internet @ its bestest :
Stuff & Stuff
Googoolflops3 of Pertinent
Factoids for Enlightened Sovereign Human Beings with Rights
& Choices who Refuse to pseudo-half-live as Retarded
Religio-Fascist Dupes in Boring Denial, Willful Ignorance &
Stupidiotic Slavery to Bankers with
Cranium-crammed-in-Colon till Death flatulates them out
of insipid Incarnation…
( October 2016 - January 2102 )
& Olds & Miscellaneous Odds, Ends, Evens &
The Truths Are In
Here @ Aisle 14 ==>
Fresh Lies @ Aisle 666 ! Free
Stuff & Stuff Archives : Back & 4th Issues,
UPDATED 22 OCTOBER
A Novel Preparation of Arsenic
Oxides from Orpiment / Realgar
Since the beginning of metallurgy, arsenic
trioxide has been prepared by oxidation of ores and
collected as a sublimate from the chimneys of furnaces.
Arsenic pentoxide has been prepared by reduction of the
trioxide by nitric acid.
Presented here is the first alternative method for
preparation of arsenic oxides,. The technique is simple,
safe, efficient, and requires only a reflux apparatus.
Orpiment or realgar is pulverized and
treated by heating with ammonia water to liberate the
sulfides from ganque. The dissolved and suspended sulfides
are decanted and the ganque is treated again with ammonium
hydroxide, decanted, and washed. The ammonium
solution-suspensions are combined in a reflux apparatus
with magnetic stirring. Nitric acid is added to form a
suspension of ammonium nitrate, and excess acid is added
to form a clear solution.
The mixture is heated to a gentle reflux with magnetic
stirring until the sulfides are decomposed and a white
precipitate of oxides has formed. Continue heating for
several hours to ensure complete reaction.
The reaction mixture is decanted or filtered, washed, and
dried to yield arsenic trioxide and pentoxide. The
trioxide is separated from the pentoxide by sublimation.
The crude mixture can be converted completely to arsenic
pentoxide by further treatment with nitric acid.
The Electrical Review, Volume 38, No. 963 ( 8 May 1896 )
Magnetographs Made by Radiations
from the Poles of a Magnet. By John S. McKay on April 18, 1896
The Photographic Times, Vol 28, p. 288
October 20, 2016
Researchers posit way to locally circumvent
Second Law of Thermodynamics
by Louise Lerner
For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of
Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has
been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe,
chaos reigns supreme.
But researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's)
Argonne National Laboratory announced recently that they may have
discovered a little loophole in this famous maxim.
Their research, published in Scientific Reports, lays out a
possible avenue to a situation where the Second Law is violated on
the microscopic level.
The Second Law is underpinned by what is called the H-theorem,
which says that if you open a door between two rooms, one hot and
one cold, they will eventually settle into lukewarm equilibrium;
the hot room will never end up hotter.
But even in the twentieth century, as our knowledge of quantum
mechanics advanced, we didn't fully understand the fundamental
physical origins of the H-theorem.
Recent advancements in a field called quantum information theory
offered a mathematical construction in which entropy increases.
"What we did was formulate how these beautiful abstract
mathematical theories could be connected to our crude reality,"
said Valerii Vinokur, an Argonne Distinguished Fellow and
corresponding author on the study.
The scientists took quantum information theory, which is based on
abstract mathematical systems, and applied it to condensed matter
physics, a well-explored field with many known laws and
"This allowed us to formulate the quantum H-theorem as it related
to things that could be physically observed," said Ivan Sadovskyy,
a joint appointee with Argonne's Materials Science Division and
the Computation Institute and another author on the paper. "It
establishes a connection between well-documented quantum physics
processes and the theoretical quantum channels that make up
quantum information theory."
The work predicts certain conditions under which the H-theorem
might be violated and entropy — in the short term — might actually
As far back as 1867, physicist James Clerk Maxwell described a
hypothetical way to violate the Second Law: if a small theoretical
being sat at the door between the hot and cold rooms and only let
through particles traveling at a certain speed. This theoretical
imp is called "Maxwell's demon."
"Although the violation is only on the local scale, the
implications are far-reaching," Vinokur said. "This provides us a
platform for the practical realization of a quantum Maxwell's
demon, which could make possible a local quantum perpetual motion
For example, he said, the principle could be designed into a
"refrigerator" which could be cooled remotely — that is, the
energy expended to cool it could take place anywhere.
The authors are planning to work closely with a team of
experimentalists to design a proof-of-concept system, they said.
Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 32815 (2016)
H-theorem in quantum physics
G. B. Lesovik, A. V. Lebedev, I. A. Sadovskyy, M. V. Suslov
& V. M. Vinokur
Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to
formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that
data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative
entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in
terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of
real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build
on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the
quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the
manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum
physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be
violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of
energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing
Clif High / halfpasthuman predicts confusion :
OCT19Alta -- Discussion of current
boobooyaga election season, stuff coming in November and March
of next year and beyond.
A treasure trove of lost technology :
The Vril Compendium ( 11 Volumes )
The Washington Times from Washington, District of Columbia
· Page 7 (February 26, 1922)
Telluric Current to Open Vast Realm, Says
IT HAS UNCANNY FORCE
By F. A. WRAY
Harnessing of Earth's Elements Now in Bounds of Possibility.
An invention that will revolutionize the world! This is the claim
of a young, almost unknown, Italian scientist, Professor L. V.
Rota, who claims to have discovered the secret of telluric
currents. "My invention," states the professor, "can cause
battleships, submarines, aeroplanes and guns to crumble to dust at
any moment that any government gives the order to move them.
Speed up Travel.
It can be harnessed up for the service of man and can immensely
speed up travel, transport and communication, whether by land,
water or air. It can cheapen-*very sort of manufacture and enhance
every domestic and social immunity. "For instance, a cargo of
mails or goods could be sent across the Atlantic through the upper
air, without a human being aboard the craft, at a speed of ten to
400 miles an hour. The vessel would rise vertically the prescribed
height, travel horizontally in a predetermined direction and drop
gently and punctually upon its destination.
"Travel Any Distance."
"Wireless messages, dispatched from no costly or elaborate
stations, would travel to any distance free from all danger of
dissipation or confusion and with absolute privacy as between
sender and receiver. "The nature of all mineral and oil deposits
in any part of the world and their depth and volume will be
accurately determined without so much as sinking a shaft.
"Currents rushing through the air will provide the householder
with cheaper, safer and more brilliant lighting than he has ever
ventured to desire. "A new power for every Industry will first
make coal, steam, oil and electricity more efficient and afterward
will dispense with them altogether. "When our company Is formed?
within eighteen months ? we will give spectacular demonstrations
that all these things?and more?can be accomplished."
Currents Long Suspected.
The existence of these currents, which emanate from the earth
(hence their name) have been suspected by other scientists. Lord
Kelvin before his death declared their reality. Professor Rota
claims to be the first to discover and record them. They may also
be described as "molecular force," and they must not be confused,
says the professor, with Ampere's thermo-electric currents or with
Foucault currents. It is the study of these telluric currents, in
their nature, intensity and direction, that is believed to open up
such possibilities of tremendous Importance for the future of
humanity. Professor Rota has recently given a preliminary
demonstration at Marseilles. With a cigar-shaped apparatus,
seventeen feet long, thirty Inches In diameter and weighing 200
pounds, he convinced a number of press correspondents that this
apparatus could remain suspended motionless In the air for
twenty-four hours, carrying a considerable weight, and be
propelled or stopped without the use of any mechanical motor.
Inventor: ROTA LOUIS / bMILIENNE GEORGES
Procédé et appareil pour maintenir un corps en suspension
dans l'atmosphère, basé sur les forces électriques et
Method and apparatus for maintaining a body suspended in the
atmosphere, based on the electric and magnetic forces. In
principle, The invention relates to an apparatus in which
electrical forces and Magnetic are distributed in conditions such
they react to the electrical and magnetic forces of the atmosphere
and the earth and the effect of those reactions (repulsion) keeps
the device suspended in atmosphere or provide the device a very
Periodic System Database
There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is
only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic
Fossil Fuels Get a Boost - Scientists
Accidentally Convert CO2 Into Ethanol
Scientists at the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National
Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a technology that turns carbon
dioxide into ethanol, according to a study published in the
Chemistry Select journal in September.
The discovery was made during an electrochemical process of
reversing combustion, using copper and carbon nanospikes. The
scientists were attempting to turn carbon dioxide, a waste
byproduct of burning fossil fuels, into an organic element, when
they realized that the first step of the experiment did the entire
"We discovered somewhat by accident that this material worked,"
said ORNL's Adam Rondinone, lead author of the study. "We were
trying to study the first step of a proposed reaction when we
realized that the catalyst was doing the entire reaction on its
Voltage was applied to a carbon, copper and nitrogen catalyst, to
induce a chemical reaction of reversing the combustion process.
The yield of ethanol obtained by the solution of carbon dioxide in
water appeared to be about 63 percent. The researchers now suggest
that there is a possibility that the process could "go straight
from carbon dioxide to ethanol with a single catalyst."
"By using common materials, but arranging them with
nanotechnology, we figured out how to limit the side reactions and
end up with the one thing that we want," Rondinone said.
The scientists hope that the process could be used in other
"A process like this would allow you to consume extra electricity
when it's available to make and store as ethanol," Rondinone said.
"This could help to balance a grid supplied by intermittent
renewable sources," according to the ORNL website.
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Conversion
of CO2 to Ethanol using a Copper Nanoparticle/N-Doped Graphene
Yang Song, et al.
Though carbon dioxide is a waste product of combustion, it can
also be a potential feedstock for the production of fine and
commodity organic chemicals provided that an efficient means to
convert it to useful organic synthons can be developed. Herein we
report a common element, nanostructured catalyst for the direct
electrochemical conversion of CO2 to ethanol with high Faradaic
efficiency (63 % at −1.2 V vs RHE) and high selectivity (84 %)
that operates in water and at ambient temperature and pressure.
Lacking noble metals or other rare or expensive materials, the
catalyst is comprised of Cu nanoparticles on a highly textured,
N-doped carbon nanospike film. Electrochemical analysis and
density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest a preliminary
mechanism in which active sites on the Cu nanoparticles and the
carbon nanospikes work in tandem to control the electrochemical
reduction of carbon monoxide dimer to alcohol.
Closing the carbon cycle by utilizing CO2 as a feedstock for
currently used commodities, in order to displace a fossil
feedstock, is an appropriate intermediate step towards a
carbon-free future. Direct electrochemical conversion of CO2 to
useful products has been under investigation for a few decades.
Metal-based catalysts, such as copper, platinum, iron,
tin, silver, and gold, along with carbons such as g-C3N4
 have been the primary focus for CO2 reduction, with some very
high Faradaic efficiencies for methane conversion. Copper is
arguably the best-known metal catalyst for electrochemical CO2
reduction, capable of electrochemically converting CO2 into
more than 30 different products, including carbon monoxide
(CO), formic acid (HCOOH), methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4) or
ethane (C2H6), but efficiency and selectivity for any product
heavier than methane are far too low for practical use.
Competing reactions limit the yield of any one liquid product to
Polycrystalline Cu foil produces a mixture of compounds in
CO2-saturated aqueous solutions that are dominated either by H2 at
low overpotential, or by CO and HCOO− at high overpotential, or by
hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at the most extreme
potentials.[9, 11] Theoretical studies predict that
graphene-supported Cu nanoparticles would enhance catalytic
activity due to the strong Cu - graphene interaction via defect
sites, which would stabilize the intermediates from CO2
reduction and improve selectivity towards hydrocarbon products as
methane and methanol at lowered overpotential. Early studies
revealed that the electrode surface was dominated by adsorbed CO
during the CO2 reduction and that CO acted as intermediate in the
production of hydrocarbons. Cu produces hydrocarbons and
multi-carbon oxygenates when supplied with CO in the absence of
CO2, but very negative potentials are still required to promote CO
reduction over H2 evolution. Large overpotentials preclude
energetically efficient electrolysis and favor hydrocarbons over
liquid oxygenates. Recently, high selectivity of CO
electroreduction to oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product,
was achieved by oxide-derived Cu, in which the surface
intermediates were stabilized by the grain boundaries.
We previously reported on a highly textured nitrogen-doped,
few-layer graphene electrode that presents with a surface of
intense folds and spikes, which we termed carbon nanospikes or
CNS. The CNS structure is disordered due to the high nitrogen
content which prevents well-ordered stacking. In the current
report, a carbon nanospike (CNS) electrode with electronucleated
Cu nanoparticles (Cu/CNS) is shown to have much higher selectivity
for CO2 electroreduction than H2 evolution, with a subsequent high
Faradaic efficiency to produce ethanol. We believe this is
achieved both from the high intrinsic CO2 reduction activity of Cu
and from the synergistic interaction between Cu and neighboring
CNS, which controls reduction to alcohol. The major CO2 reduction
product is ethanol, which corresponds to a 12 e− reduction with
H2O as the H+ source, where E0 is the equilibrium potential. By
comparing Cu/CNS to control electrodes comprised of 1) Cu on
glassy carbon and 2) bare CNS, we demonstrate that CO2 reduction
activity is not a simple consequence of either Cu or CNS. While
the reaction mechanism is not yet elucidated, we hypothesize an
interaction between adjacent catalytic sites on the Cu and CNS,
facilitated by the nanostructured morphology of the catalyst that
prevents complete electrochemical reduction to ethylene or ethane,
resulting in a high yield of ethanol.
Results and discussion
The bare CNS electrode (Supporting Information Figure S1) was
characterized in our previous study as a dense nanotextured carbon
film terminated by randomly oriented nanospikes approximately
50–80 nm in length, where each nanospike consists of layers of
puckered carbon ending in a ∼2 nm wide curled tip. The film is
grown by a relatively simple direct-current plasma-enhanced
chemical vapor deposition reaction using acetylene and ammonia as
We report an electrocatalyst which operates at room temperature
and in water for the electroreduction of dissolved CO2 with high
selectivity for ethanol. The overpotential (which might be lowered
with the proper electrolyte, and by separating the hydrogen
production to another catalyst) probably precludes economic
viability for this catalyst, but the high selectivity for a
12-electron reaction suggests that nanostructured surfaces with
multiple reactive sites in close proximity can yield novel
reaction mechanisms. This suggests that the synergistic effect
from interactions between Cu and CNS presents a novel strategy for
designing highly selective electrocatalysts. While the entire
reaction mechanism has not yet been elucidated, further details
would be revealed from conversion of potential intermediates
(e. g. CO, formic acid and acetaldehyde) in future work.
US2014262810 / WO2014164954
ELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD FOR SYNTHESIZING METAL-CONTAINING
PARTICLES AND OTHER OBJECTS
Inventor(s): RONDINONE ADAM JUSTIN [US]; IVANOV
ILIA N [US]; SMITH SEAN CAMPBELL [US]; LIANG CHENGDU [US]; HENSLEY
DALE K [US]; MOON JI-WON [US]; PHELPS TOMMY JOE [US] +
The invention is directed to a method for producing
metal-containing (e.g., non-oxide, oxide, or elemental)
nano-objects, which may be nanoparticles or nanowires, the method
comprising contacting an aqueous solution comprising a metal salt
and water with an electrically powered electrode to form said
metal-containing nano-objects dislodged from the electrode,
wherein said electrode possesses a nanotextured surface that
functions to confine the particle growth process to form said
metal-containing nano-objects. The invention is also directed to
the resulting metal-containing compositions as well as devices in
which they are incorporated.
The plastic plague: Hormone-disrupting
chemicals in everyday things like water bottles DO cause
cancer, diabetes, ADHD and autism - and cost US $340 BILLION a
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are in
thousands of products
Products range from plastic water
bottles to cheap toys and cosmetics
Study warns they cause neurological
damage and behavioral problems
Exposure to these chemicals cost the US
at least $340bn in health a year
The NYU study looks at bisphenol A in
polycarbonate plastic (used for hard reusable bottles) and
phthalates (in many US disposable plastic bottles)
Phthalates are banned in the European
Union and wouldn't be in Britain
Critics have hit out at the NYU study
for being 'selective'; European Commission questioned the
validity of their calculation methods
By Mia De Graaf
18 October 2016
Plastic bottles contain hormone-disrupting chemicals that can
cause cancer, diabetes, ADHD and autism, scientists claimed in a
report on Tuesday.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's
hormonal system, affecting development and leaving the body open
to a staggering range of diseases.
But they are found in thousands of everyday products, ranging from
plastic and metal food containers, to detergents, flame
retardants, toys and cosmetics.
These chemicals are responsible for scores of illnesses - costing
the US an eye-watering $340 billion in health-related costs each
year, a bombshell report by NYU Langone said.
The most common EDC-related illness is neurological - including
attention-ADHD, autism and loss of IQ.
The invisible but dangerous chemicals also boosted obesity,
diabetes, some cancers, male infertility and a painful condition
known as endometriosis, the abnormal growth of tissue outside the
WHAT ARE THESE CHEMICALS?
So-called endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are found in
thousands of everyday products, ranging from plastic and metal
food containers, to detergents, flame retardants, toys and
This term covers a number of chemicals.
One is called PBDEs, which are commonly found in flame retardants.
Bisphenol A in polycarbonate plastic is used for hard reusable
bottles and food containers. Phthalates are used for disposable
WHAT DO THEY DO?
The invisible chemical cause neurological and behavioral disorders
like autism and ADHD.
They also affect IQ.
And they manipulate hormones in a way that can cause cancer,
diabetes, male infertility, and endometriosis.
HOW DO WE KNOW THEIR COST?
To put a figure on the impact of EDCs, the researchers reviewed
blood and urine samples from the National Health and Nutrition
The survey has gathered data since 2009 on major disease risk
factors from 5,000 volunteers.
Computer models were then used to project how much each of 15
diseases or conditions was attributable to chemical exposure, and
the estimated health costs for each one.
They concluded ECD-related illnesses cost the US $340 billion each
BUT THE CRITICS SAY...
The report has come under fierce criticism from the American
Chemical Society, which slammed the findings as baseless and
In a statement released shortly after the report's publication,
the ACS said the authors have 'cherry-picked' studies to come to a
The study's authors defending their work, and argued costs and
benefits of regulating plastic should be openly debated.
In a country where plastic is rife, these illnesses are not as
rare as we may think, according to lead author Dr Leonardo
The new study by NYU Langone claims the economic impact of the
chemicals leaves a huge, two per cent dent in the US' gross
domestic product (GDP) each year.
'Our research adds to the growing evidence on the tremendous
economic as well as human health costs of endocrine-disrupting
chemicals,' Dr Trasande, an associate professor at NYU Langone in
New York City, said.
'This has the potential to develop into a much larger health and
economic issue if no policy action is taken,' he told AFP.
Dr Trasande places emphasis on bisphenol A in polycarbonate
plastic (used for hard reusable bottles and food containers) and
phthalates (used for disposable water bottles).
Some of the chemicals highlighted in the report, including
phthalates used in bottles, are banned in the European Union - and
would therefore not be on sale in Britain.
MailOnline is attempting to find out whether some of the toxins
may still be in UK plastic products. But a similar study last year
estimated that the chemicals cost the EU health systems $271
The chemicals affect the body's endocrine tissues, which produce
essential hormones that help regulate energy levels, reproduction,
growth, development, as well as our response to stress and injury.
Mimicking naturally occurring hormones such as estrogen and
androgen, EDCs lock on to receptors within a human cell and block
the body's own hormones from binding with it.
Recent research has raised red flags showing that 'environmental
contaminants can disrupt the endocrine system leading to
adverse-health consequences,' according to the US Environmental
In the US, the biggest chemical culprit by far among the thousands
of manmade molecules suspected of interfering with human hormones
are so-called PBDEs, found in flame retardants.
Bisphenol A, used to line tin food cans, along with phthalates in
plastic food containers and many cosmetics, were also held to be
responsible for upward of $50 billion worth of health damages.
A similar study concluded last year that health-related costs of
EDCs in the European Union were some $271 billion, about 1.28
percent of GPD.
Crucially, the main drivers of disease and disability were
different on either side of the Atlantic, Trasande said.
'US costs are higher mainly because of the widespread use in
furniture of brominated flame retardants,' which were banned in
the EU in 2008, he explained.
The blood level of these chemicals in the average American would
be in the top five percent of Europeans today.
By contrast, the health costs associated with pesticides in food
were 10 times higher in the EU than in the United States, where
more stringent regulations were put in place to protect pregnant
women and children.
To put a figure on the impact of EDCs, the researchers reviewed
blood and urine samples from the National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey, which has gathered data since 2009 on major
disease risk factors from 5,000 volunteers.
Computer models were then used to project how much each of 15
diseases or conditions was attributable to chemical exposure, and
the estimated health costs for each one.
The study was published in The Lancet Diabetes &
Endocrinology, a medical journal.
Flame retardants and pesticides in particular are known to affect
the developing brain and can lead to loss of IQ.
'Each IQ point lost corresponds to approximately two per cent in
lost productivity,' Trasande said.
The report has come under fierce criticism from the American
Chemical Society, which slammed the findings as baseless and
In a statement released shortly after the report's publication,
the ACS said:
'The paper’s conclusions are speculative at best and based on
incomplete, inaccurate information about the relationship between
chemicals and human health.
'Further, the methods the authors used to generate the economic
data have been widely criticized by economists, scientists and
even the European Commission.
'The only thing more troubling than the paper’s many flaws is that
it does virtually nothing to advance the protection of public
'The vast majority of studies cited by the authors do not show
that exposure to specific chemicals causes health effects.
'Rather, the authors have cherry-picked studies that show
incomplete and inconsistent correlations between exposure to
certain chemicals and specific health outcomes, many of which have
been strongly disputed by independent scientists.'
The costs and benefits of regulation should be openly debated, the
authors argued, citing the decision in the 1970s to ban lead in
paint, and then 20 years later in gasoline.
Commenting in the same journal, Michele La Merrill, an expert in
environmental toxicology at the University of California in Davis,
said the new findings 'provide a lesson on the lasting economic
effects of harmful chemicals.'
They should 'inspire a policy shift to end the cat-and-mouse game
currently employed the US government and industry.'
The EU set broad criteria in June for identifying potentially
harmful EDCs, but consumer and environmental groups said they fell
far short of what is needed.
In a statement to Daily Mail Online on Wednesday, Philip Law,
director general of the British Plastics Federation, insisted
European customers should not panic.
'Consumer safety is of paramount importance to the plastics
industry,' Law said.
'UK companies ensure that they comply with strict standards set by
the UK and the EU.
'The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and European Food Standards
Authority (EFSA) regulate the very limited use of specific
chemicals alleged to be endocrine-disruptors used in the
manufacturing of plastics through legislation such as REACH and
Food Contact regulations.
'The European Commission conducts risk assessment activities to
ensure the continued safety of consumers; they have thoroughly
examined the chemicals used in plastics manufacturing and found
that consumers are not at risk.'
Nick von Westenholz, CEO of the Crop Protection Association, said:
'Everyday life is full of substances that interact with the
endocrine system, coffee or milk for example.
'What’s needed in this debate is to differentiate between a
potential effect, and whether in the real world there is actually
'Public health is the most important consideration in the use of
crop protection products and in the EU, pesticides are subject to
arguably the most stringent approvals process in the world.
'It currently takes ten years, requires an average of 200
scientific studies and costs in excess of £150 million to bring a
product to market, which ensures that pesticides are safe for
human health and equip farmers to provide a healthy and affordable
supply of food.'
A COP=17 heater design from Rosemary
Ainslie, 250 page documentation by Panacea-bocaf
All is Vanity...
18 October 2016
For Purely Technical Reasons
It is tempting for us to think that our
technological choices—whether we choose to live in a city, a
suburb or out in the country; whether we want to drive a
pick-up truck, a gasoline-electric hybrid or ride a bicycle;
whether we take a train, drive long distances or fly—are
determined by our tastes. We may flatter ourselves that we are
in control, and that our choices are reflective of our
enlightened, environmentally conscious values. This view rests
on a foundation of circular reasoning: we behave in
enlightened ways because we are enlightened, and we are
enlightened because, to wit, we behave in enlightened ways. As
to why what we consider enlightened is in fact enlightened
rather than a question of possibly questionable personal
taste—that is not to be discussed: de gustibus non est
But there is an alternative viewpoint, which seems more
realistic in many ways, because it rests on a foundation of
physical, technical specifics rather than fickle and arbitrary
consumer preference, whim or taste. From this viewpoint, our
technology and associated lifestyle choices are dictated by
the technical requirements of their underlying technologies,
both physical (the operation of the energy industry, the
transportation industry, etc.) and political (the operation of
political machines that segregate society by net worth and
income, relegating wage-earners to a global disenfranchised
A few years ago I found out that I needed to replace the
diesel engine on my boat (the old one blew up definitively)
and looked at a number of options, one of which was to replace
it with an electric motor and a large bank of batteries. The
electric option was touted as being quiet, non-polluting, and
having just enough range to get in and out of the marina and
to get back to dock if the wind died during a typical daysail.
It turned out to be more than twice as expensive as a
replacement diesel engine. As to what one might do to take
such a boat any great distance (that involves many hours of
motoring) the solution is to… add a diesel engine hooked up to
a very large alternator, at triple the cost of just replacing
the diesel. And so I just replaced the diesel.
Diesel engines have a lot of positive qualities: they can run
continuously for tens of thousands of hours; they can be
rebuilt many times just by replacing the bearings, the
cylinder sleeves, the piston rings and the valves; they are
exceptionally reliable; the fuel they use is energy-dense. For
these reasons, they are found throughout freight and
construction industries and are used for small-scale power
generation. They can be very large: the larger ships have
engines that are as big as houses, with ladders welded to
their cylinder walls, so that servicemen can climb down into
them to service them after the cylinder head and the piston
assembly are pulled out using an overhead shop crane. Small
diesel engines make a lot less sense, and the silliest of them
are the ones found on small yachts. There are many aspects of
their design that make them silly, but there is also an
overriding reason: they use the wrong fuel.
You see, diesel is a precious commodity, used in the
transportation industry (by trucks, locomotives and ships),
and in construction equipment, with no alternative that is
feasible. A cousin of diesel fuel is jet fuel—another
petroleum distillate—that is used to power jet engines, again,
with no alternative that is feasible. And then there is a fuel
that is only really useful as a small engine fuel: gasoline,
that is. Gasoline engines beyond a certain size become much
more trouble than they are worth.
Each barrel of crude oil can be distilled and refined into a
certain amount of diesel and jet fuel, a certain amount of
gasoline, some tar and some far less useful substances such as
naphtha. The diesel is spoken for, because it literally moves
the world; but if enough small engines cannot be found to burn
all the gasoline that is produced, it becomes a waste product
and has to be flared off at the oil refinery, at a loss.
Indeed, prior to Henry Ford coming up with the brilliant plan
to build cars cheap enough for his workers to afford, gasoline
was dumped into rivers just to get rid of it, because while
everyone burned kerosene (a distillate, like jet fuel and
diesel) in lamps, cars remained playthings of the rich, and
there simply wasn’t a market for any great quantities of
Therefore, it became very important to find ways to sell
gasoline, by finding enough uses for it, no matter how
superfluous they happened to be. And although some people
think that the private automobile is a symbol of luxury and
freedom and feel the thrill of the open road, the reason they
think that is because these ideas were implanted in their
heads by the people who were tasked with finding a market for
gasoline. Alongside cars, great effort was put into marketing
all sorts of other small engines: for lawn mowers, jet skis,
motorcycles, ATVs, boat outboard motors… The only
semi-industrial use of gasoline is in chainsaws, small
generators and air compressors, service and delivery vehicles,
and outboard engines.
And so people were sold on the idea of driving their own car,
whether they needed to or not, and spending lots of time stuck
in traffic—all so that they would pay for gasoline. By causing
all that excess traffic congestion, they also created the need
to widen roads and highways, generating demand for another
borderline useless petroleum product: road tar. And since
there was a problem with cramming all these cars into cities
(where cars are generally not needed if the cities are laid
out using proper urban design, with sufficient numbers of
tram, light rail and subway lines, etc.) the solution was to
move everybody out to the suburbs. And so the reason half of
the US population now lives in suburbia and drives has nothing
to do with their needs, and everything to do with the need to
sell them gasoline.
Some people may react negatively to the idea that their
suburban castle and their magic chariot are all just part of a
plan to make them spend much of their life paying for the
right to dispose of toxic waste in unsafe ways. Rest assured,
their preprogrammed negative reaction is part of the plan.
Every effort has been made to program people to think that
this waste disposal job—carried out at one's own expense—is,
in fact, something that should be considered a sign of
success. The most efficient way to motivate a slave to perform
is to convince him that he is free. To this end, driving is
celebrated in music and film and portrayed as a way of life.
Calling it what it is—being a slave to a machine—is bound to
cause cognitive dissonance, all the more so because driving a
lot destroys one's mind: in the immortal words of a character
from the movie Repo Man, ”The more you drive, the less
intelligent you become.” In this respect, most of the people
living in the US are far past the point of no return, and it
is pointless to attempt to impart to them any ideas that are
discordant with the dead-end lifestyle into which they have
been unconsciously coerced.
Getting back to electric vehicles, such as what my boat would
have ended up if I were gullible and made of money: they are
obviously a defective idea. Their range is limited, they take
longer to charge than it takes to fill a gas tank, and they
use expensive and dangerous lithium-ion batteries that need
periodic replacement. There is not enough lithium available to
continue making batteries for laptops and smartphones (which
periodically burst into flames), never mind providing for a
giant expansion of battery-building to support lots of
electric cars. Perhaps most importantly, they shrink the
market for gasoline. So, what’s the reason behind the push?
It certainly isn’t part of any particular effort to electrify
transportation in general, because no electric solution exists
for ships or planes, and electrifying rail freight is an
impossibly expensive proposition. It certainly isn’t part of
an effort to cut greenhouse gas emissions, because most of the
ways electricity is currently generated is by burning coal and
natural gas—and will be, while supplies last, because
electricity is hard to store, and no matter how many solar
arrays and wind farms are installed something will be needed
to power the electric grid on overcast, windless days.
No, the push for electric cars is motivated by a different
sort of technology—political technology. You see, the oil age
is drawing to a close. Last year the oil companies only
discovered 1 barrel of oil for every 10 barrels they produced;
at the turn of the century it was closer to 1 for every 4. At
the same time, most of the easy-to-get-at oil has already been
produced, and now it takes 1 barrel’s worth of energy to
produce something like 10 barrels, whereas at the dawn of the
age of oil it was closer to 1 for every 100 barrels. Such a
low level of net energy production is turning out to be
insufficient to maintain an industrial civilization, and as a
result economic growth has largely stalled out. And although
large investments in oil production have succeeded in keeping
large volumes of oil flowing, for now, this is turning out to
be an ineffective way to invest money, with many energy
companies, once so profitable, now unable to pay the interest
on their debt. And even though constant injections of free
money are currently keeping developed economies from cratering
into bankruptcy, it has been clear for some time that each
additional dollar of debt produces significantly less than a
dollar’s worth of economic growth. Growing debt within a
growing economy can be very nice; but if the economy isn’t
growing as fast, it’s fatal.
As the oil age winds down, personal transportation, in the
form of the automobile, is bound to once again become a
plaything of the very rich. But then, when it comes to
electric cars, it already is! And I don’t mean Tesla: the most
commonly used electric vehicle worldwide is the golf cart. And
who uses golf carts? Members of golf clubs; guests at resorts;
residents of posh gated communities; employees at corporate
and academic campuses… And what do all these people have in
common? They are all members of the salaried elite; they are
definitely not members of the wage-earning class. To them, the
electric car offers a way of preserving a semblance of the
status quo for themselves while setting themselves apart (in
their own minds) from all of the gasoline-burning riffraff.
Let the great unwashed in the flyover states, with their
pickup trucks complete with gun racks, burn what’s left of the
gasoline while overdosing on synthetic opiates while the
salaried elites and individuals of high net worth, ensconced
in their campuses and gated communities, will create a
different future for themselves, replete with wind turbines,
solar panels and electric cars (until they all get shot by all
those they have disenfranchised).
All is Vanity, Redux :
Corporations Destroyed American Democracy Chris Hedges
( February, 1919 ), pp. 692-694, 728, 730 & 732-734
[ Excerpt ]
Famous Scientific Illusions
I. The Illusion of the Axial Rotation of the Moon.
It is well known since the discovery of
Galileo that the moon, in travelling thru space, always turns
the same face towards the earth. This is explained by stating
that while passing once around its mother-planet the lunar
globe performs just one revolution on its axis. The spinning
motion of a heavenly body must necessarily undergo
modifications in the course of time, being either retarded by
resistances internal or external, or accelerated owing to
shrinkage and other causes. An unalterable rotational velocity
thru all phases of planetary evolution is manifestly
impossible. What wonder, then, that at this very instant of
its long existence our satellite should revolve exactly so,
and not faster or slower. But many astronomers have accepted
as a physical fact that such rotation takes place. It does
not, but only appears so; it is an illusion, a most surprising
It Is Well Known
That the Moon, M., Always Turns the Same Face Toward the
Earth, E, as the Black Arrows Indicate. The Parallel Rays
From the Sun Illuminate the Moon In Its Successive Orbital
Positions as the Unshaded Semi-circles Indicate. Bearing
This in Mind, Do You Believe That the Moon Rotates on Its
I will endeavor to make this clear by reference to Fig. 1, in
which E represents the earth and M the moon. The movement thru
space is such that the arrow, firmly attached to the latter,
always occupies the position indicated with reference to the
earth. If one imagines himself as looking down on the orbital
plane and follows the motion he will become convinced that the
moon does turn on its axis as it travels around. But in this
very act the observer will have deceived himself. To make the
delusion complete let him take a washer similarly marked and
supporting it rotatably in the center, carry it around a
stationary object, constantly keeping the arrow pointing
towards the latter. Tho to his bodily vision the disk will
revolve on its axis, such movement does not exist. He can
dispel the illusion at once by holding the washer fixedly
while going around. He will now readily see that the supposed
axial rotation is only apparent, the impression being produced
by successive changes of position in space.
of the Rotation of the Moon, M, Around the Earth, E; the
Moon, In This Demonstration Hypothesis, Being Considered as
Embedded In a Solid Mass, M,. If, As Commonly Believed, the
Moon Rotates, This Would Be Equally True For a Portion of
the Mass M?, and the Part Common to Both Bodies Would Turn
Simultaneously In "Opposite" Directions.
But more convincing proofs can be given that the moon does
not, and cannot revolve on its axis. With this object in view
attention is called to Fig. 2, in which both the satellite, M,
and earth, E, are shown embedded in a solid mass, M1,
(indicated by stippling) and supposed to rotate so as to
impact to the moon its normal translatory velocity. Evidently,
if the lunar globe could rotate as commonly believed, this
would be equally true of any other portion of mass M1, as the
sphere M2, shown in dotted lines, and then the part common to
both bodies would have to turn simultaneously in opposite
directions. This can be experimentally illustrated in the
manner suggested by using instead of one, two overlapping
rotatable washers, as may be conveniently represented by
circles M and M2, and carrying them around a center as E, so
that the plain and dotted arrows are always pointing towards
the same center. No further argument is needed to demonstrate
that the two gyrations cannot co-exist or even be pictured in
the imagination and reconciled in a purely abstract sense.
The truth is, the so-called “axial rotation” of the moon is a
phenomenon deceptive alike to the eye and mind and devoid of
physical meaning. It has nothing in common with real mass
revolution characterized by effects positive and unmistakable.
Volumes have been written on the subject and many erroneous
arguments advanced in support of the notion. Thus, it is
reasoned, that if the planet did not turn on its axis it would
expose the whole surface to terrestrial view; as only one-half
is visible, it must revolve. The first statement is true but
the logic of the second is defective, for it admits of only
one alternative. The conclusion is not justified as the same
appearance can also be produced in another way. The moon does
rotate, not on its own, but about an axis passing thru the
center of the earth, the true and only one.
The unfailing test of the spinning of a mass is, however, the
existence of energy of motion. The moon is not possest of such
vis viva. If it were the case then a revolving body as M1
would contain mechanical energy other than that of which we
have experimental evidence. Irrespective of this so exact a
coincidence between the axial and orbital periods is, in
itself, immensely improbable for this is not the permanent
condition towards which the system is tending. Any axial
rotation of a mass left to itself, retarded by forces external
or internal, must cease. Even admitting its perfect control by
tides the coincidence would still be miraculous. But when we
remember that most of the satellites exhibit this peculiarity,
the probability becomes infinitestimal.
Three theories have been advanced for the origin of the moon.
According to the oldest suggested by the great German
philosopher Kant, and developed by Laplace in his monumental
treatise “Mécanique Céleste,” the planets have been thrown off
from larger central masses by centrifugal force. Nearly forty
years ago Prof. George H. Darwin in a masterful essay on tidal
friction furnished mathematical proofs, deemed unrefutable,
that the moon had separated from the earth. Recently this
established theory has been attacked by Prof. T. J. J. See in
a remarkable work on the “Evolution of the Stellar Systems,”
in which he propounds the view that centrifugal force was
altogether inadequate to bring about the separation and that
all planets, including the moon, have come from the depths of
space and have been captured. Still a third hypothesis of
unknown origin exists which has been examined and commented
upon by Prof. W. H. Pickering in “Popular Astronomy of 1907,”
and according to which the moon was torn from the earth when
the later was partially solidified, this accounting for the
continents which might not have been formed otherwise.
Undoubtedly planets and satellites have originated in both
ways and, in my opinion, it is not difficult to ascertain the
character of their birth. The following conclusions can be
1. A heavenly body thrown off from a larger one cannot rotate
on its axis. The mass, rendered fluid by the combined action
of heat and pressure, upon the reduction of the latter
immediately stiffens, being at the same time deformed by
gravitational pull. The shape becomes permanent upon cooling
and solidification and the smaller mass continues to move
about the larger one as tho it were rigidly connected to it
except for pendular swings or librations due to varying
orbital velocity. Such motion precludes the possibility of
axial rotation in the strictly physical sense. The moon has
never spun around as is well demonstrated by the fact that the
most precise measurements have failed to show any measurable
flattening in form.
2. If a planetary body in its orbital movement turns the same
side towards the central mass this is a positive proof that it
has been separated from the latter and is a true satellite.
3. A planet revolving on its axis in its passage around
another cannot have been thrown off from the same but must
have been captured.
Vote Trump : The Perfect Fascist for our times !
Vote Clinton : The Whore of Babylon -- Revelation
Elect Both ! Vote Early ! Vote Often !
You can read and download the FBI’s
Nikola Tesla files here :
( 44 MB PDF )
The SECRET of NIKOLA TESLA (HD) – The
Nikola Tesla's Biography and Life New
Full Documentary 2016
WISE Digital Library (WDL)
Links to dozens of full text periodicals on integrative,
complementary, and indigenous medicine, alternative energy,
scientific anomalies, consciousness and extraordinary mental
abilities, and unexplained phenomena of all kinds...
1. Biomedical Journals and Periodicals (focusing on
alternative, complementary, holistic, indigenous, and ethnic
traditional medicines and practices, energy medicine, biofields,
bioelectromagnetics, electrotherapeutics, photomedicine, medical
hypotheses, and related subjects):
2. Consciousness and Parapsychology Journals and Periodicals
(focusing on all aspects of consciousness, parapsychology,
psychical research, spiritualism, and other unexplained
psychological phenomena, extraordinary mental abilities, and
3. Alternative and New Energy Journals and Periodicals
(focusing on all aspects of new and alternative energies and
fuels, new hypotheses, and related subjects;)
4. Scientific Anomalies and Unexplained Physical Phenomena
Journals and Periodicals (focusing on scientific anomalies of all
kinds in the physical sciences, alternative scientific theories
and hypotheses, and all unexplained phenomena in the physical
5. Social Science Journals and Periodicals on Unexplained
Phenomena and Events (focusing on unexplained historical events
and mysteries, unusual artifacts and discoveries, and unanswered
questions of all kinds in the fields of archaeology, anthropology,
folklore, geography, history, philosophy, religion, and other
social sciences not covered elsewhere.)
6. Multiple Disciplinary Journals and Periodicals on
Unexplained Phenomena (journals and periodicals that cover more
than one of the above broad subject areas and that cover other
subject areas of scientific anomalies, unexplained phenomena, and
unsolved mysteries not covered by other subject categories.)
7. Skeptic Journals and Periodicals (Periodicals that focus on
criticizing books, articles, periodicals, organizations, and
people doing research on or publishing anything about alternative
medicine, parapsychology, the paranormal, or related subjects,
especially anything positive or favorable about such subjects.) 1.
Biomedical Journals and Periodicals (focusing on alternative,
complementary, holistic, indigenous, and ethnic traditional
medicines and practices, energy medicine, biofields,
bioelectromagnetics, electrotherapeutics, photomedicine, medical
hypotheses, and related subjects):
A Huge Must-See Collection of hard-to-find
books in PDF form... Highly Rex-ommended !
Nyah, Nyah, Nyah, Ya Useless Voters !
Martial Law or Electorial College?
Clearly, the stage is set to blame Russia for a Trump victory.
They are prepping the media who 99% endorse Hillary; the press
conspiracy to feed propaganda to the American people is in full
swing. Meanwhile, Obama continues to support the Sunni in the
civil war with the intent to attack Russian forces in Syria. Our
model still shows the largest turnout may take place here in 2016.
This scares the blood, no matter how cold, right out of the veins
of the career politicians. The American press is committing
suicide and have succeeded in becoming indistinguishable from
Pravda (“Truth”) of the old Soviet Union. Power corrupts
everything, including the press.
There are two scenarios running around behind the curtain. I
reported the one that Obama would declare martial law, suspend the
constitution and remain in the presidency declining to allow
Hillary or Trump to take the throne, he would step aside and hand
it to Joe Biden. Some counsel that is too extreme. Others are
proposing that Obama still blame Russia, but then throw it to the
Congress by means of the electoral college and that way keep it
under the pretense of being constitutional. Any way you cut it,
this does not look like they will allow Trump to take the White
House regardless of the vote.
United States Electoral College is the body that actually elects
the President and Vice President of the United States every four
years. The American people actually have no right to actually
elect the president directly. Constitutionally, the states choose
“electors”, who normally are pledged to vote for particular
candidates. Hence, electors are apportioned to each of the 50
states in addition to the District of Columbia. The number of
electors is determined by population and thus is equal to that
state’s number of members of Congress. The Twenty-third Amendment
granted the District of Columbia the same number of electors as
the least populous state which equal three. Consequently, there
are 538 electors which corresponds to the 435 Representatives and
100 Senators, plus the three additional electors from the District
of Columbia. There are two exceptions where Maine and Nebraska do
not vote on a “winner-take-all” basis. Maine and Nebraska use the
“congressional district method” meaning there is one elector
within each congressional district by popular vote.
Here comes the loophole. There is NO constitutional or federal law
that compels an elector to honor any “pledge” and that is a hole
big enough to fly a fleet of 747 planes through. Therefore, if
they bullshit the people enough with the media supporting them, we
will see the Electoral College hand it to Hillary regardless of
how the people vote. This would be in line with our model which
forecast 2015.75 was the peak in government and it’s all downhill
from there. The candidate who wins the absolute majority of
electoral votes, or 270 today, becomes president. The Twelfth
Amendment provides for what happens if the Electoral College fails
to elect a president or vice president, which could come into play
here in 2016. Under this situation, then the House of
Representatives will select the president. On four occasions, most
recently in the 2000 presidential election between Bush and Gore.
There, Gore won the popular vote with 48.4% and Bush had 47.9%.
The Electoral College was 271 for Bush and 266 for Gore.
Therefore, the Electoral College system has in fact resulted in
the election of a candidate who did not receive the most popular
votes in the election.
The election of a President who has not won in the popular vote
also took place during the 1888 election. Grover Cleveland
received 48.7% of the popular vote to Benjamin Harrison’s 47.9%.
However, Harrison carried New York state and therefore outpolled
Cleveland by 233 to 168 in the Electoral College. In the 1976
election, Carter carried 23 states with 297 electoral votes, while
Ford won 27 states and 240 electoral votes. It has long been
argued that the election of any President who received less than a
popular vote plurality is really unfair and should be
Only two Presidential elections (1800 and 1824) have been decided
in the House. The election in 1876 after the civil war saw, South
Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana submitted certificates of
elections for both candidates. A bipartisan commission of
Representatives, Senators, and Supreme Court Justices, reviewed
the ballots. They awarded all three state’s electoral votes to
Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio, who won the presidency by a single
Our models are pointing to 2032 as the meltdown in the political
system. This will be 52 years from 1980, with prior targets
being 1928, 1876, 1824, and 1772. The current target of 2016
equates to 1964 and JFK’s assassination, 1912 and the defeat of
the Progressive Party (Socialism), and 1860 with the Civil War.
Each have been watershed events politically. It appears 2016 will
live up to its target. Civil Unrest will rise significantly by
rigging this year’s election.
TAKE A LOOK AT WHO ACTUALLY OWNS THE " SMARTMATIC " VOTING
MACHINES YOU WILL BE USING! GEORGE SOROS!
George did not sell these machines, they are "provided" under
contract, the states do not even own them!
Obviously the election will be stolen, to the fullest extent
possible. WHEN YOU GO TO THE VOTING BOOTH, ANNOUNCE LOUDLY THAT
YOU ALREADY KNOW YOUR VOTE WILL BE STOLEN AND VERY PUBLICLY TAKE
A PICTURE OF THE SCREEN BEFORE AND AFTER YOU HIT SUBMIT. BETTER
YET, TAKE A VIDEO SO YOU CAN SEE ANY LAST SECOND FLIPS.
ALL TRUMP SUPPORTERS SHOULD ALSO WEAR A RED SHIRT PROMINENTLY
MARKED TRUMP. IF YOU DO NOT MARK IT TRUMP, "THEY" WILL FIND A
WAY TO SQUIRM OUT OF ANY VIDEO PROOF OF WHAT HAPPENED.
EQUALLY IMPORTANT: TAKE A PICTURE OF YOUR BALLOT IF YOUR STATE
USES PAPER, BECAUSE EVEN PAPER BALLOTS WILL BE COUNTED ON
MACHINES SOROS OWNS
Gee, do you see any possible conflict of interest with a private
individual OWNING the hardware the election will be tabulated
Here is the Wikileaks index just in case it vanishes into thin
Aw, who cares about that silly "
election " ?! That's the Electoral College's business,
not ours ! Only the invasion / conquest of USA
can change that ! What's really, truly important is : Does
Michelle stand to make tinkle ? Does Barry Soetero glorp
Mikey's twinky-tube & boff his colon ? Inquiring
minds want to know !
More On Michael Robinson Becoming
Collated By Prof James Fetzer
Michael LaVaughn Robinson | Fellowship of the Minds
Mar 14, 2014 ... Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United
States, was born Michael LaVaughn Robinson in Chicago, Illinois
on January 17th, 1964. ..
Obama Admits His Wife is a Transexual Man Named “Michael ...
Mar 30, 2015 ... Published on Oct 31, 2014. Michelle Obama,
First Lady of the United States, was born Michael LaVaughn
Robinson in Chicago, Illinois...
Who Are Malia And Sasha Obama's Real Parents? - The Politics
“Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United States, was born
Michael LaVaughn ... Michelle aka Michael Robinson Obama circa
1981, right #44. .... This is really quite possible and to the
contrary there is information in regards ...
May 18, 2016 ... First Lady is actually the First Man! ...
Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United States, was born
Michael LaVaughn Robinson in Chicago, ...
Michelle Obama IS “Michael LaVaughn Robinson” SHOCKINGLY ...
and gentlemen our “First Lady” is actually the First Man.
Michael LaVaughn Robinson | Facebook
Building the past and identity of Michelle Obama's alter-ego.
... Michael LaVaughn Robinson added a new photo...
Michelle Obama A Man Originally born as “Michael LaVaughn
OBAMA MICHELLE SHES A HE - YouTube
Jan 13, 2014 ... Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United
States, was born Michael LaVaughn Robinson in Chicago, Illinois
on January 17th, 1964 ...
Introducing Michael LaVaughn Robinson; The First Lady Of The …
Jul 4, 2014 ... Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United States,
was born Michael LaVaughn Robinson in Chicago, Illinois on
January 17th, 1964. He was the ...
Michelle Obama A Transgender? Is The First Lady Actually The
Nov 18, 2014 ... “Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United
States, was born Michael LaVaughn Robinson in Chicago, Illinois
on January 17th, 1964. He was the ...
APPLE SEED CURES CANCER and it’s 10.000
Times More Effective than Chemotherapy!
....One of the known manufacturers of more powerful drugs in the
world explained that after 20 laboratory tests developed since
1970 the results showed that the extract of apple seed eliminates
cancer cells from 12 different cancers including: prostate cancer,
colon , breast, pancreatic and lung.
The compounds of this seed proved 10 thousand times more effective
in their action of retarding the growth of cancer cells compared
to Adriamycin, a drug used to prevent chemotherapy multiplication
of tumor cells.
But there is still more surprising fact: the compounds of the
apple seed, used as a therapeutic natural remedy against cancer,
only act on cancer or abnormal cells without affecting those who
are healthy, unlike chemotherapy which affects both types, which
significantly impairs our health, impoverishing our immune system.
Anticancer PROPERTIES OF Apple seed:
Like other seeds such as tangerine or plum, apple seed is rich
in water-soluble vitamin, B17. This vitamin is composed of one
molecule of benzaldehyde and other cyanide.
It has discovered the power of this vitamin to counter cancer for
its healing properties, which explains why this vitamin in the
presence of water and the enzyme beta-glucosamidasa generates
cyanide and benzaldehyde, which separately are highly toxic but
working together they are able to amplify its anticarcinogenic
potential up to 100 times.
It should be noted that the enzyme beta-glucosamidase found in
large proportions in cancer cells and in very low concentration in
normal cells. For this reason it is that the compounds present in
apple seed act on abnormal cells, creating a symbiosis between
these toxic substances seed with the enzyme beta-glucosamidasa own
diseased cells, resulting in the elimination of the latter,
stopping their growth and spread, this process without affecting
normal cells at all the rest of the body.
Furthermore, normal cells contain an enzyme called rhodanese, is a
mitochondrial enzyme whose scientific name is sulfurotransferasa
thiosulfate. This enzyme detoxified cyanide, that is, it does not
toxic to the body. However, cancer cells do not have rhodanese,
thus are vulnerable to this cyanide in apple seed, which acts by
How to eat the apple seed ?
The apple seed has a bitter taste and a little acid will not like
too sure, but compared to the terrible effects of chemotherapy is
a much healthier and effective option. Mode consume depends on
your creativity: you can eat the seeds while eating the apple,
crush or grind or its content and sprinkle on salads, fruit
smoothies, juices and other foods.
This SEED CURES CANCER and it’s 10.000 Times More
Effective Than CHEMOTHERAPY!
The new jab that could stop YOU going
blind: Cell-replacement therapy may halt a common cause of
A therapy now
exists for the most common cause of blindness in over-50s
Dry age-related macular degeneration,
or AMD, first starts as blurry vision
The new study in Israel involves
injecting patients with cell replacements
By Roger Dobson for the Daily Mail
Scientists have developed the first possible therapy for the
most common cause of blindness in over-50s — dry age-related
macular degeneration (AMD).
The condition causes blind spots and blurry vision and can lead to
In a new study in Israel, patients are being given injections of
special cells to replace those killed off in the condition; the
hope is that this will stop the disease progressing.
If the study is successful, larger trials which will make the
treatment available for use will be starting later this year.
AMD is estimated to affect more than half a million people in the
UK. There are two forms, wet and dry.
Both types occur when cells in the macula, the light-sensitive
area at the back of the eye, become damaged, leading to
Wet AMD develops when abnormal blood vessels form underneath the
macula and cause swelling and bleeding, which very quickly results
in irreparable damage.
Untreated, it can cause blindness within three months. It is
treated with injections of chemicals known as anti-vascular
endothelial growth factor, which stop the development of these
Dry AMD, which accounts for 90 per cent of cases, occurs when the
cells of the macula become damaged by a build-up of deposits
Vision deteriorates gradually over many years but there is
currently no treatment for it.
The slow progression and complex mechanisms involved in dry AMD
have meant it has been difficult to develop a treatment.
Exactly how drusen deposits form is unclear, but they are thought
to be waste products from neighbouring cells and tissues of the
This is a normal process in people without dry AMD too, but
usually the deposits are cleared up by retinal pigment epithelial
(RPE) cells found next to the macula.
The theory is that in dry AMD, these retinal cells die off first,
meaning the clear-up mechanism is slow or stops, resulting in
The new approach, developed by Israeli company Cell Cure
Neurosciences, is based on injections of RPE cells made in a lab.
The cells are derived from donated embryos and are treated with
chemicals to help them turn into adult RPE cells.
The treatment involves injecting a solution which contains up to
500,000 of these retinal cells into the back of the patient’s
eyes, just underneath the retina.
In a new trial at three hospitals across Israel, 15 patients with
dry AMD will receive one injection — researchers will then monitor
the progression of the disease for a year, using a battery of
vision tests at set intervals.
Studies in mice have shown that the injection treatment, called
OpRegen, is safe and effective, and that it preserves vision and
structure of the retina.
When the cells were injected they formed a single-layer structure
similar to the natural layer of cells, and survived for the
lifetime of the mice, according to the journal Cell Stem Cell in
The proven ability of the injected cells to behave like this is
critical to the success of the therapy in humans, the researchers
Scientists have found another possible target for future drugs
to treat blinding diseases such as AMD and retinitis pigmentosa
In experiments on mice, researchers at Washington University
in St Louis identified a molecule called NAD which is lowered in
these conditions and leads to the death of photoreceptors.
When mice were injected with a chemical that boosts levels of NAD,
cell degeneration ceased and vision was restored, according to the
journal Cell Reports.
ANTI-AGEING PILL? Breakthrough as
scientists discover how to slow down the ageing process –
raising hopes of drug treatments
Researchers have identified a specific protein which they
believe controls ageing
By Sara Kamouni
The discovery of the protein, called carbonic anhydrase, could
lead to the development of new medicines to slow the effects of
ageing – or even halt the progression of debilitating conditions
such as dementia.
During the study, tests showed higher levels of carbonic anhydrase
in the brain and muscle cells of older mice.
Crucially, there was also larger amounts of it in young mice who
already had some brain degeneration.
After carrying out this assessment, researchers then fed carbon
anhydrase to 1mm-long nematode worms – and found doing so reduced
their life span.
Now, work is continuing to identify chemical compounds, known as
“inhibitors”, which could reduce levels of carbonic anhydrase in
cells’ mitochondria – the “batteries” of the human body’s cells,
which convert oxygen into energy.
Dr Lisa Chakrabarti, who led the study with PhD student Amelia
Pollard, said: “This could be a key to slowing down or reversing
some of the signs of ageing.
“What’s really exciting about this development is that we have
been able to surmise that the function of this protein is playing
a role in the ageing process within the cell.
“On the face of it, it’s quite a simple study, and it’s strange
it’s never been done before.
“But these are the things we need to be looking at. Everybody gets
old, but we don’t have to get crumbly with it.”
She added: “We think that energy, and energetic processes, are
really important for how you age.
“This could potentially offer a significant new avenue in both
tackling degenerative illnesses and the general effects of ageing
on the body.”
High dose IV vitamin C cures patient of
Zika virus in three days
by Lori Alto
For years, natural health experts have been extolling the
ability of high doses of vitamin C to fight disease safely,
effectively and naturally. Now, a case study from Puerto Rico – in
which a woman infected with the Zika virus recovered practically
overnight after being treated with vitamin C – provides strong new
evidence for the claim.
The Zika virus – which is related to yellow fever and West
Nile viruses – is transmitted by the Aedes Aegypti mosquito. Some
people infected with the Zika virus display no signs of the
disease. If and when symptoms develop, they can include fever,
headache, rash, joint pain, conjunctivitis and muscle pain.
According to conventional ‘wisdom,’ there is no cure for the Zika
virus – which usually resolves itself within two weeks. To
alleviate symptoms, doctors often prescribe acetaminophen (which
threatens the liver) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
which offers plenty of negative side effects.
It’s official: High dose vitamin C stops Zika in its tracks within
According to the case study, a 54-year-old woman who had suffered
several recent mosquito bites presented at the Berdiel Clinic in
Ponce, Puerto Rico with oral blisters, fever, a rash, a headache
and reddened eyes – all classic Zika symptoms. When she tested
positive for the virus, doctors from University of Puerto Rico
administered escalating doses of vitamin C for three days, moving
from 25 to 50 to 75 grams.
Within 24 hours, the patient’s symptoms had improved dramatically,
and were resolved completely by the third day. Noting that it
ordinarily takes two weeks to recover from Zika, the team hailed
vitamin C as “an efficient antioxidant” with “anti-viral
activity,” and called for further study on vitamin C as a
treatment for acute viral infections.
Finally, conventional medicine is beginning to acknowledge vitamin
C’s healing powers. You can read more about the entire case
The amazing disease-fighting abilities of vitamin C
Vitamin C is often referred to as “a nutrient for the immune
system” – an apt label. Vitamin C enhances immune function
by stimulating interferon production and increasing the number and
aggressiveness of infection-fighting white blood cells – namely
T-cells and natural killer cells, which are the sworn enemies of
viruses and bacteria. It also helps to detoxify the viral products
that cause pain and inflammation.
A powerful anti-clotting agent, vitamin C also functions as an
antihistamine. But its most important asset in fighting viruses
may be the potency with which it scavenges reactive oxygen species
– especially as recent research has highlighted the link between
oxidative stress and infectious viral diseases.
With recent growing concern about the Ebola and Zika viruses,
isn’t it great to know that the cure could be a safe, natural,
Strong case for high dose intravenous vitamin C
When vitamin C is given orally, much of it is absorbed in the
gastrointestinal tract, with the excess being eliminated by the
kidneys. The advantage of giving vitamin C intravenously is that
it can then reach proper levels of plasma concentration. The
doctors at Bardiel reported that amounts 30 to 70 times higher
than those achieved by the oral route are necessary to activate
vitamin C’s antiviral activity – which is what high dose IV
vitamin C proponents have been saying all along.
Thomas E. Levy, M.D., a leading proponent of high dose vitamin C
therapy for a wide range of diseases, credits the late Dr.
Frederick Klenner for his pioneering work with vitamin C in the
1930s and 1940s. Dr. Klenner, who advocated giving at least 350 mg
of vitamin C per kg of body weight – 25 to 30 grams for a typical
adult – heralded vitamin C’s ability to successfully treat polio,
influenza, multiple sclerosis, pneumonia and hepatitis.
As early as 1949, Dr. Klenner was releasing his exciting findings
about vitamin C at the Annual Session of the American Medical
Association. But his good news fell on deaf ears, and his work
received little notice.
Protect your health with regular use of vitamin C
Of course, the preventive doses recommended by Levy and Klenner
far exceed the meager daily allowances advised by medical
authorities – which are grossly insufficient, says Dr. Levy.
The Institute of Medicine recommends a mere 90 mgs of vitamin C a
day for men over 18, and 75 mg for women. According to Mayo
Clinic, the recommended upper limit of vitamin C is a paltry 2,000
mgs a day.
No one, says Dr. Levy, should rely on these recommended daily
dosages for vitamin C, which are good for little more than
protecting against scurvy. Doses must be large enough – and taken
often enough – for the vitamin to do its beneficial work of
reducing oxidative stress.
Dr. Levy recommends a daily preventive dose of 6,000 to 12,000 mg
(6 to 12 grams) a day for most healthy adults.
For acute infections and chronic disease, Dr. Levy advises a
“Multi-C Protocol” – which includes 1 to 5 grams per day of
liposome-encapsulated vitamin C, sodium ascorbate daily up to or
reaching bowel tolerance, 1 to 3 grams daily of ascorbyl
palmitate, and intravenous vitamin C in the form of sodium
ascorbate or buffered ascorbic acid, given in the amount of 25 to
150 grams, depending on size and weight.
Of course, you should consult with a trusted healthcare provider
in order to tailor an exact regimen that’s right for you.
Vitamin C success story: History repeats itself
Although the woman’s recovery from Zika is garnering current
attention, her case is not unprecedented. In addition to the
lifesaving vitamin C interventions engineered by Dr. Klenner in
past decades, there is the case of a New Zealand man’s astonishing
recovery from a near-fatal battle with swine flu – which was
documented on New Zealand’s “60 Minutes” program.
Dairy farmer Allan Smith developed swine flu, which progressed
into “white-out” pneumonia – a particularly dangerous form in
which lungs are so full of infected fluid they can’t be seen on an
X-ray. He also developed hairy cell leukemia, after which he was
placed in a medically induced coma.
His condition continued to deteriorate, and doctors at Auckland
Hospital were on the verge of removing him from life support when
a family member convinced them to try high dose vitamin C. Within
a day, Mr. Smith had improved. Within weeks, he had made a
full recovery – with no sign of leukemia.
(Of course, doctors at the hospital completely denied the role of
vitamin C in Smith’s miraculous recovery. Instead, they credited
their own decision to suddenly place him in a “prone” position.)
Hopefully, researchers will follow through on the promise of the
Berdiel team, and conventional medicine will begin to accept the
truth about the astonishing potential of vitamin C to fight
Discover the most powerful vitamin to kill
Features Jonathan Landsman and Thomas Levy, MD talking about
how to safely and effectively eliminate the threat of viruses plus
many of the degenerative diseases associated with inflammation.
Have scientists actually found
way to turn off ageing?
Scientists have discovered a key cellular protein that controls
the ageing process – a breakthrough that could lead to advances
that slow down or even stop the ageing process.
Researchers believe that the discovery of a protein called
carbonic anhydrase could be the first step in developing medicines
that slow the progression of neurodegenerative conditions such as
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
University of Nottingham scientists found larger amounts of the
protein in the brain and muscle cells of older mice than in
younger mice. However, young mice with prior mental degeneration
also had higher amounts of the protein within their cells’
mitochondria, known as the powerhouse responsible for converting
oxygen into energy.
To determine if the protein was detrimental, rather than a
byproduct of the body’s efforts to protect itself against
degeneration, researchers tested its effects on one millimeter
long nematode worms.
Feeding the worms carbonic acid was found to reduce their
Scientists may have ‘game changer’ drug to
Lead researcher Lisa Chakrabarti of the University’s School of
Veterinary Medicine and Science said, “What’s really exciting
about this development is that we have been able to surmise that
the function of this protein is playing a role in the ageing
process within the cell.”
“This gives us a very promising start in working out how we can
best target this protein within the mitochondria to slow the
effects of ageing in the body while limiting other unwanted side
effects on the body.
“It could potentially offer a significant new avenue in both
tackling degenerative illnesses and the general effects of ageing
on the body,” she explained.
The study, which is the result of a three year project, was
published in the academic journal, Ageing.
Researchers are now trying to identify chemical compounds
known as inhibitors that might successfully reduce the levels of
PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF HAIR LOSS
Inventor(s): SIMKIM GUILLERMO, et al.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to stimulate and/or restore
hair growth in areas of hair loss. Methods and compositions
relating to PDT treatment for alopecia are disclosed. In light of
PDT use to remove unwanted hair by inactivating or destroying hair
follicles or destroying the tissue feeding the hair follicles,
such methods and compositions relate to a surprising and
unexpected discovery. PDT permits a means to treat conditions
relating to hair loss such as androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata
and drug-induced alopecia.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to the use of photodynamic therapy
(PDT) and the use of PDT with appropriate photosensitizers to
stimulate hair growth. In particular, the use of photosensitizers
and PDT for treating conditions relating to hair loss, such as
androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata, is described. The
present invention further relates to increases in proinflammatory
cytokines induced by PDT, which stimulates hair growth, as well as
to methods of determining the level of hair growth stimulation
mediated by PDT.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Alopecia is the general term referring to any disease or condition
involving hair loss. There are several different types of hair
loss, the most common being androgenetic alopecia (AGA; see
Sawaya, M. E. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
17(4):276-283, 1998), alopecia areata (AA; see Fiedler &
Alaiti, Dermatologic Clinics 14(4): 733-738, 1996, as well as
chemotherapy and drug-induced alopecia.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is by far the most common type of
alopecia. AGA is a patterned, progressive loss of an excessive
amount of hair from the scalp. Significant AGA occurs in 50% of
men by the age of fifty and 50% of women by the age of sixty. AGA
is believed to be a result of both genetic predisposition and the
presence of a sufficient level of circulating androgens. It is
thought that the enzyme 5 alpha reductase present in dermal
papilla cells converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
DHT binds to androgen receptors, also localized in the dermal
papilla cells, triggering changes in the hair follicle that result
in (1) shortening of the anagen or growth phase of the hair cycle,
(2) development of a latent phase in the hair cycle following
shedding of the telogen hair, and (3) follicular miniaturization
process that reduces the caliber of the anagen hairs produced. It
is thought that differential expression of 5-alpha reductase
and/or androgen receptors in various types of hair follicles
accounts for patterned hair growth and loss.
Currently approved treatments for AGA include minoxidil
(Rogaine(TM)), an anti-hypertensive drug for which the mechanism
of action in promoting hair growth is unknown. Minoxidil must be
applied topically on a twice daily basis, and is therefore
somewhat inconvenient to use. Studies have shown that 2% Minoxidil
can provide an increase in the numbers of terminal hairs after
4-12 months (De Villez et al, Journal of the American Academy of
Dermatology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Part 2 (March 1987) 669-672).
However, this benefit disappears over time or once the treatment
is stopped. Another drug used in the treatment of AGA is
finasteride (Propecia(TM)), a selective inhibitor of the type 2
isoenzyme 5-alpha reductase. This treatment has marginal efficacy,
requires daily oral administration and can have some
anti-androgenic side effects such as alteration of libido. Hair
transplants and scalp reduction are also performed on patients
with hair loss associated with AGA. These procedures are too
expensive or time consuming for many people. In addition, many
people are put off by the surgical nature of the treatment.
Alopecia areata (AA) has been reported to account for 2% of new
outpatients in dermatology clinics (Fiedler & Alaiti supra).
AA is a nonscarring form of hair loss which occurs in humans and
other species and is thought to be due to an inflammatory reaction
caused by autoimmune response directed against the anagen stage
hair follicle structure (McElwee et al. Pathobiology 66(2):
A number of therapeutic modalities have been tested for the
treatment of AA, with variable results ranging from no effect to
partial or full hair regrowth. In some cases chronic maintenance
treatment is required. Major drawbacks of these treatments are
side effects, which can be local or systemic in nature. Fiedler
& Alaiti (supra) and Shapiro (Dermatological Clinics 11(1):
35-46, 1993) have reviewed the various treatments available for
AA, including steroids (topical, intralesional and systemic),
minoxidil, anthralin, photochemotherapy, cyclosporin A and other
agents, as well as combination treatments.
Photochemotherapy therapy for AA using psoralen and high energy
UVA (PUVA) treatment has met with very limited success and its
effectiveness for AA is in doubt (Lebwohl, M. Lancet 349:222-223,
1997). Side effects of PUVA treatment such as nausea, pigmentary
changes, risk of skin cancer formation, and cataracts have been
reported (Fiedler & Alaiti, supra). Antioxidants have been
used to ameliorate the side-effects of PUVA therapy (Ptapenko
& Kyagova, Membr. Cell Biol. 12(2): 269-278, 1998). The use of
2% khellin, a compound with a chemical structure that resembles
psoralen, and UVA for alopecia areata was found to be successful
in 5 of the 10 patients tested (Orasa et al. Int. J. Dermatol.
32(9): 690, 1993). Since khellin did not cause phototoxicity, the
authors have suggested its use as an alternative to psoralen.
Hematoporphyrin and high energy UVA has been used in a very
limited study by Monfrcola et al. (Photodermatology 4:305-306,
1987). Two patients were treated with topical hematoporphyrin
(0.5%, HP) and UVA irradiation with three times a week for eight
weeks. In the first week of treatment there was significant
erythema and mild scaling followed by hyperpigmentation in the HP
treated sites. Side effects included unpleasant reddish skin
coloration for several hours and sometimes burning sensations
during the irradiation phase. The authors point out that severe
phototoxic reactions could occur with the use of HP concentrations
greater than 1%. They also state that more work is needed before
this approach can be subject to routine clinical use.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been utilized for the removal of
unwanted hair in human subjects. Briefly the treatment involves a
topical application of a photosensitizer on a selected area of the
skin, a period for absorption of the photosensitizer, followed by
a pulse or continuous irradiation or vibration of the area. The
process involves inactivating or destroying the hair follicles or
destroying the tissue feeding the hair follicles (see U.S. Pat.
Nos. 5,669,916; 5,871,480; WO 97/32046).
Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive two-step medical
procedure that uses photoactivatable drugs called photosensitizers
to treat a range of diseases. First, a photosensitizer is
administered and, once it has permeated the target tissue, the
photosensitizer is then activated by exposure to a dose of
electromagnetic (usually light) radiation at a particular
wavelength. Photodynamic therapies have been approved for a number
of indications including the treatment of non-small cell lung
cancer (Photofrin(TM)), age-related macular degeneration
(Visudyne(TM)), actinic keratosis (Metvix(TM), Levulan(TM)), and
basal cell carcinoma (Metvix(TM)).
There continues to be a need for an effective, non-surgical
procedure that results in a rapid increase in the number of
terminal hairs but has minimal side effects.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It has been discovered that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can
stimulate hair growth and restore hair growth in areas of hair
loss. The discovery includes the ability to use a variety of
photosensitizers in PDT to treat hair growth reduction or hair
loss. In light of the use of PDT to remove unwanted hair by
inactivating or destroying hair follicles or destroying the tissue
feeding the hair follicles, as discussed above, the instant
invention relates to a surprising and unexpected discovery.
The instant invention provides methods and compositions for
treating lack of hair growth or a reduction or loss of existing
hair by stimulating and/or restoring hair growth with PDT. Thus
one aspect of the invention relates to methods for stimulating,
inducing, restoring, reviving, renewing, replacing or otherwise
activating hair growth in animals characterized by a lack of hair
growth or a reduction in the amount of, or loss of, hair. In
particular, the treatment methods of the invention comprise i)
administering an effective and/or sufficient amount of
photosensitizer resulting in an effective or desired degree of
biodistribution; ii) irradiating at least a portion of the
external surface of the animal with light including one or more
wavelengths capable of activating said photosensitizer for a time
period sufficient to activate the photosensitizer. The
administrating and irradiating acts of (i) and (ii) may be
repeated as necessary or desired to result in a desired level of
The desired therapeutic response of hair growth can also be
accomplished by the irradiation of skin, which has been treated
with an effective amount of a photosensitizer, with light
including one or more wavelengths capable of activating said
photosensitizer for a time period sufficient to activate the
photosensitizer and result in a desired level of hair growth.
Moreover, the methods of the invention may be practiced with any
photosensitizer, which may be delivered systemically or locally.
Thus in one application of the invention, the invention provide
for the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to stimulate an increase
in hair count numbers and restore hair growth in areas of hair
loss. One embodiment of this application comprises:
(a) administering an effective and/or sufficient amount of a
photosensitizer to an area of a subject's skin where hair growth
is desired; and
(b) irradiating the area with electromagnetic energy containing a
wavelength capable of activating, or appropriate to activate, said
photosensitizer for a time period sufficient to activate the
photosensitizer; and optionally
(c) repeating (a) and (b)
wherein there is an increase in hair count numbers in the treated
Preferably, the increase in hair count is an increase in terminal
hairs, which are long, pigmented hairs that are produced by
follicles with sebaceous (oil) glands. They are found on the
scalp, beard, armpits and pubic areas and are in contrast to
vellus hairs, which are short hairs, often only a centimetre or
two long, that contain little or no pigment. The follicles that
produce vellus hairs do not have sebaceous and never produce any
other kind of hairs. Terminal hairs also differ from Lanugo hair,
which develops on an unborn baby. In people who have inherited a
tendency to baldness terminal hairs may gradually become thinner
and shorter until they look like vellus hairs. This may be due to
the growth of terminal hairs being influenced by hormones (e.g.
androgens) while vellus hairs are not so influenced.
The progression of conditions such as AGA is for a gradual
decrease in the number of terminal hairs over time. The terminal
hairs may also gradually become thinner and shorter until they
look like vellus hairs. It is surprising, therefore, that the
current method can actually increase the number of hairs after 3
months. In addition to treatment of hair loss, the method of the
present invention may be used for the stimulation of hair growth
in areas not recognized as experiencing hair loss. As used herein,
the term "hair growth" refers to an increase in number of terminal
hairs present. Terminal hair counts can be conducted in a number
of ways as known in the art. A non-limiting example is where the
terminal hair is counted by trained and validated technicians who
perform a computer-assisted count on macrophotographs. In brief, a
target area on the scalp is chosen, the hair clipped and the scalp
permanently marked with a single dot tattoo in the center in order
to facilitate the exact positioning at each subsequent photo
session. The macrophotography is performed using a preset camera
with a macro lens and a stand that provides a constant
reproduction ratio and electronic flashes that reproducibly
illuminate the area to photograph. The images are taken in
triplicate, centering the camera using the tattoo and the color
slide films are processed at a central facility. The quality of
the images is assessed and large transparencies are made of the
best images. The terminal hairs on the target circle of the
transparencies are then counted by the trained technicians.
In all embodiments of the invention, the disclosed PDT mediated
methods may be repeated over time and preferably result in a 2% or
more increase in the number of terminal hairs within 3 months.
In another aspect, the invention is directed to formulations or
compositions comprising photosensitizers for treating lack of hair
growth or a reduction or loss of existing hair with the methods of
the invention. These compositions comprise an effective amount of
photosensitizer, optionally with a pharmaceutically acceptable
carrier or excipient, and may also be used to prevent or inhibit
the development of hair growth reduction or hair loss. The
invention includes pharmaceutical compositions targeted to hair
follicles, the surrounding tissue, or tissues which feed hair
follicles. In particular, formulations comprising photosensitizers
conjugated to agents, which specifically target or bind
appropriate scalp or skin tissues, hair follicles, or tissues and
cells surrounding said hair follicles, are preferred for use in
the methods of the invention. Compositions comprising conjugated
or unconjugated photosensitizers are optionally formulated with
agents suitable or preferred for application to the scalp, or
other skin where hair growth is desired. Examples of such agents
include pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients.
The invention also provides for methods of using photosensitizer
formulations and compositions in preparing an area of skin for PDT
to increase the number of terminal hairs in said area, or to treat
AGA, said methods comprising administering, preferably by topical
administration, such formulations and compositions to said area.
In one set of preferred embodiments, the invention is practiced
with a photosensitizer that is photoactivated by light of a
wavelength from about 400 to about 900 nm. In another set of
preferred embodiments of the invention, the treatment methods and
compositions comprise the use of a particularly potent group of
photosensitizers known as green porphyrins, which are described in
detail in Levy et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,171,749 issued 15 Dec.
1992, which is incorporated herein by reference. The term "green
porphyrins" refers to porphyrin derivatives obtained by reacting a
porphyrin nucleus with an alkyne in a Diels-Alder type reaction to
obtain a mono-hydrobenzoporphyrin. In particular, green porphyrin
compounds such as benzoporphyrin derivative mono-acid (BPD-MA),
EA6, and B3 may be used in the invention. Two preferred members of
the green porphyrin family are verteporfin (comprising the 4
enantiomers shown below) and QLT 0074.
Additionally, the methods of the invention preferably comprise
irradiation with visible light containing a wavelength absorbed by
The invention also provides methods of stimulating an increase in
tissue levels of one or more growth factors or cytokines in cells
present within skin tissue by the use of PDT. More particularly,
the cytokines include, but are not limited to,
interleukin-1-[alpha], interleukin-1-[beta], and
granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Without
being bound by theory, it is believed that PDT mediated increases
in pro-inflammatory cytokines play a role in inducing hair,
particularly terminal hair, growth as described herein. The
invention also provides for the use of such increases in the
treatment of other conditions.
In another aspect, the invention provides for methods to determine
the amount of increase in hair growth mediated by PDT. These
methods may be practiced with any photosensitizer in various
amounts or concentrations and with use of various irradiation
regimens, including, but not limited to, those with variations in
timing, radiation energy dose and/or rate, and wavelength of
radiation. In one embodiment, such methods comprise
(a) administering a photosensitizer to skin exhibiting hair growth
reduction or hair loss;
(b) irradiating said skin with electromagnetic energy containing a
wavelength absorbed by said photosensitizer to activate it; and
(c) measuring the increase in hair growth,
wherein an increase in hair growth in comparison to skin that has
not been treated with both a) and b) can be determined.
Preferably, the photosensitizer is one which absorbs activating
radiation in the range of about 400 nm to about 800 nm and is
administered by topical application. Said measuring can be by any
means known to the skilled person, including, but not limited to,
counting the number of terminal hairs, measuring hair weight,
measuring hair density, and/or measuring hair shaft diameter, most
preferably by counting the number of terminal hairs. Preferably,
the skin that has not been treated has not been treated with one
of a) and b)...
60 Years Ago Aldous Huxley Predicted
How Global Freedom Would Die
by Isaac Davis
In a televised interview with ABC’s Mike Wallace in 1958,
author of the seminal classic Brave New World, Aldous Huxley laid
out his rather grim vision for the future of the human race in a
prescient and timeless warning for us to wake up. After having
lived through the bloodbaths of World War I and II and in the
early stages of the nuclear cold war, he discussed the problems of
freedom and survival in America, making a number of predictions
more relevant today, nearly 60 years later, than ever before.
Huxley, as introduced by Wallace:
“A man haunted by a vision of hell on earth. A searing social
critic, Mr. Huxley 27 years ago wrote Brave New World, a novel
that predicted that someday the entire world would live under a
frightful dictatorship. Today Mr. Huxley says that his fictional
world of horror is probably just around the corner for all of us.”
As the world now sleepwalks into a third world war which will
certain bring about a nuclear holocaust, Huxley’s message is more
important than ever because it serves as a reminder that a
critically thinking individual is the truest and most formidable
weapon against the destructive and psychopathic tendencies of
The following 6 predictions taken from this interview were
exceptionally farsighted at the time, and are presented here as an
amplification of Huxley’s imperative that we all must wake up to
the truth of how power is misused in our world.
1.) Technology, Bureaucracy and Television Would be Used to
HUXLEY: As technology becomes more and more complicated, it
becomes necessary to have more and more elaborate organizations,
more hierarchical organizations, and incidentally the advance of
technology is being accompanied by an advance in the science of
It’s now possible to make organizations on a larger scale than it
was ever possible before, and so that you have more and more
people living their lives out as subordinates in these
hierarchical systems controlled by bureaucracy, either the
bureaucracies of big businesses or the bureaucracies of big
HUXLEY: Hitler used terror on the one kind, brute force on the one
hand, but he also used a very efficient form of propaganda, which
er…he was using every modern device at that time. He didn’t have
TV., but he had the radio which he used to the fullest extent, and
was able to impose his will on an immense mass of people. I mean,
the Germans were a highly educated people.
WALLACE: Well, we’re aware of all this, but how do we equate
Hitler’s use of propaganda with the way that propaganda, if you
will, is used let us say here in the United States. Are you
suggesting that there is a parallel?
HUXLEY: Needless to say it is not being used this way now, but,
er…the point is, it seems to me, that there are methods at present
available, methods superior in some respects to Hitler’s method,
which could be used in a bad situation. I mean, what I feel very
strongly is that we mustn’t be caught by surprise by our own
This has happened again and again in history with technology’s
advance and this changes social condition, and suddenly people
have found themselves in a situation which they didn’t foresee and
doing all sorts of things they really didn’t want to do.
WALLACE: And well, what…what do you mean? Do you mean that we
develop our television but we don’t know how to use it correctly,
is that the point that you’re making?
HUXLEY: Well, at the present the television, I think, is being
used quite harmlessly; it’s being used, I think, I would feel,
it’s being used too much to distract everybody all the time. But,
I mean, imagine which must be the situation in all communist
countries where the television, where it exists, is always saying
the same things the whole time; it’s always driving along.
It’s not creating a wide front of distraction it’s creating a
one-pointed, er…drumming in of a single idea, all the time. It’s
obviously an immensely powerful instrument.
WALLACE: Uh-huh. So you’re talking about the potential misuse of
HUXLEY: Exactly. We have, of course…all technology is in itself
moral and neutral. These are just powers which can either be used
well or ill; it is the same thing with atomic energy, we can
either use it to blow ourselves up or we can use it as a
substitute for the coal and the oil which are running out.
2.) Advertising Will Bypass Rationality and Capture the Mind’s
HUXLEY: …advertisement plays a very necessary role, but the
danger it seems to me in a democracy is this…I mean what does a
democracy depend on? A democracy depends on the individual voter
making an intelligent and rational choice for what he regards as
his enlightened self-interest, in any given circumstance.
But what these people are doing, I mean what both, for their
particular purposes, for selling goods and the dictatorial
propagandists are for doing, is to try to bypass the rational side
of man and to appeal directly to these unconscious forces below
the surfaces so that you are, in a way, making nonsense of the
whole democratic procedure, which is based on conscious choice on
WALLACE: Of course, well, maybe…I…you have just answered this next
question because in your essay you write about television
commercials, not just political commercials, but television
commercials as such and how, as you put it, “Today’s children walk
around singing beer commercials and toothpaste commercials.” And
then you link this phenomenon in some way with the dangers of a
dictatorship. Now, could you spell out the connection or, have…or
do you feel you’ve done so sufficiently?
HUXLEY: Well, I mean, here, this whole question of children, I
think, is a terribly important one because children are quite
clearly much more suggestible than the average grownup; and again,
suppose that, er…that for one reason or another all the propaganda
was in the hands of one or very few agencies, you would have an
extraordinarily powerful force playing on these children, who
after all are going to grow up and be adults quite soon. I do
think that this is not an immediate threat, but it remains a
possible threat, and…
WALLACE: You said something to the effect in your essay that the
children of Europe used to be called ‘cannon fodder’ and here in
the United States they are ‘television and radio fodder.’
HUXLEY: Well, after all, you can read in the trade journals
the most lyrical accounts of how necessary it is, to get hold of
the children because then they will be loyal brand buyers later
on. But I mean, again you just translate this into political
terms, the dictator says they all will be ideology buyers when
they are grownup.
3.) The Rise of Dictatorship Based on Terrorism
HUXLEY: I think this kind of dictatorship of the future, I think
will be very unlike the dictatorships which we’ve been familiar
with in the immediate past. I mean, take another book prophesying
the future, which was a very remarkable book, George Orwell’s
Well, this book was written at the height of the Stalinist regime,
and just after the Hitler regime, and there he foresaw a
dictatorship using entirely the methods of terror, the methods of
physical violence. Now, I think what is going to happen in the
future is that dictators will find, as the old saying goes, that
you can do everything with bayonets except sit on them!
4.) The Pharmacological Revolution Will Make Us Love Slavery
HUXLEY: …this is the… the pharmacological revolution which is
taking place, that we have now powerful mind-changing drugs which
physiologically speaking are almost costless. I mean they are not
like opium or like coca…cocaine, which do change the state of mind
but leave terrible results physiologically and morally.
If you want to preserve your power indefinitely, you have to get
the consent of the ruled, and this they will do partly by drugs as
I foresaw in “Brave New World,” partly by these new techniques of
They will do it by bypassing the sort of rational side of man and
appealing to his subconscious and his deeper emotions, and his
physiology even, and so, making him actually love his slavery.
I mean, I think, this is the danger that actually people may be,
in some ways, happy under the new regime, but that they will be
happy in situations where they oughtn’t to be happy.
We know, there is enough evidence now for us to be able, on the
basis of this evidence and using certain amount of creative
imagination, to foresee the kind of uses which could be made by
people of bad will with these things and to attempt to forestall
5.) Political Candidates Would Become Merchandise Marketed by
WALLACE: You write in Enemies of Freedom, you write specifically
about the United States. You say this, writing about American
political campaigns you say, “All that is needed is money and a
candidate who can be coached to look sincere; political principles
and plans for specific action have come to lose most of their
importance. The personality of the candidate, the way he is
projected by the advertising experts, are the things that really
HUXLEY: Well, this is the…during the last campaign, there was
a great deal of this kind of statement by the advertising managers
of the campaign parties. This idea that the candidates had to be
merchandised as though they were soap and toothpaste and that you
had to depend entirely on the personality.
I mean, personality is important, but there are certainly people
with an extremely amiable personality, particularly on TV, who
might not necessarily be very good in political…positions of
WALLACE: Well, do you feel that men like Eisenhower, Stevenson,
Nixon, with knowledge aforethought were trying to pull the wool
over the eyes of the American public?
HUXLEY: No, but they were being advised by powerful advertising
agencies who were making campaigns of a quite different kind from
what had been made before. and I think we shall see probably,
er…all kinds of new devices coming into the picture. I mean, for
example, this thing which got a good deal of publicity last
autumn, subliminal projection.
WALLACE: And we’ll be persuaded to vote for a candidate that we do
not know that we are being persuaded to vote for.
HUXLEY: Exactly, I mean this is the rather alarming picture that
you’re being persuaded below the level of choice and reason.
6. ) Evil People Will Take Advantage of Technology and
Government to Gain Power
WALLACE: The question, of course, that keeps coming back to my
mind is this: obviously politics in themselves are not evil,
television is not in itself evil, atomic energy is not evil, and
yet you seem to fear that it will be used in an evil way. Why is
it that the right people will not, in your estimation, use them?
Why is it that the wrong people will use these various devices and
for the wrong motives?
HUXLEY: Well, I think one of the reasons is that these are all
instruments for obtaining power, and obviously the passion for
power is one of the most moving passions that exists in man; and
after all, all democracies are based on the proposition that power
is very dangerous and that it is extremely important not to let
any one man or any one small group have too much power for too
long a time.
After all what are the British and American Constitution except
devices for limiting power, and all these new devices are
extremely efficient instruments for the imposition of power by
small groups over larger masses.
This interview was recorded 27 years after the publication of
Brave New World, which in and of itself was an eloquent warning to
freedom loving people. Fast-forward to 2016 and we find that
Huxley was right on every account,
“…after all, the price of freedom is eternal
vigilance.” ~Aldous Huxley
Aldous Huxley interview-1958 (FULL)
John Lamb Lash - Sophia, Lucifer and the
John Lamb Lash, Gaian shaman and leading proponent of the
Gnostic message in our time addresses the phenomenon widely known
as the Mandela Effect from the telestic perspective.
With at least 100's of 1000's of people around the world
experiencing alterations to our reality, many and varied
hypotheses have been put forward as to it's origins and ultimate
effect. One theory that has not been explored in depth is that the
planet it/herself is responsible.
John also covered the identity of Lucifer, Satan and even Baphomet
as the background narrative to understanding Sophia's Correction
and the Mandela Effect
Krav Maga Gun & Knife Defense
Here are a few Krav Maga weapon disarming techniques, taught
by 2nd degree black belt Marcus Kowal. Like anything else, you
must practice these drills with a partner, just because when using
fake weapons, as they could still poke eyes and cause injury.
Effect of Hypnosis on Intraocular
Pressure in Normal and Glaucomatous Subjects
The single, most impressive finding was that on direct
waking suggestion of symptom relief, all glaucomatous patients
showed a drop in the pressure of one or both eyes to a level as
low as ( 1case) or lower than (6cases) the lowest recorded tension
during the previous 12months that they had been followed in the
(One subject had been followed for only 3 months.) Post
hypnotic suggestion of symptom relief resulted in subjective
improvement only in several of the patients. These patients
volunteered such improvement as having fewer headaches, less
tearing, feeling generally more relaxed, and sleeping better.
Did hypnosis solve my glaucoma problem?
Doctor Reverses Diabetes and Takes Patients
off of Prescription Drugs with Fasting
Make Your Full-Size Car Get 200 MPG
"Running Your Car on Gas Vapor - Stop Getting
Screwed at The Pump"
This white vapor comes from separating the Atoms [
duhhh -- molecules ] in gasoline.
The truth about gas and vapor part 1
The truth about gas and vapor part 2
RUNNING ON VAPOR
By Bruce Meland
Start watching this at the 2:00 time mark :
Diesels, Gaswagons & Zyklon-B Part 3 of 6
Scientists have created a drug that
replicates the health benefits of exercise
Researchers have made the breakthrough of couch potatoes’ dreams
with a new drug that mimics some of the most important effects of
exercise. Scientists from Deakin University in Melbourne published
their findings in Cell Reports earlier this week, showing that
overweight mice who were given the drug no longer showed signs of
The biologists began their research almost a decade ago, says Sean
McGee, associate professor of medical biology at the school, with
the specific goal of replicating the effects of exercise. They
began by examining the molecular response to exercise in muscle.
The genes that control for lipid metabolism turn on during
exercise, which causes the body to burn the fat that contributes
to heart disease. McGee and his team found the protein that keeps
these genes turned off most of the time, and were able to
genetically manipulate it in order to turn on the fat-burning
Testing on mice showed that, in burning the fats, the drug
effectively prevented heart disease in obese mice. The researchers
are now redesigning the drug structure to make it more potent,
specific—and effective for humans. Though testing has thus far
been limiting to mice, they hope to have it available for human
use in five- to 10 years.
Though the drug could have huge health benefits for people with
obesity and type-2 diabetes, McGee notes that it does not
replicate all the benefits of exercise. For example, it doesn’t
induce the same increase in endorphins.
And mice who were given the drug did not lose weight. “Although it
increases energy expenditure and fat burning, mice treated with
the drug also ate a little bit more, meaning they remained weight
stable,” says McGee.
Last year, scientists at the University of Sydney created a
blueprint of the molecular effects of exercise, with the long-term
goal of creating a drug that completely replicates the effects of
exercise. Rather than rewarding an inactive lifestyle, scientists
hope that the drugs could have serious health benefits for the
elderly, or those who struggle to do physical exercise.
Cold Plasma Can Help Treat Non-Healing
Wounds and Trigger Cellular Regeneration
Research by Russian scientists has revealed the efficacy of
cold plasma as a treatment for non-healing wounds. Their study
conclusions could lead to much-needed relief for the millions of
people suffering from chronic open wounds.
A Chilly Discovery
Non-healing wounds are troublesome to treat, with current
methods teetering between extremely difficult and impossible, but
cold plasma might be able to change all that.
Researchers have attempted to use cold atmospheric-pressure plasma
— a partially ionized gas with a proportion of charged particles
close to 1 percent and a temperature of 99,726°C (179,540ºF) — for
medical treatment before, but never specifically for non-healing
wounds. Apart from confirming the bactericidal properties of cold
plasma and showing that cells and tissues have a high resistance
to it, those earlier studies yielded non-conclusive results.
By focusing on application pattern, a team of researchers from
Russia’s Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) were
able to reach more definite conclusions, establishing that cold
plasma could indeed help heal non-healing wounds and trigger
To test their hypothesis that application was key, the researchers
studied the effects of cold plasma treatment using two kinds of
cells (connective tissue cells called fibroblasts and epithelial
cells called keratinocytes) and three regimes of application. They
were able to conclude that a single application was most effective
in triggering regeneration and also observed that plasma treatment
significantly reduced the levels of β-galactosidase, an enzyme
that triggers cellular aging, in their samples.
These results mean that the effect of plasma treatment can now
be characterized as regenerative, as opposed to just neutral or
even harmful. This opens doors for further research in the area
and could lead to the development of a plasma therapy program for
the reported 5.7 million patients suffering from open (chronic)
In their future research, the scientists are planning to look into
the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of plasma on cells
and will also attempt to determine what impact, if any, a
patient’s age has on the effectiveness of plasma therapy.
If this research is any indication, a whole lot of people may
experience an improved quality of life thanks to cold plasma
therapy in the future.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 49, Number 29
Frequency of cell treatment with cold
microwave argon plasma is important for the final outcome
E Sysolyatina, M Vasiliev, M Kurnaeva, I Kornienko, O Petrov,
V Fortov, A Gintsburg, E Petersen and S Ermolaeva
The purpose of this work was to establish the influence of a
regime of cold microwave argon plasma treatments on the
physiological characteristics of human fibroblasts and
keratinocytes. We used three regimes of plasma application: a
single treatment, double treatment with a 48 h interval, and daily
treatments for 3 d. Cell proliferation after plasma application
was quantified in real time, and immunohistochemistry was used to
establish the viability of the cells and determine changes in
It was established that the frequency of cell treatments is
important for the outcome. In the samples treated with single
plasma application and double plasma applications with a 48 h
interval, a 42.6% and 32.0% increase was observed in the number of
cells, respectively. In addition, there were no signs of
deoxyribonucleic acid breaks immediately after plasma application.
In contrast, plasma application increased the accumulation of
cells in the active phases of the cell cycle. The activation of
proliferation correlated with a decrease in the level of
β-galactosidase, a senescence marker. This could be due to cell
renovation after plasma application. Daily treatment decreased
cell proliferation up to 29.1% in comparison with the control
after 3 d.
Experts Slam “Crisis Capitalism” in ZIKA
Fraud, Recommend Judicial Remedy
Researchers Decry ZIKA Fraud and “Crisis
Capitalism” in Man-made Pandemic
MEDICAL VERITAS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
Truth in Medicine for Health, Peace and Freedom
Contact: Editor@MedicalVeritas.org — (808)-946-6999.
A team of experts investigating ZIKA fraud for a non-profit public
health advocacy group in the United States has concluded that the
spraying of toxic pesticides and release of government-approved
genetically-modified (“GM”) mosquitoes to fight ZIKA has been
schemed by a racketeering enterprise commercializing in
bio-terrorism and “crisis capitalism.”.
Experts from several fields filed a critical review of available
intelligence for publication in Medical Veritas Journal evidencing
a “high probability” of ZIKA fraud. The data identifies a criminal
enterprise commercializing in bio-terrorism and crisis capitalism
as the most probable cause of the costly and damaging ZIKA
According to the reviewers, politicians and the media are
“selling” citizens on unproven methods of “disease control” in
Florida and elsewhere. The experts also question the “mystery” of
ZIKA’s emergence from a Brazilian vaccine experiment generating
mutated viruses, and then promoting drugs, vaccines, pesticides
and genetically-modified (“GM”) mosquitoes to combat the plague.
In conclusion, the professional group condemned “the creation of
‘alien species’ of microbes,” including ZIKA, as an “obvious
man-made threat.” The MVI contributors wrote “this reckless
disregard for life, nature, and the sanctity of intelligent design
central to the physical sciences, is unconscionable.”
The group recommends the remedy advanced by the U.S. Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA) and IBM to regulate the medical industry
applicable also to the judicial system to save costs, restrain
corruption, reduce fraud, and discipline violators.
Smart & Simple D-I-Y Tech :
Funny and best homemade inventions 2016
Amazing Homemade Inventions #1
Amazing Homemade Inventions #2
25 Must Do DIY Projects
100 Cool Ideas! INVENTIONS!
Fake nuclear warheads exposed with neutron
Princeton University researchers devise – and demonstrate – a
tricky technique to verify nuclear arms without giving away any
information about the weapons themselves...
Tuesday, September 20, 2016
'Erin Brockovich' Carcinogen in Tap Water
of More than 200 Million Americans
By David Andrews and Bill Walker
In the film "Erin Brockovich," the environmental crusader
confronts the lawyer of a power company that polluted the tap
water of Hinkley, Calif., with a carcinogenic chemical called
chromium-6. When the lawyer picks up a glass of water, Brockovich
says: “We had that water brought in ‘specially for you folks. Came
from a well in Hinkley.”
The lawyer sets down the glass and says, "I think this meeting’s
But almost 25 years after that real-life confrontation, the
conflict over chromium-6 is not over. A new EWG analysis of
federal data from nationwide drinking water tests shows that the
compound contaminates water supplies for more than 200 million
Americans in all 50 states. Yet federal regulations are stalled by
a chemical industry challenge that could mean no national
regulation of a chemical state scientists in California and
elsewhere say causes cancer when ingested at even extraordinarily
10 natural remedies for radiation exposure
2. Potassium orotate…
3. Calcium/magnesium …
4. Clay ...
5. Activated charcoal …
6. Papain ...
7. Bee pollen…
9. Cold-pressed organic vegetable oils ...
10. Organic brewer's yeast…
Black Is the New White – People Are
Brushing Their Teeth with Charcoal to Make Them Whiter
According to an increasing number of YouTube videos and social
media posts, one of the easiest, most effective way to whiten your
teeth is to brush them with pitch-black activated charcoal. It
sounds like somewhat of a paradox, but some users claim a single
brushing can have amazing results.
Activated charcoal has long been used in medical settings to treat
poisonings and drug overdoses. Unlike the charcoal we use for
barbecues, this stuff is created when carbon is treated with an
oxidizing agent, which results in a fine dust with millions of
pores and an immense surface area. It’s these pores that give
activated charcoal its sponge-like qualities, reducing the body’s
absorption of toxic substances by an estimated 47 percent. It’s
not the most specific absorber of substances,though, meaning it
will absorb both good and bad substances in your stomach, but as
long as you consume lots of water after ingesting it, you should
But while the toxin-absorbing properties of activated charcoal are
well documented, its recent uses as an edible food ingredient and
teeth whitening agent are not. No charcoal-based teeth whitening
products have been evaluated and accepted by the American Dental
Association (ADA) until now, but that hasn’t stopped proponents
from recommending it as an excellent all-natural way to get a
Apparently,the natural adhesive qualities of activated charcoal
let it bind with surface-staining culprits like coffee, tea, wine,
and plaque, removing them from your teeth for good. Simply pop a
capsule of the stuff, mix the contents with some water, put the
paste on a toothbrush and clean your teeth for a few minutes. It’s
a messy job, as the charcoal makes your mouth look like that of a
horror movie monster and is known to stain grout and fabrics, but
I guess it’s worth it, if it can make your teeth whiter.
You’re going to find lots of dramatic before-and-after photos of
people who promote the use of activated charcoal as an alternative
to fluoride, but the jury is still out on whether it actually
works. Dental specialists definitely don’t believe it does.
“There’s no scientific indication that [activated charcoal]
actually works and there are better options out there that do
work,” Dr. Kim Harms, a Mineapolis-based dentists and spokesperson
for the ADA, told The Daily Beast. “The important part of brushing
and flossing is the physical removal of plaque. The toothpaste
you’re using, from a dentist’s point of view, delivers fluoride to
teeth. We’re concerned about practices where people are using
products without fluoride. Fluoride is nature’s cavity fighter and
can cut tooth decay by up to 40 percent.”
“Remember, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is,” said
Dr. Mark Wolff, DDS, Professor and Chair of the Department of
Cariology and Comprehensive Care at the New York University
College of Dentistry. “I still recommend any of the mainstream
whitening toothpastes or seeing the dentist. The mainstream
whitening toothpastes are going to be safe. There are a number of
products on the market that can be too abrasive.”
But with the huge amounts of money being thrown around by
companies to have their products promoted, I guess one could argue
that such experts are biased. However, experiments done by
ordinary people (like this one) have also yielded unimpressive
results. On the flipside, there are loads of people who swear by
this practice, claiming that as long as your teeth are not
naturally darker or yellow, you’re going to see an improvement
after just one charcoal brushing session.
Activated Charcoal - Weird Way to Whiten Teeth
Activated Charcoal Teeth Whitening BEFORE AND
AFTER! Testing Pinterest Beauty Hacks
Yellow Bell Peppers :
This Salad Vegetable Has 5 Times the
Vitamin C as Oranges
Can We Transform Our Planet with Water?
Does water have Memory and Consciousness?
Could it be Holographic with Cellular Communications?
Can Water Structure your DNA Molecules and Heal?
Does our Blood Plasma Resemble Ocean Water?
Is Water Electrical Dynamic
Water: The Living and Conscious Being - Dr. Vladimir Voeikov and
John Stuart Reid - CymaScope Images of brain states, female
voice & stars
Elements of Creation: Through the Lens of Water
Water Images by Georg Schroeker, text by Karen Elkins, comments
by Gearld Pollack, Ph.D.
The Memory and Secrets of Water - Prof. Dr. Bernd Kröplin
Subtle Energies: Biological and Electrochemical Sensors in
Measuring the Information Side of Matter
Dr. Serge Kernbach, Evgeny Germanov, Anton Fedorenko
Holographic Properties of Water - John Stuart Reid
The Aura(Bio-field) as a Conveyor of Information Factors - Gary
Shift from DNA Molecule to Water Assembly - Igor Jerman
Water Symbols - West Marrin, Ph.D.
Color by Elements and Light Spectrum on Water - Randy Hutton
Cellular Communications through Liquid Crystals - Dra. Esther
Del Rio Serrano, Dra. Esther Patricia Pérez Del Rio
Effects of Infrared Light on Protein Interfacial Water -
The Niburu Planet X System and Its
Potential Impacts on Our Solar System
A Scientific Case for Nibiru/Planet X System
By Joachim Hagopian
Speculating and theorizing about the existence of yet
undiscovered planets in our solar system has been bounced around
for centuries. Prior to each new discovery of another outer planet
has come detection of anomalies in the erratic, inexplicable
motions of the outermost known planet. For instance, before
Neptune’s existence was determined, for decades astronomers had
been theorizing that Uranus’ (discovered in 1781) irregular
movement may have been caused by the presence of yet another
undiscovered planet. Indeed that was the case in 1846 when Neptune
was first sighted and identified.
The now dethroned ninth planet Pluto discovered in 1930 (relegated
in 2006 to minor dwarf planet status) and Pluto’s later found moon
Charon were then used to explain the observed “wobbles” in Uranus
and Neptune’s respective orbits. Thus, errors in calculating
precise positions of known planets hold an enduring pattern of
later confirmation of cause determined by each newly discovered
planet. Hence, for over a century scientists have debated that yet
more major planets and dwarf planets belonging to our solar system
are still out there in space waiting to be found and existing
anomalies to be explained.
Way back in 1940 Chilean astronomer Carlos Munoz Ferrada predicted
accurately that the powers-that-be would attempt to cover-up
Planet X when it comes barreling towards the earth. Ferrada
referred to Nibiru/Planet X as a “Comet-Planet” because it has the
size of a planet but speed and elliptical orbit of a comet.
The most controversial “undiscovered” planet operating within our
solar system dubbed Nibiru or Planet X was made (in)famous in 1976
by noted researcher-author Zecharia Sitchin in his bestselling
book The 12th Planet. As one of few scholars able to read and
interpret Sumerian clay tablets, Sitchin utilized those ancient
texts to make a highly plausible case for the existence of Planet
X (also known as planet Nibiru the Destroyer in ancient scripts)
coming closest to planet earth every 3600 years. The Sumerians
lived over 6000 years ago in what is today Iraq. They are credited
as the first known civilization on earth, inventing mathematics,
writing, agriculture, law, schools, astronomy and astrology.
The sun in our solar system is similar to 90% of the solar systems
in the Milky Way Galaxy, all part of a binary star system
containing two or more suns. The Planet X system can be considered
a mini-constellation consisting of our sun’s twin, classified a
brown dwarf star called Nemesis. This dark star is largely
invisible even with infrared due to its surrounding red iron oxide
dust clouds. Nemesis possesses at least three planets that revolve
around it, Nibiru and Helion both with moons, and Arboda. Though
Nibiru travels along an elliptical shaped orbit and enters our
solar system approximately every 3600 years, one by one crossing
the orbits of our solar system planets, it does not revolve around
In 1990 researcher-author Zecharia Sitchin interviewed the
supervising astronomer of the US Naval Observatory Robert S.
Harrington to discuss Harrington’s recent discovery of the red
Planet X. Harrington set up a special telescopic observatory in
New Zealand to track Planet X. But the renowned head of the Naval
Observatory suddenly died mysteriously at age 50 of a rare form of
cancer under suspicious circumstances. His wife is convinced he
was murdered for allegedly leaking too much information about
Yet two years after the Sitchin-Harrington interview and just
months prior to Harrington’s January 1993 death, a NASA press
release was still publicly embracing Nibiru/Planet X as real:
Unexplained deviations in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune point
to a large outer solar system body of 4 to 8 Earth masses on a
highly tilted orbit, beyond 7 billion miles from the Sun.
Also in 1992 a confident NASA scientist named Ray T. Reynolds went
on record proclaiming, “Astronomers are so sure of the 10th planet
they think there is nothing left but to name it.” NASA at that
time did everything but scream “Nibiru!” from the mountaintops.
But ever since Harrington’s untimely death with few exceptions,
the lid has been tightly sealed on any more accurate information
released by mainstream sources directly to the public. Apparently
the US government had made the decision to keep Nibiru and its
projected earthly destruction under wraps. In recent years the
feds have sent out trolls to disseminate disinformation and false
propaganda in attempts to debunk any would-be truth-tellers. The
elite ensure that hired shills are planted to busily churn out
concentrated disinfo campaigns smearing lies to prevent the story
that never quite goes away from ever having full disclosure.
Hyped up predictions of past non-event disasters are most common,
like the recent predicted May 28th San Andreas earthquake
purposely timed with the opening of the film of the same name, or
the 2012 Mayan calendar doomsday non-event, or the 5/5/2000 ice
age that never cometh, and who can forget theY2K fiasco, and on
and on so it goes. The more of these “end days” predictions that
are proven to be false, the more chance that any legitimate
warnings of Planet X will be summarily scoffed at and ignored. The
“boy who cried wolf” syndrome effectively desensitizes the human
population into doubting any actual evidence or truth about Nibiru
will ever be taken seriously by any reasonably sane person,
notwithstanding the “aluminum foil hat” crowd of conspiracy
realists who are more often right than wrong these days when it
comes to exposing the myriad of government cover-ups, false flags
The effects of such a large celestial body as Nibiru/Planet X
estimated to be from 4 up to 8 times the size of the earth
reentering our solar system is generating off-the-chart internet
frenzy in 2015, convinced it will cause enormous amounts of huge
sized space debris from an asteroid belt, potential comets (one
recently cited to be two and half miles wide) and countless
meteors plummeting violently to the earth. It’s believed that the
impact of such giant objects crashing into the earth will push the
reset button for another axis tilt, likely causing yet another
mass extinction and radically altering global climate zones,
raising sea levels dramatically to reshape coastlines worldwide,
decreasing land mass and increasing oceanic water surface. In
addition to tilting the earth’s axis, it’s speculated that
Nibiru’s gravitational upset and electromagnetic fireworks on our
planet will set off mammoth cracks in the tectonic plates
resulting in never before seen killer quakes, volcanoes, tsunamis,
tidal waves, hurricanes, record winds,massive flooding and
Rather than dig into ancient mythology or biblical prophecy as
so much of the current speculation about Nibiru already covers,
this presentation will limit its focus to reviewing the most
tangible, credible pieces of scientific evidence supported by
astronomers and astrophysicists who in recent years have risked
destroying their careers, reputations and their very lives
promoting their controversial findings and conclusions. This year
more than ever the movement’s growing authenticity of the Planet X
story is in fact gathering momentum, at least garnering lukewarm
support from some rather high profile notables within the
scientific community. This article will chronicle this growing
body of empirical evidence validating not only Planet X’s
existence but its eminent approach towards earth.
This highly controversial Planet X system entering our solar
system with potential catastrophic implications was first featured
in a Washington Post article way back in 1983. NASA’s infrared
astronomical telescope found the mysterious planet “possibly as
large as Jupiter” near the constellation of Orion. As distant a
time as thirty-two years ago, it was considered to be the closest
heavenly body to the earth beyond Pluto.
Researcher-activist John Moore has long asserted that a number of
his inside ex-military and government intelligence sources have
independently confirmed that a top secret meeting took place in
1979 in a New Orleans briefing room where highest ranking US Naval
flag officers were first informed of the coming inevitable Planet
X disaster that would occur within their lifetime.
In October 2003 a highly significant and telling Department of
Defense sponsored government paper was published called “An Abrupt
Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States
National Security.” This paper notes that oceanic saline levels
were dropping, causing “thermohaline circulation collapse.” A
serious disruption of the Atlantic conveyor belt that pushes warm
saltwater near the surface circulating northward from the south
while deeper cooler water flows southward would have a devastating
impact on global climate. The paper concludes with the following
sobering predictions: wars over energy, food and water resources,
increasing draught over wider land mass, and violent climate
change effects producing more frequent, higher magnitude natural
catastrophes of all kinds. A dozen years later all of these
most disturbing developments are clearly manifesting.
Of course the current standard politically correct scientific
dogma is that global warming aka climate change emanating from CO2
greenhouse gases is the obvious culprit. This mass deception is
designed to conveniently obscure the multiple dire effects caused
by many decades of the globalists’ geoengineering, HAARP, weather
modification and weather wars, not to mention the hidden,
“nonexistent” Planet X system hurtling towards us deeper inside
our solar system that’s likely causing tremendous changes at the
surface of all our solar system planets of course including our
own earth’s atmosphere and global surface.
In March 2010 the mainstream UK newspaper The Telegraph ran a
story entitled “Search on for Death Star that Throws out Deadly
Comets.” The sub-headline announced that NASA is looking for the
twin sun that’s the brown dwarf star Nemesis slowly circling our
sun and periodically “catapulting” deadly comets to the earth. So
as tight-lipped NASA has been over the years, little tidbits
reflecting that it’s still keeping an ever-present eye out for the
cataclysmic Planet X system still manages to seep through to the
public every now and then from so called “reputable” news sources.
The article goes on to state that the star that’s “five times the
size of Jupiter” is the prime suspect that wiped out the dinosaur
65 million years ago.
The then latest NASA trophy piece surveying the heavens, the
Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), was capable of
detecting the faint heat emanating from the dwarf star 25 times
the distance between earth and the sun, or one third a light year
away. Launched in January 2009 WISE discovered at least 1000 dwarf
stars located within 25 light years from the sun until October
2010 when its coolant was scheduled to run out. Twice as far out
as Nemesis is the Oort Cloud which is the sphere of icy bodies
surrounding our solar system.
With the Planet X system entering our solar system, its
gravitational force is believed to launch trajectories of comets
and asteroids that are large-sized space debris objects of icy
rocks and dust that bombard our solar system planets including the
earth. Professor John Matese of the University of Louisiana
Lafayette believes that this Nemesis that includes planet Nibiru
as part of the Planet X system is mainly responsible for supplying
such a concentrated volley of comets from the Oort Cloud into our
inner solar system.
In May 2012 livescience.com and examiner.com both featured
headline stories heralding the probable discovery of Planet X.
Astronomer Rodney Gomes of Rio’s National Observatory of Brazil
had just presented new evidence of the mysterious planet at a
meeting of the American Astronomical Society. Gomes demonstrated
that the icy objects outside Neptune’s orbit in the Oort Cloud
displaying irregular movement that cannot be explained by known
mathematical laws of astrophysics but can be by the gravitational
influence of so called Planet X. Additionally, the dwarf planet
Sedna’s peculiar orbit can also only be accounted for by the
presence of a large unknown planet. Gomes findings were very well
received by his peers, believing that he got his math right. But
of course not wanting to endorse Planet X completely, they
dutifully towed the scientific/gov. line of status quo by
tempering their enthusiasm with a call for more research and
posing alternative theories that may not involve another large
Then in November of last year iflscience.com reported evidence
that two new undiscovered planets may be lurking in our solar
system. A January 2015 article from Space.com also addressed the
possibility of two more planets beyond Neptune and Pluto moving in
the outer limits of our solar system subtly influencing the orbits
of the dwarf planets. Carlos de la Fuente of Madrid’s University
of Complutense stated:
This excess of objects with unexpected orbital parameters makes us
believe that some invisible forces are altering the distribution
of the orbital elements of the ETNOs [extreme trans-Neptunian
objects], and we consider that the most probable explanation is
that other unknown planets exist beyond Neptune and Pluto.
Still another team of astronomers in March 2014, Chadwick Trujillo
and Scott Sheppard, announced the discovery of 2012 VP113, another
ETNO joining Sedna as two known members of the “inner Oort Cloud,”
the comet-filled sphere that lies just beyond the Kuiper Belt and
Pluto. Trujillo and Sheppardclaim these two objects’ orbits comply
with the gravitational presence of a big “perturber,” up to even
10 times the mass of the earth.
Major unheard of changes are currently appearing on the surface
and atmosphere of the sun and all the planets. Astronomer Mike
Lockwood from California’s Rutherford Appleton National
Laboratories found that since 1901 the sun’s overall magnetic
field has increased by 230%. Solar flares and storms have also
increased. The earth’s moon now has a 6000 kilometer-deep
atmosphere of Natrium that it never had before. Mercury, the
planet closest to the sun, now has grown polar ice. Venus’
brightness has skyrocketed by 2500% and experienced major changes
in its atmosphere in the last four decades. Meanwhile, further
away from the sun than the earth, Mars has melted polar icecaps
and its magnitude of storms has strengthened exponentially.
Jupiter has had the brightness of its plasma clouds increase 200%
accompanied by a pattern of intermittent thickening then
weakening. The largest planet in our solar system’s enormous belts
have been changing color with radiation levels erratically waning
and then flaring up again. An increase in asteroid and comet
activity crashing into Jupiter likely from Nibiru’s entrance into
our solar system has also been observed. During the last three
decades the jet stream on Saturn’s equator has slowed in velocity
while X-rays at the equator have spiked. Uranus has become
brighter with a huge flare-up of storm activity when its surface
before was always placid. Neptune has also increased in brightness
by 40%. The atmospheric pressure on Pluto has jumped up by 300%
despite it moving further from the sun. The glowing plasma on the
edge of our solar system has increased 1000%. The profound changes
being measured in space are unprecedented. An increase in energy
emission is changing the fundamental structure of all matter
throughout our solar system. Taken together, these massive, across
the board changes most likely are all effects from Planet X moving
through our solar system.
Of course changes on the earth have been pronounced as well, most
notably with electromagnetic changes, yearly incremental polar
axis changes, and extreme weather changes. For instance, North
Pole, Alaska recently sawits late spring temperatures soar to mid
to high 80’s F. From 1963 to 1993 the frequency of natural
disasters globally has leaped up by 410%. And in more recent years
the rate of disasters has soared even higher. With an increasing
number of volcanic eruptions along the Pacific Ring of Fire and
earthquakes felt globally particularly along the San Andreas and
the New Madrid fault lines, coupled with the Nepal 7.8 earthquake
a couple months ago, major volcanic and earthquake activity in
2015 is rapidly on the rise. As early as November 2013 10
different long- dormant volcanos went active, first suggesting
Planet X’s presence. The rate of volcanic eruptions from 1875 to
1975 has increased by 500%, but even greater now.
An exponential increase in 3.0 or higher earthquakes are shaking
America’s heartland due to fracking, in Oklahoma alone going from
two or three a year prior to fracking to 562 last year alone.
Since 1973 earthquakes have risen worldwide by 400%. 6.0 magnitude
earthquakes or greater have also spiked in recent years, jumping
on average from 108.5 earthquakes per year in the 1980 to 1989
decade to 160.9 earthquakes per year from 2000 to 2009, increasing
by 38.9%. In the first quarter of 2014 alone, more than twice as
many large earthquakes occurred than on average since 1979. Two
months ago scientists at the European Science Foundation warned
that in the years to come there is a 5-10% chance that a colossal
sized volcano could send the earth back to pre-civilization
status. A significant rise in landslides and floods have also been
For the last 2000 years the earth’s magnetic field has been
decreasing gradually. But in the last 500 years that decrease has
become much more dramatic. Just this month scientists have been
shocked at the alarming rate that the earth’s magnetosphere has
been disappearing. The planet’s natural shield preventing solar
winds and radiation from reaching the earth’s surface is being
lost. This disturbing discovery comes while solar storm activity
is also flaring up this year. These solar blasts seriously
threaten to interfere with satellite and GPS communications, and
risk bursts of electromagnetic pulses (if not launched by EMP
weapons in the wrong hands like ISIS) that could be lethal to
America’s power grid, instantaneously placing millions of people
in the dark without any source of electricity for months or even
years at a time.
Effects from a diminishing magnetic field would double the amount
of radiation causing an epidemic of skin cancer deaths, speed up
climate change and magnify extreme weather. Solar winds would
eliminate ions that allow the earth to retain water and air. All
these horrific changes are happening right now. What next to no
scientist who wants to stay alive is revealing is that this torrid
rate of ecological degradation and life killing earth surface
change are more than likely caused by Planet X racing ever-closer
Another rather peculiar development to the Planet X story has
been Google Sky’s strange actions. Several years ago no doubt in
literally keeping with the media blackout, Google actually did
black out the grid in the sky to ensure that Planet X was X’d out
of its sky map. Then about a week ago Google Sky mysteriously
reinserted back in the missing grid fully depicting the flaming
winged Nibiru. So it’s visible from both the actual sky, and the
Google Skynow… more evidence that the tide is turning toward the
truth about Planet X.
Back in mid-April the European Space Agency invited astronomers,
physicists, nuclear engineers, mathematicians and even soldiers in
space defense from around the world to a conference in a Rome
suburb to discuss the topic of an asteroid striking the earth,
with the proposed hypothesis not if, but when. Hmm, sounds
familiar to the Nibiru cataclysm scenario, minus the forbidden
planet of course.
This Planetary Defense conference strategizing how to collectively
handle Near-Earth Objects (NEO’s) plunging toward us using space
weapons technology has been an annual event the last six years.
12,700 asteroids have been identified as NEO’s with orbits coming
within 121 million miles from our main sun.
Kill all fish ! We need their scales to
recharge our cellphones !
Fish biowaste converted to piezoelectric
Large quantities of fish are consumed in India on a
daily basis, which generates a huge amount of fish "biowaste"
materials. In an attempt to do something positive with this
biowaste, a team of researchers at Jadavpur University in Koltata,
India explored recycling the fish byproducts into an energy
harvester for self-powered electronics. The basic premise behind
the researchers' work is simple: Fish scales contain collagen
fibers that possess a piezoelectric property, which means that an
electric charge is generated in response to applying a mechanical
stress. As the team reports this week in Applied Physics Letters,
from AIP Publishing, they were able to harness this property to
fabricate a bio-piezoelectric nanogenerator. To do this, the
researchers first "collected biowaste in the form of hard, raw
fish scales from a fish processing market, and then used a
demineralization process to make them transparent and flexible,"
explained Dipankar Mandal, assistant professor, Organic
Nano-Piezoelectric Device Laboratory, Department of Physics, at
Jadavpur University. The collagens within the processed fish
scales serve as an active piezoelectric element. "We were able to
make a bio-piezoelectric nanogenerator -- a.k.a. energy harvester
-- with electrodes on both sides, and then laminated it," Mandal
said. Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting 2016-2026 While it's well
known that a single collagen nanofiber exhibits piezoelectricity,
until now no one had attempted to focus on hierarchically
organizing the collagen nanofibrils within the natural fish
scales. "We wanted to explore what happens to the piezoelectric
yield when a bunch of collagen nanofibrils are hierarchically well
aligned and self-assembled in the fish scales," he added. "And we
discovered that the piezoelectricity of the fish scale collagen is
quite large (~5 pC/N), which we were able to confirm via direct
measurement." Beyond that, the polarization-electric field
hysteresis loop and resulting strain-electric field hysteresis
loop -- proof of a converse piezoelectric effect -- caused by the
"nonlinear" electrostriction effect backed up their findings. The
team's work is the first known demonstration of the direct
piezoelectric effect of fish scales from electricity generated by
a bio-piezoelectric nanogenerator under mechanical stimuli --
without the need for any post-electrical poling treatments. "We're
well aware of the disadvantages of the post-processing treatments
of piezoelectric materials," Mandal noted. To explore the fish
scale collagen's self-alignment phenomena, the researchers used
near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy, measured
at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology in Indore,
India. Webinars Generic Banner Experimental and theoretical tests
helped them clarify the energy scavenging performance of the
bio-piezoelectric nanogenerator. It's capable of scavenging
several types of ambient mechanical energies -- including body
movements, machine and sound vibrations, and wind flow. Even
repeatedly touching the bio-piezoelectric nanogenerator with a
finger can turn on more than 50 blue LEDs. "We expect our work to
greatly impact the field of self-powered flexible electronics,"
Mandal said. "To date, despite several extraordinary efforts, no
one else has been able to make a biodegradable energy harvester in
a cost-effective, single-step process." The group's work could
potentially be for use in transparent electronics, biocompatible
and biodegradable electronics, edible electronics, self-powered
implantable medical devices, surgeries, e-healthcare monitoring,
as well as in vitro and in vivo diagnostics, apart from its myriad
uses for portable electronics. "In the future, our goal is to
implant a bio-piezoelectric nanogenerator into a heart for
pacemaker devices, where it will continuously generate power from
heartbeats for the device's operation," Mandal said. "Then it will
degrade when no longer needed. Since heart tissue is also composed
of collagen, our bio-piezoelectric nanogenerator is expected to be
very compatible with the heart." The group's bio-piezoelectric
nanogenerator may also help with targeted drug delivery, which is
currently generating interest as a way of recovering in vivo
cancer cells and also to stimulate different types of damaged
tissues. "So we expect our work to have enormous importance for
next-generation implantable medical devices," he added. "Our end
goal is to design and engineer sophisticated ingestible
electronics composed of nontoxic materials that are useful for a
wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications," said
Scientists solve puzzle of converting
gaseous carbon dioxide to fuel
A team of scientists from the University of Toronto (U of T)
believes they've found a way to convert all these emissions into
energy-rich fuel in a carbon-neutral cycle that uses a very
abundant natural resource: silicon. Silicon, readily available in
sand, is the seventh most-abundant element in the universe and the
second most-abundant element in the earth's crust.
The idea of converting carbon dioxide emissions to energy isn't
new: there's been a global race to discover a material that can
efficiently convert sunlight, carbon dioxide and water or hydrogen
to fuel for decades. However, the chemical stability of carbon
dioxide has made it difficult to find a practical solution.
"A chemistry solution to climate change requires a material that
is a highly active and selective catalyst to enable the conversion
of carbon dioxide to fuel. It also needs to be made of elements
that are low cost, non-toxic and readily available," said Geoffrey
Ozin, a chemistry professor in U of T's Faculty of Arts &
Science, the Canada Research Chair in Materials Chemistry and lead
of U of T's Solar Fuels Research Cluster.
In an article in Nature Communications published August 23, Ozin
and colleagues report silicon nanocrystals that meet all the
criteria. The hydride-terminated silicon nanocrystals -
nanostructured hydrides for short - have an average diameter of
3.5 nanometres and feature a surface area and optical absorption
strength sufficient to efficiently harvest the near-infrared,
visible and ultraviolet wavelengths of light from the sun together
with a powerful chemical-reducing agent on the surface that
efficiently and selectively converts gaseous carbon dioxide to
gaseous carbon monoxide.
The potential result: energy without harmful emissions.
"Making use of the reducing power of nanostructured hydrides is a
conceptually distinct and commercially interesting strategy for
making fuels directly from sunlight," said Ozin.
The U of T Solar Fuels Research Cluster is working to find ways
and means to increase the activity, enhance the scale, and boost
the rate of production. Their goal is a laboratory demonstration
unit and, if successful, a pilot solar refinery.
Nature Communications (2016)
Heterogeneous reduction of carbon dioxide
by hydride-terminated silicon nanocrystals
Wei Sun et al,
Silicon constitutes 28% of the earth’s mass. Its high
abundance, lack of toxicity and low cost coupled with its
electrical and optical properties, make silicon unique among the
semiconductors for converting sunlight into electricity. In the
quest for semiconductors that can make chemicals and fuels from
sunlight and carbon dioxide, unfortunately the best performers are
invariably made from rare and expensive elements. Here we report
the observation that hydride-terminated silicon nanocrystals with
average diameter 3.5 nm, denoted ncSi:H, can function as a single
component heterogeneous reducing agent for converting gaseous
carbon dioxide selectively to carbon monoxide, at a rate of
hundreds of μmol h−1 g−1. The large surface area, broadband
visible to near infrared light harvesting and reducing power of
SiH surface sites of ncSi:H, together play key roles in this
conversion. Making use of the reducing power of nanostructured
hydrides towards gaseous carbon dioxide is a conceptually distinct
and commercially interesting strategy for making fuels directly
Related Patents :
Layered structure with silicon nanocrystals, solar cell,
nonvolatile memory element, photo sensitive element and
fabrications thereof, and method for forming silicon
Methods of forming silicon nanocrystals by laser annealing
SYNTHESIS OF SI-BASED NANO-MATERIALS USING LIQUID SILANES
Silicon Nanocrystals Synthesized from Silicon Precursor Using
Synthesized thin shell passivated silicon nanocrystals with a
narrow photoluminescense linewidth
METHOD OF OBTAINING OF ARRAYS OF NANODIMENSIONAL FILAMENTARY
SILICON CRYSTALS WITH CONTROLLED SURFACE DENSITY
METHOD OF PREPARING SILICON NANOCRYSTALS
Silicon nanocrystals with functional surfaces
Preparing method of self-assembly forming-dimension-controllable
silicon nanocrystal films
Synthesis of Silicon Nanocrystals by Laser Pyrolysis
Synthesis of silicon nanorods
Method for manufacturing silicon nanocrystals and its uses
METHOD FOR DEPOSITING SILICON NANOCRYSTALS IN HOLLOW FIBERS
APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SILICON NANOCRYSTAL USING ICP
METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF GERMANIUM AND SILICON
Process for silicon nano crystal preparation by electron-beam
SILICON NANOSPONGE PARTICLES
High yield method for preparing silicon nanocrystal with
chemically accessible surfaces
Methods of forming silicon nanocrystals by laser annealing
Narrow size distribution silicon and germanium nanocrystals
Nanotech bandage heals wounds in days
Egyptian researchers have developed a bandage embedded with
nanoparticles for the treatment of wounds using the anti-epilepsy
drug Phenytoin, known for its capacity to treat skin injuries.
The bandage can heal wounds in a few days, after just one
application to soft tissue. Wounds normally take several days to a
few weeks to heal completely, and some may only heal after several
months or up to two years.
Even though Phenytoin is known for its potential to accelerate
wound healing, some of its properties limit its effectiveness. For
example, a low percentage of the drug can be absorbed into the
blood circulation. It also doesn’t cover the entire wounded area,
which interferes with the efficiency of healing.
To overcome these challenges, a research team from Zewail City of
Science and Technology in Egypt, led by Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny,
the director of the Center for Materials Science, embedded the
drug into a bandage consisting of nanoparticles carried on
El-Sherbiny tells SciDev.Net: “This allowed a well-controlled
release of phenytoin, distributing it effectively, which, boosts
He clarifies that embedding the drug into nanoparticles, and then
loading it into nanofibers, is one of the most important
advantages of the bandage design, distinguishing it from other
"It acquired a greater ability [to heal] by increasing the surface
area available to kill the bacteria, as well as by increasing
porosity [of the skin], thus increasing its ability to absorb the
drug,” El-Sherbiny adds.
The team tested the bandage, which was developed in the
laboratory, on samples of human fibrous tissue and on mice. The
results showed that the wounds healed completely when using the
bandage embedded with nanoparticles coated with a layer of
lecithin as well.
El-Sherbiny stressed: “One bandage is enough to heal wounds within
10 days at the most.”
The main benefit of the bandage is that it improves the
reconstruction of the cells that form the epithelial tissue that
lines the skin, the internal organs and body cavities. This is a
healing phase that usually begins two days after the wound
appears, but may be prolonged in some cases to ten weeks.
The bandage also helps speed up the deposition of collagen, a
protein that is the basic component in forming the skin’s
Another advantage, the researchers note, is that the bandage
minimises formation of dead cells and scars.
They believe that the bandage may be a solution for treating
wounds in areas of conflict that suffer from a shortage of medical
supplies and personnel. Moreover, delays in wound healing cost
health institutions a lot because of extended hospitalization
The results of the study, published last May in the Journal of
Applied Materials & Interfaces, also confirmed an improvement
in the formation of granulation tissue — a fibrous connective
tissue which grows from the base of the wound until it fills it,
and replaces the blood clot that formed after the wound was
The team achieved yet more results, as El-Sherbiny says: “We are
currently working on the development of a special bandage for
diabetic patients, to solve the problem of difficult and slow
healing of wounds.”
The next step is to manufacture a prototype of the bandage, to
start marketing commercially, according to El-Sherbiny.
Ahmed Abdel Moneim, head of the Department of Materials
Engineering Science at the Egyptian-Japanese University, expressed
admiration for the idea, saying: “Although using nanotechnology in
bandages is not new, this one stands out most importantly for
using technology to overcome the negative points of phenytoin, and
taking advantage of its beneficial use in the treatment of
He added that it may soon reach the market in the region, as
health authorities always take less time to approve bandages than
they do to approve pharmaceuticals.
This tiny solar-powered device kills 99.999
percent of bacteria
Water is our most precious resource. We may take this for
granted, in developed regions but some 2.8 billion people around
the world are affected by the scarcity of clean drinking water.
A tiny new device may help change that. Developed by researchers
at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator at
Stanford University, the device is about half the size of a
postage stamp and uses solar energy to disinfect water with
bacterial contamination. The researchers reported their
experiments in a paper this week in the journal Nature
People often use one of two methods to disinfect germ-ridden water
in regions that lack a pure source: boiling or placing plastic
water bottles in direct sunlight so the ultraviolet rays can kill
microbes. The problem is, boiling uses fuel and the UV method may
take up to 48 hours without even fully disinfecting the water.
In an effort to find a more effective and energy-efficient
technique, Stanford researcher Yi Cui and his team developed the
nanostructure device, made up of fingerprint-like arrangements of
copper and a photocatalytic chemical called molybdenum disulfide.
When struck by light, the walled structures release hydrogen
peroxide and other bactericidal chemicals, which destroy the
harmful bacteria and quickly dissolve.
ce looks like a little rectangle of black glass,” lead author and
PhD researcher Chong Liu said in a press release. “We just dropped
it into the water and put everything under the sun, and the sun
did all the work.”
Although their experiments killed 99.999 percent of bacteria in 20
minutes, Cui admits that the device need further research and
development. For one thing, the trials only tested the device on
small amounts of water and three strains of bacteria. In other
words, the experiments lacked the complex mixture of contaminants
often found in the real world.
However, Cui remains optimistic: “It’s very exciting to see that
by just designing a material you can achieve a good performance.
It really works.”
filters filthy water into drinking water
By Dyllan Furness
The wonder material graphene has been celebrated for its
strength, lightness, flexibility, and versatility of applications.
Last year, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology study suggested
that graphene could bring infrared night vision to everyday
devices such as laptops and smartphones. In April, scientists at
the Max-Planck Institute of Intelligent Systems designed
graphene-based, remote-controlled nanobots to suck up lead
contamination in water.
Last month, researchers at Washington University in St. Louis
published a paper detailing their development of a graphene
oxide-based nanomaterial to effectively filter filthy water into
Graphene oxide — an inexpensive, paper-like form of graphene — is
well-known for its ability to absorb light and convert it to heat,
making it ideal for tasks that involve harvesting sunlight,
according to Srikanth Singamaneni, associate professor of
mechanical engineering and materials science and the corresponding
author of the paper.
Related: Graphene makes plastic a million times more water
Singamaneni and his team created a two-layered biofoam by
combining bacteria-produced cellulose and graphene oxide. The
bottom layer consists of a pure nanocellulose network. The top
layer is composed of a nanocellulose fiber network that’s embedded
with graphene oxide flakes.
“When this bilayered foam-like material is suspended on dirty
water, water is [sucked up] by the pure cellulose layer at the
bottom — just like a sponge — and brought to the top surface,”
Singamaneni told Digital Trends.
“Light shining on the top surface is converted to heat by the
graphene oxide, which causes water to evaporate. The process is
highly efficient as the heat is not dissipated into the bulk water
and confined to the surface where evaporation occurs. The
resulting fresh water can be easily collected from the top of the
The researchers envisage their novel material being used to filter
tons of water in developing countries that receive sufficient
sunlight for the light-absorption-to-heat-conversion mechanism to
occur. But, before that happens, they’ll have to scale the
material up and run a few additional tests.
“The next step in this research is to integrate this novel
material into a device that can condense and collect fresh water
and demonstrate the whole process at a pilot scale,” Singamaneni
said. “We are also optimizing the graphene oxide content and
investigating other designs of hybrid material,” including their
use to boost solar energy harvesting devices.
Dirty to drinkable
Engineers develop novel hybrid nanomaterials to transform
By Erika Ebsworth-Goold
Graphene oxide has been hailed as a veritable wonder material;
when incorporated into nanocellulose foam, the lab-created
substance is light, strong and flexible, conducting heat and
electricity quickly and efficiently.
Now, a team of engineers at Washington University in St. Louis has
found a way to use graphene oxide sheets to transform dirty water
into drinking water, and it could be a global game-changer.
“We hope that for countries where there is ample sunlight, such as
India, you’ll be able to take some dirty water, evaporate it using
our material, and collect fresh water,” said Srikanth Singamaneni,
associate professor of mechanical engineering and materials
science at the School of Engineering & Applied Science.
The new approach combines bacteria-produced cellulose and graphene
oxide to form a bi-layered biofoam. A paper detailing the research
is available online in Advanced Materials.
“The process is extremely simple,” Singamaneni said. “The beauty
is that the nanoscale cellulose fiber network produced by bacteria
has excellent ability move the water from the bulk to the
evaporative surface while minimizing the heat coming down, and the
entire thing is produced in one shot.
“The design of the material is novel here,” Singamaneni said. “You
have a bi-layered structure with light-absorbing graphene oxide
filled nanocellulose at the top and pristine nanocellulose at the
bottom. When you suspend this entire thing on water, the water is
actually able to reach the top surface where evaporation happens.
“Light radiates on top of it, and it converts into heat because of
the graphene oxide — but the heat dissipation to the bulk water
underneath is minimized by the pristine nanocellulose layer.
You don’t want to waste the heat; you want to confine the heat to
the top layer where the evaporation is actually happening.”
The cellulose at the bottom of the bi-layered biofoam acts as a
sponge, drawing water up to the graphene oxide where rapid
evaporation occurs. The resulting fresh water can easily be
collected from the top of the sheet.
The process in which the bi-layered biofoam is actually formed is
also novel. In the same way an oyster makes a pearl, the bacteria
forms layers of nanocellulose fibers in which the graphene oxide
flakes get embedded.
“While we are culturing the bacteria for the cellulose, we added
the graphene oxide flakes into the medium itself,” said Qisheng
Jiang, lead author of the paper and a graduate student in the
“The graphene oxide becomes embedded as the bacteria produces the
cellulose. At a certain point along the process, we stop, remove
the medium with the graphene oxide and reintroduce fresh medium.
That produces the next layer of our foam. The interface is very
strong; mechanically, it is quite robust.”
The new biofoam is also extremely light and inexpensive to make,
making it a viable tool for water purification and desalination.
“Cellulose can be produced on a massive scale,” Singamaneni said,
“and graphene oxide is extremely cheap — people can produce tons,
truly tons, of it. Both materials going into this are highly
scalable. So one can imagine making huge sheets of the biofoam.”
“The properties of this foam material that we synthesized has
characteristics that enhances solar energy harvesting. Thus, it is
more effective in cleaning up water,” said Pratim Biswas, the Lucy
and Stanley Lopata Professor and chair of the Department of
Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering.
“The synthesis process also allows addition of other
nanostructured materials to the foam that will increase the rate
of destruction of the bacteria and other contaminants, and make it
safe to drink. We will also explore other applications for these
Bilayered Biofoam for Highly Efficient
Solar Steam Generation
A novel bilayered hybrid biofoam composed of a
bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) layer and a reduced graphene oxide
(RGO)-filled BNC layer is introduced for highly efficient solar
steam generation. The biofoam exhibits a solar thermal
efficiency of ≈83% under simulated solar illumination (10 kW
m–2). The fabrication method introduced here is highly scalable
25-Year-Old Student Discovers Way to Kill
Superbugs WITHOUT Antibiotics — Science Freaks Out
by Matt Agorist
“There is the danger that the ignorant man may easily
underdose himself and, by exposing his microbes to non-lethal
quantities of the drug (antibiotics), make them resistant,”
Alexander Fleming, the man who discovered penicillin, cautioned at
the acceptance of his Noble Prize in 1945.
Thanks to the medical-industrial complex and its tendency to
prescribe antibiotics for just about every illness, including
viruses, bacteria are getting smarter. Because we are giving
non-lethal doses of antibiotics to bacteria on a massive scale,
Fleming’s prediction in 1945, is now coming true.
The limited number of antibiotics in the world cannot keep up with
the rapid rate of evolving bacteria. The world will soon be in a
“Things as common as strep throat or a child’s scratched knee
could once again kill,” warned the World Health Organization’s
director-general Margaret Chan in 2012.
This ominous prediction is now swiftly coming in to fruition.
Currently, 700,000 people (230,000 newborns) die every year from
superbugs that have evolved a resistance to antibiotics. According
to a British study, that number is estimated to jump to 10,000,000
by the year 2050 and cost the world economy $100 trillion.
“If we fail to address this problem quickly and comprehensively,
antimicrobial resistance will make providing high-quality
universal healthcare coverage more difficult if not impossible,”
UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon told The Guardian. “It will
undermine sustainable food production. And it will put the
sustainable development goals in jeopardy.”
The outlook for humanity is, indeed, bleak. However, thanks to a
handful of research students from the University of Melbourne
School, we may have hope after all.
Ph.D. student Shu Lam, the study’s lead researcher, believes
they’ve found a way around antibiotic dependency in the battle
“We’ve developed a new class of antimicrobial agents, which are
very unique. They come in the form of tiny star-shaped molecules
that are made from short chains of proteins,” Lam told VICE. “We
found that they are very effective at wiping out [bacterial]
infections in mice and they are also relatively non-toxic to the
These little miracle stars literally tear the bacteria apart by
attaching to it and destroying the cell wall.
“These star polymers screw up the way bacteria survives,” Lam
said. “Bacteria need to divide and grow but when our star is
attached to the membrane it interferes with these processes. This
puts a lot of stress on the bacteria and it initiates a process to
kill itself from stress.”
A diagram showing how the star-shaped polymers rip apart the cell
wall. Image supplied by the University of Melbourne.
“We still need to do a lot of studies and a lot of tests—for
example, to see whether these polymers have any side effects on
our bodies,” she explained to Vice. “We need a lot of detailed
assessments like that, [but] they could hopefully be implemented
in the near future.”
Lam’s study was published in the prestigious journal, Nature
Microbiology, this month, and has taken the scientific community
by storm. This small team of scientists may have just saved
humanity from the brink of extinction.
“This research is significant because everyone is worried about
superbugs. Suddenly, a lot of people have been telling me that
either they themselves or their relatives have been infected, that
they have been in intensive care because of a superbug, and that
people they know have actually died,” Lam told the Telegraph.
“I really hope that the polymers we are trying to develop here
could eventually be a solution,” she added.
Because pharmaceutical companies are more interested in developing
drugs that must be taken for a person’s entire life, thereby
guaranteeing them future income, only one antibiotic, teixobactin,
has been developed in the last 30 years.
“Incentives must be found to recreate the prolific era of
antibiotic discovery that took place from 1940 to 1960,” said
Margaret Chan, the director of the World Health Organisation.
Lam’s team may have just created that incentive by changing the
face of modern medicine.
Lam hopes her “innovative” research will encourage pharmaceutical
companies to invest, according to the Telegraph. “I hope it will
attract some interest, because what we have discovered is quite
different from antibiotics,” she says.
As the Telegraph reports:
Professor Greg Qiao, her PhD supervisor, says
that Lam’s project is one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs
he had seen in his 20 years at Melbourne university. But he
cautions that it is still in the early stages, and will need at
least another five years to develop, unless millions of pounds of
investment can be found to speed the process. Cross-discipline
work is still required to further reduce toxicity and work out the
best way to administer the treatment, whether by tablet or
“The really good news about this is that, at the moment, if you
have a superbug and you run out of antibiotics, there’s not much
you can do. At least you can do something now,” said Qiao.
Nature Microbiology 1, Article number: 16162 (2016)
Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative
bacteria with structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial
Shu J. Lam, Neil M. O'Brien-Simpson, Namfon Pantarat, Adrian
Sulistio, Edgar H. H. Wong, Yu-Yen Chen, Jason C. Lenzo, James
A. Holden, Anton Blencowe, Eric C. Reynolds & Greg G. Qiao
Chem. Commun. 47, 1151–1153 (2011).
Star polymers composed entirely of amino
acid building blocks: a route towards stereospecific,
biodegradable and hierarchically functionalized stars.
Sulistio, A., Widjaya, A., Blencowe, A., Zhang, X. &
Qiao, G. G.
Polym. Chem., 2012,3, 224-234
Development of functional amino acid-based
Adrian Sulistio, Anton Blencowe, Adrian Widjaya, Xiaoqing
Zhang and Greg Qiao
Prog. Polym. Sci. 46, 55–85 (2015).
Star polymers: advances in biomedical
Wu, W., Wang, W. & Li, J.
Australian Journal of Chemistry 67(4) 592-597
Peptide-based star polymers as potential
Lam, S. J. et al.
POLYMER CONJUGATE FOR DELIVERY OF A BIOACTIVE AGENT
The present invention relates in general to polymer-bioactive
agent conjugates for delivering a bioactive agent to a subject.
The polymer-bioactive agent conjugates contain triazole moieties
in the polymer backbone and a bioactive moiety selected from
prostaglandin analogues, β-blockers and mixtures thereof. The
present invention also relates to methods for preparing the
polymer conjugates using click chemical reactions, to
monomer-bioactive agent conjugates suitable for preparing the
polymer conjugates, and to pharmaceutical products comprising the
polymer conjugates for the treatment of glaucoma.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates in general to
polymer-bioactive agent conjugates for delivering a bioactive
agent to a subject. In particular, the present invention relates
to polymer-bioactive agent conjugates containing triazole moieties
in the polymer backbone for delivering a bioactive agent selected
from prostaglandin analogues and β-blockers. The present invention
also relates to methods for preparing the polymer conjugates by
means of alkyne/azide cycloaddition reactions (“click chemical
reactions”), to monomer-bioactive agent conjugates suitable for
preparing the polymer conjugates, and to pharmaceutical products
comprising the polymer conjugates for the treatment of glaucoma.
 Polymer-bioactive agent conjugates containing a bioactive
agent covalently bound to a polymer are of interest for the
targeted and controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. In the
treatment of many different conditions, the site-specific delivery
of a drug directly to or near a desired site of action in the body
of a subject can be highly desirable to improve the efficacy
and/or safety of the drug. Certain sites in a subject may require
sophisticated delivery vehicles to overcome barriers for effective
drug delivery. For example, the eye has a limited volume for
administration and requires a pharmaceutical product with a high
drug loading to ensure that adequate doses of drug can be
delivered while keeping product volume to a minimum. Despite the
limited volume it is desirable to be able to deliver drug to the
site continuously and in a controlled manner over an extended
period of time.
 β-blockers are antagonists of beta-adrenoreceptor sites and
are used to treat or manage a range of conditions, including
cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, hypotension and glaucoma.
Elevated intraocular pressure (ocular hypertension) is a risk
factor for glaucoma. β-blockers can reduce intraocular pressure
and exert an ocular hypotensive effect by reducing the production
of aqueous humour in the eye.
 Prostaglandin analogues are molecules designed to bind to a
prostaglandin receptor and are used to treat gastro-intestinal
acid related disorders such as duodenal and gastric ulcers, as
abortifacients or uterotonics to induce labour or prevent past
partum haemorrhage, and to treat ocular hypertension.
Prostaglandin analogues exert an ocular hypotensive effect by
increasing uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humour.
 Prostaglandin analogues and β-blockers used in the
treatment of glaucoma are presently formulated as eye drops, which
if administered conscientiously to the affected eye will lower
intraocular pressure. This in turn can slow the progression of
glaucoma. The prostaglandin analogues and β-blockers are
administered as eye drops, either alone (i.e. as a single agent)
or in combination. It is postulated that combining prostaglandin
analogues with β-blockers that exert their effect through a
different mechanism, may provide an additive effect in reducing
intraocular pressure. For example, some pharmaceutical
preparations used in the treatment of glaucoma, such as Xalacom™
eye drops marketed by Pfizer and Ganfort™ eye drops marketed by
Allergan, contain a prostaglandin analogue in combination with a
 Unfortunately, as glaucoma is an asymptomatic disease many
patients do not use their drops conscientiously, compromising
therapy. A recent study by Friedman et al. (Friedman et al. IOVS
2007: 48, 5052-5057) showed that adherence to glaucoma treatment
options is poor with only 59% of patients in possession of an
ocular hypotensive agent at 12 months, and only 10% of patients
used such medication continuously. Patient compliance in glaucoma
therapy is therefore an issue.
 Drug delivery systems have been developed to aid in the
administration and/or sustained delivery of bioactive agents (such
as drugs) to a desired site of action. One mode of delivering a
drug to a subject involves the use of a polymer in association
with the drug so that it can be delivered to and/or retained at a
 One form of a polymer/drug delivery system utilises an
admixture of a polymer with a drug, where the drug is blended with
the polymer matrix. However, such admixtures generally result in
poor control over the release of the drug, with a “burst effect”
often occurring immediately after administration and significant
changes in the physical properties of the admixture occurring as
the drug is released (Sjoquist, B.; Basu, S.; Byding, P.; Bergh,
K.; Stjernschantz, J. Drug Metab. Dispos. 1998, 26, 745.). In
addition, such admixtures have limited dose loading capacity,
resulting in a prohibitively large device for convenient
administration to some sites in a subject.
 Another form of a polymer/drug delivery system is based on
the polymerisation of a drug so as to incorporate the drug
molecule as part of the backbone of a polymer chain. Such a system
is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,613,807, WO2008/128193, WO94/04593
and U.S. Pat. No. 7,122,615. However, such polymer systems
generally provide inefficient delivery of the drug, as release of
the drug relies on breakdown of the polymer backbone. Furthermore,
breakdown of the polymer backbone produces inactive intermediates.
Such intermediates can complicate regulatory approval, which may
require the safety of the intermediates to be demonstrated.
 Another approach for preparing polymer-bioactive agent
conjugates involves the covalent attachment of bioactive agent
molecules to a pre-formed polymer backbone. Examples of such
polymer conjugates have been reviewed in Nature Reviews: Drug
Discovery 2003:2, 347-360. However, this approach can also be
problematic. In particular, steric and thermodynamic constraints
can affect the amount of bioactive agent that can be covalently
attached, and also impact on the distribution of the bioactive
agent along the polymer backbone. These factors can, in turn,
reduce control over the release of the bioactive agent.
Furthermore, the use of a pre-formed polymer backbone provides
limited scope for modification of the polymer conjugate after
attachment of the bioactive agent should the properties of the
conjugate need to be adjusted to improve drug release and/or to
aid patient comfort, particularly in the eye.
 For efficient delivery, bioactive agents such as drugs are
ideally pendant from the backbone polymer chain.
 In preparing polymer-bioactive agent conjugates,
step-growth polymerisation is one approach that has been used. By
means of step-growth polymerisation, polymer-bioactive agent
conjugates can be prepared by covalently reacting a bioactive
agent-functionalised monomer having at least two terminal reactive
functional groups, with a co-monomer of complementary terminal
functionality. An example is the reaction of a drug-functionalised
dihydroxy monomer with a diisocyanate co-monomer to form a
polymer-drug conjugate with a polyurethane polymer backbone.
However, one problem with step-growth polymerisation methods is
that many bioactive agents, such as drug molecules, can contain
multiple functional groups that are capable of participating in
the covalent reactions used to form the polymer. In such
circumstances, there is a risk that a functional group on a drug
molecule could react with a terminal functional group of a
monomer, leading to intra-chain incorporation of the bioactive
agent in the polymer. As a result, the bioactive agent becomes
part of the polymer backbone structure, rather than forming a
pendant group. Prostaglandin analogues and β-blockers are examples
of such drugs with multiple nucleophilic functional groups with a
consequential high risk of in-chain incorporation.
 It would be desirable to provide new polymer-bioactive
agent conjugates, which address or ameliorate one or more
disadvantages or shortcomings associated with existing materials
and/or their method of manufacture, or to at least provide a
useful alternative to such materials and their method of
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention provides in one aspect, a
polymer-bioactive agent conjugate comprising a polymer backbone
comprising a plurality of triazole moieties, and a plurality of
releasable bioactive agents covalently bonded to and pendant from
the polymer backbone, wherein the bioactive moieties are selected
from the group consisting of prostaglandin analogues, β-blockers,
and mixtures thereof.
 Polymer-bioactive agent conjugates of the invention are
obtained through the use of click chemistry, in particular through
the application of variants of the Huisgen 1,3 dipolar
cycloaddition of azides and alkynes. With click chemistry, at
least two co-monomers of appropriate complementary terminal
functionality covalently react to form the polymer-bioactive agent
conjugate. At least one of the co-monomers carries a pendant
bioactive agent. The triazole moieties present in the polymer
backbone of the polymer-bioactive agent conjugate are reaction
products obtained from the covalent coupling of terminal
functional groups present on the co-monomers. Thus, the covalent
reaction between the co-monomers results in the formation of a
polymer-bioactive agent conjugate comprising a polymer backbone
and bioactive agents pendant from the polymer backbone, together
with triazole moieties in the polymer backbone structure….
12,000 Year Old Underground Tunnel Systems
Species with Amnesia: Our Forgotten History
Highly advanced civilizations have been here before us, just
to be destroyed ...
Robert Sepehr - Anunnaki, Nibiru, Planet X
Is history is repeating itself? Some say that there was once a
super race of aliens known to the ancient people of the Earth as
the Anunnaki. or Aryans. In recent years, there have been many
speculative writings about Planet X, which is also known as Planet
Nibiru. There are those who believe that the Anunnaki of Nibiru
are coming back to Earth soon.
Obama’s 3 Head Scars and Hillary’s 9/11
Seizure Explained: The Beast Has Its Head Wounded
Time is up. A beast described in Revelation 13 is here. His
number is 666. Please believe Jesus of Nazareth as Messiah and
repent of sin.
What was witnessed at the 9/11 event was intentional. Hillary
Clinton fell ill. It wasn't Pneumonia, which I debunk in this
video. Even Bill Clinton is confused by lie after lie coming from
Hillary's campaign. He stated that Hillary has "the flu," which is
a completely different illness. Hillary's Pneumonia was a coverup
for what really happened at 9/11, she had another seizure, and the
doctor traveling with her administered the autoinjector to prevent
a spectacle. Despite this, Hillary's legs still went flaccid and
her knees buckled. She passed out. However, a body double came out
posing as Hillary, convincing lame media sources like NBC that she
was just fine and completely healthy.
The following strange details must be pointed out about the 9/11
1) Hillary was allowed to walk without any assistance after
2) Hillary fainted in roughly 75 degree weather, but then was
allowed to go back out in 90 degree midday humidity.
3) Hillary was allowed to be around politicians and diplomats with
4) Hillary was allowed to embrace a little girl with active
5) Hillary has Pneumonia despite receiving a Pneumonia vaccine in
6) Bill said Hillary had the "flu," which is a completely
different illness cause by a virus.
7) The Diazepam autoinjector appears to have been utilized at the
scene and a part of it dropped on the ground.
8) Hillary was allowed to be around her daughter, a postnatal
mother with two children. Even if Chelsea wasn't at the residence
at the time, Hillary's presence there could spread the pneumonia
9) Hillary Clinton has attended rallies in the past and left early
for a reason that wasn't related to Pneumonia.
10) Dr. Bardack diagnosed Hillary with "Non-contagious Bacterial
Pneumonia." Except, this diagnosis does not exist and
fundamentally defies the nature of biological pathogenesis.
Looking at all of this evidence, I have concluded that Hillary did
not have Pneumonia at all. Though it is hard to see her up close
in the video footage, she looks like she is having another complex
partial seizure. I wonder if this could have been a 9/11 ritual. I
do believe Hillary is sick, but the whole scenario seems a bit too
ritualistic, occurring on the exact day as a commemoration event.
If we look at Hillary alongside some of her colleagues in the
Senate, her fellow secretaries and diplomats, we can see that
several individuals who worked for or with Obama have developed
brain anomalies including brain tumors/cancer, dementia, and
seizure disorders. Joe Biden has a history of brain aneurysms and
has had brain surgery to correct them, his son Beau Biden just
died of a brain tumor. Beau Biden was an up-and-coming politician
in the Democrat Party. Arlen Specter, a Republican, had a previous
bout of brain cancer and ended up dying of a third bout of cancer
in 2012. Obama's former secretary of commerce, John Bryson, who
was responsible for promoting the market concept behind Obamacare
(a role of the commerce secretary, not the HHS secretary),
suffered a seizure while driving, crashed his car, and was later
diagnosed with "complex partial seizures" in 2012. This was the
same diagnosis as Hillary Clinton, who fell and hit her head in
2012. John Roberts, the Chief Justice and Jesuit who stunned the
world after passing Obamacare on two occasions, suffers from
Epilepsy. While the Vatican has denied rumors by one of Italy's
largest newspapers that Pope Francis is suffering from benign
brain tumors, it appears that Francis has fallen on multiple
occasions and something is indeed wrong with him. It was leaked
that Francis was being treated for his brain tumors by a Dr.
Fukushima. Jimmy Carter, who called everybody racist who opposed
Obama's initiatives after Freemason Joe Wilson interrupted Obama
during a key speech on the Obamacare health initiative, has a
secondary metastatic brain tumor. Edward Kennedy, a primary
proponent of early Obamacare initiative in the Senate in 2009,
received a diagnosis of a Glioblastoma. He is now dead.
Obama himself has been the subject of a barrage of rumors about
his own head scar, which looks like he had an operation called a
Craniotomy done. Craniotomy's often involve a bone flap is made to
allow the brain to swell, and after this is done, the bone is put
back into the incision, but sometime the bone can't be reinserted
and is replaced with titanium plates. Obama has three head scars
on the right temporal parietal frontal area, the left temporal
parietal incision, and a large occipital incision that extends up
to the parietal bone. Whatever he had done, it was not to one
region of his brain, but performed to the entirety of his skull.
FM 3-39.40 Internment and Resettlement
Distribution authorized to the DOD and DOD contractors only to
protect technical or operational information from automatic
dissemination under the International Exchange Program or by other
I/R operations facilitate the ability to conduct rapid and
decisive combat operations; deter, mitigate, and defeat threats to
populations that may result in conflict; reverse conditions of
human suffering; and build the capacity of a foreign government to
effectively care for and govern its population. This includes
capabilities to conduct shaping operations across the spectrum of
military operations to mitigate and defeat the underlying
conditions for conflict and counter the core motivations that
result in support to criminal, terrorist, insurgent, and other
destabilizing groups. I/R operations also include the daily
incarceration of U.S. military prisoners at facilities throughout
This manual continues the evolution of the I/R
function to support the changing nature of OEs. In light of
persistent armed conflict and social turmoil throughout the world,
the effects on populations remain a compelling issue. The world
population will increase from 6 billion to 9 billion in the next
two decades, with 95 percent of the growth occurring in the
developing world. By 2030, 60 percent of the world’s population
will live in urban areas. Coexisting demographically and
ethnically, diverse societies will aggressively compete for
Typically, overpopulated third world societies
suffer from a lack of legitimate and effective enforcement
mechanisms, which is generally accepted as one of the cornerstones
of a stable society. Stability within a population may eliminate
the need for direct military intervention. The goal of military
police conducting detainee operations is to provide stability
within the population, its institutions, and its infrastructure.
In this rapidly changing and dynamic strategic environment, U.S.
forces will compete with local populations for the same space,
routes, and resources. The modular force’s ability to positively
influence and shape the opinions, attitudes, and behaviors of
select populations is critical to tactical, operational, and
An adaptive enemy will manipulate populations
that are hostile to U.S. intent by instigating mass civil
disobedience, directing criminal activity, masking their
operations in urban and other complex terrain,
maintaining an indistinguishable presence
through cultural anonymity, and actively seeking the traditional
sanctuary of protected areas as defined by the rules of land
warfare. Such actions will facilitate the dispersal of threat
forces, negate technological overmatches, and degrade targeting
opportunities. Commanders will use technology and conduct police
intelligence operations to influence and control populations,
evacuate detainees and, conclusively, transition rehabilitative
and reconciliation operations to other functional agencies. The
combat identification of friend, foe, or neutral is used to
differentiate combatants from noncombatants and friendly forces
from threat forces.
1-10. A CI is a civilian who is interned during armed
conflict, occupation, or other military operation for security
reasons, for protection, or because he or she committed an offense
against the detaining power. (JP 3-63) CIs, unless they have
committed acts for which they are considered unlawful combatants,
generally qualify for protected status according to the GC, which
also establishes procedures that must be observedwhen depriving
such civilians of their liberty. CIs are to be accommodated
separately from EPWs and persons deprived of liberty for any other
1-11. Protected persons are persons protected by the Geneva
Convention who find themselves, in case of a conflict or
occupation, in the hands of a party to the conflict or occupying
power of which they are not nationals. (AR 190-8). Protected
persons who are interned for imperative reasons of security are
also known as CIs. Protected persons under the Geneva Conventions
Hors de combat (refers to the prohibition of attacking enemy
personnel who are “out of combat”).
Detainees (combatants and CIs).
Wounded and sick in the field and at sea.
Note. If protected persons are detained as spies or saboteurs or
are suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security
of the state or occupying power, they may be interned or
imprisoned. In such cases, they retain their status as a protected
person and are granted the full rights and privileges of protected
1-19. The term dislocated civilian is a broad term that
includes a displaced person, an evacuee, an expellee, an
internally displaced person, a migrant, a refugee, or a stateless
person. (JP 3-57) DCs are individuals who leave their homes for
various reasons, such as an armed conflict or a natural disaster,
and whose movement and physical presence can hinder military
operations. They most likely require some degree of aid, such as
medicine, food, shelter, or clothing. DCs may not be native to the
area or to the country in which they reside. (See chapter 10.) The
following DC subcategories are also defined in JP 3-57:
Displaced person. A displaced person is a civilian who is
involuntarily outside the national boundaries of his or her
country. (JP 1-02) Displaced persons may have been dislocated
because of a political, geographical, environmental, or threat
Evacuee. An evacuee is a civilian removed from a place of
residence by military direction for reasons of personal security
or the requirements of the military situation. (JP 3-57)
Internally displaced person. An internally displaced person is any
person who has left their residence by reason of real or imagined
danger but has not left the territory of their own
country.Internally displaced persons may have been forced to flee
their homes for the same reasons as refugees, but have not crossed
an internationally recognized border.
Expellee. An expellee is a civilian outside the boundaries of the
country of his or her nationality or ethnic origin who is being
forcibly repatriated to that country or to a third country for
political or other purposes. (JP 3-57)
Migrant. A migrant is a person who (1) belongs to a normally
migratory culture who may cross national boundaries, or (2) has
fled his or her native country for economic reasons rather than
fear of political or ethnic persecution. (JP 3-57)
Refugee. A refugee is a person, who by reason of real or imagined
danger, has left their home country or country of their
nationality and is unwilling or unable to return.
Stateless person. A stateless person is a civilian who has been
denationalized or whose country of origin cannot be determined or
who cannot establish a right to the nationality claimed.
AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH INTERNMENT AND RESETTLEMENT
1-40. External involvement in I/R missions is a fact of life
for military police organizations. Some government and
government-sponsored entities that may be involved in I/R missions
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
International Organization of Migration.
Local U.S. embassy.
Department of Homeland Security.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).
Federal Emergency Management Agency.
1-41. The U.S. Army National Detainee Reporting Center (NDRC),
supported by theater detainee reporting centers (TDRCs), detainee
accountability, including reporting to the ICRC central tracing
1-42. There are also numerous private relief organizations,
foreign and domestic, that will likely be involved in the
humanitarian aspects of I/R operations. Likewise, the news media
normally provides extensive coverage of I/R operations. Adding to
the complexity of these operations is the fact that DOD is often
not the lead agency. For instance, the DOD could be tasked in a
supporting role, with the Department of State or some other agency
in the lead. (See appendix E.)
SUPPORT TO CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS
2-39. Civil support is the DOD support to U.S. civil authorities
for domestic emergencies, and for designated law enforcement and
other activities. (JP 3-28) Civil support includes operations that
address the consequences of natural or man-made disasters,
accidents, terrorist attacks and incidents in the U.S. and its
2-40. The I/R tasks performed in support of civil support
operations are similar to those during combat operations, but the
techniques and procedures are modified based on the special OE
associated with operating within U.S. territory and according to
the categories of individuals (primarily DCs) to be housed in I/R
facilities. During long-term I/R operations, state and federal
agencies will operate within and around I/R facilities within the
scope of their capabilities and identified role. Military police
commanders must closely coordinate and synchronize their efforts
with them especially in cases where civil authority and
capabilities have broken down or been destroyed.
PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS OFFICER
3-55. The PSYOP officer in charge of supporting I/R operations
serves as the special staff officer responsible for PSYOP. The
PSYOP officer advises the military police commander on the
psychological impact of military police or MI actions to prevent
misunderstandings and disturbances by detainees and DCs. The
supporting I/R PSYOP team has two missions that reduce the need to
divert military police assets to maintain security in the I/R
facility. (See appendix J.) The team—
Assists the military police force in controlling detainees and
Introduces detainees or DCs to U.S. and multinational policy.
3-56. The PSYOP team also supports the military police custodial
mission in the I/R facility. The team—
Develops PSYOP products that are designed to pacify and acclimate
detainees or DCs to accept U.S. I/R facility authority and
Gains the cooperation of detainees or DCs to reduce the number of
Identifies malcontents, trained agitators, and political leaders
within the facility who may try to organize resistance or create
Develops and executes indoctrination programs to reduce or remove
Identifies political activists.
Provides loudspeaker support (such as administrative announcements
and facility instructions when necessary).
Helps the military police commander control detainee and DC
populations during emergencies.
Plans and executes a PSYOP program that produces an understanding
and appreciation of U.S. policies and actions.
DETAINEE PROCESSING TECHNIQUE
4-33. Upon capture, Soldiers must process detainees using the
“search, silence, segregate, speed, safeguard, and tag (5 Ss and
T)” technique. This technique provides a structure to guide
Soldiers in conducting detainee operations until they transfer
custody of detainees to another authority or location. Complete
the “5 Ss and T” technique as follows:
Search. Neutralize a detainee and confiscate weapons, personal
items, and items of potential intelligence and/or evidentiary
Silence. Prevent detainees from communicating with one another or
making audible clamor such as chanting, singing, or praying.
Silence uncooperative detainees by muffling them with a soft,
clean cloth tied around their mouths and fastened at the backs of
their heads. Do not use duct tape or other adhesives, place a
cloth or either objects inside the mouth, or apply physical force
to silence detainees.
Segregate. Segregate detainees according to policy and SOPs
(segregation requirements differ from operation to operation). The
ability to segregate detainees may be limited by the availability
of manpower and resources at the POC. At a minimum, try to
segregate detainees by grade, gender, age (keeping adults from
juveniles and small children with mothers), and security risk. MI
and military police personnel can provide additional guidance and
support in determining the appropriate segregation criteria.
Speed. Quickly move detainees from the continuing risks associated
with other combatants or sympathizers who may still be in the area
of capture. If there are more detainees than the Soldiers can
control, call for additional support, search the detainees, and
hold them in place until reinforcements arrive.
Safeguard. Protect detainees and ensure the custody and integrity
of all confiscated items. Soldiers must safeguard detainees from
combat risk, harm caused by other detainees, and improper
treatment or care. Report all injuries. Correct and report
violations of U.S. military policy that occur while safeguarding
detainees. Acts and/or omissions that constitute inhumane
treatment are violations of the law of war and, as such, must be
corrected immediately. Simply reporting violations is
insufficient. If a violation is ongoing, a Soldier has an
obligation to stop the violation and report it.
Tag. Ensure that each detainee is tagged using DD Form 2745.
Confiscated equipment, personal items, and evidence will be linked
to the detainee using the DD Form 2745 number. When a DA Form 4137
is used to document confiscated items, it will be linked to the
detainee by annotating the DD Form 2745 control number on the
Faeces-for-Brains Journalism :
"Islamophobia" ? Why should we be "phobic" ( afraid ! ) of
stupid, dumbed-down, willfully ignorant culture-bound
barbarian religionist fools ? They're merely pathetic and
disgusting, not even worth hating, let alone fearing. Try
Taoist Alchemy for a real spiritual treat...
Why we should treat Islamophobia as a
public health issue
"Islamophobic" ! Medicate her !
Housewife cuts pervert Muslim’s penis when
trying to sexually assault her granddaughter
A man belonging to the Muslim community was brutally murdered
by the grandmother of a 13-year- old girl as he attempted to rape
this young innocent soul. The grandmother attacked him several
times with a machete.
This bloody episode occurred yesterday morning in Saint-Denis,
France. The fatal victim is Mohamed Asis (25), who died inside the
house of Liz Eluchans (61).
“Two days ago I was threatened that he would come to my house to
kill me and my girl, I braced myself against this bastard and
enlisted a machete,” said the humble housewife.
Yesterday morning, taking advantage that only the lady and her
granddaughter were in this modest home, the individual broke into
through a hole the door has, crawled and approached where the girl
was sleeping with the intention of sexually assault her.
The yelling of the girl woke grandma up who grabbed a machete,
attacked him in the dark and killed him eventually.
“When I turned on the light, I realized it was the man who had
threatened me two days ago because I didn’t allow him to tell my
granddaughter nonsense stuff,” she said.
“When I saw that desperate expression on the face of my girl and
this naked Muslim, I went crazy and started to attack until I
finished him, I really do not remember when I cut his penis” added
the woman in shock.
Police said that when they arrived to the elderly’s home, they
found the rapist’s penis in his mouth and with more than 50 stabs
in his body.
“That bastard will not assault anyone else never again,” said Liz.
The sexagenarian was taken to court where a judge released her,
arguing that the lady acted in self-defense. “I fear for my life
because there are individuals who continue to sow in the area, we
ask the police to search for them and put them in jail, nobody
welcomes them here,” said Dona Liz before leaving the police
“What she did is wrong and broke the law but it is difficult to
send to jail a woman who chastised one rapist” – the police chief
Didier Thuram said – “Especially when 3 million people in the city
want to name her President of the Nation. “
11-Year-Old Child Bride Speaks Out Before
Being Killed by her Muslim husband
It's Official: America Is Not The Greatest
Country On Earth... It's 28th!
“The next Fourth Turning is due to begin shortly after the new
millennium, midway through the Oh-Oh decade. Around the year
2005, a sudden spark will catalyze a Crisis mood. Remnants of
the old social order will disintegrate. Political and economic
trust will implode. Real hardship will beset the land, with
severe distress that could involve questions of class, race,
nation and empire. The very survival of the nation will feel at
stake. Sometime before the year 2025, America will pass through
a great gate in history, commensurate with the American
Revolution, Civil War, and twin emergencies of the Great
Depression and World War II...” – Strauss & Howe – The
“Don’t think you can escape the Fourth Turning the way you might
today distance yourself from news, national politics, or even
taxes you don’t feel like paying. History warns that a Crisis
will reshape the basic social and economic environment that you
now take for granted. The Fourth Turning necessitates the death
and rebirth of the social order. It is the ultimate rite of
passage for an entire people, requiring a luminal state of sheer
chaos whose nature and duration no one can predict in advance.”
– Strauss & Howe – The Fourth Turning
August Landmesser :
Balls of Rockwell 1000 Steel vs 14+ Tanks
( Tienamin Square, 1989 ) --