg wants to banish, CQ is a molecule from the same group as anti-malaria quinine.
This panacea has known side-effects including blinding patients with retina damage, harming heart muscle tissue, scarring of the kidneys and wrecking the stomach and intestines, the latter being the source of uncontrolled bloody diarrhea, triggering the toilet paper rush. CQ earlier had a major role in the high death rate of malaria patients worldwide.
The urban myth of younger people having far fewer deaths than the elderly is due to a difference in the condition of internal organs, which tend to be more worn and damaged in older individuals. CQ pushed many an oldster patient into the incinerator, meaning those victims were not cured but instead "put down" by CQ. This may be fine in the eyes of youth revolutionaries with the Extinction Rebellion who revile anyone older than 29, so let's rename the killer drug as the Greta Pill and their movement as the Human Extermination Revolt. Her loyal Gen Z followers now call COV the "boomer doomer" virus. So celebrate, air-heads, before trying to figure who's going to pay for your shopping sprees.
The bad news for the children's crusade is that the Greta Pill carries long-term risks of arthritis, lupus and Sarcodoisis, which is an autoimmune inflammation of the lungs, internal organs, eyes and, gosh for you pretty Instagram influencers, skin discoloration. That, in brief, is what the doctors aren't telling you everything about the CQ cure-all, which will soon come to seek you.
The last and rather grotesque drawback of chloroquine is rendering the internal organs and blood of deceased COV patients unfit for withdrawing serum and harvesting their organs for sale. That is a terrible waste indeed in terms of market economics for doctors, hospitals, crematoriums, transporters and others involved in the human-parts recycling industry. As a consequence, China being the model of exploitative hyper-capitalism, is a black market paradise for recovered patients' blood serum...
Ayurveda gold standard against COV
The only genuine answer is inside a natural liquid of ancient vintage. The potential defense against life-threatening COV comes from Ayurveda therapy, well, broadly defined, being dispensed in gallons by humped Desi cows in India. Bovine urine is being splashed on by Hindus as an effective shield against viral infection. Does that seem disgusting and ridiculous? Well, at least nobody gets killed for their blood serum, and COV infections have been rare across the densely populated country.
One of the readers of rense.com on the Subcontinent urged me to look over Captain Ajit Vadakayil's blog on cow urine's active ingredient, which is nano gold colloids. At first impression I assumed it was some sort of superstitious nonsense and that I should not be taken in by a scam from the Rashneeshees or the Beatles' Maharishi Mahesh yogi. Then on second thought, based on sojourns in Thailand for herbal-based therapy for radioactive exposure during Fukushima research, I remembered that Ayurvedic herbs including lemongrass-citronella, kaffir lime and turmeric enabled my return to health from the doorstep of death, as compared with the total impotence of modern pharmacology against radioactivity. The gut reaction to overcome, however, is that the gold nano-particles are inside cow urine...
These are super-bovines with tens of thousands of years of coexistence with nomadic tribes and later agrarian villages. Despite befouled water, their resistance to disease is astounding, indicative of a powerful immune system that protects the wholesome purity of their milk, usually consumed as yogurt or ghee butter. This is why mother cows are considered sacred by Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Parsi (Zoroastrians). Cows transfer antibodies and other biological defenses to their calves suckling milk, as opposed to the soy water fed to young cattle in the West by dairymen extracting every last penny to pay the grain companies and equipment suppliers, while still slipping into debt.
These cows drink from natural sources like "dirty" rivers, lakes and wells in a barren countryside that is eroded down to lots of rocky outcrops, from whence the gold nano-particles are derived. With that memory in mind, I decided to consult a microbiologist adviser with a ridiculous question about the efficacy of nano gold. The supportive response was that he had done lab studies on gold nanoparticle therapy some 20 years ago, and yes it does live up to the claims. Gobsmacked was I by that revelation of gold being a virus-destroyer with Shiva power on a nano-dimension.
Although invisible to the naked eye, nano gold seen through a powerful electron microscope is not yellow or white but instead red or violet, due to its bonding as a salt with chlorine or silicon. AuCl is one of many salts of gold (like NaCL or sodium chloride). My adviser's research studies has shown that nano-colloidal gold salts can control gene expression in RNA and facilitate cancer drug delivery. Its bonding and electrical properties at the nano level defy our conventional assumption that gold is pure and resistant to chemical reactions, being symbolic of marital fidelity in the exchange of golden rings.
At the micro-scale of 10 nanometers up to 40 nm, ions of gold have strong bonding capability along with powerful electrical properties. Inside your bloodstream, charged ions of gold-salt can organize bits of proteins into structures called ligands, especially when augmented with a target-detecting monoclonal antibody. The ligand can attract and take control over message-conveying proteins called cytokines. The exchange of signals with the cytokines enables the gold ligands to hunt down specific pathogens. For example, in the battle against hepatitis, the ligand organizes teams of cytokines to rally antibodies against that infectious virus. Gold ligands, in brief, are the magic bullet against the m.tuberculosis and HIV strands in COVID-19, along with the vulnerable Spike proteins jutting out of its membrane.
Once the ligand reaches a cluster of viruses, the gold nano-particle captures the RNA strands of viruses, pinning these to its surface with polyvalent or multiple bonds. This counterattack is launched during the virus replication process when exposing its single-strand RNA or, alternatively, as a double-strand during transcription (producing a copy of itself).
The capture process is completed with "passivation" though addition of ethylene glycol and alkyl-thiol molecules, which "root" the viruses preventing their escape. For 2-dimensional visual representation purposes, the gold orb resembles an axle while the RNA strands stick out like spokes of a wheel.
Then what? That's where urine comes into play fortuitously, since the RNA-loaded nano particle is tiny enough to pass from the blood stream into the kidneys and out of the patient's body. Voila! No side effects or internal organ damage, a clean sweep. There are no apparent defensive mechanisms in the HIV-COV-mTB bioengineered virus capable of fleeing, repelling, resisting or combating the gold-salt particle. My microbiology adviser points out that the bio-engineered COVID-19 is clunky, more cumbersome and slower to replicate than SARS due to the spliced-in HIV and m.TB components...
Auto-Urine Therapy : http://www.rexresearch.com/urine/urine.html
Got NanoAu ?
Method of Producing Gold Nanoparticle ... US2004261574
Process for Preparing Gold Nano Particle...CN101015862
Nanometer Gold Water Solution Dispersing Method ... TW281876B
Method for Preparing Polypodia Shaped Au Nanoparticle using Microwave... CN1994634
Process for Nano Colloid Gold... CN1979166
Preparation Method of Two-Dimensional Plane Gold Nano Single Crystal Plate ... CN1924117
Aqueous Phase Synthesis Method for Preparing Nanometer Gold Grains ... CN1876290
Nanometer Gold Grain Microwave Synthesis Method ... CN1876292
Water-Phase Production of Length Controllable Dendritic Golden Nanometer Particle ... CN1817523
Method for Preparing Gold Colloidal Nanoparticles ... CN1806973
Method for Preparing Gold Nano Microgranule Powder ... CN1806972
Synthesis Process of Nanometer Mesoporous Gold Complex ... CN1772612
Gold Nanometer Particle Grain Size Control Method Based on Glutathione ... CN1736638
Preparation Method of Monodisperse Gold Nanometer Particle... CN1736637
Poisonless Low Cost Refining Method for Noble Metals ... CN1683573
Method for Preparing Nano Gold Solution ... CN1663714
Indirecting Light Chemical Preparation for Gold Nanometer Material ... CN1613589
Method and Apparatus for Preparing Nano-Silicon Particle by Anodic Oxidation Process ... CN1603471
Method for Preparing Novel Load Type Nanometer Gold Catalyzer ... CN1565727
Got NanoAg ?
METHOD FOR PRODUCING METAL NANOPARTICLES ... WO2008003522
MASS PRODUCTION METHOD OF NANO SILVER... WO2006135128
Colloidal Nanosilver Solution and Method for Making the Same ... TW250969B
STABILIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITION ... US2008000382
Silver Powder and Method of Preparing the Same ... TW272983B
Chemical Preparation Method of Ag Nanoparticle ... CN1994633
Method for Preparing Silver Nanoparticle with Multiple Colored Liquid Phase ... CN1994632
Method for Preparing Redispersible Ag Nanoparticle... CN1994631
Reactive, Monodispersed Surface Modified Silver Nanoparticle ... CN1966586
SILVER NANOPARTICLE AND PRODUCTION METHOD THEREFOR ... JP2007063580
PRODUCTION METHOD OF SILVER NANOPARTICLE, SILVER NANOPARTICLE AND APPLICATION THEREOF ... JP2006328472
METHODS OF CONTROLLING NANOPARTICLE GROWTH. ... MXPA05010661
Ag NANOPARTICLE, METHOD FOR PRODUCING THE SAME AND DISPERSED SOLUTION OF Ag NANOPARTICLE ... JP2006118010
SILVER NANOPARTICLE AND PRODUCTION METHOD THEREFOR ... JP2006045655
Methods of Controlling Nanoparticle Growth ... US2005188789
PLASMA SYNTHESIS OF METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLE ... JP2005132716
Silver Comprising Nanoparticles and Related Nanotechnology ... US2005008861
Synthesis Metal Nanoparticle ... US6929675
Nanoprisms and Method of Making Them ... US2003136223
METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SILVER NANOPARTICLE ... JP2003253311
Got TetraSilver TetrOxide ?
https://www.brighteon.com/59d85baa-9e7d-41f2-8ede-046a3af49066 Rife Frequencies for Coronavirus COVID-19
https://www.brighteon.com/f07c4e43-b24d-4983-80fe-04c8301bdf8b Anti Coronavirus-SARS Frequencies
Coronavirus Update: Dr Paul Cottrell: "Prepare NOW for 18 Months!"
Stefan Molyneux interviews Dr Paul Cottrell about the looming health, financial and economic effects of the #coronavirus pandemic.
... “End of Days: Predictions and Prophecies About the End of the World” written in 2008 by psychic Sylvia Browne prediction ( 12 years ago ):
"In around 2020 a severe pneumonia-like illness will spread throughout the globe, attacking the lungs and the bronchial tubes and resisting all known treatments.
"Almost more baffling that the illness itself will be the fact that it will suddenly vanish as quickly as it arrived, attack again ten years later, and then disappear completely"...
Remote Viewer Dick Allgire 'Saw' The Elite Going Underground ...While Mass Graves Were Being Dug On The Surface Above
Huge Scientific Discovery! Research Proves 5G Triggers Mass Psychiatric Disease
Clif High -- critical thinking - Feb 26/2020 - SARS2 - Bio-warfare manual - DECONTAMINATION
ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE CBRN DECONTAMINATION MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR DECONTAMINATION
Clif High re: Covid19 in ALTA Reports --
critical thinking - 2/15/2020 - #covid19 = Sun diseaseJuly 2014
ALTA Word Cloud Excerpts -- "sun disease"
[officialdom agents] [need][population control effort][sun disease][high intensity (solar) regions (such as both sides of the terrestrial equator)][affected] by [extreme energies from sun] [mental processes are disrupted] [humans] [animals] [episodes] [mainstream media] [animal die offs]['muckers' (humans running amok with bad behavior)] next [4/four years] [excessive solar discharge] in 2018 [reeling] [disoriented][disease] [oil/energy problems] [suddenly unstable electricity supplies]
'sun disease''odd behavior''seen''sun''disturbances''space satellites'[not]'interdicted by NASA''motivating officialdom''babbling''many collective mouths''conscripted academia''toady media''supporting the narratives''under attack''manifestations in nature''sun disease''twist NASA''loops''bad logic''reconcile''solar behavior''carefully constructed, media enforced, fantasy'
'sun disease''sun''humans''afflicted''mental disease''sun disease''standing, drooling''dumbstruck''jittery-ness''uptick in anxiety''frantic''frenetic''humans
on the edge''humans driven mad''solar disease''sun disease effects on humanity''activities''sun disease''feelings and emotions''megalomania''impacts''sun
disease''personally exhilarating''distraction''onrush to war'
Three Great Remote Viewers Blind Targeted With The Wuhan Coronavirus
Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, Feb 16, 2020
Early Large Dose Intravenous Vitamin C is the Treatment of Choice for 2019-nCov Pneumonia
Richard Z Cheng, et al.
Ozone Therapy : http://www.rexresearch.com/o/oindx.htm
South Korea says it’s successfully treating coronavirus patient with natural oxygen therapy
By Ethan Huff
Coronavirus Texts :
https://b-ok.cc/book/2144279/65e309Molecular Biology of the SARS-Coronavirus // Ilona Glowacka, et al.https://b-ok.cc/book/2800356/13397b
Coronaviruses // John Ziebuhr (Eds.)(2016)https://b-ok.cc/book/657751/1b2fec
SARS- and Other Coronaviruses: Laboratory Protocols // Leen Vijgen PhD, et al. (2008)https://b-ok.cc/book/810220/865ea2?dsource=recommend
Sars: Reception and Interpretation in Three Chinese Cities // Deborah Davis, Helen F. Siu (2006)https://b-ok.cc/book/898988/a49ac3?dsource=recommend
SARS, Governance and the Globalization of Disease // David P. Fidlerhttps://b-ok.cc/book/3405996/baefce?dsource=recommend
SARS, MERS and other Viral Lung Infections // David S. Hui, et al.https://b-ok.cc/book/2249863/f8e98f?dsource=recommendCoronaviruses and their Diseases // D. Cavanagh, Dhttps://b-ok.cc/book/2140166/8f98e6Coronaviruses: Molecular Biology and Virus-Host Interactions // Brian C. Horsburgh, et al.https://b-ok.cc/book/2491104/d7944e
Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols // Helena Jane Maier, et al. (2015)https://b-ok.cc/book/986094/3789e0Coronavirus Replication and Reverse Genetics (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology) // Luis Enjuanes (Editor)(2004)https://b-ok.cc/book/2144279/65e309?dsource=recommendMolecular Biology of the SARS-Coronavirus // Ilona Glowacka, et al. (2010)https://b-ok.cc/book/2206593/fe8a6cCoronaviruses with Special Emphasis on First Insights Concerning SARS // Dave Cavanagh (auth.), et al. (2005)https://b-ok.cc/book/2837477/253398?dsource=recommendAnimal Coronaviruses // Leyi Wang (eds.)
Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag
Prashant Pradhan, et al.
Illuminati Card Game Predicted the Corona Virus Outbreak in Wuhan China!
February 27, 2014
Deadly immune 'storm' caused by emergent flu infections
Mapping the innate signaling cascade essential for cytokine storm during influenza virus infection
John R. Teijaro, et al.
J.R. Nyquist interviewed by Mike Adams: Coronavirus, China, bioweapons and World War III
Cosmic Rays Up 12% in just 3 Years
by Cap Allon
Arsenic Notes for Alchemists, et al. :
Aust. J. Chem.
Studies on Orpiment (As2S3) Quantum Dots and their Self-AssembliesRelated Patents:
US2018371500A1 -- METHOD FOR PRODUCING ARSENIC SULPHIDE NANOSTRUCTURES FROM A MICROORGANISM AND PRODUCED NANOSTRUCTURES
CN101322719A -- Arsenic trioxide solid lipid nano granule, formulation and preparation thereof
CN1264501C -- Process for preparing white arsenic nano particles
US2014239249A1 -- RAPID BIOLOGICAL SYNTHESIS PROCESS TO PRODUCE SEMICONDUCTING CHALCOGENIDE NANOSTRUCTURES FOR TRANSISTOR OR SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS
US2009155876A1 -- Biological production method of photoconductive arsenic-sulfide (As-S) nanotube and strain used for the same
US2012164062A1 -- Biosynthesis of [ Arsenic ] Nanoparticles
Solovey's System Advanced
by Patrick Kelly
Further development and testing of Solovey's Tesla replication. Document: http://www.free-energy-info.com/Solovey2.pdf
Inquiring Minds Want To Know : Does ChiComm Virus Cause Globular Warming ?
NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) released their global analysis for February 2020. mAmong NOAA's findings:
Globally, this was the second warmest February in the 141-year record going back to 1880, with a temperature departure from the 20th Century average at 1.17°C (2.11°F). Only February 2016 was warmer.
The February 2020 temperature departure from average was also the third highest monthly temperature departure from average for any month in the 1,682-month record.
The 10 warmest Februarys have occurred since 1998.
The 3-month period December 2019–February 2020 (which is defined as "meteorological winter" in the Northern Hemisphere or "meteorological summer" in the Southern) was the second warmest such seasonal period on record.
A bombshell new scientific study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) finds that people who receive flu shots emit 630% more flu virus particles into the air, compared to non-vaccinated individuals...https://www.pnas.org/content/115/5/1081
Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community
Jing Yan, et a
Formation of a single massive galaxy through time in the TNG50 cosmic simulation
Royal Astronomical Society
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 11054 (2019An upper bound for the background rate of human extinctionAbstract
Andrew E. Snyder-Beattie, Toby Ord & Michael B. Bonsall
We evaluate the total probability of human extinction from naturally occurring processes. Such processes include risks that are well characterized such as asteroid impacts and supervolcanic eruptions, as well as risks that remain unknown. Using only the information that Homo sapiens has existed at least 200,000 years, we conclude that the probability that humanity goes extinct from natural causes in any given year is almost guaranteed to be less than one in 14,000, and likely to be less than one in 87,000. Using the longer track record of survival for our entire genus Homo produces even tighter bounds, with an annual probability of natural extinction likely below one in 870,000. These bounds are unlikely to be affected by possible survivorship bias in the data, and are consistent with mammalian extinction rates, typical hominin species lifespans, the frequency of well-characterized risks, and the frequency of mass extinctions. No similar guarantee can be made for risks that our ancestors did not face, such as anthropogenic climate change or nuclear/biological warfare.
Startup Claims It Could Power Your Car on Just Alcohol and Water
by Kristin Houser
October 23rd 2019
An 81-year-old man and his two sons claim they’ve developed a system in their garage that allows a diesel or gasoline engine to run on a mix of water and alcohol — no fossil fuel required.
If that sounds too good to be true, well, that’s because it probably is.
A new Jerusalem Post story highlights the company the trio formed, MayMaan Research, and after six years of under-the-radar development, father Yehuda Shmueli says the system he and his sons created is now ready for action.
“[W]e decided that this is the right time to expose ourselves and talk to people and let the world know that such a solution exists,” he told The Jerusalem Post.
MayMaan’s website claims the system takes an alt-fuel made of 70 percent water and 30 percent alcohol, such as ethanol, and converts it into “a powerful and clean-burning fuel within the engine’s combustion chamber.”
MayMaan’s team told The Jerusalem Post that existing engine designs can be converted to work with this fuel through “simple yet sophisticated modifications” and that their fuel can be pumped into a vehicle just like you would gasoline.
The fuel then supposedly powers a vehicle 60 percent more efficiently than gasoline at half the cost and with half the emissions.
As exciting as this system sounds, both The Jerusalem Post story and the company’s website are extremely light on technical details.
A look at a recently assigned patent for the system, meanwhile, notes that “the combustion chamber receives a mixture of air, hydrogen, and a liquid fuel consisting essentially of water and a flammable, preferably non-fossil, substance.”
That’s a few more ingredients than MayMaan mentions in the story, so the team might need to head back into the garage for a bit more development before touting their tech as the cleaner, cheaper, more efficient alt-fuel of the future.
Internal combustion engine using a water-based mixture as fuel and method for operating the same US10436108
Abstract: An internal combustion engine includes a cylinder with a combustion chamber and a piston selectively changing the volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber receives a mixture of air, hydrogen and a liquid fuel consisting essentially of water and a flammable, preferably non-fossil, substance. The contents of the combustion chamber are ignited generating power.
Compression ring for pistons US10047864
Internal combustion engine using a water-based mixture as fuel and method for operating the same US9074555
Internal combustion engine using a water-based mixture as fuel and method for operating the same US8869755
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE USING A WATER-BASED MIXTURE AS FUEL AND METHOD FOR OPERATING THE SAME US20130247867
Nature Astronomy volume 3, pages898–903(2019)
15 July 2019
Enabling Martian habitability with silica aerogel via the solid-state greenhouse effectAbstract
R. Wordsworth, L. Kerber & C. Cockell
The low temperatures1,2 and high ultraviolet radiation levels3 at the surface of Mars today currently preclude the survival of life anywhere except perhaps in limited subsurface niches4. Several ideas for making the Martian surface more habitable have been put forward5,6,7,8, but they all involve massive environmental modification that will be well beyond human capability for the foreseeable future9. Here, we present a new approach to this problem. We show that widespread regions of the surface of Mars could be made habitable to photosynthetic life in the future via a solid-state analogue to Earth’s atmospheric greenhouse effect. Specifically, we demonstrate via experiments and modelling that under Martian environmental conditions, a 2–3 cm-thick layer of silica aerogel will simultaneously transmit sufficient visible light for photosynthesis, block hazardous ultraviolet radiation and raise temperatures underneath it permanently to above the melting point of water, without the need for any internal heat source. Placing silica aerogel shields over sufficiently ice-rich regions of the Martian surface could therefore allow photosynthetic life to survive there with minimal subsequent intervention. This regional approach to making Mars habitable is much more achievable than global atmospheric modification. In addition, it can be developed systematically, starting from minimal resources, and can be further tested in extreme environments on Earth today.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 060602 – Published 13 February 2020
Precooling Strategy Allows Exponentially Faster HeatingAbstract
A. Gal and O. Raz
What is the fastest way to heat a system which is coupled to a temperature controlled oven? The intuitive answer is to use only the hottest temperature available. However, we show that often it is possible to achieve an exponentially faster heating protocol. Surprisingly, this protocol can have a precooling stage—cooling the system before heating it shortens the heating time significantly. To demonstrate such improvements in many-body systems, we developed a projection-based method with which such protocols can be found in large systems, as we demonstrate on the 2D antiferromagnet Ising model.
Science Advances 21 Feb 2020: Vol. 6, no. 8, eaay9405
Facile diamond synthesis from lower diamondoidsAbstract
Sulgiye Park, et al.
Carbon-based nanomaterials have exceptional properties that make them attractive for a variety of technological applications. Here, we report on the use of diamondoids (diamond-like, saturated hydrocarbons) as promising precursors for laser-induced high-pressure, high-temperature diamond synthesis. The lowest pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that yielded diamond were 12 GPa (at ~2000 K) and 900 K (at ~20 GPa), respectively. This represents a substantially reduced transformation barrier compared with diamond synthesis from conventional (hydro)carbon allotropes, owing to the similarities in the structure and full sp3 hybridization of diamondoids and bulk diamond. At 20 GPa, diamondoid-to-diamond conversion occurs rapidly within <19 μs. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that once dehydrogenated, the remaining diamondoid carbon cages reconstruct themselves into diamond-like structures at high P-T. This study is the first successful mapping of the P-T conditions and onset timing of the diamondoid-to-diamond conversion and elucidates the physical and chemical factors that facilitate diamond synthesis.
Got Smallpox ?
Compositions for the Prevention and Treatment of Smallpox
“Smallpox” (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera ) is a disease caused by viruses (“smallpox viruses”) of the family poxyiridae, subfamily chordopoxyirinae. The lifecycle of poxviruses is complicated by having multiple infectious forms, with differing mechanisms of cell entry. It is a large virus, with a double stranded DNA genome of about 200 kilobases, making it more complicated than the smallest bacteria. The infectious dose of variola virus is very small, possibly only a few virions. Respiratory infection is characterized by non-infectious incubation and prodromal periods that normally last 12-14 and 2-4 days, respectively (McClain, D. J. (1997) “Smallpox,” In: TEXTBOOK OF MILITARY MEDICINE (Zatjchuk R, ed.); Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Medical Center; pp. 539-559). This non-infectious period may represent the window of opportunity for post-exposure treatment by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody product. Variola travels from the upper to lower respiratory tract to regional lymph nodes where it replicates. Asymptomatic viremia occurs on about the third or fourth day after infection and variola then disseminates systemically to other lymphoid tissues, spleen, liver, bone marrow and lung. A second viremia begins at about the eighth day. The prodromal period, which begins about day 12, is characterized by high fever, malaise, backache and headache. At this time, the virus, contained in leukocytes, localizes in small blood vessels of the dermis and beneath the oral and pharyngeal mucosa and subsequently infects adjacent cells. The onset of the infectious state is characterized by the appearance of enanthem (oropharyngeal lesions) and soon followed by exanthem (skin lesions) on the face, hands and forearms. The lesions on mucous membranes shed infected epithelial cells and give rise to infectious oropharyngeal secretions, which are the most important means of virus transmission to contacts. Rash spreads centrally during the next week to the trunk and lesions progress from macules to papules to pustular vesicles. Lesions display a centrifugal distribution and generally remain in a synchronous stage of development in various segments of the body. Scab formation occurs 10-14 days after onset of rash and scab separation occurs during the following 14 days. Because virus can be isolated from scabs, patients are considered infectious until all scabs separate. Smallpox has little effect on the vital organs in the body. Death, which generally occurs during the second week of illness, is usually the result of the toxemia associated with circulating immune complexes and soluble variola antigens, which leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation, hypotension and cardiovascular collapse.
 Person-to-person transmission of smallpox is initiated by the deposition of virus in the respiratory tract of the contact; the virus having originated from oropharyngeal secretions of a person with a rash. Epidemiological studies have implicated large-particle aerosol droplets, resuspension of virus particles, and droplet nuclei as possibly important in natural transmission of variola virus (Downie, A. W. et al. (1958) “The Antibody Response In Man Following Infection With Viruses Of The Pox Group. III. Antibody Response In Smallpox ,” J. Hyg. (Lond) 56(4):479-487). The large-particle aerosol droplets are thought to infect the upper respiratory tract, where as the droplet nuclei may initiate infection in the lower respiratory tract. A bioterrorist release of variola or monkeypox viruses is likely to be by droplet nuclei, and thus the lower respiratory tract may be a site of infection. The intranasal and aerosol methods of infection mimic large-particle droplet and droplet nuclei modes of infection, respectively.
 Smallpox virus infection is associated with very high morbidity and high overall mortality rates. The classic (or ordinary) form of variola major infection resulted in fatality rates of 30% for unvaccinated individuals and 3% for vaccinated individuals (McClain, D. J. (1997) “Smallpox ,” In: TEXTBOOK OF MILITARY MEDICINE (Zatjchuk R, ed.); Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Medical Center; pp. 539-559). Approximately 2-5% of cases presented as flat-type smallpox, which was associated with severe systemic toxicity and fatality rates of 95% for unvaccinated individuals and 66% for vaccinated individuals. Fewer than 3% of cases presented as hemorrhagic-type smallpox, which was uniformly fatal; death occurred before typical pox lesions developed. Infection with variola minor, a less virulent variant of the variola virus, resulted in fatality rates of 1% in unvaccinated individuals. Patients who recovered from smallpox may be left with serious sequelae, including extensive scarring of the skin, hearing loss or blindness or, more rarely, other organ damage. Smallpox was highly contagious; infection invariably resulted in symptomatic disease. The aerosolized virus was capable of spreading over considerable distances, and of inducing infection even at low viral doses.
 Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300-500 million deaths in the 20th century alone. In light of the enormous medical and social significance of the disease, a concerted worldwide inoculation campaign was initiated to eradicate smallpox. In 1979, the World Health Organization certified that the campaign to eliminate naturally occurring smallpox had been successful (Geddes, A. M. (2006) “The History of Smallpox ,” Clin. Dermatol. 24(3):152-157). Smallpox remains the sole human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated from nature (see, e.g., Bazin, H. (2000) THE ERADICATION OF SMALLPOX : EDWARD JENNER AND THE FIRST AND ONLY ERADICATION OF A HUMAN INFECTIOUS DISEASE ; Academic Press, NY)...
CN108272697AThe invention discloses a cleaning and acne-removal composition. The cleaning and acne-removal composition is prepared from a natural oil removing agent, a natural acne removing agent and a moisturizing agent, wherein the natural oil removing agent is prepared from one or more of tamarindus indica linn extracts, fructus gleditsiae abnormalis extracts and burdock extracts; the natural acne removingagent is prepared from one or more of fructus cannabis extracts, cudweed herbs and Aralia chinensis L.. The natural oil removing agent is added into the composition, so that excessive grease can be effectively removed, blocking of pores is prevented and occurrence of smallpox is reduced; the natural acne removing agent is added, so that inflammation can be inhibited, water-oil balance is conditioned and elimination of the smallpox is promoted; due to cooperative application of the components, the occurrence of the smallpox is incentively reduced, microecology is balanced through conditioningthe water-oil balance, the inflammation is inhibited and removed, and effects of cleaning and acne removal are achieved. The composition is applied to cosmetics, and the compatibility is good; moreover, the effects of cleaning and acne removal can be developed.
Cleaning and acne-removal composition
CN108403943A The ointment formula for treating smallpox is characterized by being prepared from Huangdan, Sophora flavescens, borneol and white peony. The formula ratio is: Huangdan 15-25g, Sophora flavescens 25~45g, borneol 14-18g, Baiji 25~ 30g, Ai Ye 20 ~ 35g.
Smallpox treating ointment preparation
CN102846736AThe invention relates to a Chinese medicinal preparation for treating pox. Its constituent components and parts by weight are: 85-95 parts of gentian, 55-65 parts of isatis root, 45-55 parts of cimicifuga, 35-45 parts of honeysuckle, 35 to 45 parts of wild chrysanthemum, 25 to 35 parts of forsythia, and 25 to 35 parts of licorice. The traditional Chinese medicine formula treatment mainly relates to clearing away heat, dampness, removing blood stasis and inhibiting bacteria, and has obvious effect on treating sheep pox, and there is no phenomenon of drug residue. After the medicine is taken, the symptoms are relieved and the sick sheep recover quickly. So that the scope of transmission of sheep pox can be controlled...
Chinese medicinal preparation for treating ovine smallpox
A traditional Chinese medicine preparation for treating sheep pox, its constituent components and parts by weight are:
85 to 95 parts of gentian, 55 to 65 parts of isatis root, 45 to 55 parts of cimicaria, 35 to 45 parts of honeysuckle, 35 to 45 parts of wild chrysanthemum, 25 to 35 parts of forsythia, and 25 to 35 parts of licorice.
In addition, the Chinese medicine preparation for treating pox, its constituent components and parts by weight are:
90 parts of gentian, 60 parts of isatis root, 50 parts of cimicaria, 40 parts of honeysuckle, 40 parts of wild chrysanthemum, 30 parts of forsythia, 30 parts of licorice.
In addition, the method of taking the traditional Chinese medicine preparation for treating sheep pox is as follows: each traditional Chinese medicine component of the traditional Chinese medicine preparation for treating sheep pox is ground into a fine powder, and each sheep is evenly mixed into the feed according to 10-40 g per day.
It looks just like Nevada...
Curiosity Mars Rover Snaps 1.8 Billion-Pixel Panorama (narrated video)This panorama showcases "Glen Torridon," a region on the side of Mount Sharp that Curiosity is exploring. The panorama was taken between Nov. 24 and Dec. 1, 2019, when the Curiosity team was out for the Thanksgiving holiday. Since the rover would be sitting still with few other tasks to do while it waited for the team to return and provide its next commands, the rover had a rare chance to image its surroundings several days in a row without moving. Composed of more than 1,000 images and carefully assembled over the ensuing months, the larger version of this composite contains nearly 1.8 billion pixels of Martian landscape.
Simultaneous Production of Psilocybin and a Cocktail of β‐Carboline Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in “Magic” MushroomsAbstract
Felix Blei, et al.
The psychotropic effects of Psilocybe “magic” mushrooms are caused by the l‐tryptophan‐derived alkaloid psilocybin. Despite their significance, the secondary metabolome of these fungi is poorly understood in general. Our analysis of four Psilocybe species identified harmane, harmine, and a range of other l‐tryptophan‐derived β‐carbolines as their natural products, which was confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Stable‐isotope labeling with 13C11‐l‐tryptophan verified the β‐carbolines as biosynthetic products of these fungi. In addition, MALDI‐MS imaging showed that β‐carbolines accumulate toward the hyphal apices. As potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidases, β‐carbolines are neuroactive compounds and interfere with psilocybin degradation. Therefore, our findings represent an unprecedented scenario of natural product pathways that diverge from the same building block and produce dissimilar compounds, yet contribute directly or indirectly to the same pharmacological effects...
Psilocybe mushrooms produce an ayahuasca‐like and potentially similarly synergistic set of metabolites that may impact upon onset and duration of their effects. Remarkably, both pathways originate from the same generic building block, l‐tryptophan, yet take different routes leading to dissimilar compounds whose bioactivities in return contribute directly and indirectly to the same pharmacology (Scheme 1). This is a unique case in fungal chemistry and distantly related to the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus that synchronously produces both the β‐lactam antibiotic cephamycin and the β‐lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid.20
Despite the co‐occurrence of 1 and MAO inhibitors in Psilocybe, numerous studies with pure synthetic compound have shown that the somatic, endocrinic, and psychotropic effects are the sole consequence of 1 uptake.21 Future pharmacological research is therefore warranted to determine to what extent Psilocybe β‐carbolines contribute to the actual psychotropic effects of magic mushrooms. Compounds 1 and 2 are hypothesized to fulfill a protective function in the mushrooms by altering the behavior of invertebrate predators.22 Our results therefore also relate to chemical ecology and may help understand if indoleethylamines and β‐carbolines co‐evolved to fulfill and enhance the same biological function through addressing dissimilar targets.
P. cubensis... P. mexicana... P. cyanescens... P. semilanceata..
Local Targeted Memory Reactivation in Human SleepHighlights
Ella Bar, et al.
Presenting odors to one nostril in sleep achieves local TMR in one brain hemisphere
Local TMR selectively improves hemisphere-related memories for specific words
Local TMR differentially modulates slow-wave and spindle power across hemispheres
Local TMR modulates regional slow-oscillation-spindle phase amplitude coupling (PAC)
Memory consolidation can be promoted via targeted memory reactivation (TMR) that re-presents training cues or context during sleep. Whether TMR acts locally or globally on cortical sleep oscillations remains unknown. Here, we exploit the unique functional neuroanatomy of olfaction with its ipsilateral stimulus processing to perform local TMR in one brain hemisphere. Participants learned associations between words and locations in left or right visual fields with contextual odor throughout. We found lateralized event-related potentials during task training that indicate unihemispheric memory processes. During post-learning naps, odors were presented to one nostril in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Memory for specific words processed in the cued hemisphere (ipsilateral to stimulated nostril) was improved after local TMR during sleep. Unilateral odor cues locally modulated slow-wave (SW) power such that regional SW power increase was lower in the cued hemisphere relative to the uncued hemisphere and negatively correlated with select memories for cued words. Moreover, local TMR improved phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between slow oscillations and sleep spindles specifically in the cued hemisphere. The effects on memory performance and cortical sleep oscillations were not observed when unilateral olfactory stimulation during sleep followed learning without contextual odor. Thus, TMR in human sleep transcends global action by selectively promoting specific memories associated with local sleep oscillations.
Did the Johannine Community Exist?Abstract
This article challenges the historical existence of the ‘Johannine community’ – a hypothesized group of ancient churches sharing a distinctive theological outlook. Scholars posit such a community to explain the similarities of John to 1, 2 and 3 John as well as the epistles’ witness to a network of churches. Against this view, this article calls attention to evidence of literary contact between the four texts and the presence of dubious authorial claims in each. Taken together, these features cast John, 1 John, 2 John and 3 John as unreliable bases for historical reconstruction, whose implied audiences and situations are probably fabrications. The article proceeds to develop a new history of the Johannine texts. Those texts represent a chain of literary forgeries, in which authors of different extractions cast and recast a single invented character – an eyewitness to Jesus’ life – as the mouthpiece of different theological viewpoints.
INSPIRED Presents the LOPIFIT a new Walking Bike inventionWe meet Bruin Bergmeester who in his spare time has invented a new form of transport: the Lopifit.
The Epoch Times
A treadmill vehicle (1) comprises a treadmill (5), a force transmission mechanism (14), which is arranged and configured for force transmission between an endless moving belt (6) of the treadmill and at least one treadmill-coupled vehicle wheel (3), and an electromotor (15) for driving movement of the treadmill vehicle over a ground. The treadmill vehicle is further characterized by an abnormality sensor (16) for detecting at least one abnormal operation condition of the treadmill vehicle (1) during operation of the electromotor (15), wherein said abnormal operation condition corresponds to a situation in which a user is unsafely walking on the endless moving belt or a situation in which there is no user on the endless moving belt, and a control circuitry (17) for disabling the operation of the electromotor in response to the abnormality sensor (16) detecting said at least one abnormal operation condition.
Electroculture Articles @ http://www.b-ok.cc
Electroculture et énergiePDF, 63.76 MB
Electroculture of tomato plants in a commercial hydroponics greenhouse -- Frank M. Yamaguchi, Albert P. Krueger
Electroculture for crop enhancement by air anions -- H. A. Pohl, G. W. Todd
Electroculture -- Herbert A. Pohl
Electroculture -- C. R. B.
An Electroculture Problem -- Chree, C
Electroculture -- Scientific American, 1904
Electroculture of Plants -- Scientific American, 1909
The Electroculture of Crops -- Jorgensen, Ingvar, Stiles, Walter
Design, fabrication and testing of an electrical cell stimulation and recording apparatus (ECSARA) for cells in electroculture
Nature volume 578, pages550–554(2020) 17 February 2020
Power generation from ambient humidity using protein nanowiresAbstract
Xiaomeng Liu, Hongyan Gao, Joy E. Ward, Xiaorong Liu, Bing Yin, Tianda Fu, Jianhan Chen, Derek R. Lovley & Jun Yao
Harvesting energy from the environment offers the promise of clean power for self-sustained systems1,2. Known technologies—such as solar cells, thermoelectric devices and mechanical generators—have specific environmental requirements that restrict where they can be deployed and limit their potential for continuous energy production3,4,5. The ubiquity of atmospheric moisture offers an alternative. However, existing moisture-based energy-harvesting technologies can produce only intermittent, brief (shorter than 50 seconds) bursts of power in the ambient environment, owing to the lack of a sustained conversion mechanism6,7,8,9,10,11,12. Here we show that thin-film devices made from nanometre-scale protein wires harvested from the microbe Geobacter sulfurreducens can generate continuous electric power in the ambient environment. The devices produce a sustained voltage of around 0.5 volts across a 7-micrometre-thick film, with a current density of around 17 microamperes per square centimetre. We find the driving force behind this energy generation to be a self-maintained moisture gradient that forms within the film when the film is exposed to the humidity that is naturally present in air. Connecting several devices linearly scales up the voltage and current to power electronics. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous energy-harvesting strategy that is less restricted by location or environmental conditions than other sustainable approaches.
NIR-driven H2 evolution from water: Expanding wavelength range for solar energy conversion
by Kyushu University
...Sunlight comes in a spectrum, with each color having a different wavelength. Solar cells must absorb light of particular wavelengths, depending on how much energy the cell needs to drive the reaction. The more of the spectrum it captures, the more hydrogen it produces. Unfortunately, most cells only absorb shorter wavelengths of light, corresponding to the higher energy region of visible light below the red light domain. This means that while colors such as blue and green light can be used, the rest is wasted.
Now, researchers at Kyushu University in Japan and its Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER) have potentially solved this problem. They invented a device driven by near-infrared (NIR) light - the part of the spectrum, invisible to the naked eye, with wavelengths longer than visible red light. Thus, they enabled a broader spectrum of light, including UV, visible, and NIR, to be harvested. Their design cleverly exploits the chemistry of ruthenium, a heavy metal related to iron. Their achievement was reported in Angewandte Chemie International Edition.
Particular metal-organic hybrid materials are good at capturing light, which helps their electrons to "jump" into orbitals in the organic parts of the materials attached to the metal center. In solar cells, this is the first step in producing hydrogen, since electrons are the drivers of chemistry. However, the jump between orbitals is usually so big that only UV and the higher energy region of visible light have enough energy to stimulate it. Red, NIR, and even longer IR light are simply reflected back or pass through the devices, and their energy remains unused.
The Kyushu design is different. "We introduced new electron orbitals into the ruthenium atoms," study corresponding author Professor Ken Sakai explains. "It's like adding rungs to a ladder - now the electrons in ruthenium don't have so far to jump, so they can use lower energies of light such as red and NIR. This nearly doubles the amount of sunlight photons we can harvest."
The trick is to use an organic compound - hexagonal rings of carbon and nitrogen - to link three metal atoms into a single molecule. In fact, this not only creates these new "rungs" - hence the ability to use red and NIR light - but also makes the reaction more efficient due to spatial expansion of the light harvesting part of the molecule. Thus, the production of hydrogen is accelerated.
"It's taken decades of efforts worldwide, but we've finally managed to drive water reduction to evolve H2 using NIR," Sakai says. "We hope this is just the beginning - the more we understand the chemistry, the better we can design devices to make clean, hydrogen-based energy storage a commercial reality."
Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2017). DOI: 10.1002/anie.201708996
16 October 2017
Near-Infrared Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution from Water Using a Polypyridyl Triruthenium Photosensitizer,Abstract
Yutaro Tsuji et al,
In order to realize artificial photosynthetic devices for splitting water to H2 and O2 (2 H2O+hν→2 H2+O2), it is desirable to use a wider wavelength range of light that extends to a lower energy region of the solar spectrum. Here we report a triruthenium photosensitizer [Ru3(dmbpy)6(μ‐HAT)]6+ (dmbpy=4,4′‐dimethyl‐2,2′‐bipyridine, HAT=1,4,5,8,9,12‐hexaazatriphenylene), which absorbs near‐infrared light up to 800 nm based on its metal‐to‐ligand charge transfer (1MLCT) transition. Importantly, [Ru3(dmbpy)6(μ‐HAT)]6+ is found to be the first example of a photosensitizer which can drive H2 evolution under the illumination of near‐infrared light above 700 nm. The electrochemical and photochemical studies reveal that the reductive quenching within the ion‐pair adducts of [Ru3(dmbpy)6(μ‐HAT)]6+ and ascorbate anions affords a singly reduced form of [Ru3(dmbpy)6(μ‐HAT)]6+, which is used as a reducing equivalent in the subsequent water reduction process.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 51, 17968-17976
November 27, 2018
Extraordinary Dielectric Properties at Heterojunctions of Amorphous FerroelectricsAbstract
M. Helena Braga, et al.
Materials having a high dielectric constant are needed for a variety of electrical applications from transistors to capacitors. Ferroelectric amorphous-oxide (glass) alkali-ion electrolytes of composition A2.99Ba0.005ClO (A = Li, Na) are shown by two different types of measurement and different consistent analyses to have extraordinarily high dielectric constants, varying from 109 at 25 °C to 1010 at 220 °C if the glass is properly conditioned. These anomalously high dielectric properties coexist with alkali-ion conductivities at 25 °C that are equivalent to those of the best organic-liquid electrolytes of a Li-ion cell, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a Au/glass electrolyte/Au cell is stable from −10 to +10 V. A model to interpret microscopically all the key features of the CV curves shows that the electric-double-layer capacitors that form at the gold/electrolyte interfaces in the Au/glass electrolyte/Au heterojunction reverse polarization at an applied voltage V = ±2.1 V, resulting in three almost equivalent discharging capacitances for a single physical capacitor from −10 to +10 V.
February 20, 2020
How African turquoise killifish press the pause button on aging
The fish can double their life span by temporarily halting cell and organ growth while embryos
By Erin Garcia de Jesus
...One gene, the chromobox 7 gene, or CBX7, repressed genes involved in metabolism, but turned on those important for maintaining muscle and staying in diapause, the researchers found. Embryos without CBX7 came out of diapause sooner, and their muscles began to deteriorate after one month...
Celeste Solum - "Emergency Clause Invoked For 'Vulnerable Populations'" - News Update 3/3/20
Self-Sustaining 2-Stage Tesla Turbine
Cryophorus 2-Stage Tesla Turbine self-runs by creating it's own vacuum to boil water in a warm tank at low temperature. This vapor pressure runs the first stage turbine, while the second stage maintains the vacuum. This runs in this self-running mode as long as there is enough warmth in the front side tank. There will be more disclosed at the 2020 Energy Science & Technology Conference
Free Energy from Magnets and from Light
Unusual presentation by Mr N. C. Hands including a self-powered mobile phone and high power low cost solar panels which work night and day.
Eat more cowburger :
Hey, It’s Not Just Corona Virus
Whatever the Democratic Party is infected with may be worse than covid-19. The symptoms presented point to a rare illness known as kuru. By now, we all understand that diseases easily jump between continents in this era of incessant air travel. The National Institutes of Health’s MedlinePlus bulletin has this to say about it:
Kuru is found among people from New Guinea who practiced a form of cannibalism in which they ate the brains of dead people as part of a funeral ritual. This practice stopped [allegedly] in 1960, but cases of kuru were reported for many years afterward because the disease has a long incubation period…. Kuru causes brain and nervous system changes similar to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease… bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also called mad cow disease. The main risk factor for kuru is eating human brain tissue, which can contain the infectious particles.
Does this account for the public’s preoccupation with Zombies? Is something deeply sinister roiling in the dark interstices of American life? The public still doesn’t know for sure what was going on in the congressional SCIF chamber (Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility) deep in the Capitol’s sub-basement back in January, where Rep. Adam Schiff (D-CA) was busy spirit-cooking impeachment testimony. Was something else bubbling away on his Coleman stove down there? Say, a fricassee of Jeffrey Epstein’s frontal lobes? Did Nancy Pelosi come back for seconds? Her subsequent behavior implicates acute kuru infection, the inappropriate laughter, slurred speech, tardive dyskinesia, paranoia...
Clemente Figuera Free Energy Generator Forum
Andre L.V. Coutier's Free Energy Generator (1932 )
January 29, 2020
Anti-Solar Cells: A Photovoltaic Cell That Works at Night
By Andy Fell
What if solar cells worked at night? That’s no joke, according to Jeremy Munday, professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at UC Davis. In fact, a specially designed photovoltaic cell could generate up to 50 watts of power per square meter under ideal conditions at night, about a quarter of what a conventional solar panel can generate in daytime, according to a concept paper by Munday and graduate student Tristan Deppe. The article was published in, and featured on the cover of, the January 2020 issue of ACS Photonics.
Munday, who recently joined UC Davis from the University of Maryland, is developing prototypes of these nighttime solar cells that can generate small amounts of power. The researchers hope to improve the power output and efficiency of the devices.
Munday said that the process is similar to the way a normal solar cell works, but in reverse. An object that is hot compared to its surroundings will radiate heat as infrared light. A conventional solar cell is cool compared to the sun, so it absorbs light.
Space is really, really cold, so if you have a warm object and point it at the sky, it will radiate heat toward it. People have been using this phenomenon for nighttime cooling for hundreds of years. In the last five years, Munday said, there has been a lot of interest in devices that can do this during the daytime (by filtering out sunlight or pointing away from the sun).
Generating power by radiating heat
There’s another kind of device called a thermoradiative cell that generates power by radiating heat to its surroundings. Researchers have explored using them to capture waste heat from engines.
“We were thinking, what if we took one of these devices and put it in a warm area and pointed it at the sky,” Munday said.
This thermoradiative cell pointed at the night sky would emit infrared light because it is warmer than outer space.
“A regular solar cell generates power by absorbing sunlight, which causes a voltage to appear across the device and for current to flow. In these new devices, light is instead emitted and the current and voltage go in the opposite direction, but you still generate power,” Munday said. “You have to use different materials, but the physics is the same.”
The device would work during the day as well, if you took steps to either block direct sunlight or pointed it away from the sun. Because this new type of solar cell could potentially operate around the clock, it is an intriguing option to balance the power grid over the day-night cycle.
ACS Photonics 2020, 7, 1, 1-9, November 20, 2019
Nighttime Photovoltaic Cells: Electrical Power Generation by Optically Coupling with Deep SpaceAbstract
Tristan DeppeJeremy N. Munday
Photovoltaics possess significant potential due to the abundance of solar power incident on earth; however, they can only generate electricity during daylight hours. In order to produce electrical power after the sun has set, we consider an alternative photovoltaic concept that uses the earth as a heat source and the night sky as a heat sink, resulting in a “nighttime photovoltaic cell” that employs thermoradiative photovoltaics and concepts from the advancing field of radiative cooling. In this Perspective, we discuss the principles of thermoradiative photovoltaics, the theoretical limits of applying this concept to coupling with deep space, the potential of advanced radiative cooling techniques to enhance their performance, and a discussion of the practical limits, scalability, and integrability of this nighttime photovoltaic concept.
Harvard Chan Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology looks to improve on soap and water
WO2016044443A1 -- ENGINEERED WATER NANOSTRUCTURES (EWNS) AND USES THEREOF
Various embodiments of the present invention relate to, among other things, systems for generating engineered water nanostructures (EWNS) comprising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methods for inactivating at least one of viruses, bacteria, bacterial spores, and fungi in or on a wound of a subject in need thereof or on produce by applying EWNS to the wound or to the produce.
got cannibalism ???
Wuhan resident horrific wailing and screaming at night wanting to escape #Coronavirus China Outbreak
Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag
Prashant Pradhan, et al.
Illuminati Card Game Predicted the Corona Virus Outbreak in Wuhan China!
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