Stuff & Stuff
Sci-Tech News & Olds & Social Studies
UPDATE : 25
WARNING : NO SUPERVISION -- READ AT YOUR
OWN RISK !
Environmental Science & Technology
Unique Hg stable isotope signatures of
compact fluorescent lamp-sourced Hg
C. Mead, J. Lyons, T. Johnson, and D. Anbar
Reported inexplicable shifts of Mercury isotopes in consumer
lamps Source: webpage at
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es303940p Quoting abstract
directly: “The recent widespread adoption of compact
fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a
source of environmental Hg. Stable isotope analysis can
identify the sources of environmental Hg, but the isotopic
composition of Hg from CFL is not yet known. Results from
analyses of CFL with a range of hours of use show that the Hg
they contain is isotopically fractionated in a unique pattern
during normal CFL operation. This fractionation is large by
comparison to other known fractionating processes for Hg and
has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL
Hg could be uniquely identified from other sources. The
fractionation process described here may also explain
anomalous fractionation of Hg isotopes in precipitation.”
Direct quotes selected from body of paper: “Trapped Hg of used
CFL show unusually large isotopic fractionation, the pattern
of which is entirely different from that which has been
observed in previous Hg isotope research aside from
intentional isotope enrichment. Most notably, there is no
straightforward relationship between extent of fractionation
and isotope mass. Thus, while previous studies of MIF of Hg
only observed large deviations from mass- dependence in odd
mass isotopes, our results clearly show MIF across multiple
even mass and odd mass isotopes.” Fig. shows large deviations
from MDF and unused samples.
Jonathan Boreyko, et al. :
Jan. 25, 2016
Beetle-inspired engineering could
lessen energy costs associated with controlling frost
In a discovery that may lead to ways to prevent frost on
airplane parts, condenser coils, and even windshields, a team
of researchers led by Virginia Tech has used chemical
micropatterns to control the growth of frost caused by
Writing in Scientific Reports, an online journal from the
publishers of Nature, the researchers describe how they used
photolithography to pattern chemical arrays that attract water
over top of a surface that repels water, thereby controlling
or preventing the spread of frost.
The inspiration for the work came from an unlikely source —
the Namib Desert Beetle, which makes headlines because it
lives in one of the hottest places in the world, yet it still
collects airborne water.
The insect has a bumpy shell and the tips of the bumps attract
moisture to form drops, but the sides are smooth and repel
water, creating channels that lead directly to the beetle’s
“I appreciate the irony of how an insect that lives in a hot,
dry desert inspired us to make a discovery about frost,” said
Jonathan Boreyko, an assistant professor of Biomedical
Engineering and Mechanics in the Virginia Tech College of
Engineering. “The main takeaway from the Desert Beetle is we
can control where dew drops grow.”
Working at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the researchers
developed their beetle-inspired, frost-controlling chemical
pattern on a surface only about the size of a centimeter, but
they believe the area can be scaled up to large surface areas
with thirsty, hydrophilic patterns overtop of a hydrophobic,
or water-repellant, surface.
“We made a single dry zone around a piece of ice,” Boreyko
said. “Dew drops preferentially grow on the array of
hydrophilic dots. When the dots are spaced far enough apart
and one of the drops freezes into ice, the ice is no longer
able to spread frost to the neighboring drops because they are
too far away. Instead, the drops actually evaporate
completely, creating a dry zone around the ice.”
Creating frost-free zones on larger surfaces could have a
variety of applications – consider the water that forms and
freezes on heat pump coils or the deicing with harsh chemicals
that has to take place on wind turbines or airplane wings.
“Keeping things dry requires huge energy expenditures,” said
C. Patrick Collier, a research scientist at the
Nanofabrication Research Laboratory Center for Nanophase
Materials Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a
co-author of the study. “That’s why we are paying more
attention to ways to control water condensation and freezing.
It could result in huge cost savings.”
The journey of frost across a surface begins with a single,
frozen dew drop, the researchers said.
“The twist is how ice bridges grow,” Boreyko said. “Ice
harvests water from dew drops and this causes ice bridges to
propagate frost across the droplets on the surface. Only a
single droplet has to freeze to get this chain reaction
By controlling spacing of the condensation, the researchers
were able to control the speed frost grows across surfaces, or
completely prevent frost.
“Fluids go from high pressure to low pressure,” Boreyko said.
“Ice serves as a humidity sink because the vapor pressure of
ice is lower than the vapor pressure of water. The pressure
difference causes ice to grow, but designed properly with this
beetle-inspired pattern, this same effect creates a dry zone
rather than frost.”
A portion of the research was conducted at the Center for
Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a Department of
Engineering Office of Science user facility. The Department of
Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics at Virginia Tech provided
VIDEO : By controlling the spacing of condensation,
researchers were able to control the speed of frost growth
across surfaces, or completely prevent frost. The video shows
frost spreads more quickly when drops are closer, and the
chain reaction is not as quick when the drops are farther
apart. Video by Saurabh Nath, a graduate student in the
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics at Virginia
Quantum Knottiness -- Moebius Bands in Bose Condenstates :
Quantum Knot Solitons
The scientists at Aalto University (Finland) and Amherst
College (USA) created knotted solitary waves, or knot
solitons, in the quantum-mechanical field describing a gas of
superfluid atoms, also known as a Bose–Einstein condensate.
In contrast to knotted ropes, the created quantum knots exist
in a field that assumes a certain direction at every point of
space. The field segregates into an infinite number of linked
rings, each with its own field direction. The resulting
structure is topologically stable as it cannot be separated
without breaking the rings. In other words, one cannot untie
the knot within the superfluid unless one destroys the state
of the quantum matter.
To make this discovery we exposed a Rubidium condensate to
rapid changes of a specifically tailored magnetic field, tying
the knot in less than a thousandth of a second. After we
learned how to tie the first quantum knot, we have become
rather good at it. Thus far, we have tied several hundred such
knots, says Professor David Hall, Amherst College.
The scientists tied the knot by squeezing the structure into
the condensate from its outskirts. This required them to
initialize the quantum field to point in a particular
direction, after which they suddenly changed the applied
magnetic field to bring an isolated null point, at which the
magnetic field vanishes, into the center of the cloud. Then
they just waited for less than a millisecond for the magnetic
field to do its trick and tie the knot.
–For decades, physicists have been theoretically predicting
that it should be possible to have knots in quantum fields,
but nobody else has been able to make one. Now that we have
seen these exotic beasts, we are really excited to study their
peculiar properties. Importantly, our discovery connects to a
diverse set of research fields including cosmology, fusion
power, and quantum computers, says research group leader Mikko
Möttönen, Aalto University.
Experimental images of the superfluid in the course of the
knot tying process. Tying time advances from the left to right
as indicated. The brightness denotes the particle density
corresponding to the field direction up or down. The black
circles in the rightmost panel reveal the colorful torus shown
in Figure 1 where the field direction points sideways. See
instruction below to access the full-resolution image. Credit:
Knots have been used and appreciated by human civilizations
for thousands of years. For example, they have enabled great
seafaring expeditions and inspired intricate designs and
patterns. The ancient Inca civilization used a system of knots
known as quipu to store information. In modern times, knots
have been thought to play important roles in the
quantum-mechanical foundations of nature, although they have
thus far remained unseen in quantum dynamics.
In everyday life, knots are typically tied on ropes or strings
with two ends. However, these kinds of knots are not what
mathematicians call topologically stable since they can be
untied without cutting the rope. In stable knots, the ends of
the ropes are glued together. Such knots can be relocated
within the rope but cannot be untied without scissors.
Mathematically speaking, the created quantum knot realizes a
mapping referred to as Hopf fibration that was discovered by
Heinz Hopf in 1931. The Hopf fibration is still widely studied
in physics and mathematics. Now it has been experimentally
demonstrated for the first time in a quantum field.
This is the beginning of the story of quantum knots. It would
be great to see even more sophisticated quantum knots to
appear such as those with knotted cores. Also it would be
important to create these knots in conditions where the state
of the quantum matter would be inherently stable. Such system
would allow for detailed studies of the stability of the knot
itself, says Mikko Möttönen.
Tying Quantum Knots
Amherst College and Aalto University
In this video, we illustrate the structure of the first
quantum knot ever tied in quantum matter. These results were
reported in Nature and produced by a collaboration of research
teams headed by Prof.
Mikko Möttönen (QCD Labs, Aalto University) and Prof. David
Hall (Hall Labs, Amherst College). The knots are tied in a
Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) that is an atomic gas with
superfluid properties. The created structure realizes the
celebrated Hopf fibration for the first time in the context of
quantum physics and quantum mechanics. This type of knot
formed in a quantum gas is also referred to as a knot soliton.
Nature Physics, DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS3624
Tying quantum knots
D. S. Hall, M. W. Ray, K. Tiurev, E. Ruokokoski, A. H.
Gheorghe & M.
As topologically stable objects in field theories, knots have
been put forward to explain various persistent phenomena in
systems ranging from atoms and molecules to cosmic textures in
the universe. Recent experiments have reported the observation
of knots in different classical contexts. However, no
experimental observation of knots has yet been reported in
quantum matter. Here we demonstrate the experimental creation
and detection of knot solitons in the order parameter of a
spinor Bose–Einstein condensate. The observed texture
corresponds to a topologically nontrivial element of the third
homotopy group and exhibits the celebrated Hopf fibration,
which unites many seemingly unrelated physical phenomena. Our
work calls for future studies of the stability and dynamics
knot solitons in the quantum regime.
UPDATE : 25 January
18 January 2016
No More Needles at the Dentist – Just a
Tiny Electric Current Instead
Research reveals a new way to administer anesthetic in
…A study published in Colloids and Surfaces B:
Biointerfaces reveals how the dentist could give you
anesthetic using a tiny electric current instead of a
“Needle-free administration could save costs, improve patient
compliance, facilitate application and decrease the risks of
intoxication and contamination,” explained Professor Renata
Fonseca Vianna Lopez, one of the authors of the study from the
University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. “This may facilitate access
to more effective and safe dental treatments for thousands of
people around the world.”
In the new study, the researchers investigated a way of
getting... topical anesthetics into the body more effectively,
to see if they could replace needles altogether. They found
that applying a tiny electric current – a process called
iontophoresis – made the anesthetics more effective.
The researchers first prepared the anesthetic hydrogels with a
polymer to help it stick to the lining of the mouth. They
added two anesthetic drugs, prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and
lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL). They tested the gel on the
mouth lining of a pig, applying a tiny electric current to see
if it made the anesthetic more effective.
The anesthesia was fast-acting and long-lasting. The electric
current made the prilocaine hydrochloride enter the body more
effectively; the permeation of the anesthetic through the
mouth lining increased 12-fold…
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Needle-free buccal anesthesia using
iontophoresis and amino amide salts combined in a
Camila Cubayachi, Renê Oliveira do Couto, Cristiane
Masetto de Gaitani, Vinícius Pedrazzi, Osvaldo de Freitas
and Renata Fonseca Vianna Lopez;
Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of
drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been
underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to
investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal
penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine
hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as
local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation.
Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in
combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8)
and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties
for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients
between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in
vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for
both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs
decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not
change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation
rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL
flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined
drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in
both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the
mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with
iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying
iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug
combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to
speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia.
The development of injectable, efficient and safe local
anesthetics is considered a breakthrough of 20th century
dentistry . Their use has allowed the improvement of
routine and surgical procedures and has increased access to
dental care for thousands of patients. However, the use of
injectable anesthetics is a main source of fear and phobia in
a significant portion of dental patients , making them
delay or even avoid visits to the dentist ,  and .
To minimize patient discomfort at initial needle perforation,
topical anesthetics are used in the clinic prior to local
anesthetic injection  and . Topical anesthetics can be
found in a number of different preparations, such as in
hydrogels, ointments and sprays; the most commonly used are
hydrogels containing 20% benzocaine ,  and . However,
the use of amino esters such as benzocaine has been replaced
by the use of amino amides such as lidocaine and prilocaine.
When compared to amino esters, amino amides present higher
lipophilicity, easier tissue penetration, faster onset and
longer anesthesia duration due to their stability when in
contact with tissue enzymes ,  and .
Formulations that combine lidocaine and prilocaine at 2.5%
each, such as EMLA® (AstraZeneca, King’s Langley,
Hertfordshire, UK) and ORAQIX® (Dentsply Pharmaceutical, York,
PA, USA), are an interesting approach toward improving the
anesthetic performance of each of these drugs, taking
advantage of their slightly different partition coefficients
and pharmacological effects: the more lipophilic lidocaine,
which also has greater vasodilatory properties confers a rapid
anesthetic onset, whereas prilocaine confers a smaller
vasodilator effect, leading to a longer duration of action
Although capable of inducing superficial anesthesia, the use
of topical anesthetics does not substitute the use of local
anesthetic injections, especially due to the low concentration
of drugs able to penetrate the epithelium after topical
application . Therefore, topical anesthetics are only
recommended for superficial procedures, for cases where a
patient presents a high level of anxiety and pain sensibility,
or for procedures that requires multiple anesthetic injections
Non-invasive administration of local anesthetics in the buccal
cavity to replace painful injections would enable the
improvement of routine and surgical procedures. Among other
advantages, non-invasive administration could save costs,
improve patient compliance, facilitate application and
decrease risk of contamination. Moreover, in areas such as the
hard palate, injected anesthetics cannot completely reduce the
pain due to the displacement of the firmly attached
mucoperiosteum by needle and liquid insertion  and .
Therefore, an effective topical anesthetic formulation that
could totally reduce pain without the need for an additional
injection would be a contribution to dentistry.
However, there are some challenges to overcome when developing
an effective drug delivery system for topical deep anesthesia:
the system should deliver the drug quickly; keep the drug in
intimate contact with a restricted area; target the release
and the permeation of the drug through the mucosa; and induce
anesthesia, maintain it for a suitable period of time, and
enable it to be easily removed after the procedure. These
challenges can be overcome by using a mucoadhesive delivery
system that employs iontophoresis to enhance and target
Iontophoresis is a non-invasive technique that is based on the
application of a low-density electric current to facilitate
the release of drugs, regardless of whether they are charged,
through biological membranes. The electrical current is
provided by a battery or power source and is distributed via
positive (anode) and negative (cathode) electrodes through an
electrolytic solution. When the current is applied, the
cations that are in contact with the anode move in the
direction of the cathode, whereas the anions at the cathode
move in the opposite direction .
Iontophoresis has been studied since 1900, and it is typically
used in medicine for transdermal drug delivery  and .
Although buccal mucosa represents an attractive site for
iontophoretic release of drugs because it remains moistened
for long periods of time and offers lower resistance to the
passage of current than the stratum corneum  and , it
has not been deeply explored in dentistry. Iontophoresis of
lidocaine, for instance, which has been widely explored for
transdermal application in surgical treatments , ,
,  and  has mostly been studied for transbuccal
delivery in combination with penetration enhancers  and
. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the
influence of iontophoresis on the mucosal penetration of
prilocaine and lidocaine salts when combined in a mucoadhesive
semisolid formulation and used for deep buccal anesthesia...
...In summary, the formulation that included the combination
of the drugs at pH 7.0 significantly enhanced the total
permeated amount and flux of PCL, in addition to increasing
the amounts of both drugs that were recovered from the mucosa.
It is interesting to use the combination of the drugs at pH
7.0 because, besides combining a higher onset (LCL) and
duration of action (PCL) , it is possible to achieve higher
amounts of both anesthetics permeating through and recovered
from the mucosa.
The developed formulation presented adequate mechanical
and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The
combination of PCL and LCL does not cause the formation of an
eutectic mixture, as verified by DSC studies, but it did
change the distribution coefficients of PCL into the
epithelium. The combination of PCL and LCL at pH 7.0, when
subjected to iontophoresis, resulted in fast permeation of
high concentrations of PCL through the mucosa together with
high amounts of both PCL and LCL being retained in the mucosa.
Therefore, this can be considered a valuable strategy for the
administration of needle-free anesthesia during dental
procedures, likely offering a fast onset and prolonged
duration of anesthesia.
Cancer drug clears Alzheimer's-related
plaques and improves memory function in mice
Toxic plaques in the brain were reduced by half.
Nature Communications 6, Article number 8997
EPPS rescues hippocampus-dependent
cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice by disaggregation of
amyloid-β oligomers and plaques
Hye Yun Kim, Hyunjin Vincent Kim, Seonmi Jo, C. Justin
Lee, Seon Young Choi,Dong Jin Ki &
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the
transition of amyloid-β (Aβ) monomers into toxic oligomers and
plaques. Given that Aβ abnormality typically precedes the
development of clinical symptoms, an agent capable of
disaggregating existing Aβ aggregates may be advantageous.
Here we report that a small molecule,
4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinepropanesulphonic acid (EPPS),
binds to Aβ aggregates and converts them into monomers. The
oral administration of EPPS substantially reduces
hippocampus-dependent behavioural deficits, brain Aβ oligomer
and plaque deposits, glial γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release
and brain inflammation in an Aβ-overexpressing, APP/PS1
transgenic mouse model when initiated after the development of
severe AD-like phenotypes. The ability of EPPS to rescue Aβ
aggregation and behavioural deficits provides strong support
for the view that the accumulation of Aβ is an important
mechanism underlying AD.
PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION FOR PREVENTING OR TREATING
DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH BETA AMYLOID ACCUMULATION
CONTAINING EPPS AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT
PURPOSE: A pharmaceutical composition for preventing or
treating beta-amyloid accumulation-associated diseases is
provided to suppress toxicity by beta-amyloid. CONSTITUTION: A
pharmaceutical composition for preventing or treating
beta-amyloid accumulation-associated diseases contains
of chemical formula 1 as an active ingredient. The
pharmaceutical composition is used by oral administration or
parenteral administration. The oral formulation is used in the
form of tablet, pill, hard/soft capsule, liquid, suspension,
emulsion, syrup, granule, and elixir.
Internet Myths, Lies and Misinformation
Is the United States of America a
One of the more understandable misunderstandings on the
Internet is the notion that the United States' federal
government (and by extension the country as a whole) is in
reality a corporation with its own set of rules, CEO's etc.
This theory is held by many and is parroted across hundreds of
websites and online forums, some with seemingly strong
arguments. To complicate matters they point to a series
of laws which, on the surface, may appear to validate
their claims. I hope to be able to explain where the
misunderstandings come from and to clear up the whole issue.
These are the two laws which are the most quoted:
28 USC § 3002 - Definitions
(15) “United States” means—
(A) a Federal corporation;
(B) an agency, department, commission, board, or other entity
of the United States; or
(C) an instrumentality of the United States.
And the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 which creates
a city government for the District of Columbia. You can find
the full text of the Act here.
An example of the most common claims and arguments can be
found here. Aside from claiming the US government is a
for-profit corporation, it naturally asserts that we are and
have been under the control of the evil Rothschild
international bankers and that since some people think our
"current" government is unlawful, that their minority opinion
holds with the full force of law and is actionable i.e they do
not have to follow any laws set forth after 1871 (a fantasy of
the highest order).
The "Definitions" controversy rests in the meaning of "a
Federal corporation." The rest of the issues arising from 28
USC § 3002 are really rather basic. This section is saying
that for the purpose of identifying what is or is not a part
of the United States federal government, the "United States"
may refer to EITHER; a Federal corporation; an agency,
department, commission, board of other entity of the United
States; or an instrumentality of the United States.
As of 2011 there are 17 federal corporations. According to a
report on federal corporations by the Congressional Research
Service "The federal government does not possess a general
incorporation statute as states do. Each government
corporation is chartered through an act of Congress." Federal
government corporations include the Postal Service, the
Federal Reserve and the TVA. The definition does NOT say that
the federal government *is* a corporation but rather, federal
corporations (like the TVA) are part of the federal government
of the United States.
English is a tricky language and words take on new popular
meanings and tones, especially words that have a modern
negative connotation, like "corporation." A person with only a
cursory understanding of the law or only focusing on the
"definitions" section could easily come to the wrong
conclusion. This section has been used to great effect and
unfortunately most people never step outside of themselves and
their distrust of all things government to actually research
the issue themselves. A meme showing evil bankers with "the
United States is a corporation" will be passed along the
Internet simply because people do not trust government and the
meme reinforces pre-held biases; it reinforces a negative
image and people are all too eager to indulge themselves.
The District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 was an act to
formally give a government to the District of Columbia which,
up to that point, had been governed as a mixture of
municipalities and counties within District boundaries. Let me
give you some more background.
Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution gives Congress (with
the approval of the affected States) the power to create a
district in which to hold the seat of government. This
district, 10 miles squared (not 10 square miles, but 10 miles
on each side), was formally placed under the direct control of
The District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 allowed Congress
to retain control over the city itself, known as the City of
Washington, however the remaining territories were divided
into Washington County and the County of Alexandria. The
cities of Georgetown and Alexandria, which had existed prior
to 1801 and which existed within the 100 square mile federal
territory, were allowed to keep their city charters. In 1802,
the City of Washington was granted its own charter. The mayor
of the City of Washington was to be appointed by the
The citizens within the District were no longer citizens of
Maryland or Virginia and were thus disenfranchised. This
disenfranchisement is what led Virginia, in 1846, to
ultimately reclaim the territory it had ceded to the District.
Next, comes the Act of 1871. This act repealed the individual
charters of Georgetown and Alexandria, brought them in with
Washington County (since the County of Alexandria now belonged
to Virginia), and brought the whole area under one single
government, the District of Columbia. Nowhere in the law's
text does it say anything about the government of the United
States being a corporation. Additionally, Congress repealed
the Act in 1874 and replaced the system of direct
Congressional governance for the local government of the
District in favor of a more direct rule system. The District
of Columbia would then be ruled by a three-member Board of
Commissioners until 1967 when it was replaced with a mayor and
city council who would be appointed by the President. This was
changed once again by the 1973 Home Rule Act.
What is a corporation?
The word "corporation" has several meanings, however it is
generally understood as a legal entity that has been
incorporated (in one way or another) by a legislative act. A
fair amount of confusion arises because the modern American
understanding of the term is somewhat different than the
original English definitions. In the US, the term tends to
mean a business, but the term really means that it is now an
entity which can be sued, do business (activity), etc. without
respect to the individuals who made it or control it.
Basically, an incorporated entity can act and be brought to
The notion that the term "corporation" is solely an entity
with its own separate laws and whose only purpose is to make
money is an utter misconception. Cities, states, colonies,
nations, and yes, businesses have been incorporating
themselves for centuries.
In the American system of government, States hold the power to
grant or refuse the incorporation (or home rule) of a city,
county or other body. However, since the federal district was
explicitly authorized by the Constitution and Congress was
given direct control over the district, it took an Act (or
Acts) of Congress to set it up.
Under federal law, for an entity to become a federal
corporation there must be an Act of Congress creating that
corporation. And as we have seen, Congress has created
multiple federal corporations. There are no acts incorporating
the United States, only the District of Columbia; which is not
the same thing as the government of the United States, no more
so than the City of Nashville is the government of the State
In the Supreme Court case, United States v. Cooper Corporation
(1941), the Court said: "We may say in passing that the
argument that the United States may be treated as a
corporation organized under its own laws, that is, under the
Constitution as the fundamental law, seems so strained as not
to merit serious consideration."
This view is additionally supported by the doctrine of
"sovereign immunity," which states that the government of the
United States, or of the individual States, or of certain
tribal entities, may not be sued unless the government first
allows it. A business/company/corporation can be sued.
The government of the United States and the entity of the
District of Columbia are not one and the same. The District of
Columbia is no different than the incorporated cities of
Nashville, Sacramento or Atlanta when compared to the
Constitutional governing bodies (the governments of the
States) that reside within their limits.
Becraft debunks patriot myth about Act
Get over yourself, or: "We could have
saved The Planet, but we were too damned lazy." ( Kurt
Vonnegut ) :
The Role of Extinction in Evolution
The Sixth Extinction
Everywhere around the world habitat destruction continues and
we don't know what this is going to do because other
extinctions have not been like this one. They haven't been
wholesale removal of habitats because of the activities of one
species. The previous great extinctions have been the result
of often external disasters - a meteorite impact, huge
desertification - but never before we had one where one
species has done for so many others.
The Earth's climate has suffered successive changes which have
determined the number and variety of species in each period.
The concept of biodiversity specifically refers to the
richness of life in a determined time and space. It's a
calculation that measures the variety of species, keeping in
mind that those species are capable of reproducing among
themselves. There is little difference between insects, plants
and mammals because every living being counts... and not only
because it's alive but because life also depends on it.
The number of species that exist today is unknown. There are
about 2 million classified although no one really knows the
percentage that this figure represents with respect to the
total number of species inhabiting the Earth. Scientists do
not agree on approximations because some believe that there
are at least 4 million species while others who are more
optimistic estimate that there are more than 100 million.
Between the two extremes the most accepted figure is around 14
million different living beings.
The predominance and diversity of what is small is not a whim
of nature... small creatures correspond to a need. Without
insects the machinery of life would not work. They rid the
ecosystems of biological remains, they oxygenate the soil and
serve as food for hundreds of species of birds, reptiles and
mammals. But most of all they're essential for plants whose
reproduction depends almost exclusively on the millions of
insects that transfer the pollen from one flower to another.
The Denial of Death
PSYCHIC VISION OF LAS VEGAS DESTRUCTION !
On January 32, 2016, while smoking a
massive quantity of crack cocaine obtained from a
vigilante raid on a local drug dealer's lair, I received a
clairvoyant-telepathic revelation from Descended Master
Barack Obama, who warned me of an impending disaster that
will strike Las Vegas Nevada on March 21, 2016 !
Las Vegas sits on a limestone crust above a huge
volcanic caldera ( cavern ). At this time it is the site
of a super-secret military base -- Area 52 -- which houses
thousands of personnel-dupes.
The disastrous leak of methane at Porter Ranch in
southern California will ignite and cause an earthquake
which will release even more methane. The shock waves from
the explosions will trigger another quake on the nearby
Garlock Fault, which will be transmitted to Las Vegas with
Las Vegas will sink into the caldera cavern upon
which it sits.
I have seen it. Soon, you will see it too. Run
The Last Election?! Clinton Insider
Larry Nichols Spills Scary Secrets About What’s To Come!
It’ll Rattle Bones …
-- 20 January
Clif High / halfpasthuman.com Interview :
Clif High, 2016 Year of
Chaos, Nuclear Fallout, Megaquakes, Epidemics,
Triune humans and the vortex
Referenced by Clif High :
THINKING and DESTINY
What is most important to you in life?
If your answer is to achieve greater understanding of
yourself and the world in which you live; if it is to
understand why you are here on earth and what awaits you
after death; if it is to know the true purpose of life,
your life, Thinking and Destiny offers you the
opportunity to find these answers. And many more.
Within these pages, information older than recorded
history is now made known to the world—about
Consciousness. The great value of this is that it can
help us to better understand ourselves, the universe ...
and beyond. This book is not a doctrine that will tell
you how to live your life. The author states that an
important lesson for each man and woman is to determine
for one’s self what to do and what not to do. He said:
“I do not presume to preach to anyone; I do not consider
myself a preacher or a teacher.”
Although this great work was lovingly written for all of
humanity, relatively few throughout the world have found
it. But the tides are shifting as more seek to
understand the meaning of the personal and global
challenges we face, as well as the pain and suffering
that often accompany them. The author's sincerest wish
was that Thinking and Destiny serve as a beacon light to
help all human beings to help themselves.
Both the casually curious reader and the most ardent
seeker of profound knowledge cannot help but be
intrigued by the abundance, scope and detail of the
subjects that are addressed in this book. Many will
wonder how the author obtained the information. The
unusual manner in which this masterpiece was produced is
described in both the Author’s Foreword and the
Percival began to outline chapters for Thinking and
Destiny following experiences of potent illumination,
which he referred to as being conscious of
Consciousness. He stated that being conscious of
Consciousness reveals the “unknown” to the one who has
been so conscious. These experiences allowed Percival to
later access knowledge about any subject by a particular
method of focusing, or what he called "real thinking."
It was through this method that the book was written.
There is an authenticity in Percival's writing because
it is devoid of assumptions, theory or pretense. His
impeccable dedication to the highest mode of truth never
wavers. This is a book that speaks to the longing in
every human heart to know why humankind is as it is.
Thinking and Destiny is an unusually eloquent discourse
on the science of man that can also be applied to the
lives of all who discover its liberating message.
A new study finds three food
choices that can lead to improved slumber.
If you are one of the many millions of people who suffer
from the crazy-making scourge that is insomnia, you have
likely read plenty of tips on how to achieve that
elusive state of bliss known as sleep. You know about
the importance of regular sleep routines and turning off
the electronics, about skipping the boozy nightcap and
limiting caffeine. But now a new study has a few more
pearls of wisdom to add to the bag – and all natural
approaches to better sleep are a step up from using
pharmaceutical sleep aids which come with their own set
Not surprisingly, since food is the driving force of our
bodies, they found several areas in which sleep improved
based on food choices. Their research shows that a
greater fiber intake during the day resulted in more
time spent in the stage of deep, slow wave sleep.
Meanwhile, more saturated fat predicted less slow wave
sleep, and higher consumption was associated with more
arousals from sleep.
"Our main finding was that diet quality influenced sleep
quality," said principal investigator Marie-Pierre
St-Onge, PhD, assistant professor in the department of
medicine and Institute of Human Nutrition at Columbia
University Medical Center in New York, N.Y. "It was most
surprising that a single day of greater fat intake and
lower fiber could influence sleep parameters."
"The finding that diet can influence sleep has
tremendous health implications, given the increasing
recognition of the role of sleep in the development of
chronic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes and
cardiovascular disease," said St-Onge.
So there you have it. More fiber, less fat and less
sugar could be helpful for those seeking to improve
sleep. Not really earth shattering, the treatment for so
many ailments often boils down to eating better – but
it's a great reminder that our bodies are sensitive
machines that run best when well-fueled ... and possibly
sleep better too.
Aug. 16, 2012
Researchers Find Material
for Cleaner-Running Diesel Vehicles
Discovery May Yield Cheaper, More Efficient
Alternative to Platinum in Automotive Engines
Dr. Kyeongjiae "K.J." Cho, professor of materials
science and engineering and physics at UT Dallas, says
platinum is too scarce and expensive to be a long-term
answer to diesel's pollution problems.
Engineers at a company co-founded by a University of
Texas at Dallas professor have identified a material
that can reduce the pollution produced by vehicles that
run on diesel fuel.
The material, from a family of minerals called oxides,
could replace platinum, a rare and expensive metal that
is currently used in diesel engines to try to control
the amount of pollution released into the air.
In a study published in the August 17 issue of Science,
Dr. Kyeongjae "K.J." Cho, professor of materials science
and engineering and physics at UT Dallas, and others,
found that when a manmade version of the oxide mullite
replaces platinum, pollution is up to 45 percent lower
than with platinum catalysts.
“Many pollution control and renewable-energy
applications require precious metals that are limited –
there isn’t enough platinum to supply the millions and
millions of automobiles driven in the world,” said Cho,
a senior author of the study and co-founder of the
company Nanostellar. “Mullite is not only easier to
produce than platinum, but also better at reducing
pollution in diesel engines.”
For the environmentally conscious, the higher fuel
efficiency of diesel engines makes an attractive
alternative to engines that run on gasoline. On the flip
side, compared with gasoline engines, diesel vehicles
produce more nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide
(NO2), which are known as NOx pollutants.
Dr. Weichao Wang, who earned his PhD from UT Dallas in
2011, was part of the research team.
In June, the World Health Organization upgraded the
classification of diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic
in humans, putting it in the same category as cigarette
smoke and asbestos. Countries throughout the world have
drafted guidelines to reduce diesel air pollution in the
Platinum, because of its expense to mine and limited
supply, is considered a precious metal. Estimates
suggest that for 10 tons of platinum ore mined, only
about 1 ounce of usable platinum is produced.
In 2003, Cho became a co-founder and lead scientist at
Nanostellar, a company created to find catalysts through
a material design that would replace platinum in
reducing diesel exhaust (carbon monoxide, or CO, and NOx
pollutants). His company has designed and commercialized
a platinum-gold alloy catalyst that is a viable
alternative to platinum alone, but until this experiment
with mullite, had not found a catalyst made of materials
that are less expensive to produce.
Cho, also a visiting professor at Seoul National
University in South Korea, and his team suspected that
the oxygen-based composition of mullite, originally
found off the Isle of Mull in Scotland, might prove to
be a suitable alternative. His team synthesized mullite
and used advanced computer modeling techniques to
analyze how different forms of the mineral interacted
with oxygen and NOx. After computer modeling confirmed
the efficiency of mullite to consume NOx, researchers
used the oxide catalyst to replace platinum in diesel
“We’ve found new possibilities to create renewable,
clean energy technology by designing new functional
materials without being limited by the supply of
“Our goal to move completely away from precious metals
and replace them with oxides that can be seen commonly
in the environment has been achieved,” Dr. Cho said.
“We’ve found new possibilities to create renewable,
clean energy technology by designing new functional
materials without being limited by the supply of
The mullite alternative is being commercialized under
the trademark name Noxicat. Dr. Cho and his team will
also explore other applications for mullite, such as
Dr. Weichao Wang, who earned his PhD in materials
science and engineering in 2011 under Dr. Cho’s
supervision in Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and
Computer Science at UT Dallas, was lead author of this
study. Researchers from the University of Kentucky and
Huazhong University of Science and Technology in China
were also involved in this work.
The study was supported by the Texas Advanced Computing
Center, Nanostellar and the National Research Foundation
of South Korea.
September 4, 2011
Nanostellar develops advanced nanomaterial catalysts for
an array of applications that include emissions control,
energy efficiency, and the synthesis of chemicals and
fuels. These solutions are developed using the Company's
innovative and proprietary Rational Design Methodology.
This methodology incorporates computational models,
algorithms and subject matter expertise in
nano-materials and advanced synthetic chemistry.
The company has commercialized its first product in
diesel vehicle emissions control and is in the
pre-commercial testing phase with its second emissions
control product. Its pipeline includes catalysts for
non-automotive applications such as hydrogen peroxide
production, synthesis gas (syngas) reformation and
waste-heat recovery systems. These solutions satisfy
essential market needs such as complying with emissions
control standards at lower cost, reducing harmful
by-products of industrial processes, cost-effectively
generating alternative fuels, and increasing energy
efficiency for heating and cooling.
The company is located in Silicon Valley, California,
and is funded by venture capital and other private
investors. It was founded in 2004 by scientists from
Stanford University and NASA Ames Research Center at
NASA Research Park...
Innovation and Technology
Nanostellar's core Rational Design Methodology (RDM)
technology unites three disciplines - computational
nano-science, advanced synthetic chemistry and
characterization. This enables Nanostellar to gain a
fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry and
properties of nano-materials. This insight enables the
Company to develop advanced catalysts on a recurrent,
cost-effective basis. Relative to catalysts developed
using traditional laboratory based research methods, the
Company's catalysts have been developed with superior
performance, significantly shorter development time, and
substantially lower development cost. The company's
intellectual property covers materials, manufacturing
methods and coating processes. Its intellectual property
assets are protected worldwide with 21 issued and 37
Nanostellar had a paper based on its Noxicat™ catalyst
published in the August 2012 issue of Science. Noxicat™
has already received considerable interest from
manufacturers of light-duty and heavy-duty diesel
engines for its ability to help engine manufacturers
reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions while
dramatically reducing the cost of doing so. In
addition to significantly reducing the costs of
emissions control systems, Noxicat™ has numerous
performance benefits over the incumbent platinum based
catalysts; Noxicat™ enables higher fuel efficiency by
allowing engine designers to reduce the frequency of
filter regeneration events and allows for redesign of
the emissions control system for further optimization.
Nanostellar's success in outpacing other emissions
control technologies is due, in part, to its success in
pioneering the application of Rational Design to the
development of automotive catalysts. While the
traditional materials development process is driven by
an empirical approach that involves a significant amount
of time-consuming lab work, Nanostellar's Rational
Catalyst Design methodology uses quantum physics-based
models to develop a fundamental understanding of
chemical reactions and material properties and
incorporates this knowledge in the design of new
materials. By substituting fast and inexpensive
computational cycles for time-consuming lab work,
Rational Catalyst Design enables the design of
better-targeted materials and cuts months or even years
off the catalyst development process.
Nanostellar succeeded in diesel emissions reduction by
pioneering the use of gold as a catalyst. In
engine testing, the new NS Gold(TM) catalyst
demonstrated a 20-percent reduction in emissions over
Nanostellar's first-generation products.
Diesel Emissions Catalysts (Euro 5 Catalysts, Euro 6
Syngas catalysts for converting coal or biomass into
Catalysts for capturing waste heat for vehicular air
conditioning and other energy efficiency applications
Catalysts for on-site synthesis of hydrogen peroxide
Perceptual and Motor Skills, June 1995, 80,
ON THE POSSIBILITY OF
DIRECTLY ACCESSING EVERY HUMAN BRAIN BY
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION OF FUNDAMENTAL
Persinger, Laurentian University June 1995
Summary -- Contemporary neuroscience
suggests the existence of fundamental algorithms by
which all sensory transduction is translated into the
intrinsic, brain-specific code. Direct stimulation of
these codes within the human temporal or limbic cortices
by applied electromagnetic patterns may require energy
levels which are within the range of both geomagnetic
activity and contemporary communication networks. A
process which is coupled to the narrow band of brain
temperature could allow all normal human brains to be
affected by a subharmonic whose frequency range at about
10 Hz would only vary by 0.1 Hz.
The pursuit of the
basic algorithms by which all human brains operate can
be considered a central theme of modern neuroscience.
Although individual differences are expected to
accommodate most of the variance in any specific
neurobehavioral measure, there should exist basic
patterns of information and structure within brain
space. They would be determined by the human genome,
i.e., be species-specific, and would contribute to or
would serve as the substrate upon which all phenomena
that affect neurobehavioral measures are superimposed.
One logical extrapolation to a neurophysical basis of
consciousness is that all experiences must exist as
correlates of complex but determined sequences of
electromagnetic matrices. They would control the theme
for the format of cognition and affect while the myriad
of possible serial collections of random variations of
"noise" within the matrices could potentially
differentiate between individual brains. Identification
of these sequences could also allow direct access to the
most complex neurocognitive processes associated with
the sense of self, human consciousness and the aggregate
of experiential representations (episodic memory) that
define the individual within the brain (Squire, 1987).
The existence of fundamental commonalities between all
human brains by which a similar physical stimulus can
affect them is not a new concept. It is demonstrated
daily by the similar shifts in qualitative functions
that are evoked by psychotropic drugs. Classes of
chemical structures, crudely classified as
antidepressant, antipsychotic, or anxiolytic compounds,
produce general attenuations of lowered mood, extreme
eccentric thinking, or extreme vigilance. The
characteristics of these changes are very similar within
millions of different human brains regardless of their
cultural or genetic history. The idiosyncratic
experiences such as the specific thoughts and images
which reflect each person's continuing process of
adaptation are superimposed upon these general
functions. When translated into the language of
neuroelectrical domains, the unique components of
individual consciousness would be both embedded within
and interacting with the species-invariant patterns.
We have been studying the phenomenological consequences
of exposure to complex electromagnetic fields whose
temporal structures have been derived from the most
recently observed neuroelectrical profiles such as
burst-firing or long-term potentiating sequences (Brown,
Chapman, Kairiss, & Keenan, 1988) which can be
considered the prototypical basis of a major domain of
brain activity. These temporal patterns of potential
codes for accessing and influencing neuronal aggregates
have been applied across the two cerebral hemispheres
(through the regions of the temporo-parietal lobes or
within the region of the hippocampal-amygdaloid complex)
of the brain as weak electromagnetic fields whose
intensities are usually less than 10 milligauss (1
microT). The purpose of this research, as suggested by
both E.R. John (1967) and Sommerhoff (1974), is to
identify the basic codes for the language of the
representational systems within the human brain.
In the tradition of Johannes Mueller, we have assumed
that the normal transduction of stimuli by sensors into
afferent, graded potentials and the subsequent
translation into digital patterns of action potentials
(which are more likely to behave functionally as a
composite of pixels within a neural field) can be
circumvented by direct introduction of this information
within the brain. Induction of complex information would
require simulation of the resonance patterns which would
normally be transiently created by sensory afferents.
The basic premise is that synthetic duplication of the
neuroelectrical correlates generated by sensors to an
actual stimulus should produce identical experiences
without the presence of that stimulus.
We have focused upon the polymodal and most labile
portions of the parahippocampal (Van Hoesen, 1982) and
entorhinal cortices (Vinagradova, 1975) and the anterior
superior gyrus of the temporal cortices (Bancaud,
Brunet-Bourgin, Chauvel, & Halgren, 1994) as the
region within which circumvention would be most
probable. Extraction and translation of neural patterns
from different sensory inputs into common codes occur
within these regions before they are consciously
perceived (Edelman, 1989). That central codes are
present was shown by E.R. John (1967, pp. 348-349) who
reported an immediate transference of the operant
control of a response from a pulsatile auditory stimulus
to a pulsatile visual stimulus if its temporal pattern
was identical to the previous (acoustic) stimulus.
We (Fleming, Persinger, & Koren, 1994) reported
that whole brain exposure of rats to a 5-microT
burst-firing magnetic field for 1 sec. every 4 sec.
evoked an analgesic response that was similar to that
elicited by the application of more noxious, tactile
simulation for 1 sec. every 4 sec. directly to the
footpads. Direct electrical stimulation of the limbic
structures which simulate episodic, systemic application
of muscarinic (cholinergic) agents can evoke electrical
kindling (Cain, 1989). More recently, direct induction
of chaotic electrical sequences within the labile CA1
region of the hippocampus has been shown either to
promote and attenuate paroxysmal discharges (Schiff,
Jerger, Duong, Chang, Spano, & Ditto, 1994).
These results strongly indicate that imitation of the
temporal pattern of sensory transmission directly within
the brain by any nonbiogenic stimuli can evoke changes
which are just as effective as (and perhaps require less
energy than) classical transduction. As stated more
recently and succinctly by E.R. John (1990), the
fundamental operation of brain electrical activity
suggests that some form of frequency encoding may play a
significant role in informational transactions within
and between brain structures. Consciousness would be
associated with an electromagnetic pattern generated by
a neural aggregate with invariant statistical features
which are independent of the cells contributing to each
feature (John 1990, p. 53).
The effects of applied time-varying magnetic fields upon
brain activity have been considered minimal or within
the range of normal biological limits unless the
intensity of the field exceeded natural endogenous or
exogenous (ambient) levels by several orders of
magnitude. Until very recently, almost all of the
studies from which this conclusion was derived involved
highly redundant stimuli such as 60 Hz fields or
repetitive pulses. A simple illustration presents the
problem: only 1 min. of a 60-Hz sine-wave field exposes
a neural net to 3,600 presentations (60 sec. x 60 cycles
per sec.) of the same redundant information. Even
general estimates of habituation (Persinger, 1979) such
as the equation:
H = IRT2 / Rt
(IRT = inter-response time, Rt = duration of response)
indicate that habituation to the stimulus would have
occurred long before its termination after 1 min.
Although the burst-firing frequencies (100 to 200 Hz) of
the hippocampal neurons, for example, exceed this
pattern, they are not temporally symmetrical and exhibit
a variability of inter-stimulus intervals that would
contain different information and would attenuate
The apparent dependence of organismic responses upon the
intensity of the applied electromagnetic field, the
"intensity-dependent response curve," could simply be an
artifact of the absence of biorelevant information
within the wave pattern. If the temporal structure of
the applied electromagnetic field contained detailed and
biorelevant information (Richards, Persinger, &
Koren, 1993), then the intensity of the field required
to elicit a response could be several orders of
magnitude below the values which have been previously
found to elicit changes. For example, Sandyk (1992) and
Jacobson (1994) have found that complex magnetic fields
with variable interstimulus pulse durations could evoke
unprecedented changes in melatonin levels even with
intensities within the nanoT range.
The classical counterargument that "very strong"
magnetic fields must be present "to exceed or to
compensate for the electromagnetic noise associated with
intrinsic (Boltzmann) thermal energies" is based upon
equations and calculations for the quantitative indices
of aggregates of molecular activity and not upon the
pattern of their interaction. There are other
possibilities. For example, Weaver and Astumian (1990)
have shown mathematically that detection of very weak
(microV/cm) fields can occur if the response is
exhibited within a narrow band of frequencies; the
detection is a function of both thermally induced
fluctuations in membrane potential and the maximum
increment of change in the membrane potential which is
evoked by the applied magnetic field. The
ion-cyclotron-resonance model which was initiated by the
research of Blackman, Bename, Rabinowitz, House, and
Joines (1985) and supported by Lerchl, Reiter, Howes,
Honaka, and Stokkan (1991) indicates that, when an
alternating magnetic field at a distance (resonance)
frequency is superimposed upon a steady-state magnetic
field, the movement of calcium and other ions can be
facilitated with very small energies. More than 25 years
ago, Ludwig (1968) developed a compelling (but hereto
ignored) mathematical argument which described the
absorption of atmospherics within the brain.
Above these minimal thresholds, the information content
of the wave structure becomes essential. The simplest
analogy would be the response of a complex neural
network such as a human being to sonic energy. If only a
1000-Hz (sine wave) tone were presented, the intensity
required to evoke a response could well exceed 90 db; in
this instance the avoidant response would be overt and
crude. However, if the structure of the sonic field was
modified to exhibit the complex pattern which was
equivalent to biorelevant information such as "help me,
I am dying," field strengths several orders of magnitude
weaker, e.g., 30 db, could be sufficient. This single,
brief but information-rich stimulus would evoke a
response which could recruit every major cognitive
If the information within the structure of the applied
magnetic field is a major source of its neurobehavioral
effect, then the "intensity-dependent" responses which
are interpreted as support for experimental hypotheses
of biomagnetic interaction could be both epiphenomenal
and artifactual. Such amplification of
electromagnetic-field strengths would also increase the
intensity of the extremely subtle and almost always
ignored sub-harmonics, ripples, and other temporal
anomalies which are superimposed upon or within the
primary frequency. These subtle anomalies would be due
to the artifacts within the different electronic
circuits and components whose similarities are based
upon the fidelity of the endpoint (the primary
frequency) despite the different geometries employed to
produce the endpoint.
If information rather than intensity is important for
interaction with the neural network (Jahn & Dunne,
1987), then these unspecified "background" patterns may
be the source of both the experimental effects and the
failures of inter-laboratory replications. A concrete
example of this problem exists within the putative
association between exposure to power (60 Hz) frequency
magnetic fields and certain types of cancer. The
existence of these transients, often superimposed upon
the fundamental 60-Hz frequency, is still the least
considered factor in the attempts to specify the
characteristics of the fields which promote aberrant
mitosis (Wilson, Stevens, & Anderson,1990).
Within the last five years, several researchers have
reported that direct and significant effects upon
specific neuropatterns can be evoked by extremely weak
magnetic fields whose intensities are within the range
of normal geomagnetic variations. Sandyk (1992) has
discerned significant changes in vulnerable subjects
such as patients who were diagnosed with neurological
disorders following exposure of short durations to
magnetic fields whose strengths are within the pT to nT
range but whose spatial applications are multifocal (a
fasces-type structure) and designed to introduce
heterogeneous patterns within a very localized brain
space. The effective components of the field (which are
assumed to be discrete temporal patterns due to the
modulation of the frequency and intensity of the
electromagnetic fields) are not always obvious; however,
the power levels for these amplitudes are similar to
those associated with the signals (generated globally by
radio and communication systems) within which most human
beings are exposed constantly.
The most parsimonious process by which all human brains
could be affected would require (1) the immersion of all
the approximately 6 billion brains of the human species
within the same medium or (2) a coercive interaction
because there was facilitation of a very narrow-band
window of vulnerability within each brain. For the first
option, the steady-state or "permanent" component of the
earth's magnetic field meets the criterion. The
possibility that masses of susceptible people could be
influenced during critical conditions by extremely small
variations (less than 1%) of the steady-state amplitude
(50,000 nT) of the earth's magnetic field such as during
geomagnetic storms (50 to 500 nT) has been discussed
elsewhere (Persinger, 1983). Recent experimental
evidence which has shown a threshold in geomagnetic
activity of about 20 nT to 30 nT for the report of
vestibular experiences in human beings and the
facilitation of limbic seizures in rodents is consistent
with this hypothesis.
The potential for the creation of an aggregate process
with gestalt-like properties which reflect the average
characteristics of the brains that are maintained with
this field and that generate the aggregate has also been
developed (Persinger & Lafreniere, 1977) and has
been labelled the "geopsyche." This phenomenon would be
analogous to the vectorial characteristics of an
electromagnetic field which is induced by current moving
through billions of elements such as wires contained
within a relative small volume compared to the source.
Such gestalts, like fields in general, also affect the
elements which contribute to the matrix (Freeman, 1990).
The second option would require access to a very narrow
limit of physical properties within which all brains are
maintained to generate consciousness and the experience
of self-awareness. This factor would be primarily loaded
by the variable of brain temperature. Although the
relationship between absolute temperature and wavelength
is generally clear [an example which can be described by
Wien's law and is well documented in astrophysics
(Wyatt, 1965)], the implications for access to brain
activity have not been explored. The fragile
neuro-cognitive processes that maintain consciousness
and the sense of self normally exist between 308oK and
312oK (35oC and 39oC). The fundamental wavelength
associated with this emission is about 10 micrometers
which is well within the long infrared wavelength.
However, the ratio of this normal range divided by the
absolute temperature for normal brain activity which
maintains neuro-cognitive processes is only about 0.013
(4oK/312oK) or 1.3%. If there were a sub-harmonic
pattern in naturally occurring or technically generated
magnetic fields which also reflected this ratio, then
all brains which were operative within this temperature
range could be affected by the harmonic. For example, if
11.3 Hz were one of these sub-harmonic electromagnetic
frequencies, variations of only 1.3% of this mean, i.e.,
11.3 Hz ± 0.1 Hz, would hypothetically be
sufficient to affect the operations of all normal
brains. If this "major carrier frequency" contained
bio-relevant information by being modulated in a
meaningful way, then the effective intensities could
well be within the natural range for background
radiation (microwatts/cm2) and could be hidden as
chaotic components within the electromagnetic noise
associated with power generation and use.
One of the major direct prophylactics to the effects of
these fields would require alterations in core (brain)
temperature such as deep but reversible hypothermia.
However, this condition would disrupt the biochemical
process upon which neuronal activity and hence
consciousness depends. Treatments which precipitate
alterations in neural activity, similar to those which
are associated with crude hypothermia, would be less
disruptive. Specific candidates which affect multiple
receptor systems such as clozepine (Clozaril) and
acepromazine could be possible pharmacological
The characteristics of the algorithm for euthermic
individuals are likely to be conspicuous (once isolated)
but should now be hidden within the synchronous activity
which is (1) modified and filtered by aggregates of
neurons and (2) modulated by sensory inputs and
intrinsic oscillations (Kepler, Marder, & Abbott,
1990) before they are crudely measured by electrodes.
Because the fundamental algorithm would be essentially a
stable parameter of body temperature, most electrode
montages (including monopolar to a non-brain reference,
e.g., ear) would cancel or attenuate this index.
Effectively, the algorithm would be expressed in a
manner similar to descriptors for other aggregate
phenomena as a physical constant or as a limited set of
these constants. This suggestion is commensurate with
the observation that the underlying neuronal networks
which coordinate millions of neurons manifest the
properties of a (mathematical) strange attractor with a
very limited number of degrees of freedom (Lopes, Da
Silva, Kamphuis, Van Neerven, & Pijn, 1990).
The physical chemical evidence for a fundamental
process, driven by a narrow limit of biological
temperature, has been accumulating. Fixed, oscillatory
electromagnetic variations have been shown in vitro for
enzymes of the glycolytic pathway (Higgins, Frenkel,
Hulme, Lucas, & Rangazas, 1973) whose narrow band of
temperature sensitivity (around 37oC) is well known.
Although these oscillations are often measured as
periods (2.5-min. cycles), Ruegg (1973) reported a clear
temperature dependence of these oscillations within a
range of 1 to 20 Hz between 20oC and 35oC in
The most probable brain source which might serve as the
primary modulatory of these biochemical oscillators
would involve structures within the thalamus (Steriade
& Deschenes, 1984). Neuronal aggregates with
surprisingly fixed (within 0.1-Hz) oscillations are
found within this structure and depend primarily upon
neurons that require gamma amino butyric acid or GABA
(von Krosigk, Bal, & McCormick, 1993). This
inhibitory amino acid is specially derived from the
normal, temperature-sensitive degradation of glucose by
the GABA shunt (Delorey & Olsen, 1994).
Within the last two decades (Persinger, Ludwig, &
Ossenkopp, 1973) a potential has emerged which was
improbable but which is now marginally feasible. This
potential is the technical capability to influence
directly the major portion of the approximately six
billion brains of the human species without mediation
through classical sensory modalities by generating
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et al. ; Electrodynamic Fragmentation
1 October 2012
Every year several millions of tons of building rubble
are produced. An efficient way of recycling concrete –
the building material of the 20th and 21st century –
does not yet exist. Researchers are working on new
recycling methods, and with the aid of lightning bolts,
they can break down the mixture of cement and aggregate
into its components.
Researchers have developed a method of
breaking down concrete into its constituent parts.
Whether the Pantheon in Rome or the German concrete
canoe regatta, whether ultra-light or decorative:
concrete is unbelievably versatile and is the world’s
most widely used material – next to water. It is made of
cement, water and aggregate, a mixture of stone
particles such as gravel or limestone grit in various
sizes. However, the CO2 emissions, which are mainly the
result of cement production, are problematic: the
production of one ton of burned cement clinker of
limestone and clay releases 650 to 700 kilograms of
carbon dioxide. This means that every year 8 to 15
percent of global CO2 production is attributable to
concrete manufacturing. And when it comes to recycling
waste concrete, there is no ideal solution for closing
the materials loop. In Germany alone the quantity of
construction waste amounted to almost 130 million tons
“This is an enormous material flow, but at the moment
there is no effective recycling method for concrete
rubble” explains Volker Thome from the Fraunhofer
Institute for Building Physics IBP from the Concrete
Technology Group in Holzkirchen. The current method is
to shred the concrete, which produces huge amounts of
dust. At best, the stone fragments end up as sub-base
for roads. “This is downcycling,” explains Thome, in
other words, simply the reutilization of raw materials,
the quality of which deteriorates from process to
process. On the other hand, if it were possible to
separate the stone particles from the cement stone, the
gravel could easily be reused as an aggregate in new
cement – a first decisive step in the direction of
recycling waste concrete. “The recovery of valuable
aggregate from waste concrete would multiply the
recycling rate by a factor of around ten and thereby
increase it to 80 percent,” says Thome. If it were also
possible to obtain a cement substitute from waste
concrete, the cement industry’s CO2 emissions would be
considerably reduced. To achieve these goals Thome
revived a method that Russian scientists already
developed in the 1940s then put on ice: electrodynamic
fragmentation. This method allows the concrete to be
broken down into its individual components – aggregate
and cement stone.
Recycling valuable components
Using this approach, the researchers in Holzkirchen are
unleashing a veritable storm of lightning bolts.
“Normally, lightening prefers to travel through air or
water, not through solids,” says Thomas. To ensure the
bolt strikes and penetrates the concrete, the expert
uses the Russian scientists‘ expertise. More than 70
years ago they discovered that the dieletric strength,
i.e. the resistance of every fluid or solid to an
electrical impulse, is not a physical constant, but
changes with the duration of the lightning. “With an
extremely short flash of lightning – less than 500
nanoseconds – water suddenly attains a greater
dielectric strength than most solids,” explains Thome.
In simple terms, this means that if the concrete is
under water and researchers generate a 150 nanosecond
bolt of lightning the discharge runs preferably through
the solid and not through the water.“ That is the
essence of the method,” says Thome. In the concrete the
lightning then runs along the path of least resistance
which is the boundaries between the components, i.e.
between the gravel and the cement stone. The initially
generated impulses, the pre-discharges, first weaken the
material mechanically. “The pre-discharge which reaches
the counter-electrode in our fragmentation plant at
first, then causes an electrical breakdown,” explains
Thome. At this instant a plasma channel is formed in the
concrete which grows within a thousandth of a second,
like a pressure wave from the inside outwards.
“The force of this pressure wave is comparable with a
small explosion,” says Thome. The concrete is torn apart
and broken down into its basic components. With the
laboratory fragmentation plant the researchers can
currently process one ton of concrete waste per hour.
“To work efficiently, our goal is a throughput rate of
at least 20 tons per hour,” says Thome. In as little as
two years’ time, an appropriate installation could be
ready for market-launch.
ELECTRODE ARRANGEMENT FOR AN ELECTRODYNAMIC
Sample container and assembly for the
electrodynamic fragmentation of samples
Work electrode for an electrodynamic
SAMPLE HOLDER AND ASSEMBLY FOR THE
ELECTRODYNAMIC FRAGMENTATION OF
Method for Operating a Fragmentation System and
Assembly of an electrodynamic fractionating
Process reactor and method for the
METHOD FOR GROUNDING A HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODE
Olive Oil : Brain Food
Eur J Nutr. 2015 Dec 22
A nutrigenomics approach for
the study of anti-aging interventions: olive oil
phenols and the modulation of gene and microRNA
expression profiles in mouse brain.
C, Bigagli E, Pitozzi V, Giovannelli L
Middle-aged C57Bl/6J mice fed for 6 months with
extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenols (H-EVOO, phenol
dose/day: 6 mg/kg) showed cognitive and motor
improvement compared to controls fed the same olive oil
deprived of phenolics (L-EVOO). The aim of the present
study was to evaluate whether these behavioral
modifications were associated with changes in gene and
miRNA expression in the brain.
Two brain areas involved in cognitive and motor
processes were chosen: cortex and cerebellum. Gene and
miRNA profiling were analyzed by microarray and
correlated with performance in behavioral tests.
After 6 months, most of the gene expression changes were
restricted to the cerebral cortex. The genes modulated
by aging were mainly down-regulated, and the treatment
with H-EVOO was associated with a significant
up-regulation of genes compared to L-EVOO. Among those,
we found genes previously associated with synaptic
plasticity and with motor and cognitive behavior, such
as Notch1, BMPs, NGFR, GLP1R and CRTC3. The agrin
pathway was also significantly modulated. miRNAs were
mostly up-regulated in old L-EVOO animals compared to
young. However, H-EVOO-fed mice cortex displayed miRNA
expression profiles similar to those observed in young
mice. Sixty-three miRNAs, out of 1203 analyzed, were
significantly down-regulated compared to the L-EVOO
group; among them, we found miRNAs whose predicted
target genes were up-regulated by the treatment, such as
mir-484, mir-27, mir-137, mir-30, mir-34 and mir-124.
We are among the first to report that a dietary
intervention starting from middle age with food rich in
phenols can modulate at the central level the expression
of genes and miRNAs involved in neuronal function and
synaptic plasticity, along with cognitive, motor and
Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Volume 2, Issue 4, 2015
(-)-Oleocanthal rapidly and
selectively induces cancer cell death via
lysosomal membrane permeabilization
LeGendre, Paul AS Breslin & David A Foster
(-)-Oleocanthal (OC), a phenolic compound present in
extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), has been implicated in
the health benefits associated with diets rich in EVOO.
We investigated the effect of OC on human cancer cell
lines in culture and found that OC induced cell death in
all cancer cells examined as rapidly as 30 minutes after
treatment in the absence of serum. OC treatment of
non-transformed cells suppressed their proliferation but
did not cause cell death. OC induced both primary
necrotic and apoptotic cell death via induction of
lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). We provide
evidence that OC promotes LMP by inhibiting acid
sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity, which destabilizes the
interaction between proteins required for lysosomal
membrane stability. The data presented here indicate
that cancer cells, which tend to have fragile lysosomal
membranes compared to non-cancerous cells, are
susceptible to cell death induced by lysosomotropic
agents. Therefore, targeting lysosomal membrane
stability represents a novel approach for the induction
of cancer-specific cell death.
Swedish scientists use wood
to create biodegradable, renewable alternative to
Maybe soon we can say goodbye to polystyrene, the
petroleum-based material that is used to make Styrofoam.
In what looks like an ordinary bicycle helmet, Swedish
designers have replaced Styrofoam with a new
shock-absorbing material made with renewable and
biodegradable wood-based material.
Researcher Lars Wågberg, a professor in Fibre Technology
at Stockholm's KTH Royal Institute of Technology, says
the wood-based foam material offers comparable
properties to Styrofoam.
"But even better, it is from a totally renewable
resource—something that we can produce from the forest,"
That's a big plus for a country where forests are
planted and harvested continuously, much like any other
Trademarked under the name, Cellufoam, the material was
developed by Wågberg together with Lennart Bergström,
professor in Material Chemistry at Stockholm University,
and Nicholas Tchang Cervin, a former PhD student at KTH,
in theWallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC).
The helmet was produced by Cellutech, a Stockholm
startup that specializes in cutting edge materials made
from wood, in conjunction with the Swedish Forest
Industries Federation´s Ekoportal2035.
"There are wood helmets out there, but what is unique
here is that this one is made totally out of forest
products—nothing else. The outer layer is veneer, the
straps are made from extra strong paper, and then the
foam is made from cellulose fibers," Wågberg says.
The helmet concept is intended to draw attention to the
possibilities of using wood cellulose as a sustainable
alternative to Styrofoam and other foams from synthetic
polymers. Wågberg says the last five years of Cellufoam
research has been funded by the WWSC and Cellutech with
the confidence that it will become possible to take the
material to market on a cost-effective scale in a
not-too-distant future. WWSC is a joint research center
between KTH and Chalmers University; it is hosted at KTH
and financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Research
Sweden certainly has the resources to support the
commercial ambition for wood-based materials. "The
Swedish forest industry is planting more trees than we
harvest," Wågberg says.
The production begins with wood cellulose nanofibres, or
fibrils, which are modified and mixed with a foaming
agent water and air. Through the process of Pickering
stabilization, these particles stabilize the air-bubbles
in a way that is much better than by using simple
surfactants, he says.
While the Cellufoam is being showcased as a bicycle
helmet material, Wågberg says that by using different
surface treatments and combinations with other material
components, it could also be suitable for flame
retardant materials, water filtration and antibacterial
"It's really up to the imagination," he says. "In my
experience, things like this wind up being used in ways
you never expect."
Richard LAINE, et al. :
Biogenic Silica -- A novel low-temperature method
to produce SiO2
Dec 17, 2015
Turning rice farming waste
to useful silica compounds
"DO NOT EAT." That's what's marked on the innocuous
little packets that contain the most widely known form
of precipitated silica. They're used to absorb moisture
that could damage new products, and most of us don't
think much about them.
But precipitated silica and other silicon compounds are
essential for many products that we use every day.
Hundreds of thousands of tons of them are produced every
year. They're used to polish the silicon wafers that go
into electronics, to strengthen tires, to make paints
and paper white, as an abrasive in toothpaste, and yes,
in countless tiny packets of silica gel beads.
Producing high-purity silicon compounds is today an
expensive and carbon-intensive process that requires
heating mined silicon metal and anthracite coal to 3,500
degrees Celsius in an electric arc furnace. That could
soon change, thanks to a new technology from the
University of Michigan that can produce the same silica
compounds from agricultural waste.
The researcher who developed the process says it could
save approximately six tons of carbon emissions per ton
of silica compounds produced. He estimates the cost of
the technique to be 90 percent less than the current
process, with virtually no carbon footprint.
Developed by Richard Laine, a professor of materials
science and engineering, the new technique is believed
to be the first simple, inexpensive chemical method for
producing high-purity silica compounds from agricultural
Much of the world's agricultural waste contains silica,
and the search for a practical way to extract it
stretches back 80 years. While the new process could be
used to produce silica and silicon-containing chemicals
from many types of agricultural waste, Laine focused on
using the hulls left over from processing rice.
The hull is the outermost layer of the rice grain. It's
removed when rice is processed. Hundreds of millions of
tons of the hulls are produced around the world every
year. Many are burned to produce electricity, and the
ash that's left over contains high levels of silica.
Some of this ash is used in construction or as
insulation, but much of it is dumped in landfills.
But while the world is awash in silica-rich rice hull
ash, getting that silica out has proven to be a major
challenge. The difficulty stems mostly from the
incredibly strong chemical bond between silicon and
oxygen, one of the strongest that exists in nature.
Laine found two easy and inexpensive ways to break that
bond: ethylene glycol, or antifreeze, and ethanol, or
grain alcohol. The antifreeze combined with a small
amount of sodium hydroxide weakens the chemical bonds
between the silica and the rice hull ash at the
beginning of the process, dissolving the silica into a
The solution is then heated to 390 degrees Celsius,
forming a polymer of silica and antifreeze. While this
stage does require energy, it's more than offset by the
energy produced when the rice hulls are burned at the
beginning of the process. And because the carbon
released when the hulls are burned was previously
absorbed by the rice plant, the process is considered
carbon-neutral. The heating produces a silica-antifreeze
polymer that's then filtered to remove the ash.
Grain alcohol is then added at the end of the process.
It's chemically similar to antifreeze, so it easily
swaps in to replace the antifreeze, which is then
recycled. The liquid silica can then be distilled out of
this second solution and used to make a high-purity
precipitated silica product for industrial use.
Laine has formed a Michigan company, Mayasil, to
commercialize the technology. Headquartered in Ann
Arbor, It's in the process of building a "pre-pilot"
plant that will be used to develop a scaled up
manufacturing process. If the scale-up is successful,
Laine predicts that it will fundamentally change the way
silica products are made and used.
"I think eventually, we'll be producing high-purity
silica and other silicon compounds right next to the
rice fields," Laine said. "It will be possible to
process rice and produce high-grade silica in a single
location with little or no carbon footprint. It's really
Laine recently received the 2015 Michigan Green
Chemistry Governor's Award from the Michigan Department
of Environmental Quality for his work on this. Mayasil
is a spinoff of Mayaterials, a company Laine founded in
2003 in conjunction with U-M Tech Transfer. Mayasil
holds a patent on the silica production process.
A paper on the work titled "Avoiding carbothermal
reduction: Distillation of alkoxysilanes from biogenic,
green, and sustainable sources" is published in the
journal Agewandte Chemie. The research was supported in
part by a grant from the National Science Foundation
(grant number DMR 11053671).
Reduction: Distillation of Alkoxysilanes from
Biogenic, Green, and Sustainable Sources
The direct depolymerization of SiO2 to distillable
alkoxysilanes has been explored repeatedly without
success for 85 years as an alternative to carbothermal
reduction (1900 °C) to Simet, followed by treatment with
ROH. We report herein the base-catalyzed
depolymerization of SiO2 with diols to form distillable
spirocyclic alkoxysilanes and Si(OEt)4. Thus,
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol, or ethylene glycol
(EGH2) react with silica sources, such as rice hull ash,
in the presence of NaOH (10 %) to form H2O and
distillable spirocyclic alkoxysilanes
bis(2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediolato) silicate or
Si(eg)2 polymer with 5–98 % conversion, as governed by
surface area/crystallinity. Si(eg)2 or
bis(2-methyl-2,4-pentanediolato) silicate reacted with
EtOH and catalytic acid to give Si(OEt)4 in 60 % yield,
thus providing inexpensive routes to high-purity
precipitated or fumed silica and compounds with single
was founded in January 2003 to commercialize two
technologies licensed from the Laine group in Materials
Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan
(UM). One technology uses novel silsesquioxane (SQ)
[nanosilica] chemistries to produce organic/inorganic
nanocomposites especially unique coating systems. The
second technology allows direct production of SQs from
agricultural byproducts especially rice hull ash (RHA).
RHA is produced in the U.S. in 100,000 ton/yr quantities
and is a often a waste product.
Mayaterials' scientists have created multiple families
of novel, green and cost-effective SQ coating systems
for multiple applications including corrosion
resistance, nanoimprint lithography, and transparent
refractive index controlled coatings etc. In particular,
we have developed SQ systems that serve as very
effective semi-permanent mold release agents for the
injection molding industry. They are designed to improve
productivity by significantly reducing sticking
problems, cycle times, scrap and mold maintenance while
improving parts quality in plastic and rubber molding
In 2009 Mayaterials Inc. formed a joint venture with
Ceres Group, "EXIMO Hard Coatings" to commercialize
coatings primarily for one specific application,
semi-permanent mold release.
Recently, Mayaterials Inc. back integrated its IP such
that silica products as a whole have become a major
focus. Our patented silica extraction technology allows
us to make very low cost, high purity, surface property
tailored precipitated and colloidal silicas at large
scales opens up opportunities including its use in the
food grade silica
high quality, low cost, vacuum insulation panels,
solar grade Si (99.9999 % purities),
optical grade silica (99.999 % purities,
fillers and extender for polymer composites, and
Mayaterials Inc. is a green technology company with the
majority of our products derived from agricultural and
biofuels waste products. The same technologies allow us
to recycle the majority of our products providing near
zero waste products.
BIOGENIC SILICA AS A RAW MATERIAL TO
CREATE HIGH PURITY SILICON
GLYCOXY SILANES AS A SOURCE OF SILICA AND
METHOD OF PRODUCING ALKOXYSILANES AND
PRECIPITATED SILICAS FROM BIOGENIC SILICAS
20 June 2015
Earth 'entering new
extinction phase' - US study
The Earth has entered a new period of extinction, a
study by three US universities has concluded, and humans
could be among the first casualties.
The report, led by the universities of Stanford,
Princeton and Berkeley, said vertebrates were
disappearing at a rate 114 times faster than normal.
The findings echo those in a report published by Duke
University last year.
One of the new study's authors said: "We are now
entering the sixth great mass extinction event."
The last such event was 65 million years ago, when
dinosaurs were wiped out, in all likelihood by a large
meteor hitting Earth.
"If it is allowed to continue, life would take many
millions of years to recover and our species itself
would likely disappear early on," said the lead author,
The scientists looked at historic rates of extinction
for vertebrates - animals with backbones - by assessing
They found that the current extinction rate was more
than 100 times higher than in periods when Earth was not
going through a mass extinction event.
Since 1900, the report says, more than 400 more
vertebrates had disappeared.
Such a loss would normally be seen over a period of up
to 10,000 years, the scientists say.
The study - published in the Science Advances journal -
cites causes such as climate change, pollution and
Given the knock-on effect of ecosystems being destroyed,
the report says benefits such as pollination by bees
could be lost within three human generations.
Image caption Extinction may be more gradual than when
the dinosaurs died, the report says
Stanford University professor Paul Ehrlich said: "There
are examples of species all over the world that are
essentially the walking dead.
"We are sawing off the limb that we are sitting on."
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) says at least 50 animals move closer to
extinction every year.
Around 41% of all amphibians and 25% of mammals are
threatened with extinction, it says.
Most at risk: the lemur
According to the IUCN, the lemur faces a real struggle
to avoid extinction in the wild in the coming years.
The group says that 94% of all lemurs are under threat,
with more than a fifth of all lemur species classed as
As well as seeing their habitat in Madagascar destroyed
by illegal logging, lemurs are also regularly hunted for
their meat, the IUCN says.
What were the five mass extinction events?
Last year, a report by Stuart Pimm, a biologist and
extinction expert at Duke University in North Carolina,
also warned mankind was entering a sixth mass extinction
But Mr Pimm's report said the current rate of extinction
was more than 1,000 times faster than in the past, not
114, as the new report claims.
The new report's authors said it was still possible to
avoid a "dramatic decay of biodiversity" through
intensive conservation, but that rapid action was
Science Advances 19 Jun 2015: Vol. 1, no.
human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth
Ceballos, Paul R. Ehrlich, Anthony D. Barnosky,
Andrés García, Robert M. Pringle and Todd M.
The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a
sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating
that current extinction rates are far above the
“background” rates prevailing between the five previous
mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates
have been criticized for using assumptions that might
overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We
assess, using extremely conservative assumptions,
whether human activities are causing a mass extinction.
First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of
2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years
(that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely
used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with
the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions.
The latter is conservatively low because listing a
species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria.
Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize
evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average
rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is
up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under
the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that
have gone extinct in the last century would have taken,
depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and
10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an
exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last
few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction
is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of
biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem
services is still possible through intensified
conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is
Science 30 May 2014: Vol. 344, Issue
The biodiversity of species
and their rates of extinction, distribution, and
L. Pimm, C. N. Jenkins, R. Abell, T. M. Brooks, J.
L. Gittleman, L. N. Joppa, P. H. Raven, C. M.
Roberts, J. O. Sexton
Recent studies clarify where the most vulnerable species
live, where and how humanity changes the planet, and how
this drives extinctions. We assess key statistics about
species, their distribution, and their status. Most are
undescribed. Those we know best have large geographical
ranges and are often common within them. Most known
species have small ranges. The numbers of small-ranged
species are increasing quickly, even in well-known taxa.
They are geographically concentrated and are
disproportionately likely to be threatened or already
extinct. Current rates of extinction are about 1000
times the likely background rate of extinction. Future
rates depend on many factors and are poised to increase.
Although there has been rapid progress in developing
protected areas, such efforts are not ecologically
representative, nor do they optimally protect
UPDATE -- 18 January
Esa Ruoho ( http://www.merlib.org
-- an excellent website -- check it out ! ) has uploaded pdf
files of Energy Unlimited, a classic fringe science magazine
from the 1970s-80s :
Just change the issue number ( eg., No-01.pdf, -03, 04 &c ) to
read each issue.
Keely and his discoveries; aerial
Moore, Bloomfield H., Mrs. (Clara Jessup), 1824-1899
THE EFFECTS OF CALCIUM QUANTUM DECAY AND
THE ONSET OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AS A FUNCTION OF 60Hz SCALAR
Alzheimer's Disease, as we all know, is a progressive, incurable,
debilitating illness, characterized by confusion and memory loss.
It normally affects older persons, whose bones have begun to
decalcify,and who have been found to have higher than normal
amounts of aluminun in their brain cells.
From the research of Dr. H.S. Lewis in the 1930's, we have learned
that the resonant frequency of calcium is 120Hz. Walter Russell,
in his resonance based Periodic Chart of the Elements, has shown
that elements occur as "notes" on an octave.
Research by Les Brown of Canada has shown that elements decay in
quantum steps, from the same note on one octave to a lower octave.
In other words, zinc decays into calcium, which decays into
aluminum, and the resonant frequency drops accordingly, from
240Hz, to 120Hz, to 60Hz. This is shown on Russell's chart as the
E note, going from octaves seven to six to five.
Various means of resonating an element can cause the quantum
decay, as demonstrated by Les Brown. Resonantly exciting an
element increases the motion, friction and heat of the atomic
particles, pushing the element closer to decay.
Every electrical power cord that is plugged into a wall outlet,
whether it is conducting current or not, is emitting a scalar wave
of 120Hz, which is exactly double the frequency of the 60Hz wall
current. All AC powered electrical appliances, power lines,
televisions, computers, etc., emit the same 120Hz scalar wave.
The human brain, comprised of two halves, is a scalar receiver. It
is possible that the naturally occuring decalcification process is
being unnaturally affected by exposure to artificially created
scalar energy, hastening the decay of calcium into aluminum. This
would become the onset of Alzheimers Disease.
If this is true, then there is also a cure, a sort of "fur of the
dog" analogy, via resonating the aluminum to hasten its decay.
This would be done through creation of a 30Hz AC signal, emitting
60Hz scalar energy, to eliminate the aluminum.
The aluminum would become lithium, which has been shown to have
the exact opposite effect as aluminum, ie, increased awareness,
heightened memory, etc.
This would seem to have a double benefit, in that the 30Hz AC
would encourage a Beta state (see MIND13.ASC) to increase
awareness, while the 60Hz scalar energy would help to reduce the
aluminum in the cells.
I realize that there will be much opposition to this theory, as
the 60Hz energy which we all use is so prevalent in our society.
Because we have all been assured that it is "harmless" in normal
radiation, we may not want to believe otherwise. We can at least
begin to gather data, by asking the following questions:
1. Is the rate of Alzheimer's on a per capita basis the same, in
both developed and undeveloped countries?
2. Is there any difference in the per capita rate between
countries which use 60Hz current, and those who use 50Hz current?
3. Has the per capita rate of this country increased since the
turn of the century, with the "electrification" of the nation?
4. Is the rate of occurance greater in areas which have more
energy "in the air", such as along power line routes, around
generating stations, etc.
More research is needed, obviously, but I believe that the
potential is promising.
May 6, 1994
Addendae to the T.J.J. : See Wave
Theory of Gravity @ Rex Research ( http://www.rexresearch.com/see/see.htm
Wave-Theory -- Discovery of the Cause of
Gravitation ( Vol 1 )
Electrodynamic wave-theory of physical
announcing the discovery of the physical cause of magnetism,
of electrodynamic action, and of universal gravitation ( Vol.
Thomas Jefferson Jackson (T. J. J.) See (February 19, 1866 – July
4, 1962) was an American astronomer perceived to have high
potential but is generally agreed upon to have ended a colorful
life with no real accomplishment in astronomy or physics. He was
known for a career dogged by plagiarism, being fired from two
observatory staffs, grand egotistical claims, being 'exiled' to an
isolated outpost, and his vitriolic attacks on relativity…
A classic :
"The Manual Of Free Energy Devices And
Systems [ Volume II]"
Rex-ommended Viewing :
Hungarian Top Economist: CIVIL WAR IS
COMING 2016. 01. 08
Zsolt Bayer, Hungarian journalist, publicist, and co-founder of
Hungary's currently ruling political party, and Dr. László Bogár,
former politician and leading economist, discuss the Cologne
sexual assualts committed by migrants on New Year's Eve, 2016.
The Rothschild Regime Redux :
Ark of the Covenant
It is Found! [ @ Mt Pisgah, Jordan ]
(Photograph taken by Tom Crotser, used by permission)
The Ark of the Covenant has been a hidden mystery stored away for
over 2,500 years. Jeremiah was instructed by God to hide the ark
until an appointed time of Gods choosing. This is the time for the
ark to be revealed….
Elijah, Rothschilds, and the Ark of the
Restoration Press (1984)Restoration Press (1984)
Newtown NUKE! Sandy Hook FAKE FBI On TV
(Smoking Gun PROOF), NEW Footage
10 TV NETWORKS SHOW "DAVID WHEELER" (SANDY HOOK FATHER) PLAYING
ROLE OF SANDY HOOK "FBI SNIPER." WHEELER IS CAUGHT RED-HANDED ON
CHANNEL 8, PRETENDING HE'S SWAT SNIPER (NEW FOOTAGE).
"Ashtar" gets his ass tarred &
Greg Giles - 'Channeled Messages' &
their Link to Mind Control Programs
Hello everyone. I will be taking down this blog shortly in the
days ahead as I do not want to see anyone else entrapped in the
horrible U.S. government PSYOPS (psychological operations) program
that had lured me into it's trap some years ago and has refused
release of it's clench on me and my life. At this time, I am
leaving this blog up simply to get this message out to the
remaining visitors, and hope they will help share this message far
and wide and reach those who have formally followed my work. (I
have been unable to delete the associated content, as PSYOPS
agents have successfully hacked this Blogger program.) The
so-called 'channeled messages' I received claiming to be from my
soul family from the stars were in fact simple radio waves sent by
U.S. government agents, allegedly from the military industrial
complex, working in concert with volunteers, many of which are
secret society members who help propagate enormous numbers of
hoaxed news stories of UFOs and related space news, building a
backdrop for a PSYOPS program that lures science and
spirituality-minded individuals such as myself into their web.
This program, commonly referred to as electronic harassment, has
destroyed my life completely and continues to devastate my life
until this very day, but I am certainly not alone, as the number
of victims, known as targeted individuals, or TI's for short,
grows exponentially each day.
The electronic harassment operators are relentless, showing little
or no mercy, keeping me under total surveillance, tormenting me,
torturing me, and attempting to reprogram my mind as I sleep,
turning my dreams into nightmares, effectively altering my
behavior and free will choices as I continue through the
mercifully final days of what was once my life. They have also in
the past, and again very recently, scarred my body with their
electromagnetic/microwave neuroweapon technology in a successful
effort to control and negate my relationship with a woman who is
now gone from my life.
There is no recourse I have been able to uncover to shelter from
this evil program. Their weaponry envelopes us and follows us
everywhere, sharing space with cell phone towers all throughout
the U.S. and the entire globe, soaking our airwaves with the
digital information of their hellish nightmare. There exists
endless documentation throughout the internet concerning
government mind control programs and the technology used against
the people, and it is advisable to familiarize yourself with this
technology, as the spread of knowledge is our best and only
defense against this despicable evil that will not stop until
every last member of our society is a prisoner of his or her own
altered mind. That is their sick and twisted plan - the
construction of the dystopian nightmare forewarned by George
Orwell throughout the pages of his prophetic Nineteen Eighty Four.
My advice to all is to stay clear of all these stories of UFOs,
extraterrestrials, channeled messages, and psychic mediums
speaking to the dead, as these fictitious news accounts and
dubious television programs are a direct part of, or at the least
stand as compliment to, the hugely encompassing plan to
desensitize and familiarize the public to synthetic telepathic
communication, a simple but very effective feat of technology
essential to mind control reprogramming. (I personally believe we
come from somewhere in this universe and we are also not alone,
but this is a subject matter useless and dangerous to explore at
this present time, as a vast majority of the related news stories
are complete hoaxes devised solely for use as backdrop for these
mind control programs. I also feel there may be a number of
differing programs, though all earthly conceived by human hoaxers,
that list among their tools so-called channeled messages, and not
all may conceal mind control at the heart of their agenda. I can
only speak of the program of which I became an unsuspecting
I humbly and sincerely apologize to anyone and everyone who has
followed my work as a so-called channel of the Galactic Federation
and the Ashtar Command. There is no denying my complicity, and I
accept full responsibility for my actions. Soon I will be judged
by our true higher powers in this universe, and may God have mercy
on my soul for helping steer so many of you so far astray and into
the clutches of this devilish, life destroying mind control
program. I am forever truly sorry.
A good read :
Occult Ether Physics
Tesla's hidden space propulsion system and the conspiracy to
There's a Navy saying
: "The Stupid will be punished"
That means You, USA
( United State of Advertizing }
January 11, 2016
Life-extending hormone bolsters the body’s
Karen N. Peart
A hormone that extends lifespan in mice by 40% is produced by
specialized cells in the thymus gland, according to a new study by
Yale School of Medicine researchers. The team also found that
increasing the levels of this hormone, called FGF21, protects
against the loss of immune function that comes with age.
Published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences on Jan. 11, the study’s findings have future implications
for improving immune function in the elderly, for obesity, and for
illnesses such as cancer and type-2 diabetes.
When functioning normally, the thymus produces new T cells for the
immune system, but with age, the thymus becomes fatty and loses
its ability to produce new T cells. This loss of new T cells in
the body is one cause of increased risk of infections and certain
cancers in the elderly.
Led by Vishwa Deep Dixit, professor of comparative medicine and
immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine, the researchers studied
transgenic mice with elevated levels of FGF21. The team knocked
out the gene’s function and studied the impact of decreasing
levels of FGF21 on the immune system. They found that increasing
the levels of FGF21 in old mice protected the thymus from
age-related fatty degeneration and increased the ability of the
thymus to produce new T cells, while FGF21 deficiency accelerated
the degeneration of the thymus in old mice.
“We found that FGF21 levels in thymic epithelial cells is several
fold higher than in the liver — therefore FGF21 acts within the
thymus to promote T cell production,” said Dixit.
“Elevating the levels of FGF21 in the elderly or in cancer
patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation may be an
additional strategy to increase T cell production, and thus
bolster immune function,” said Dixit.
Dixit added that FGF21 is produced in the liver as an endocrine
hormone. Its levels increase when calories are restricted to allow
fats to be burned when glucose levels are low. FGF21 is a
metabolic hormone that improves insulin sensitivity and also
induces weight loss; therefore it is being studied for its
therapeutic effects in type-2 diabetes and obesity.
Dixit said further studies will focus on understanding how FGF21
protects the thymus from aging, and whether elevating FGF21
pharmacologically can extend the human healthspan and lower the
incidence of disease caused by age-related loss of immune
“We will also look to developing a way to mimic calorie
restriction to enhance immune function without actually reducing
Other authors on the study include Yun-Hee Youm, Tamas Horvath,
David Mangelsdorf, and Steven Kliewer.
Prolongevity hormone FGF21 protects against
immune senescence by delaying age-related thymic involution
Yun-Hee Youma, Tamas L. Horvath, David J. Mangelsdorf, Steven
A. Kliewer, and Vishwa Deep Dixita
Liver-derived metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21
(FGF21) improves insulin sensitivity and extends lifespan in mice.
Aging also compromises the adaptive immune system by reducing
T-cell production from the thymus. In this paper, we describe a
new immunological function of FGF21 as a regulator of T-cell
production from thymus in aging. The overexpression of FGF21
prevents thymic lipoatrophy, which protects the mice from
age-induced loss of naïve T cells. FGF21 expression in thymic
epithelial cells and signaling in thymic stromal cells support
thymic function in aging. Loss of FGF21 in mice increases
lethality postirradiation and delays the reconstitution of thymus.
Hence, we highlight FGF21 as an immunometabolic regulator that can
be harnessed to delay immune senescence.
Bitcoin Bytes the Dust :
Bitcoin has failed (from a former key
Bitcoin developer, Mike Hearn, Jan 2016)
Three days ago, one of the better known Bitcoin developers, Mike
Hearn, announced that he had quit bitcoin, ceased all development
activity on it, sold all his coins, and determined that the
Bitcoin experiment had failed.
Two basic properties of Bitcoin technology and community led to
this failure (in my summation of Mike's analysis):
Maintaining distributed control required that many users and
miners downloaded and verified the entire chain of blocks that
defined all bitcoin transactions. This becomes increasingly
expensive to do, and is now limiting world-wide bitcoin
transactions to a few per second, in total, with processing delays
ranging from one to eighteen hours.
Proposed technical fixes (or even bandaids) to this problem are
impossible, because a handful (as in two to ten or so) Chinese
miners dominate the entire Bitcoin infrastructure and have chosen
to ban, prohibit, attack with massive Denial of Service attacks,
and otherwise, by all necessary means, block discussion or
implementation of any such changes.
In my view, such block chain technology, requiring all
participants to either actively maintain their own updating copy
of a world-wide, eternally growing, database, or if they don't do
so locally on their own smart phone, to trust some service or
vendor company to do so for them, inevitably become centralized
under the control of whichever participants acquire the dominant
computing and communications infrastructure.
Bitcoin is now hitting this wall. It's a walking dead man.
With a recent change that allows someone who just sent a bitcoin
to another to retract that transaction, up until whenever that
transaction shows up on the master block list, hours later,
Bitcoins are no longer even a reliable means of payment. You can
buy something, pay for it with Bitcoin, walk away with the goods
in hand, and then cancel the payment.
The resolution of the Bitcoin experiment
WARNING/LARGE AMOUNTS OF RADIATION EJECTING
FROM LA METHANE LEAK
.Experts: Multiple types of radioactive material constantly being
emitted from LA gas blowout — “I’d be running like hell” — “We are
getting higher and higher levels…it’s accumulating” — “Poisons
spreading through entire San Fernando Valley” home to 2 million
people — “Thousands getting sick… it really is a major, major
TV: Radioactive material reportedly now being released from
massive gas blowout in LA — Byproduct of Uranium — Expert: “A lot”
has been detected in area… Very dangerous… May be coming up from
ground into people’s homes — Official: Levels can cause
“significant long-term health effects”
UPDATE -- 12 January
Free energy for sale: Steorn's
impossible Orbo hits the market
Last week a small company in Dublin called Steorn
started taking orders for their USB phone charger. It's
on the large side, and is only good for two or three
smartphone charges per day, or one tablet charge. So
then, why are they asking 1200 euros (about $1275) each
for them? Well, for one thing, you don't have to plug
them in. But there are other, much cheaper chargers that
draw their power from sunlight or some other source and
never need to be plugged in. With Steorn's OCube charger
you're not paying for convenience, you're paying to be
one of the first to own a device that does the
impossible -- and that might be on the verge of
revolutionizing science and technology.
Or at least, that's what Steorn would have us believe.
The OCube is the latest iteration of Steorn's Orbo
technology. According to Steorn's CEO Shaun McCarthy,
engineers there were working up a design for a
wind-driven generator to power ATM security cameras back
in 2003, when they stumbled upon a strange effect: the
generators were putting out more power than they were
taking in. Steorn spent the next few years ruling out
potential sources of experimental error, and then trying
to understand the theoretical basis of the anomaly.
Finally they convinced themselves that there was no
getting around the conclusion that they'd invented a
perpetual motion machine. They'd found a loophole in the
way that magnetic fields interact that allowed the law
of conservation of energy to be broken, and caused
so-called "free energy" to be generated: energy from
nothing… [ &c ]
research & documentary project
We are looking for a funding to our research project.
Our goal is to find out how Steorn "free energy device"
works. We are collaborating here with researchers from
Aalto University, Finland.
Steorn is a small engineering company based in Dublin,
Ireland who in the course of working with magnets for
operating security cameras noticed an anomaly that they
could not understand. Further research led them to
conclude that it was possible to extract an energy gain
from certain types of magnetic interactions, and that
this gain could be turned into useful energy. They named
this energy production technology Orbo.
The implications of this are monumental. What types of
machinery and technologies could be powered by Orbo? The
possibilities reach as far as the imagination. So what
if Steorn is breaking the laws of physics?
In August 2006, Steorn published an advertisement in the
Economist magazine announcing they had discovered a
means of producing “free, clean, and constant energy”,
and they asked for scientists to apply to be part of a
jury that would look at their technology and publish a
verdict on it.
In June 2009 the jury of 22 members published a
statement concluding that Steorn had not shown a
production of energy, and that the jury was ceasing its
work. Meanwhile, Steorn had taken other paths to
try to demonstrate its claims. In July 2007 they
scheduled a demonstration of an Orbo device at the
Kinetica Museum in London; however, when the time came
to show the device, it didn’t work. Steorn’s CEO Shaun
McCarthy explained at the time, that for some unknown
reason the bearings had broken, causing the device to
fail. The public demonstration was cancelled.
During December 2009-January 2010 Steorn held public
demonstrations and lectures about Orbo at the Waterways
Visitor Center in Dublin. After the Waterways
event, there was very little further public outreach
from Steorn, apart from occasional interviews, mainly in
the Irish press.
In May 2015 an Orbo device described as a powercube, or
“never-die-battery” was deployed for field testing in
Slattery’s Pub in Dublin, and a staff member at
Slattery’s reported some of his experiences on Facebook.
He said that customers and staff were able to fully
charge their mobile devices from the Orbo device without
it running down.
Liquid Solutions, the only Irish producer of certified e
juice for e cigarettes, announced 27 October 2015 it has
licensed the revolutionary Orbo battery technology from
Steorn to deliver an e cigarette that never needs
charging. On 29 September 2015, Steorn announced that it
would soon begin a series of live online webinars
showcasing the Orbo technology.
The second O-Cube webinar will take place on Wednesday,
December 2nd, 2015 at 19:00 GMT. The webinar will
include user testimonials, an overview of some products
in development and details on how to purchase the
Researchers at Aalto University in Finland are waiting
to get their hands on steorn device and Shadow Camera
documentary film crew is looking forward to get funding
for our Steorn project to prove if Steorns claims are
First part of the documentary:
[ Sold out
January 5, 2016
How Corrupt Is the American
May 3, 2014
6 Years After the Financial
Crisis Hit, The Big Banks Are Still Committing
October 10, 2011
Do We Need Banks, Or Can We
Cut Out the Middleman?
January 28, 2015
An Indisputable Database for
March 12, 2014
Rare mineral points to vast
'oceans' beneath the Earth
terrestrial discovery of ringwoodite confirms
presence of massive amounts of water 400 to 700 km
beneath the Earth’s surface.
It might be the ugliest diamond you’ll ever see, but
within this brown sliver of carbon is a gem of a find
for a University of Alberta scientist working to unravel
an ocean-sized mystery deep beneath the Earth.
An international team of scientists led by Graham
Pearson, Canada Excellence Research Chair in Arctic
Resources at the U of A, has discovered the first-ever
sample of a mineral called ringwoodite. Analysis of the
mineral shows it contains a significant amount of
water—1.5 per cent of its weight—a finding that confirms
scientific theories about vast volumes of water trapped
410 to 660 kilometres beneath the Earth, between the
upper and lower mantle.
“This sample really provides extremely strong
confirmation that there are local wet spots deep in the
Earth in this area,” said Pearson, a professor in the
Faculty of Science, whose findings were published March
13 in Nature. “That particular zone in the Earth, the
transition zone, might have as much water as all the
world’s oceans put together.”
Ringwoodite is a form of the mineral peridot, believed
to exist in large quantities under high pressures in the
transition zone. Ringwoodite has been found in
meteorites but, until now, no terrestrial sample has
ever been unearthed because scientists haven’t been able
to conduct fieldwork at extreme depths.
Pearson’s sample was found in 2008 in the Juina area of
Mato Grosso, Brazil, where artisan miners unearthed the
host diamond from shallow river gravels. The diamond had
been brought to the Earth’s surface by a volcanic rock
known as kimberlite—the most deeply derived of all
The discovery that almost wasn’t
Pearson said the discovery was almost accidental in that
his team had been looking for another mineral when they
paid about $20 for a three-millimetre-wide,
dirty-looking brown diamond. The ringwoodite itself is
invisible to the naked eye, buried beneath the surface,
so it was fortunate that it was found by Pearson’s
graduate student, John McNeill, in 2009.
It’s so small, this inclusion, it’s extremely difficult
to find, never mind work on,” Pearson said, “so it was a
bit of a piece of luck, this discovery, as are many
The sample underwent years of analysis using Raman and
infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction before it
was officially confirmed as ringwoodite. The critical
water measurements were performed at Pearson’s Arctic
Resources Geochemistry Laboratory at the U of A. The
laboratory forms part of the world-renowned Canadian
Centre for Isotopic Microanalysis, also home to the
world’s largest academic diamond research group. he
study is a great example of a modern international
collaboration with some of the top leaders from various
fields, including the Geoscience Institute at Goethe
University, University of Padova, Durham University,
University of Vienna, Trigon GeoServices and Ghent
For Pearson, one of the world’s leading authorities in
the study of deep Earth diamond host rocks, the
discovery ranks among the most significant of his
career, confirming about 50 years of theoretical and
experimental work by geophysicists, seismologists and
other scientists trying to understand the makeup of the
Scientists have been deeply divided about the
composition of the transition zone and whether it is
full of water or desert-dry. Knowing water exists
beneath the crust has implications for the study of
volcanism and plate tectonics, affecting how rock melts,
cools and shifts below the crust.
“One of the reasons the Earth is such a dynamic planet
is because of the presence of some water in its
interior,” Pearson said. “Water changes everything about
the way a planet works.”
Nature 507, 221–224 (13 March 2014)
Hydrous mantle transition zone
indicated by ringwoodite included within diamond
G. Pearson, et al.
The ultimate origin of water in the Earth’s hydrosphere
is in the deep Earth—the mantle. Theory1 and
experiments2, 3, 4 have shown that although the water
storage capacity of olivine-dominated shallow mantle is
limited, the Earth’s transition zone, at depths between
410 and 660 kilometres, could be a major repository for
water, owing to the ability of the higher-pressure
polymorphs of olivine—wadsleyite and ringwoodite—to host
enough water to comprise up to around 2.5 per cent of
their weight. A hydrous transition zone may have a key
role in terrestrial magmatism and plate tectonics5, 6,
7, yet despite experimental demonstration of the
water-bearing capacity of these phases, geophysical
probes such as electrical conductivity have provided
conflicting results8, 9, 10, and the issue of whether
the transition zone contains abundant water remains
highly controversial11. Here we report X-ray
diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopic data that
provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for the
terrestrial occurrence of any higher-pressure polymorph
of olivine: we find ringwoodite included in a diamond
from Juína, Brazil. The water-rich nature of this
inclusion, indicated by infrared absorption, along with
the preservation of the ringwoodite, is direct evidence
that, at least locally, the transition zone is hydrous,
to about 1 weight per cent. The finding also indicates
that some kimberlites must have their primary sources in
this deep mantle region.
A cross sectional study of the
association between walnut consumption and cognitive
function among adult us populations represented in
Arab , A. Ang
To examine the association between walnut consumption
and measures of cognitive function in the US population.
Nationally representative cross sectional study using 24
hour dietary recalls of intakes to assess walnut and
other nut consumption as compared to the group reporting
no nut consumption.
1988–1994 and 1999–2002 rounds of the National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Representative weighted sample of US adults 20 to 90
years of age. Main Outcome Measure: The Neurobehavioral
Evaluation System 2 (NES2), consisting of simple
reaction time (SRTT), symbol digit substitution (SDST),
the single digit learning (SDLT), Story Recall (SRT) and
digit-symbol substitution (DSST) tests.
Adults 20–59 years old reporting walnut consumption of
an average of 10.3 g/d required 16.4ms less time to
respond on the SRTT, P=0.03, and 0.39s less for the
SDST, P=0.01. SDLT scores were also significantly lower
by 2.38s (P=0.05). Similar results were obtained when
tertiles of walnut consumption were examined in trend
analyses. Significantly better outcomes were noted in
all cognitive test scores among those with higher walnut
consumption (P < 0.01). Among adults 60 years and
older, walnut consumers averaged 13.1 g/d, scored 7.1
percentile points higher, P=0.03 on the SRT and 7.3
percentile points higher on the DSST, P=0.05. Here also
trend analyses indicate significant improvements in all
cognitive test scores (P < 0.01) except for SRTT (P =
0.06) in the fully adjusted models.
These significant, positive associations between walnut
consumption and cognitive functions among all adults,
regardless of age, gender or ethnicity suggest that
daily walnut intake may be a simple beneficial dietary
January 8, 2016
Gravitation under human
proposes using magnetic fields to produce and detect
Summary: Produce and detect gravitational
fields at will using magnetic fields, control them for
studying them, work with them to produce new
technologies -- it sounds daring, but one physicist has
proposed just that in a new article. If followed, this
proposal could transform physics and shake up Einstein's
theory of general relativity.
Produce and detect gravitational fields at will using
magnetic fields, control them for studying them, work
with them to produce new technologies -- it sounds
daring, but Prof. André Füzfa of Namur University has
proposed just that in an article published in the
scientific journal Physical Review D. If followed, this
proposal could transform physics and shake up Einstein's
theory of general relativity.
At present, scientists study gravitational fields
passively: they observe and try to understand existing
gravitational fields produced by large inertial masses,
such as stars or Earth, without being able to change
them as is done, for example, with magnetic fields. It
was this frustration that led Füzfa to attempt a
revolutionary approach: creating gravitational fields at
will from well-controlled magnetic fields and observing
how these magnetic fields could bend space-time.
In his article, Füzfa has proposed, with supporting
mathematical proof, a device with which to create
detectable gravitational fields. This device is based on
superconducting electromagnets and therefore relies on
technologies routinely used, for example, at CERN or the
Although this experiment would require major resources,
if conducted, it could be used to test Einstein's theory
of general relativity. If successful, it would certainly
be a major step forward in physics: the ability to
produce, detect and, ultimately, control gravitational
fields. People could then produce gravitational
interaction in the same way as the other three
fundamental interactions (e.g. electromagnetic and
strong and weak nuclear forces). That would usher
gravitation into a new experimental and industrial era.
Until now, a scientific advance like this was a dream of
science fiction, but it could open up many new
applications tomorrow, for example in the field of
telecommunications with gravitational waves: imagine
calling the other side of the world without going
through satellite or terrestrial relays!
How current loops and
solenoids curve space-time
The curved space-time around current loops and solenoids
carrying arbitrarily large steady electric currents is
obtained from the numerical resolution of the coupled
Einstein-Maxwell equations in cylindrical symmetry. The
artificial gravitational field associated to the
generation of a magnetic field produces gravitational
redshift of photons and deviation of light. Null
geodesics in the curved space-time of current loops and
solenoids are also presented. We finally propose an
experimental setup, achievable with current technology
of superconducting coils, that produces a phase shift of
light of the same order of magnitude than astrophysical
signals in ground-based gravitational wave
George Washington Letters to
George Washington Snyder, October 24, 1798 /
September 25, 1798 -- Mentioning the Illuminati :
The Writings of George
Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources,
John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor
Mount Vernon, October 24, 1798.
Revd Sir: I have your favor of the 17th. instant before
me; and my only motive to trouble you with the receipt
of this letter, is to explain, and correct a mistake
which I perceive the hurry in which I am obliged, often,
to write letters, have led you into.
It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of
the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not
spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is
more truly satisfied of this fact than I am.
The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not
believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country
had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the
diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles
of the latter (if they are susceptible of seperation).
That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the
founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic
Societies in the United States, may have had these
objects; and actually had a seperation of the People
from their Government in view, is too evident to be
My occupations are such, that but little leisure is
allowed me to read News Papers, or Books of any kind;
the reading of letters, and preparing answers, absorb
much of my time. With respect, etc.
Mount Vernon, September 25, 1798.
Sir: Many apologies are due to you, for my not
acknowledging the receipt of your obliging favour of the
22d. Ulto, and for not thanking you, at an earlier
period, for the Book8 you had the goodness to send me.
[Note 8: Proofs of a Conspiracy &c, by John
I have heard much of the nefarious, and dangerous plan,
and doctrines of the Illuminati, but never saw the Book
until you were pleased to send it to me.9 The same
causes which have prevented my acknowledging the receipt
of your letter have prevented my reading the Book,
hitherto; namely, the multiplicity of matters which
pressed upon me before, and the debilitated state in
which I was left after, a severe fever had been removed.
And which allows me to add little more now, than thanks
for your kind wishes and favourable sentiments, except
to correct an error you have run into, of my Presiding
over the English lodges in this Country. The fact is, I
preside over none, nor have I been in one more than once
or twice, within the last thirty years. I believe
notwithstanding, that none of the Lodges in this Country
are contaminated with the principles ascribed to the
Society of the Illuminati. With respect I am &c.
[Note 9: In a letter from Snyder (Aug. 22, 1798, which
is in the Washington Papers), it is stated that this
book "gives a full Account of a Society of Free-Masons,
that distinguishes itself by the Name of 'Illuminati,'
whose Plan is to overturn all Government and all
Religion, even natural."]
December 23, 2014
3, 2016 - The Mayan Calendar Is Off By 3 1/2 Years!
The baktun is 144,000 days.
There are 13 baktuns in the Mayan Calendar.
144,000 days x 13 baktuns = 1,872,000 solar days
Now the Gregorian calendar solar year is 365.2425
The Julian calendar solar year is 365.25
The Haab Mayan calendar solar year is 365
1,872,000 days/365.2425 (Gregorian solar year) = 5125.36
1,872,000 days/365.25 (Julian solar year) = 5125.256
and then here is the big difference….
1,872,000 days/365 (Haab solar year) = 5128.76 years
Subtract 5128.76 years (Haab) from 5125.256 years
=3.504 year difference and that makes 1260 days
This would mean that Dec 8th, 2012 (Julian calendar) is
actually May 21st, 2016 (Mayan Haab calendar). Dec. 8th,
2012 plus 1260 days = 5/21/2016
or Dec. 21st, 2012 (Gregorian) is actually June 3rd,
2016 (Mayan Haab calendar). Dec. 21st, 2012 plus 1260
days = June 3, 2016
They are not counting the days by true Mayan Haab 365
solar days but instead using the Gregorian and Julian
solar days to arrive to the dates of Dec. 8th, 2012
(Julian) and Dec. 21st, 2012 (Gregorian) which shouldn’t
have been done this way!
Gregg Prescott, M.S.
...I find it interesting that religious zealots have
also mentioned this date of June 3, 2016 in relation to
the day the “Antichrist” returns:
The research for my previous book
(End Times and 2019, by David Monaigne) leads me to
conclude that the first three and a half years, although
full of problems like earthquakes and wars and rumors of
wars – will not be intense enough to make anyone assume
the world is ending. Only the second three and a
half years will clearly be “great tribulation.”
That being said, the final seven years already began on
December 21, 2012 – when plans were made for the
“Covenant of Peoples” tour in Israel and the Mayan Long
Count ended. When Daniel talks about a midpoint
halfway through these seven years, I believe he is
referring to June 2016. The duration of his first
time period is repeated often using different phrases to
avoid possible misinterpretation. “Time, times,
and half a time” are considered to be three and a half
years, or 42 months, or “1260 days” using 42 months of
30 days each. Adding Daniel’s next number of “1290
days” gets us within a few days of an exact seven years
in total – but it still leaves us with an extra 3 days
of darkness to add to each half to reach an exact seven
years. The two witnesses will lie dead in the
street for three days at the end of the second
half. I believe the extra 3 days at the end of the
first three and a half years can be explained by an
assassination attempt on the Antichrist exactly 1260
days into Daniel’s 70th week on June 3, 2016. He
will appear to be mortally wounded at first, but in a
tragic mockery of Christ’s resurrection, he will rise
fully healed 3 days later, and present himself at the
site of the Temple in Jerusalem as God on earth on June
Grim Prophecy Fulfills as Terrorism
Spreads Across Europe
Turns out Colonel Muammar Gaddafi was right
when he told former British Prime Minister
Tony Blair that if his regime failed then
Islamic extremists would attack Europe,
leaked phone conversations between the two
leaders revealed, according to the
Gaddafi tried to explain Tony Blair in two
phone conversations in February 2011 that if
foreign powers helped Libyan rebels to
overthrow his government then next thing
Europeans would know jihadists would carry
out terrorist attacks across the European
"It's a Jihad situation. They have arms and
are terrorizing people in the street… Can't
reason with them. They keep saying things
like Mohammad is the profit [the Prophet].
Similar to Bin Laden," Gaddafi told Blaire,
according to excerpts from their 2011 phone
conversation, the Telegraph reported.
Due to negligent policies of Western
countries Libya is on the verge of being
engulfed by terrorism and becoming the new
stronghold of Daesh (Islamic State), Olivier
d’Auzon wrote for Le Huffington Post.
Gaddafi also welcomed foreign journalists to
come over to Libya and see the situation for
themselves, so the world would know the
truth about those so-called "rebels" who
eventually toppled his government.
"Need to explain to the international
community. Reporters can come to make sure
this is the truth, they are welcome,"
Gaddafi told the former Prime Minister.
When Blair told Gaddafi to step down as the
head of the state, the former Libyan leader
insisted that he was defending his country
and the entire North African coast from
"We are not fighting them, they are
attacking us… The story is simply this: an
organization has laid down sleeping cells in
North Africa. Called the Al-Qaeda
Organization in North Africa," Gaddafi said.
During his second conversation with Blair,
in which the former British Prime Minister
re-iterated that Gaddafi must step down to
bring peaceful changes to his country,
Gaddafi refused to leave and said he'd have
to arm troops loyal to him to crush jihadist
groups taking over Libya and the
"Libyan people will die, damage will be on
the med, Europe and the whole world these
armed groups are using the situation as a
justification — and we shall fight them,"
Gaddafi said, according to excerpts from
their 2011 phone conversation with Blair,
the Telegraph reported.
In the end, Gaddafi's words were ignored and
three weeks later NATO began bombing the
Libyan Armed Forces, which soon led to the
overthrow of the Libyan government.
After Gaddafi's government was overthrown
and Colonel himself killed, the country
failed to form a stable government and Libya
descended into chaos. Various groups of
Islamic extremists, including Daesh (Islamic
State), took advantage of the situation and
increased their influence in the country.
Gaddafi's warnings were prophetic. In fact,
he predicted everything. As soon as Libya
fell into the hands of Islamic extremists,
the country became the hotbed of terrorism.
In November 2015, Daesh terrorists carried
out a series of terrorist attacks in Paris
killing 130 people and injuring 368. At the
same time, a growing number of jihadists are
said to be crossing into Europe from North
--Nostradamus warned you :
This is Bible-Banging Ranting
at its best -- and highly accurate prophecy that
is being fulfilled today :
David Wilkerson : The Vision
1973 Prophecy - The Vision by
The Vision by David Wilkerson
Many Years ago a Preacher by the name of David Wilkerson
had a vision from God and in a book titled The vision...
David shared what God had shared with him about coming
world events, the following are excerpts from this
prophecy, the reason I want to share this with you is
many are not even aware of this warning since it was
written in 1974...you will be amazed and probably
alarmed as you read these excerpts because they will
read as out of the daily news of events that are taking
place at this very time.
From Chapter one under the title of Economic
Confusion David reveals what will take place during
a world wide economic crisis :
A crash is coming
There is a worldwide economic confusion just ahead. In
my vision, this is the clearest thing I have seen.
Many praying people now share this very, same vision.
Not only is the American dollar headed for deep trouble,
but so are all world currencies. I see total economic
confusion striking Europe first and then affecting
Japan, the United States, Canada, and all other nations
It is not really a depression I see coming --- but a
recession of such magnitude it will affect the lifestyle
of nearly every wage earner in America and around the
Countries that now control huge amounts of Western
currency are going to be in very deep trouble also, Arab
countries will especially be hurt.
Without a doubt, there are lean years ahead full of
monetary confusion and despair. How soon is not clear,
but it is not far away.The world greatest economist will
be at a loss to explain the confusion and an
international crisis of fear will develop. A false
economic boom will precede the recession---but it will
be short lived.
Bankruptcies of Major Corporations
I believe we are going to witness the bankruptcies of
some of this nation's major and most popular
corporations. I see tremendous difficulty arising for
credit corporations .There are going to be many people
unable to pay off their heavy obligations to major
credit card companies, causing near-- chaos.
Thousands of small businesses will also be forced into
bankruptcies. Three and possibly four, of the major
religious denominations will be forced into operate with
a skeleton organization due to lack of funds. More than
a few churches are going to go bankrupt and a number of
independent missionary societies and church
organizations are going to have to pull back. All but a
few of the radio and television ministries will have to
Tight money will trigger a wave of uncertainty and fear.
Those who have money will hold it in reserve.
The United States government is going to "over
react" to the confused economical developments.
I see a flurry of near panic decisions being made by
various government agencies---but these hasty efforts to
shore up the economy will backfire.
The President of the United States will make one, and
possibly two, national radio and TV appearances to
reassure the nation that all is well, and that the best
of economic times is just ahead.
It will not work. People will distrust these
statements, and their fears will lead to a revolution at
The auto industry is going to be hurt badly.
Labor leaders are also going to be caught up in this
wave of economic confusion.
We may soon experience the most devastating strikes of
Almost every economic indicator will be gloomy.
It will be spotty at first----but will eventually effect
nearly all industry.
A New World Monetary System
There will develop a call for revamping all
monetary systems into one uniform system.
Be prepared to hear of world trade agreements "policed "
by an international governing committees.
Strict guidelines for international trade will develop
and a "world market" will be closely monitored by big
Chapter 2 Drastic Weather Change and
( The Vision by David Wilkerson-published in 1974)
Earthquakes coming to United States
The United States is going to experience in the
not-too-distant future the most tragic earthquakes in
its history. One day soon this nation will be reeling
under the impact of the biggest news story of modern
times. It will be coverage of the biggest most
disastrous earthquake in history.
It will cause widespread panic and fear, Without a
doubt, it will become one of the most completely
reported earthquake ever. Television networks will
suspend all programming and carry all day coverage.
Another earthquake , possibly in Japan may precede
the one that I see coming here. There is not the
slightest doubt in my mind about this forthcoming
massive earthquake in our continent.
I am not at all convinced that this earthquake will take
place in California. In fact, I believe it is going to
take place where it is least expected.This terrible
earthquake may happen in an area that is not known as an
earthquake belt. It will be so high on the Richter scale
that it will trigger two other major earthquakes.
Famine is coming
Snowless winters will bring dismal crop production and
famine conditions in central and western Russia, India,
Pakistan , all of southeast Asia and Africa will
especially hard hit.
The forty-month drought in Africa and the prolonged dry
spell in Brazil will both end temporarily. There will be
some relief but conditions will worsen. In Africa,
millions will face starvation.
American food reserves will dwindle partially due to
drought and flood in this country. Wheat, rice and
soybean reserves will be completely exhausted. The
demand for corn, rice and wheat will not be met...
The Beginning of Sorrows
Floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and hailstorms will occur
more frequently. More than one-third of the United
States will be designated a disaster area within the
next few years...
Nature will go Wild
Floods, hurricanes and tornadoes will destroy crops,
animals and much wildlife driving prices even higher and
causing some experts to suggest that nature is losing
Weather will become increasing difficult to forecast.
Sudden storms will appear without warning. Southernmost
regions will be gripped by record cold waves and
northern areas will experience record heat waves...
Short Periods of Relief
Many men will appear to be repentant during the times of
violent chastisement by natue but the short period of
relief will make it appear that nature has settled down
and men will be comforted by warmed, sunshine and normal
seasonal weather. But more violence, far worse will soon
Airline pilots will be reporting the worst flying
conditions in aviation history. The most intense
hurricanes is coming. Many parts of the world face the
most violent winters of all times. Europe faces the
worst winter lashings ever.
Depletion of Relief funds
Relief and disaster funds will become nearly depleted.
Insurance companies will face huge losses.
Unlimited funds are not available and the people of each
nations will soon learn there will be no one left to
turn to but God.
Outbreaks of Epidemics
Mankind faces the threat of new epidemics. There will a
major cholera epidemic sweeping through various
underdeveloped countries. India and Pakistan face threat
of untold thousands dying from epidemics and starvation.
Large chunks of ice will fall from the sky and cause
much damage. These storms will not only destroy crops
and smash automobiles but they will also cause the death
of many people.
Watch out for reports of intense ice storms and
hailstorms in the future.Also prepare for the most
severe winter of all time and record snowfalls in the
United States and Canada.
The Vision & Beyond
Economic Crash Coming
There is worldwide economic confusion just ahead. In my
vision this is the clearest thing I have seen. Not only
is the American Dollar headed for deep trouble, but so
are all other world currencies. I see total economic
confusion striking Europe first and then affecting
Japan, the United States, Canada and all other nations
Everyone Will Be Affected
A recession of such magnitude that it will affect the
lifestyle of nearly every wage earner in America and
around the world.
Owners of Western Currency in Trouble
Countries that now control huge amounts of Western
currency are going to be in very deep trouble also
without a doubt, there are lean years ahead full of
monetary confusion and despair. How soon is not clear,
but it is not far away.
New World Monetary System
There will develop a call for revamping all world
monetary systems into one uniform system.
And even though the dollar will appear to be gaining
strength just before the coming major recession, a new
crisis will develop that will shake the entire financial
The world‘s greatest economists will be at a loss to
explain the confusion and an international crisis of
fear will develop.
A false economic boom will precede the recession but it
will be short lived.
A Few Good Years to Prepare
The next few years will be among the most prosperous in
the history of mankind.
Sales will continue to break records and people will
spend more than ever in modern history.
Uncontrolled Credit Debt
Credit debt will become nearly uncontrollable. I see,
very clearly, just a few years of tremendous affluence
and continued economic prosperity. Inflation, costs and
wages will spiral higher and higher.
Bankruptcies of Major Corporations
I believe we are going to witness the bankruptcies of
some of this nations major and most popular
corporations. I see tremendous difficulty arising for
credit corporations. There are going to be many people
unable to pay off their heavy obligations to major
credit card companies, causing near chaos. Thousands of
small businesses will also be forced into bankruptcies.
The United States government is going to overreact to
the confused economical developments. I see a flurry of
near-panic decisions being made by various government
agencies but these hasty efforts to shore up the economy
Auto Industry Hit Hard
The auto industry is going to be hurt badly. Makers of
recreational vehicles are going to get hit very hard.
Building Industry Setbacks
The building industry is going to face many setbacks.
Housing starts will level off. There is a terrible
squeeze coming to the building industry.
Gold Will Not Provide Security
The price of gold is going to rise astronomically but it
will not be sustained over a long period of time neither
silver nor gold will offer real security. Gold hoarders
are going to get hurt badly. This is one of the most
significant predictions in this book.
Suicide by Overdose
Economic setbacks and confusion will catch many
unprepared for the consequences. Suicide will follow.
Some very well-known people in the business world are
going to commit suicide through overdoses of narcotics.
Confusion for the Positive Thinking Preachers
Great losses, confusion, and reverses will shatter the
thinking processes of many well-meaning people who
falsely believe that their successes and economic
well-being are the result of their own positive
thinking. Jesus Christ Himself was an advocate of right
But many good men have become worshippers of the power
of the mind.
The United States to Be Blamed
Although economic actions in Europe will trigger the
coming recession, the United States will be blamed by
most nations for what happens. France will become one of
the most vicious anti-American nations in the world.
Politicians and businessmen in Europe and Japan will
place the blame on Washington and the American bankers.
Recovery From Recession
There may be a full recovery but the world economy will
continue in confusion until the time of the Antichrist.
There will come a time in the future when men will be
obsessed with buying, selling, planting, marrying, and
divorcing but it will be a time of false prosperity.
Drastic Weather Changes
The world is about to witness the beginnings of great
sorrows brought about by history‘s most drastic weather
changes, earthquakes, floods terrible calamities far
surpassing anything ever yet witnessed.
Outbreaks of Epidemics
In the aftermath of famine, floods and earthquakes,
mankind faces the threat of new epidemics. There will a
major cholera epidemic sweeping through various
underdeveloped countries. India and Pakistan face the
threat of untold thousands dying from epidemic and
Famine is coming to the world in our generation and
millions will die of starvation.
Depletion of Relief Funds
Relief and disaster funds will become nearly depleted.
Insurance companies will face huge losses...
Greek Ortodox Elder St.
Paisos the Athonite -- 1990s prophecy -- coming
true today :
WW3 in Greek Orthodox
Prophecies . Elder Paisios
Here are a few of his predictions in brief:
Soviet Russia will collapse 70 years after the Bolshevik
revolution of 1917. The prediction was made in the late
70s - early 80s.
He saw a vision of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in
1974 2 weeks before it occurred.
He foresaw the destruction of Turkey by Russia, after
Turkey attacks Greece. NATO will oppose the Russians but
its forces will be destroyed
The nation of Israel will be destroyed 70 years after
its conception. 2/3 of their People will become
Christians. Is it a coincidence that the Elder died at
The beginning of Armageddon will be near after Turkey
closes the Euphrates River dam.
Turkey will be divided in pieces. One piece will go to
Greece; one Piece will go to Armenia and one to
The Dome of the Rock will collapse from bellow.
Armageddon will be close when Solomons temple is ready
to be rebuilt.
Israel will attack its close neighbours with nuclear
weapons when they see their end is near.
Awkward translation from
Greek to English :
One doctor said Elder, what we expect in the future?
— The future, my child, only God knows.
— Gerontius, whether big war?
— Why do you ask, my child? And do not imagine that
Now read the prophecy — how to read a newspaper:
everything is clearly written. Thought tells me that
there will be many events: the Russian occupy Turkey,
Turkey will disappear from the map, because one third of
Turks will be Christian, one third die and one third
will go to Mesopotamia.
Middle East will become an arena of war, which will
include Russian. Shed a lot of blood, and even the
Chinese will move the Euphrates River, with 200,000,000
army and reach Jerusalem.
Characteristic feature that makes these events will be
the destruction of the mosque of Omar, as it would mean
the destruction of the beginning of work on the
reconstruction of Solomon's Temple, which was
built right in the place.
In Constantinople, will the great war between Russian
and European, and shed a lot of blood. Greece will not
play a primary role in this war, but it will give
Constantinople, not because they are in front of us fear
the Russian, but because they can not find a better
solution, and agreed to work together with Greece, and
will put pressure on them difficult circumstances. The
Greek army will not have time to come back to the city
will be given to her. Jews, because they will have the
strength and support of the European leadership
obnagleyut and will show their pride and shamelessness
and try to govern Europe. Then 2/3 of the Jews will be
Unfortunately, people are pushed into the theology, not
related to the church and is worldly sophistication that
say different things and make impermissible action, to
deliberately remove his position from the faith of
Christians. So did Russian, when they wanted to
introduce communism in Russia. What are they doing
there? Once joined the party some wrong priests and
theologians — and were already "together with them," —
they were forced to accuse the Church and often speak
against it. So they poison the people, because he could
not recognize the role of these theologians. Then he
took one of his priests, who, because of illness was
very thick, looking for some months skinny kid, put them
on a poster and wrote down: "This is how the Church
lives and how people are poor." We took a photograph of
the Patriarchal chambers covered with a carpet,
furniture, etc., and placed next to the hut of one of
the poor (as our gypsies) and said, look at the luxury
of priests and a languishing Russian citizen! So little
by little, they managed to poison the people and the
"ruin his thought." And after people consume themselves,
and they were, and, as we know, have rejected Russia 500
years ago, and left her to die, killing millions of
They will build many machinations, but through
persecution that followed, Christianity completely
united. But not in the way they want those machinations
suit global alliance of churches wanting to be at the
head of the religious leadership. United, because the
present situation will be separation of sheep from the
goats. Each sheep will tend to be with the other sheep
and then realized, in fact, "one flock and one
shepherd." Delve? See that this is already partly
implemented: Christians, you see, have already begun to
feel that they are in an unhealthy climate, and will try
to avoid painful situations and replenished by the
thousands in the monasteries and churches. Will soon see
that the city there are two parts of people: those who
will live lascivious and far from the life of Christ,
and others that will be on the vigil pritekat and places
of worship. Mean state, as it is now, can no longer
Once I came down and saw Elder somewhat embarrassed and
upset. He gave me and he began to speak:
— Some came here and started talking to me, that is a
war, and that the Turks will be included in Greece, and
that we shall put six miles from Corinth (explaining the
mistake, spoiled his thoughts, prophecy Cosmas
Aetolian). Then I picked up, and said that the worst
enemy of the Greeks is that when the world some Greeks,
as you spread that if war happens, Turks chase us to
Corinth, because when the war starts, everyone will
bruised spirit and they retreat to Corinth. Besides, if
it was true, we must not say. Even more so when it is —
a lie. And you repeat once again that this does not say
anywhere, because he made a lot more evil than would
have made many Turkish division.
I told them this, and they forced me to explain, even
though I never wanted to talk about the prophecies that
shestimilie, which says Saint Cosmas — is six miles of
the sea shelf. This is an issue for which we recently
gnawed with Turkey, and it will be the case, because we
"seize." However, they should not enter into Hellas:
they will move only on the six miles, and then they will
find a great evil from the north, as the Scripture says,
and "there will be nothing direct." One third of Turks
will be killed, a third will take Christianity, and the
rest will go away in Asia. We are in no way suffered
from the Turks. Some unimportant things destroyed, and
they will find God's wrath.
This I heard from them and was upset. I could not
believe that the Greeks themselves — that spread things
in the world — will have the greatest help the Turks.
I also started to say, said St. Cosmas, "then come, when
they come two summers and two paschal together," now
that the Resurrection (Easter) coincides with the
Annunciation — and passed the winter as the summer —
which means that the Turks would attack Hellas (Greece).
We all became a prophet, my father, and explain things
to our mind, as we want. And here I had to tell them
that St. Cosmas, when he said: "Then will come" does not
mean the Turks. Granted that then comes freedom for
residents of Northern Epirus. Indeed, this year opened
after many years abroad, and they may, in some way, to
communicate freely with his homeland.
My father, I have seen that quite a lot of harm cause
these people, explaining things to my poor mind. And not
only convey its other corrupt thought.
So "noble" is divided into parts of Turkey
Asked the elder brother of the events in Serbia, and
that, among other things, said:
— Europeans are now doing, for the Turks, independent of
where Muslims live (Bosnia and Herzegovina). I see,
however, that the partition of Turkey noble way: rebel
Kurds and Armenians, and the Europeans need to make
independent and these nations. Then Turkey will say: we
did you a favor there, now this way should become
independent Kurds and Armenians. So "noble" is divided
into parts of Turkey.
Holy Arseny said in Farasah believers that they will
lose the fatherland, but soon again get it.
In the summer of 1987 I asked the elder of the future
world war, the one called "Armageddon" and reported to
With fatherly interest he gave me different information.
And even wanted to open some signs that convince us that
we really are in a generation of Armageddon. So he said:
"When you hear that the Turks Euphrates cover the upper
dam and use it for irrigation, then know that we have
already entered in the preparation of the Great War, and
thus prepares the way for dvuhsotmilionnogo troops from
the rising of the sun, according to Revelation.
Among the preparations there is: to dry up the Euphrates
River that could pass large army. Although — Elder
smiled at this place — if two hundred million Chinese
will come when there will drink one cup of water, they
I was told that the Chinese army now stands at two
hundred million, that is, a specific number, which is
described by St. John in Revelation. The Chinese even
prepare the way, which is called "the miracle era": its
width is such that it easily passed by thousands of
soldiers, lined up in a row. And this time they brought
it to the borders of India.
It must, however, great care and enlightened pure mind
in order that we may discern the signs of the times,
because, in a way, it is all so that they can not
distinguish between those who do not care about
cleansing the heart, and, as a result easily mistaken.
Suppose someone knows that in order to pass over an army
of millions, to dry the river Euphrates. However, if you
expect it to happen miraculously, ie will suppose a big
crack and fade away all the water, then that person will
be in error, for it is not taken care of through the
purity of heart "to enter into the spirit of" the
Scriptures. Something similar happened with Chernobyl:
the Revelation of St. John the Evangelist says that he
saw a star that had fallen from the sky and water, and
has infected people. Those, however, who expects that
the star will fall from the sky, has long been in the
wrong, and never realize that it is already
accomplished. Chernobyl in Russia means "Wormwood" and
we see that caused great harm, and it will be even more
over time … "
During the procession of Dreadful Predstatelnitsy in
1992 an umbrella over the icon of Panagia had Ensign of
Ioannina. When we were on the right of it was me, and
left old man, who at one point said to the officer:
— Come, pray well, and so will be the standard-bearer in
the City (Constantinople) when enter.
And, turning to me, said,
— Hear what I said?
— Yes, Gerontius, I heard. Amen. — I told him.
Then he smiled and uttered his characteristic:
— A! (Well, it is!).
A day later, I went into his cell and asked on the City.
And he said:
— Constantinople take back, but not us. We, from the
fact that most of our young people went down, unable to
do that. God, however, is designed so that others will
take City and give it to us — as a solution to their
Small group of students from Afoniady down to the elder.
They focus on one theme: they heard, as if the old man
said to some that we take Constantinople. And they
wanted to do to hear it from his mouth, and especially
to ask if they would be living at the time. So they
talked to each other on the road, that someone had to
ask Elder about this topic. So they came and sat down
with him, no one, however, dared to ask such a question.
They got up, took the blessing and headed for the trail.
Elder, seeing them smile said:
— And remember: Constantinople and take and you live and
you at that time!
Students struck like a thunderbolt from what he said,
and they were surprised about grace, which he had, and
that it shall receive everything and more that will take
place in their generation, all these horrible things.
Mr. DK visited the Old Man. At the time, the Soviet
Union was very strong in all respects and no one could
even suggest that it may be destroyed — it was still
under the rule of Brezhnev.
The elder, among other things, said:
— You'll see that soon the Soviet collapse.
Mr. D. said:
— But such a strong power, Gerontius, who fell apart.
And to claw it dare not touch.
— You'll see!
Elder predicted that the Soviet Union would collapse,
and that Mr. D. is still alive and will see it (despite
the fact that he was already at the age).
And the old man went on:
— Know that Turkey will collapse. There will be war two
and a half years. We shall be victorious because we —
— Gerontius, we tolerate damage in the war?
— Hey, at most, one or two of the island will take, but
we will give, and Constantinople. You'll see, you'll
One afternoon came to Kelly Elder group of pilgrims.
Taking a blessing, they sat in the outer arhondarike.
Old man with a good nature brought them a traditional
Turkish delight, refreshing water and fresh plums, which
earned him the previous pilgrims. He sat down and began
Elder: How to live in the world?
Dimitri: In general, Gerontius, media spread evil and
aim for it. Being corrupt and small children.
Elder: The law says that? Filing a suit?
Dimitri: We try, Gerontius, do something, but they do
not take the words.
Elder: You always have a clean conscience, doing my
duty. Else But God.
Dimitri: Can you tell us, Gerontius, how we behave in
this evil world? So … in general.
Elder: Need reasoning. Do you have a confessor?
Dimitri: Yes, Gerontius.
Elder: Counsel with the priest, because sometimes we can
not say yes or no;, so it requires reasoning.
Here the old man got up and left them alone, and they,
seizing the right moment, agreed to request the Elder
tell Constantinople. Soon the old man came back and, to
the amazement of all, before they could ask about
anything — showing that his spiritual "radar" caught
their thoughts — said to them:
Elder: What you say, whether we take City?
They were numb and did not say anything.
Elder: Tell me whether we take City?
Group in amazement did not answer.
Elder (Jokingly): Big Mouth …
Theodore: Take, Gerontius.
Elder: Glory to you, O God. (Crosses to the east and
looking to the side of the City.)
Dimitri: If God bless, Gerontius, take it.
Elder: Yes, this is from God! Take it! Just do not we
hire him, and give it to us. Those who take it from the
Turks, give it as a solution, we, as will assume that it
is profitable for them.
Dimitri: Gerontius, how long it will go wrong?
Elder: Maybe it can be! However, we will take the
Dimitri: Will the proper guidance?
Elder: God is satisfied. In this war, all come out
winners. The Greek army will be a spectator. No one will
return winner. The arena will be Palestine, their grave
— the Dead Sea. This will be the first in half a time.
But it will be the second half a: after the event people
will come to despair, and then everything will be
studying the Gospel and Scripture. Christ will spare the
world and show the sign for faith. Then thou shalt seek
Dimitri: Gerontius, Troparion of the prophet Elijah said
he — "the forerunner of the Second Coming of Christ." He
is known to have died, as Enoch. Will the prophet Elijah
to the ground?
Elder (Smiling): The Prophet Elijah and prepares
sharpens his knife! And even before the start with the
patriarchs, princes, priests, and monks!
Nikolai: And the mundane.
Elder: Do you — ignorance, we have — sins. Is it not
said in prayer to the Divine Liturgy: "O our sins did
and the human ignorance"? The prophet Elijah is
sharpening his knife: but need much attention, because
some of the things that is to say the Fathers, and
otherwise interpret the world as, say, shestimilii
reported by Saint Cosmas Aetolian. (Turks leave, but
will come up again and reached shestimiliya. Eventually
their chase to the Red Apples (Kokkinh Mhlia). The Turks
third die and another third sign of the cross and the
last third will go to the Red apple.) No can not explain
Shestimilie there Langadase, Kilnise, in Thrace, in
Corinth, but no one knows, those of whom he speaks, —
six miles of territorial waters. You do not read the
prophets, in Joel, Zechariah, Ezekiel, in Daniel? It
says it all. Seven years in Palestine will not burn
wood, and sticks, but how do you know the difference
between sticks of wood! You are now in the homes of
heaters (with a smile), while here I'm burning
wood in the stove, and I know what's what.
(This is the prophecy of Ezekiel — 39, 9-10: "Then the
people of the cities of Israel shall go forth, and set
on fire and will burn the weapons, shields and armor,
bows and arrows, clubs and spears, seven years will burn
them. And will not take no wood from the field, neither
cut down any out of the forests, but they will burn only
weapon, and robbed of their robbers, gatherers and rob
them, saith the Lord God. ")
Christ: Jews …
Elder: One pious Jordanian told me that the Jews dug
under the Dome of the Rock is many meters deep tunnel,
and want to destroy the mosque to build the Temple of
Solomon, as Then, they say, the Messiah, that is,
Antichrist. Then Arabians say to Christians: Do you not
say, as Christians, that the Messiah has already come?
Now what they say here, the Jews?
Elder, bringing back the pilgrims had come up a treat,
and asked one of them:
Elder: Whether we take the city? What do you think?
Christ: I will go to the Northern Epirus.
Elder: Take the City, Northern Epirus take seven of us!
Christ: Seven and I — eight!
Elder: Good for you! I transferred the relics of St.
Cosmas Aetolian — they are heavy! What can I say, guys,
these things write and tell our books (church), but who
reads them? The people do not have a clue. Sleeping in
Dimitri: This, Gerontius, signs of the times?
Elder: Signs, signs of the times can not see … You have
to be sorry, sheep, not to understand what is going on …
Many of the Fathers prayed, that live in our time,
because it is — the time of the Confessors. We sleep in
sandals. Soon be asked to Christians, as people asked
for their political beliefs.
Nikolai: Zavedut whether we thing of Gerontius?
Elder: And, bravo! Case.
Dimitri: Gerontius, Greece suffer?
Elder: Greece has passed a lot of storms, however, will
still be! Greece in no way be affected, because God
loves it. In Asia Minor, we had a lot of relics. On each
piece of land you will find relics. Take the Hagia
Sophia and the gates will open. These gates nobody knows
… we shall see, however, what will? What then will be
Nikolai: We destroyed them.
Theodore: Will do their belfries.
Elder (Smiling): No, they will become the pillars for
the Stylite, and will dangle beads to the bottom!
Dimitri: Leaders of this war are the Jews?
Elder: Yes, the Jews are. Many will promote and Dad,
because all the children of the devil will be his (ie
the Pope) and he will tell them to follow the
Antichrist. Therefore, the holy Cosmas said: "Pope curse
because it will cause. " Holy Pope meant that particular
time, which will help the Antichrist interned. Other
Pope compared to him seem good.
After this, the first time they hear and wonder, what is
showed to them the love of the Elder, the group remained
for some time silent and worried. The elder stood, and
blessed them, and pointed the way so they do not get
lost and get there.
They left his cell Elder shocked, thinking that God
prepareth in the future. They also thought that such
apocalyptic events should never be forgotten. The names
of these, and love your brothers asked to pray for them,
but will find favor with God. Amen.
Brief information about the life of Elder
Elder Paisios of Mount Athos (in the world Arseny
Eznepidis) Farasah born in Cappadocia, Asia Minor, July
25, 1924 on the day of Saint Anne, of pious parents. He
was baptized August 7, 1924 holy Arseny Cappadocian, who
gave him his baptismal name. As a kid really wanted to
be a monk. Prior to military service he worked as a
carpenter, as our Lord, when he was on earth. In 1945 he
was drafted into the army and served as a radio
operator. In 1949, he graduated from the service and
immediately went to the Holy Mountain. In 1950 he came
to the monastery Esfigmen.
There, in 1954, took the name rassophore Averky. In the
same year went to the sacred domain Filofei
monashestvoval where his uncle. In 1956 he was ordained
to the minor schema named in honor of Metropolitan
Paisios Cesarean Paisius II, with whom they were
compatriots (and he came out Farasy Cappadocia). In
1958, after receiving the notice of God, went to Mount
Athos in the sacred domain of Nativity in Stomio
Konitskoy. There it by the grace of God has helped
thousands of souls, and from there in 1962, went for
some spiritual reasons to Sinai.
At Sinai, he lived in the cell of the holy and Galaktion
Epistimii. Returned to the Holy Mountain in 1964 and
settled in the Iberian monastery, at the cell of the
Holy Archangels. In 1966 he became ill and was treated
for several months in the hospital, where he was taken
away much of the lung. Being in the monastery
Stavronikita was close to the famous confessor o.Tihonu,
came from Russia and had many spiritual gifts. Elder
served him with great self-sacrifice, offering any help
as needed. Elder Paisios o.Tihona settled at will (after
his death) in his cell of the Holy Cross, where he lived
until 1979, after he came to the sacred domain Kutlumush
and settled in his cell Panaguda.
In Panagude Elder helped thousands of souls. All day
from sunrise to sunset counseled, consoled, problem
solving, cast all restraint and soul filled with faith,
hope and love of God. Suffered severely from the various
diseases that bore with great patience and fortitude.
October 22, Old Style (November 5 new) in 1993 went for
the last time from the Holy Mountain, and went to St.
isihastiry. St. John the Evangelist in Suroti present,
as usual, on the vigil feast of Saint Arsenius, who is
revered on November 10.
Due to illness had to stay there and on Tuesday July 12,
1994 at 11:00 am Elder gave his soul to the nun quietly
and humbly to the Lord, who so loved and served from his
youth. Was buried in the monastery of St. John the
Divine in Suroti Thessalonica. Leave the commandment not
to pull it out of the power of the earth until the
Rex-ommended Reading --
Conclusion : Two key social features contributed to the
collapse of every advanced civilization in the past:
“…the stretching of resources due to the strain placed
on the ecological carrying capacity”; and “the economic
stratification of society into Elites [rich] and Masses
(or “Commoners”) [poor]” These social phenomena have
played “a central role in the character or in the
process of the collapse,” in all such cases over “the
last five thousand years.” Sound familiar ?
Human and nature dynamics
(HANDY): Modeling inequality and use of resources in
the collapse or sustainability of societies
Motesharreia, Jorge Rivasb, Eugenia Kalnayc,
There are widespread concerns that current trends in
resource-use are unsustainable, but possibilities of
overshoot/collapse remain controversial. Collapses have
occurred frequently in history, often followed by
centuries of economic, intellectual, and population
decline. Many different natural and social phenomena
have been invoked to explain specific collapses, but a
general explanation remains elusive.
In this paper, we build a human population dynamics
model by adding accumulated wealth and economic
inequality to a predator–prey model of humans and
nature. The model structure, and simulated scenarios
that offer significant implications, are explained. Four
equations describe the evolution of Elites, Commoners,
Nature, and Wealth. The model shows Economic
Stratification or Ecological Strain can independently
lead to collapse, in agreement with the historical
The measure “Carrying Capacity” is developed and its
estimation is shown to be a practical means for early
detection of a collapse. Mechanisms leading to two types
of collapses are discussed. The new dynamics of this
model can also reproduce the irreversible collapses
found in history. Collapse can be avoided, and
population can reach a steady state at maximum carrying
capacity if the rate of depletion of nature is reduced
to a sustainable level and if resources are distributed
There are widespread concerns that current trends in
population and resource-use are unsustainable, but the
possibilities of an overshoot and collapse remain
unclear and controversial. How real is the possibility
of a societal collapse? Can complex, advanced
civilizations really collapse? It is common to portray
human history as a relentless and inevitable trend
toward greater levels of social complexity, political
organization, and economic specialization, with the
development of more complex and capable technologies
supporting ever-growing population, all sustained by the
mobilization of ever-increasing quantities of material,
energy, and information. Yet this is not inevitable. In
fact, cases where this seemingly near-universal,
long-term trend has been severely disrupted by a
precipitous collapse – often lasting centuries – have
been quite common. A brief review of some examples of
collapses suggests that the process of rise-and-collapse
is actually a recurrent cycle found throughout history,
making it important to establish a general explanation
of this process (Chase-Dunn and Hall, 1997, Goldstein,
1988, Meadows et al., 1972, Modelski, 1987, Tainter,
1988, Turchin and Nefedov, 2009 and Yoffee and Cowgill,
The Roman Empire's dramatic collapse (followed by many
centuries of population decline, economic deterioration,
intellectual regression, and the disappearance of
literacy) is well known, but it was not the first
rise-and-collapse cycle in Europe. Prior to the rise of
Classical Greco-Roman civilization, both the Minoan and
Mycenaean Civilizations had each risen, reached very
advanced levels of civilization, and then collapsed
virtually completely (Morris, 2006 and Redman, 1999).
The history of Mesopotamia – the very cradle of
civilization, agriculture, complex society, and urban
life – presents a series of rise-and-declines including
the Sumerians, the Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian,
Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Sassanid, Umayyad, and
Abbasid Empires (Redman et al., 2004 and Yoffee, 1979).
In neighboring Egypt, this cycle also appeared
repeatedly. In both Anatolia and in the Indus Valley,
the very large and long-lasting Hittite and Harrapan
civilizations both collapsed so completely that their
very existence was unknown until modern archeology
rediscovered them. Similar cycles of rise and collapse
occurred repeatedly in India, most notably with the
Mauryan and the Gupta Empires (Edwards et al., 1971,
Edwards et al., 1973, Jansen et al., 1991, Kenoyer, 1998
and Thapar, 2004). Southeast Asia similarly experienced
“multiple and overlapping histories of collapse and
regeneration” over 15 centuries, culminating in the
Khmer Empire based in Angkor, which itself was
depopulated and swallowed by the forest during the 15th
Century (Stark, 2006). Chinese history is, very much
like Egypt's, full of repeated cycles of rises and
collapses, with each of the Zhou, Han, Tang, and Song
Empires followed by a very serious collapse of political
authority and socioeconomic progress (Chu and Lee, 1994,
Lee, 1931 and Needham and Wang, 1956).
Collapses are not restricted to the “Old World”. The
collapse of Maya Civilization is well known and evokes
widespread fascination, both because of the advanced
nature of Mayan society and because of the depth of the
collapse (Demerest et al., 2004 and Webster, 2002). As
Diamond (2005) puts it, it is difficult to ignore “the
disappearance of between 90 and 99% of the Maya
population after A.D. 800 …and the disappearance of
kings, Long Count calendars, and other complex political
and cultural institutions.” In the nearby central
highlands of Mexico, a number of powerful states also
rose to high levels of power and prosperity and then
rapidly collapsed, Teotihuacan (the sixth largest city
in the world in the 7th C) and Monte Alban being just
the largest of these to experience dramatic collapse,
with their populations declining to about 20–25% of
their peak within just a few generations (Tainter,
We know of many other collapses including Mississippian
Cultures such as Cahokia, South West US cultures such as
the Pueblo and Hohokam, Andean civilizations such as
Tiwanaku, Sub-Saharan civilizations such as Great
Zimbabwe, and many collapses across the Pacific Islands,
such as Easter Island. It is also likely other collapses
have also occurred in societies that were not at a
sufficient level of complexity to produce written
records or archeological evidence. Indeed, a recent
study (Shennan et al., 2013) of the Neolithic period in
Europe has shown that “in contrast to the steady
population growth usually assumed, the introduction of
agriculture into Europe was followed by a boom-and-bust
pattern in the density of regional populations”.
Furthermore “most regions show more than one boom–bust
pattern”, and in most regions, population declines “of
the order of the 30–60%” can be found. The authors also
argue that, rather than climate change or diseases, the
timing and evidence point to endogenous causes for these
collapses in 19 out of 23 cases studied, suggesting the
possibility of “rapid population growth driven by
farming to unsustainable levels”. Moreover, through
wavelet analysis of the archeological data, S. Downey
[personal communication] has shown that the average
length of such boom-and-bust cycles is about 300–500
In summary, despite the common impression that societal
collapse is rare, or even largely fictional, “the
picture that emerges is of a process recurrent in
history, and global in its distribution” (Tainter,
1988). See also Yoffee and Cowgill (1988), Goldstein
(1988), Ibn Khaldun (1958), Kondratieff (1984), and
Parsons (1991). As Turchin and Nefedov (2009) contend,
there is a great deal of support for “the hypothesis
that secular cycles — demographic–social–political
oscillations of a very long period (centuries long) are
the rule, rather than an exception in the large agrarian
states and empires.”
This brings up the question of whether modern
civilization is similarly susceptible. It may seem
reasonable to believe that modern civilization, armed
with its greater technological capacity, scientific
knowledge, and energy resources, will be able to survive
and endure whatever crises historical societies
succumbed to. But the brief overview of collapses
demonstrates not only the ubiquity of the phenomenon,
but also the extent to which advanced, complex, and
powerful societies are susceptible to collapse. The fall
of the Roman Empire, and the equally (if not more)
advanced Han, Mauryan, and Gupta Empires, as well as so
many advanced Mesopotamian Empires, are all testimony to
the fact that advanced, sophisticated, complex, and
creative civilizations can be both fragile and
A large number of explanations have been proposed for
each specific case of collapse, including one or more of
the following: volcanoes, earthquakes, droughts, floods,
changes in the courses of rivers, soil degradation
(erosion, exhaustion, salinization, etc.),
deforestation, climate change, tribal migrations,
foreign invasions, changes in technology (such as the
introduction of ironworking), changes in the methods or
weapons of warfare (such as the introduction of horse
cavalry, armored infantry, or long swords), changes in
trade patterns, depletion of particular mineral
resources (e.g., silver mines), cultural decline and
social decadence, popular uprisings, and civil wars.
However, these explanations are specific to each
particular case of collapse rather than general.
Moreover, even for the specific case where the
explanation applies, the society in question usually had
already experienced the phenomenon identified as the
cause without collapsing. For example, the Minoan
society had repeatedly experienced earthquakes that
destroyed palaces, and they simply rebuilt them more
splendidly than before. Indeed, many societies
experience droughts, floods, volcanoes, soil erosion,
and deforestation with no major social disruption
The same applies to migrations, invasions, and civil
wars. The Roman, Han, Assyrian, and Mauryan Empires
were, for centuries, completely militarily hegemonic,
successfully defeating the neighboring “barbarian”
peoples who eventually did overrun them. So external
military pressure alone hardly constitutes an
explanation for their collapses. With both natural
disasters and external threats, identifying a specific
cause compels one to ask, “yes, but why did this
particular instance of this factor produce the
collapse?” Other processes must be involved, and, in
fact, the political, economic, ecological, and
technological conditions under which civilizations have
collapsed have varied widely. Individual collapses may
have involved an array of specific factors, with
particular triggers, but a general explanation remains
elusive. Individual explanations may seem appropriate in
their particular case, but the very universal nature of
the phenomenon implies a mechanism that is not specific
to a particular time period of human history, nor a
particular culture, technology, or natural disaster
(Tainter, 1988, Turchin, 2003 and Yoffee and Cowgill,
In this paper we attempt to model collapse
mathematically in a more general way. We propose a
simple model, not intended to describe actual individual
cases, but rather to provide a general framework that
allows carrying out “thought experiments” for the
phenomenon of collapse and to test changes that would
avoid it. This model (called HANDY, for Human and Nature
DYnamics) advances beyond existing biological dynamic
population models by simultaneously modeling two
separate important features which seem to appear across
so many societies that have collapsed: (1) the
stretching of resources due to the strain placed on the
ecological carrying capacity (Abel, 1980, Catton, 1980,
Kammen, 1994, Ladurie, 1987, Ponting, 1991, Postan,
1966, Redman, 1999, Redman et al., 2004, Wood, 1998 and
Wright, 2004), and (2) the economic stratification of
society into Elites and Masses (or “Commoners”)
(Brenner, 1985, Parsons, 1991, Turchin, 2005, Turchin,
2006, Turchin and Nefedov, 2009, Diamond, 2005 and
Goldstone, 1991; Ibn Khaldun, 1958). In many of these
historical cases, we have direct evidence of Ecological
Strain and Economic Stratification playing a central
role in the character or in the process of the collapse
(Culbert, 1973, Diamond, 2005, Goldstone, 1991, Lentz,
2000 and Mitchell, 1990). For these empirical reasons,
and the theoretical ones explained in Section 3, our
model incorporates both of these two features. Although
similar to the Brander and Taylor (1998) model
(hereafter referred to as “BT”) in that HANDY is based
on the classical predator–prey model, the inclusion of
two societal classes introduces a much richer set of
dynamical solutions, including cycles of societal and
ecological collapse, as well as the possibility of
smoothly reaching equilibrium (the ecological carrying
capacity). We use Carrying Capacity in its biological
definition: the population level that the resources of a
particular environment can sustain over the long term
(Catton, 1980, Cohen, 1995 and Daly and Farley, 2003).
In this paper, we call these environment resources
The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 gives a
brief review of the predator–prey model; Section 3
includes the mathematical description of HANDY; Section
4 covers a theoretical analysis of the model equilibrium
and possible solutions; Section 5 presents examples of
scenarios within three distinct types of societies;
Section 6 gives an overall discussion of the scenarios
from 5 and 7 offers a short summary of the paper and a
discussion of future work.
2. Predator–Prey Model
The predator–prey model, the original inspiration behind
HANDY, was derived independently by two mathematicians,
Alfred Lotka and Vitto Volterra, in the early 20th
century (Lotka, 1925 and Volterra, 1926). This model
describes the dynamics of competition between two
species, say, wolves and rabbits. The governing system
of equations is
In the above system, x represents the predator (wolf)
population; y represents the prey (rabbit) population; a
determines the predator's birth rate, i.e., the faster
growth of wolf population due to availability of
rabbits; b is the predator's death rate; c is the prey's
birth rate; d determines the predation rate, i.e., the
rate at which rabbits are hunted by wolves.
[ &c ]
Collapses of even advanced civilizations have occurred
many times in the past five thousand years, and they
were frequently followed by centuries of population and
cultural decline and economic regression. Although many
different causes have been offered to explain individual
collapses, it is still necessary to develop a more
general explanation. In this paper we attempt to build a
simple mathematical model to explore the essential
dynamics of interaction between population and natural
resources. It allows for the two features that seem to
appear across societies that have collapsed: the
stretching of resources due to strain placed on the
ecological carrying capacity, and the division of
society into Elites (rich) and Commoners (poor).
The Human And Nature DYnamical model (HANDY) was
inspired by the predator and prey model, with the human
population acting as the predator and nature being the
prey. When small, Nature grows exponentially with a
regeneration coefficient γ, but it saturates at a
maximum value λ. As a result, the maximum regeneration
of nature takes place at λ / 2, not at the saturation
level λ. The Commoners produce wealth at a per capita
depletion rate δ, and the depletion is also proportional
to the amount of nature available. This production is
saved as accumulated wealth, which is used by the Elites
to pay the Commoners a subsistence salary, s, and pay
themselves κs, where κ is the inequality coefficient.
The populations of Elites and Commoners grow with a
birth rate β and die with a death rate α which remains
at a healthy low level when there is enough accumulated
food (wealth). However, when the population increases
and the wealth declines, the death rate increases up to
a famine level, leading to population decline.
We show how the carrying capacity – the population that
can be indefinitely supported by a given environment
(Catton, 1980) – can be defined within HANDY, as the
population whose total consumption is at a level that
equals what nature can regenerate. Since the regrowth of
Nature is maximum when y = λ / 2, we can find the
optimal level of depletion (production) per capita, δ*
in an egalitarian society where xE ≡ 0, δ∗∗(≥ δ∗) in an
equitable society where κ ≡ 1, and δ*** in an unequal
society where xE ≥ 0 and κ > 1.
In sum, the results of our experiments, discussed in
Section 6, indicate that either one of the two features
apparent in historical societal collapses –
over-exploitation of natural resources and strong
economic stratification – can independently result in a
complete collapse. Given economic stratification,
collapse is very difficult to avoid and requires major
policy changes, including major reductions in inequality
and population growth rates. Even in the absence of
economic stratification, collapse can still occur if
depletion per capita is too high. However, collapse can
be avoided and population can reach equilibrium if the
per capita rate of depletion of nature is reduced to a
sustainable level, and if resources are distributed in a
reasonably equitable fashion.
In the upcoming generations of HANDY, we plan to develop
several extensions including: (1) disaggregation of
Nature into nonrenewable stocks, regenerating stocks,
and renewable flows, as well as the introduction of an
investment mechanism in accessibility of natural
resources, in order to study the effects of investment
in technology on resource choice and production
efficiency; (2) making inequality (κ) endogenous to the
model structure; (3) introduction of “policies” that can
modify parameters such as depletion, the coefficient of
inequality, and the birth rate; and, (4) introduction of
multiple coupled regions to represent countries with
different policies, trade of carrying capacity, and
UPDATE -- 8 January
The Porter Ranch ( CA ) Methane Leak --
Clif High @ Halfpasthuman.com forewarned of this :
Asymmetric Linguistic Trends Analysis
by Clif High
Chariot of Time ( January, 2016 - 2029 )
( keywords only : )
[ California ] 'methane venting'
'take off' very early in 2016…
'weather system (of linked low pressure cells)'
'discussed health hazard'
'elderly (shut ins)'
'bite bad air'
'areas in deeper valleys'
'bad air zones'
' tainted (non methane) air'
'clog' the 'breathing'
'bursting methane release'
'air traffic routing problems'
'strange lightning forms'
'energy from space (and airplane engines and such)'
'methane fueled flash fire'
'earthquake created surface trench'
ALTA Report - August 2015
"...This last set has support within its structure for methane,
and volcanic ( underground ) gases that will accumulate and form
'death atmosphere pools' in some areas. The data sets describe
places where the cost to retrieve bodies is too high to warrant
the effort ( a group of tourists gassed to death ) , and where
whole ( large as in tens of thousands ) herds of animals are
gassed and the visuals taken by drones. In at least one instance
to be reported over the upcoming years ( maybe into 2017 ), a
helicopter and/or drone will 'ignite a conflagration' in a pool of
unknown methane' with an 'engine spark..."
ALTA Report - August 2013
"...Further subsets describe [ holes ] that will open up
[revealing ] moving [magma ] and [expelling hot gases ]. Some of
these sets are referencing areas that will affect whole [ regions
] as [ electrical lines melt ] and ]pipelines rupture ]. Further
problem,s are indicated for several [ corporations ] as [deep
storehouses / storage vaults ] are made [uninhabitable ] by
Evacuate while you can do so 'gracefully' -- but do NOT come
to Las Vegas ( The City Built By Losers ) -- You are not
welcome here unless you have Money ... Keep moving
... Go to Washington DC ...
Cute, but not 1% as smart as it pretends
to be ( ~ 0% Failsafe, No shrouds for the props [ = 10%++
efficiency ], Coanda Effect, Tesla Turbines, &c... )
6 January 2016
The MEGADRONE big enough to carry a
Chinese firm says self-flying craft could be used as a
The all-electric vehicle has four arms with eight
propellers at the end allowing it to travel up to 60mph...
Ehang says the 184 is autonomous, so all the passenger has to do
is enter their final destination into an app... FAA
regulators have not approved the drone for human use in the US,
but Ehang is hopeful they will do soon... Cost is
yet to be revealed and the company claims a commercial version
of the craft will be available this year...
Multi-rotor-wing air vehicle
The utility model discloses a multi-rotor-wing air vehicle. The
multi-rotor-wing air vehicle comprises a vehicle body, a plurality
of vehicle arms horizontally installed on the vehicle body, motors
and propellers, wherein the motors and the propellers are
installed on the vehicle arms. Each motor is arranged below the
corresponding vehicle arm. Each propeller is arranged below the
corresponding motor and installed on an output shaft of the
corresponding motor. According to the multi-rotor-wing air
vehicle, due to the low-arrangement installation mode of the
motors and the propellers, injuries, caused by disengaging of the
propellers, to persons are avoided; meanwhile, flying of the
multi-rotor-wing air vehicle is guaranteed, and the service life
of the multi-rotor-wing air vehicle is prolonged.
Aircraft control method and device
The invention discloses an aircraft control method and device. The
aircraft control method comprises the following steps that step
one, a flight instruction inputted by a user through input
equipment of an intelligent terminal is sensed, and the flight
instruction includes any one of course reversal, direction and
hovering; and step two, the flight instruction is transmitted to
the airborne flight control system of an aircraft. According to
the aircraft control method, input of the user sensed by the
intelligent terminal through the input equipment is acquired to
act as the flight instruction, and the flight instruction is
transmitted to the airborne flight control system and flight of
the aircraft is controlled by the airborne flight control system
so that the technical level requirement for an aircraft operator
is greatly reduced, the flight environment requirement for the
aircraft is also reduced and real-time operation can be performed.
The invention discloses an intelligent terminal-based
somatosensory flight operation and control system and terminal
equipment. The somatosensory flight operation and control system
comprises an airborne flight control system, communication relay
equipment and the intelligent terminal, wherein the intelligent
terminal is used for acquiring attitude information of the
intelligent terminal, generating a flight instruction according to
the attitude information, and sending the flight instruction to
the airborne flight control system via the communication relay
equipment; the attitude information at least comprises a yaw angle
of the intelligent terminal; the flight instruction at least
carries the yaw angle for indicating the airborne flight control
system to control an aircraft where the airborne flight control
system is located to fly at the yaw angle; and the airborne flight
control system is used for controlling flight of the aircraft
according to the flight instruction. Thus, a multi-rotor aircraft
is convenient to operate and control, and beyond visual range
flight is facilitated.
Intelligent terminal-based somatosensory flight
operation and control system and terminal equipment
Multi-rotor aircraft control system, terminal and airborne
flight control system
The invention discloses a multi-rotor aircraft control system, a
terminal and an airborne flight control system. The control system
comprises an airborne flight control system and an intelligent
terminal, wherein the airborne flight control system is used for
acquiring first position information and sending the first
position information to the intelligent terminal; the intelligent
terminal is used for acquiring second position information,
acquiring a yawing angle and at least one speed selected from a
horizontal flight speed and a vertical flight speed according to
the second position information and the first position information
sent by the airborne flight control system, and sending the yawing
angle and at least one speed selected from the horizontal flight
speed and the vertical flight speed to the airborne flight control
system; the first position information is the position information
of the aircraft where the airborne flight control system is
located; the second position information is the position
information of the intelligent terminal; the airborne flight
control system is also used for controlling the aircraft where the
airborne flight control system is located to fly to the
intelligent terminal according to the yawing angle and at least
one speed selected from the horizontal flight speed and the
vertical flight speed.
There’s a Cure for Hepatitis and the
Pill Only Costs $4, But if You Live in America it Costs
On April 8, 2013, the pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences,
Inc., filed a New Drug Application claiming to be able to cure
hepatitis C. They received the FDA’s coveted Breakthrough Therapy
Designation, which is is given to drugs that show significant
treatment advantages to existing options.
In an incredibly fast review process, the FDA approved Gilead
Sciences’ Sovaldi for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in
December of the same year.
The efficacy rate of Sovaldi, when combined with NS5A inhibitors,
is nothing short of astonishing, sitting between 94% and 97%. This
rate is far better and far safer than any previous treatments for
Nearly one year after receiving FDA approval, on October 10, 2014,
Gilead Sciences Inc. patented Harvoni, which is Solvaldi combined
with one of these inhibitors.
Global demand for Harvoni quickly skyrocketed as, according to the
World Health Organization, there are currently 130-150 million
people living with chronic hepatitis C, globally.
Prior to the availability of this remarkable drug, hepatitis C
treatments involved 6 to 12-month treatments with an
interferon-based regimen that provided minimal success rates and
was associated with severe side effects including anemia,
depression, severe rash, nausea, diarrhea, and fatigue.
In contrast, Solvadi cures almost everyone in a fraction of the
time, and mostly without any of the severe side effects.
In the United States, the average cost of treatment for a 12-week
course is $84,000 – $94,000. Of course, this number sounds
ridiculous, but what should it cost to cure one’s disease?
The costs associated with studying, testing, and getting new drugs
approved can be staggering, and the money made from selling the
new drug is often used to pay for future drugs as well as paying
back investments made to produce the current ones. Unfortunately,
the people involved in creating life-saving drugs cannot work for
But here’s the kicker, according to Médecins du Monde, or Doctors
of the World, Gilead Sciences Inc. didn’t invent Sovaldi – they
In February, Doctors of the World filed a patent challenge in
Europe against Sovaldi (sofosbuvir), arguing that “the molecule
itself is not sufficiently innovative.”
They are claiming that Gilead merely copied their publicly funded
research, patented it, and then spiked the price to reap insane
profits. And reap insane profits, they did. In 2014, Gilead
reported a total revenue of $24.9 billion as compared to the
previous year’s $11.2 billion.
MACROCYCLIC INHIBITORS OF FLAVIVIRIDAE VIRUSES
MACROCYCLIC INHIBITORS OF FLAVIVIRIDAE VIRUSES
INHIBITORS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS.
MACROCYCLIC INHIBITORS OF FLAVIVIRIDAE VIRUSES
"INHIBITORS OF FLAVIVIRIDAE VIRUSES"
Macrocyclic and bicyclic inhibitors of hepatitis c virus
Macrocyclic inhibitors of flaviviridae viruses
HCV GENOTYPE 6 REPLICONS
METHODS FOR TREATING HCV
HCV GENOTYPE 4D REPLICONS
1' -substituted carba-nucleoside analogs for antiviral
Heterocyclic flaviviridae virus inhibitors
CARBA-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS FOR ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT
METHODS FOR TREATING HCV
Antiviral phosphinate compounds
Inhibitors of flaviviridae viruses
Inhibitors of flaviviridae viruses
Inhibitors of flaviviridae viruses
METHOD OF PREVENTING AND TREATING HEPATIC DISEASE USING A2B
ADENOSINE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
Methods for the preparation of diasteromerically pure
CRYSTALLINE PYRIDAZINE COMPOUND
PYRIDAZINE COMPOUNDS AND USE THEREOF
HCV GENOTYPE 3 REPLICONS.
HCV GENOTYPE 4 REPLICONS.
2' -fluoro substituted carba-nucleoside analogs for
Carba-nucleoside analogs for antiviral treatment
THIOPHEN-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES USEFUL AS INHIBITORS
OF FLAVIVIRIDAE VIRUSES
METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF DIASTEROMERICALLY PURE
1' -substituted carba-nucleoside analogs for antiviral
2' -FLUORO SUBSTITUTED CARBA-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS FOR
Imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine derivative for treating viral
INHIBITORS OF FLAVIVIRIDAE VIRUSES
POLYMORPHIC AND OTHER CRYSTALLINE FORM OF cis-FTC
Method of preventing and treating hepatic disease using A2B
adenosine receptor antagonists
Methods of treating HBV and HCV infection
Methods for treating HCV
Inhibitors of hepatitis C virus
1'-substituted-carba-nucleoside prodrugs for antiviral
Novel pyridazine compound and use thereof
HCV NS3 PROTEASE INHIBITORS.
2'-FLUORO SUBSTITUTED CARBA-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS FOR
Pharmaceutical compositions useful for treating HCV
Pharmaceutical combinations useful for treating HCV
Pyrido(3,2-d)pyrimidines useful for treating viral
Pharmaceutical compositions useful for treating HCV
2,4,6-TRISUBSTITUTED PYRIDO(3,2-d) PYRIMIDINES USEFUL FOR
TREATING VIRAL INFECTIONS
COMBINATION THERAPIES WITH L-FMAU FOR THE TREATMENT OF
HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION
Pyrrolidine containing antiviral compounds
2' -FLUORO SUBSTITUTED CARBA-NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS FOR
ANTIVIRAL PHOSPHINATE COMPOUNDS
Pyrrolidine derivatives as antiviral compounds
SUBSTITUTED PTERIDINES USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT AND
PREVENTION OF VIRAL INFECTIONS
4'-Substituted carbovir-and abacavir-derivatives as well as
related compounds with HIV and HCV antiviral activity
and method of antiviral treatment
COMBINATION THERAPY TO TREAT HEPATITIS B VIRUS
PYRIDO(3,2-d)PYRIDMIDINES USEFUL FOR TREATING VIRAL
SUBSTITUTED PTERIDINES FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF
SUBSTITUTED PYRIDO(3,2-D) PYRIMIDINES AND PHARMACEUTICAL
COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING VIRAL INFECTIONS
PYRIDO(3,2-D)PYRIMIDINES AND PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS
USEFUL FOR TREATING HEPATITIS C
DRUG-RESISTANT MUTANTS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS
HBV mutations associated with reduced susceptibility to
2-SUBSTITUTED-3-PROPENAMIDE DERIVATIVES AND METHODS OF
USING THE SAME
Polymorphic and other crystalline forms of cis-FTC
London Review of Books, Vol. 38 No. 1 · 7 January 2016,
Military to Military
Seymour M. Hersh on US intelligence sharing in the Syrian war
19 Signs That You Live In A Country
That Has Gone Completely Insane
Submitted by Michael Snyder of The End of The American Dream
Do you ever feel like you are living in a “Bizarro World”?
That is how I feel much of the time. I look around and it
seems as though some form of mass psychosis has descended on most
of the population. Things that would have had Americans
angrily marching in the streets a generation or two ago are now
just accepted as “normal” by the “sheeple” that populate this
nation. If the talking heads that endlessly spew nonsense at
us through our televisions tell us to believe something, no matter
how absurd it is, most people just go along with it. Before
we had televisions and radios and computers and movies and the
Internet, people actually had to do the hard work of thinking for
themselves. But now we are all plugged into this giant
“matrix” that tells us what to think, what to believe and how to
feel about things. And unfortunately, the people that are
telling us what to think and believe are delusional
themselves. The blind are leading the blind, and as a result
our nation is coming apart at the seams all around us.
The following are 19 signs that you live in a country that has
gone completely insane…
#1 When those occupying the highest offices in the land tell you
that an $18,000,000,000,000 debt is “under control“, you live in a
country that has gone completely insane.
#2 When your president starts acting like an emperor and begins
ruling by decree and your elected representatives won’t lift a
finger to do anything to stop it, you live in a country that has
gone completely insane.
#3 When the greatest dream in life for millions of your fellow
citizens is to win the Powerball jackpot, you live in a country
that has gone completely insane.
#4 When dressing up sex dolls in fashionable clothing and
photographing them is considered to be art, you live in a country
that has gone completely insane.
#5 When only 36 percent of the population can name all three
branches of government, you live in a country that has gone
#6 When a boy can sue his high school for not letting him use the
girls’ restrooms and win $75,000 in “damages”, you live in a
country that has gone completely insane.
#7 When people that want to have sex with their own family members
start demanding “equal rights”, you live in a country that has
gone completely insane…
Sex With Son - Photo from izismile
#8 When pregnancy is considered to be a “disease” and babies are
considered to be “liabilities”, you live in a country that has
gone completely insane.
#9 When the federal government collects billions of our phone
calls and emails and hardly anyone gets upset about it, you live
in a country that has gone completely insane.
#10 When 30 million of your fellow citizens are taking
antidepressants, you live in a country that has gone completely
#11 When an endless stream of gang members, drug dealers, sexual
predators, welfare parasites and Middle Eastern terrorists can
enter the country illegally and nothing is done, but anyone who
criticizes this is in danger of being put on an “enemies list“,
you live in a country that has gone completely insane.
#12 When you can get arrested for “encouraging terrorism on
Twitter“, but not for publicly burning the American flag in the
middle of the street, you live in a country that has gone
#13 When your military airdrops huge loads of weapons into the
hands of the very terrorists that they are supposed to be
fighting, you live in a country that has gone completely insane.
#14 When there are 2.5 million homeless children living in your
nation and nobody is calling it a “national emergency”, you live
in a country that has gone completely insane.
#15 When a fifth-grade student can get suspended from school for
making an imaginary gun with his fingers, you live in a country
that has gone completely insane.
#16 When Congress has to pass a law to keep federal workers from
watching porn all day long, you live in a country that has gone
#17 When the number of payday lenders is greater than the number
of Starbucks locations, you live in a country that has gone
#18 When an illegal immigrant can get a drivers’ license, but the
head of a fire department of a major U.S. city is suspended from
his job without pay for promoting sexual morality, you live in a
country that has gone completely insane.
#19 When the general public knows far more about Kim Kardashian
than it does about the Federal Reserve, you live in a country that
has gone completely insane.
Rapid removal of organic
micropollutants from water by a porous β-cyclodextrin
Alaaeddin Alsbaiee, Brian J. Smith, Leilei Xiao, Yuhan Ling,
Damian E. Helblin & William R. Dichtel
21 December 2015
A faster, cheaper water filter,
thanks to sugar
A new filter material may be better at straining contaminants from
water than the activated carbon in your faucet filter—and may be
cheaper and easier to clean, to boot. If it can be developed into
a successful technology, the new material might help remove from
the water supply small organic molecules such as Bisphenol A
(BPA), a byproduct of some plastic manufacturing that has been
linked to environmental damage and health risks.
“This was pretty exciting,” says Susan Richardson, an
environmental chemist at the University of South Carolina in
Columbia, who was not involved in the study. “It looks very
promising. I can’t see a downside yet.”
The new material was cooked up by William Dichtel, an organic
chemist at Cornell University, and colleagues. It is a
β-cyclodextrin polymer, meaning it is composed of long strands of
repeating molecules. The basic molecular unit consists of two main
pieces: cyclodextrin (shown in blue in the figure below) and a
six-carbon ring called tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile (red).
Cyclodextrins are sugar molecules arranged in a ring such that the
sugar’s hydroxyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of the
ring. Their binding power has been exploited before, for example,
to trap smelly molecules in the odor-neutralizing spray known as
Febreeze. To create the filter material, scientist heated the two
components in a solution of potassium carbonate and
tetrahydrofuran to link the two types of molecules together in
stiff chains and creating a porous 3D lattice.
The researchers then tested the new material and found that it
blew the doors off of current filter materials. The scientists ran
a sample of BPA-contaminated water through both the new porous
cyclodextrins as well as three existing activated carbons and two
nonporous cyclodextrin polymers. The porous cyclodextrin polymers
reached 95% of their adsorption capacity in just 10 seconds. The
other materials took at least 30 minutes to reach their maximum
adsorption, and the second best performer only adsorbed 53% of its
capacity in the first 10 seconds, the team reports online today in
Nature. The results make the β-cyclodextrin the fastest BPA
remover ever discovered, the researchers claim. The polymer sucked
up a variety of other small organic molecules faster than current
materials, as well.
"We knew that [water filtering] would be a likely application if
we were successful,” Dichtel says. “We were definitely pleasantly
surprised with just how good the performance is.”
Like carbon-based water filters, the new cyclodextrin polymers owe
much of their stickiness to a large surface area. The new
cyclodextrin polymers have an enormous surface area per mass: 250
m2 per gram, meaning that 2 grams of the stuff contains more than
enough surface area to completely cover an NBA basketball court.
However some of the existing activated carbon filters actually
have even more surface area than the cyclodextrins. The real
improvement comes from the properties of the material itself,
Dichtel says. “The difference between our material and activated
carbons is that the cyclodextrins are actually much better for
binding pollutants,” he says.
The new material may even be easier to clean than activated
charcoal. Whereas charcoal filters must be heated to liberate
contaminant, the polymer can be regenerated simply by washing the
filter in methanol at room temperature.
To top it off, β-cyclodextrin polymers are also cheap to make—a
detail that surprised Richardson. The researchers estimate that
the manufacturing costs may drop as low as $5-$25 per kilogram of
β-cyclodextrin as chemists continue to refine the polymerization
process, about half the cost of charcoal filters. “I’m thinking
this is going to be something like 100 times the cost of activated
carbon,” Richardson says. “But it’s cheaper, apparently, so go
Dichtel is hopeful that the new material could eventually be
useful not just in commercial water filters, but industrial ones
as well, especially in the developing world. The technology could
also be a boon to wildlife: BPA mimics the hormone estrogen and
has been wreaking havoc on fish populations for years now, causing
male fish to become female in some cases. “We’ve got a big problem
with estrogen of fish in our rivers,” Richardson says. “If this
works and it’s cheaper than activated carbon, I could see it
having promise for reducing the impact of the estrogenicity and
helping our fish recover, too.”
Jamie KRUZIC, et al : Bioactive
Glass Dental Fillings
December 22, 2015
Tooth fillings of the future may
incorporate bioactive glass
A few years from now millions of people around the world might be
walking around with an unusual kind of glass in their mouth, and
using it every time they eat. Engineers have made some promising
findings about the ability of 'bioactive' glass to help reduce the
ability of bacteria to attack composite tooth fillings -- and
perhaps even provide some of the minerals needed to replace those
lost to tooth decay.
A few years from now millions of people around the world might be
walking around with an unusual kind of glass in their mouth, and
using it every time they eat.
Engineers at Oregon State University have made some promising
findings about the ability of "bioactive" glass to help reduce the
ability of bacteria to attack composite tooth fillings -- and
perhaps even provide some of the minerals needed to replace those
lost to tooth decay.
Prolonging the life of composite tooth fillings could be an
important step forward for dental treatment, the researchers say,
since more than 122 million composite tooth restorations are made
in the United States every year. An average person uses their
teeth for more than 600,000 "chews" a year, and some studies
suggest the average lifetime of a posterior dental composite is
only six years.
The new research was just published in the journal Dental
Materials, in work supported by the National Institutes of Health.
"Bioactive glass, which is a type of crushed glass that is able to
interact with the body, has been used in some types of bone
healing for decades," said Jamie Kruzic, a professor and expert in
advanced structural and biomaterials in the OSU College of
"This type of glass is only beginning to see use in dentistry, and
our research shows it may be very promising for tooth fillings,"
he said. "The bacteria in the mouth that help cause cavities don't
seem to like this type of glass and are less likely to colonize on
fillings that incorporate it. This could have a significant impact
on the future of dentistry."
Bioactive glass is made with compounds such as silicon oxide,
calcium oxide and phosphorus oxide, and looks like powdered glass.
It's called "bioactive" because the body notices it is there and
can react to it, as opposed to other biomedical products that are
inert. Bioactive glass is very hard and stiff, and it can replace
some of the inert glass fillers that are currently mixed with
polymers to make modern composite tooth fillings.
"Almost all fillings will eventually fail," Kruzic said. "New
tooth decay often begins at the interface of a filling and the
tooth, and is called secondary tooth decay. The tooth is literally
being eroded and demineralized at that interface."
Bioactive glass may help prolong the life of fillings, researchers
say, because the new study showed that the depth of bacterial
penetration into the interface with bioactive glass-containing
fillings was significantly smaller than for composites lacking the
Fillings made with bioactive glass should slow secondary tooth
decay, and also provide some minerals that could help replace
those being lost, researchers say. The combination of these two
forces should result in a tooth filling that works just as well,
but lasts longer.
Recently extracted human molars were used in this research to
produce simulated tooth restoration samples for laboratory
experiments. OSU has developed a laboratory that's one of the
first in the world to test simulated tooth fillings in conditions
that mimic the mouth.
If this laboratory result is confirmed by clinical research, it
should be very easy to incorporate bioactive glass into existing
formulations for composite tooth fillings, Kruzic said.
The antimicrobial effect of bioactive glass is attributed, in
part, to the release of ions such as those from calcium and
phosphate that have a toxic effect on oral bacteria and tend to
neutralize the local acidic environment.
"My collaborators and I have already shown in previous studies
that composites containing up to 15 percent bioactive glass, by
weight, can have mechanical properties comparable, or superior to
commercial composites now being used," Kruzic said.
Dental Materials, 2016; 32 (1): 73
Bioactive glass fillers reduce
bacterial penetration into marginal gaps for composite
D. Khvostenko, T.J. Hilton, J.L. Ferracane, J.C. Mitchell,
Bioactive glass (BAG) is known to possess antimicrobial and
remineralizing properties; however, the use of BAG as a filler for
resin based composite restorations to slow recurrent caries has
not been studied. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to
investigate the effect of adding 15 wt% BAG to a resin composite
on bacterial biofilms penetrating into marginal gaps of simulated
tooth fillings in vitro during cyclic mechanical loading.
Human molars were machined into approximately 3 mm thick disks of
dentin and 1.5–2 mm deep composite restorations were placed. A
narrow 15–20 micrometer wide dentin-composite gap was allowed to
form along half of the margin by not applying dental adhesive to
that region. Two different 72 wt% filled composites were used, one
with 15 wt% BAG filler (15BAG) and the balance silanated strontium
glass and one filled with aerosol silica and silanated strontium
glass without BAG (0BAG—control). Samples of both groups had
Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown on the surface and were tested
inside a bioreactor for two weeks while subjected to periods of
cyclic mechanical loading. After post-test biofilm viability was
confirmed, each specimen was fixed in glutaraldehyde, gram
positive stained, mounted in resin and cross-sectioned to reveal
the gap profile. Depth of biofilm penetration for 0BAG and 15BAG
was quantified as the fraction of gap depth. The data were
compared using a Student's t-test.
The average depth of bacterial penetration into the marginal gap
for the 15BAG samples was significantly smaller (∼61%) in
comparison to 0BAG, where 100% penetration was observed for all
samples with the biofilm penetrating underneath of the restoration
in some cases.
BAG containing resin dental composites reduce biofilm penetration
into marginal gaps of simulated tooth restorations. This suggests
BAG containing composites may have the potential to slow the
development and propagation of secondary tooth decay at
Some Patents for Bioactive Glass ( Over 900 granted )
DUAL ACTION DENTIFRICE COMPOSITIONS TO PREVENT HYPERSENSITIVITY
AND PROMOTE REMINERALIZATION
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR REGENERATION OF HARD TISSUES
DEVICES AND METHODS FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING
ADHESIVE SYSTEM APPLICABLE IN RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY
BIOACTIVE GLASS AND COLLAGEN COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND KITS
Bioactive porous composite bone graft implants
BIOACTIVE GLASS SCAFFOLDS, AND METHOD OF MAKING.
Bioactive porous bone graft implants
BIOACTIVE GLASS SCAFFOLDS, AND METHOD OF MAKING
Bioactive glass ceramic and preparation method thereof
Tooth-cleaning composition for whitening teeth and repairing
Production of novel ionically crosslinked materials
BIOACTIVE GLASS PREPARATION AND USE
SYSTEM AND KIT FOR DELIVERING COLLAGEN BIOGLASS COMPOSITE BONE
GRAFTING MATERIALS FOR REGENERATING HARD TISSUES
Bioactive glass ceramic and preparation method thereof
Method for manufacturing bioactive glass and bioactive glass
BIOACTIVE GLASS FIBER MESH FOR REPAIR OF HARD TISSUES
IMPLANTABLE PASTE AND ITS USE
Resorbable Interbody Device
BIOACTIVE POROUS BONE GRAFT COMPOSITIONS WITH COLLAGEN
While the USA perfects its Stupidity :
Bolivia free of illiteracy with
Cuban method of education
With the Cuban method of education, UNESCO declared Bolivia as a
country that is free of illiteracy after the Government of
President Evo Morales applied the "Yes I Can" method developed by
Cuba which had already achieved great success in Venezuela and
The deputy minister of Alternative Education in Bolivia, Noel
Aguirre, said on Tuesday (29) that UNESCO has accepted the report
submitted by the government that shows that the country is free of
illiteracy. "We can proudly say that the Plurinational State is a
state free of illiteracy", he stated. According to Aguirre, the
country has at this time an index of 3.8% illiterate, below the 4%
that the UN declares that a country needs to have eradicated
The minister pointed out that the government's objective is to
reach the "residual" population, with over 60 years of age. Born
in Cuba, the method "yo si puedo" (Yes I can) began to be exported
to other nations from 1999, has been used in the literacy of
millions of people around the world and was used by the Morales
government. The method seeks to understand the needs of the
students and all the peculiarities of the locals using audiovisual
resources and combinations of numbers and letters.
Moreover, the method has the advantage of lasting just over three
months and can be implanted in places with few structures or
infrastructures. In Brazil, the method is applied by the MST
(Landless Movement) in several states, and was imported by the
Lula government in 2010.
Transparent metal films for
smartphone, tablet and TV displays
A new material that is both highly transparent and electrically
conductive could make large screen displays, smart windows and
even touch screens and solar cells more affordable and efficient,
according to the Penn State materials scientists and engineers who
Indium tin oxide, the transparent conductor that is currently used
for more than 90 percent of the display market, has been the
dominant material for the past 60 years. However, in the last
decade, the price of indium has increased dramatically. Displays
and touchscreen modules have become a main cost driver in
smartphones and tablets, making up close to 40 percent of the
cost. While memory chips and processors get cheaper, displays get
more expensive from generation to generation. Manufacturers have
searched for a possible ITO replacement, but until now, nothing
has matched ITO's combination of optical transparency, electrical
conductivity and ease of fabrication.
A team led by Roman Engel-Herbert, assistant professor of
materials science and engineering, reports today (Dec 15) online
in Nature Materials a new design strategy that approaches the
problem from a different angle. The researchers use thin -- 10
nanometer -- films of an unusual class of materials called
correlated metals in which the electrons flow like a liquid. While
in most conventional metals, such as copper, gold, aluminum or
silver, electrons flow like a gas, in correlated metals, such as
strontium vanadate and calcium vanadate, they move like a liquid.
According to the researchers, this electron flow produces high
optical transparency along with high metal-like conductivity.
"We are trying to make metals transparent by changing the
effective mass of their electrons," Engel-Herbert said. "We are
doing this by choosing materials in which the electrostatic
interaction between negatively charged electrons is very large
compared to their kinetic energy. As a result of this strong
electron correlation effect, electrons 'feel' each other and
behave like a liquid rather than a gas of non-interacting
particles. This electron liquid is still highly conductive, but
when you shine light on it, it becomes less reflective, thus much
To better understand how they achieved this fine balance between
transparency and conductivity, Engel-Herbert and his team turned
to a materials theory expert, Professor Karin Rabe of Rutgers
"We realized that we needed her help to put a number on how
'liquid' this electron liquid in strontium vanadate is,"
Rabe helped the Penn State team put together all the theoretical
and mathematical puzzle pieces they needed to build transparent
conductors in the form of a correlated metal. Now that they
understand the essential mechanism behind their discovery, the
Penn State researchers are confident they will find many other
correlated metals that behave like strontium vanadate and calcium
Lei Zhang, lead author on the Nature Materials paper and a
graduate student in Engel-Herbert's group, was the first to
recognize what they had discovered.
"I came from Silicon Valley where I worked for two years as an
engineer before I joined the group," said Zhang. "I was aware that
there were many companies trying hard to optimize those ITO
materials and looking for other possible replacements, but they
had been studied for many decades and there just wasn't much room
for improvement. When we made the electrical measurements on our
correlated metals, I knew we had something that looked really good
compared to standard ITO."
Currently indium costs around $750 per kilogram, whereas strontium
vanadate and calcium vanadate are made from elements with orders
of magnitude higher abundance in the earth's crust. Vanadium sells
for around $25 a kilogram, less than 5 percent of the cost of
indium, while strontium is even cheaper than vanadium.
"Our correlated metals work really well compared to ITO," said
Engel-Herbert. "Now, the question is how to implement these new
materials into a large-scale manufacturing process From what we
understand right now, there is no reason that strontium vanadate
could not replace ITO in the same equipment currently used in
Along with display technologies, Engel-Herbert and his group are
excited about combining their new materials with a very promising
type of solar cell that uses a class of materials called organic
perovskites. Developed only within the last half dozen years,
these materials outperform commercial silicon solar cells but
require an inexpensive transparent conductor. Strontium vanadate,
also a perovskite, has a compatible structure that makes this an
interesting possibility for future inexpensive, high-efficiency
Engel-Herbert and Zhang have applied for a patent on their
Along with Zhang and Engel-Herbert, Hai-Tian Zhang, Craig Eaton,
Yuanxia Zheng and Matthew Brahlek, all students or postdoctoral
Fellows in Engel-Herbert's group, worked on this paper,
"Correlated metals as transparent conductors." Others from Penn
State and the Materials Research Institute on this project were
Moses Chan, Evan Pugh professor of physics, and his postdoctoral
Fellow, Weiwei Zhao; and Venkatraman Gopalan, professor of
materials science and engineering and his student Lu Guo.
With Rabe was her student Yuanjun Zhou from Rutgers University.
Anna Barnes, Hamna Haneef and associate professor Nikolas Podraza
of Univesity of Toledo also worked on this project.
The Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation and
the Department of Energy funded this work. Fabrication of the
correlated metals was performed at the Materials Research
Institute in the laboratory facilities of Penn State's Millennium
October 16, 2015
Automating big-data analysis
System that replaces human
intuition with algorithms outperforms 615 of 906 human teams.
Big-data analysis consists of searching for buried patterns that
have some kind of predictive power. But choosing which “features”
of the data to analyze usually requires some human intuition. In a
database containing, say, the beginning and end dates of various
sales promotions and weekly profits, the crucial data may not be
the dates themselves but the spans between them, or not the total
profits but the averages across those spans.
MIT researchers aim to take the human element out of big-data
analysis, with a new system that not only searches for patterns
but designs the feature set, too. To test the first prototype of
their system, they enrolled it in three data science competitions,
in which it competed against human teams to find predictive
patterns in unfamiliar data sets. Of the 906 teams participating
in the three competitions, the researchers’ “Data Science Machine”
finished ahead of 615.
In two of the three competitions, the predictions made by the Data
Science Machine were 94 percent and 96 percent as accurate as the
winning submissions. In the third, the figure was a more modest 87
percent. But where the teams of humans typically labored over
their prediction algorithms for months, the Data Science Machine
took somewhere between two and 12 hours to produce each of its
“We view the Data Science Machine as a natural complement to human
intelligence,” says Max Kanter, whose MIT master’s thesis in
computer science is the basis of the Data Science Machine.
“There’s so much data out there to be analyzed. And right now it’s
just sitting there not doing anything. So maybe we can come up
with a solution that will at least get us started on it, at least
get us moving.”
Between the lines
Kanter and his thesis advisor, Kalyan Veeramachaneni, a research
scientist at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence
Laboratory (CSAIL), describe the Data Science Machine in a paper
that Kanter will present next week at the IEEE International
Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics.
Veeramachaneni co-leads the Anyscale Learning for All group at
CSAIL, which applies machine-learning techniques to practical
problems in big-data analysis, such as determining the
power-generation capacity of wind-farm sites or predicting which
students are at risk for dropping out of online courses.
“What we observed from our experience solving a number of data
science problems for industry is that one of the very critical
steps is called feature engineering,” Veeramachaneni says. “The
first thing you have to do is identify what variables to extract
from the database or compose, and for that, you have to come up
with a lot of ideas.”
In predicting dropout, for instance, two crucial indicators proved
to be how long before a deadline a student begins working on a
problem set and how much time the student spends on the course
website relative to his or her classmates. MIT’s online-learning
platform MITx doesn’t record either of those statistics, but it
does collect data from which they can be inferred.
Kanter and Veeramachaneni use a couple of tricks to manufacture
candidate features for data analyses. One is to exploit structural
relationships inherent in database design. Databases typically
store different types of data in different tables, indicating the
correlations between them using numerical identifiers. The Data
Science Machine tracks these correlations, using them as a cue to
For instance, one table might list retail items and their costs;
another might list items included in individual customers’
purchases. The Data Science Machine would begin by importing costs
from the first table into the second. Then, taking its cue from
the association of several different items in the second table
with the same purchase number, it would execute a suite of
operations to generate candidate features: total cost per order,
average cost per order, minimum cost per order, and so on. As
numerical identifiers proliferate across tables, the Data Science
Machine layers operations on top of each other, finding minima of
averages, averages of sums, and so on.
It also looks for so-called categorical data, which appear to be
restricted to a limited range of values, such as days of the week
or brand names. It then generates further feature candidates by
dividing up existing features across categories.
Once it’s produced an array of candidates, it reduces their number
by identifying those whose values seem to be correlated. Then it
starts testing its reduced set of features on sample data,
recombining them in different ways to optimize the accuracy of the
predictions they yield.
“The Data Science Machine is one of those unbelievable projects
where applying cutting-edge research to solve practical problems
opens an entirely new way of looking at the problem,” says Margo
Seltzer, a professor of computer science at Harvard University who
was not involved in the work. “I think what they’ve done is going
to become the standard quickly — very quickly.”
UCLA researchers create
exceptionally strong and lightweight new metal
Magnesium infused with dense silicon carbide
nanoparticles could be used for airplanes, cars, mobile
electronics and more
A team led by researchers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of
Engineering and Applied Science has created a super-strong yet
light structural metal with extremely high specific strength and
modulus, or stiffness-to-weight ratio. The new metal is composed
of magnesium infused with a dense and even dispersal of ceramic
silicon carbide nanoparticles. It could be used to make lighter
airplanes, spacecraft, and cars, helping to improve fuel
efficiency, as well as in mobile electronics and biomedical
To create the super-strong but lightweight metal, the team found a
new way to disperse and stabilize nanoparticles in molten metals.
They also developed a scalable manufacturing method that could
pave the way for more high-performance lightweight metals. The
research was published today in Nature.
"It's been proposed that nanoparticles could really enhance the
strength of metals without damaging their plasticity, especially
light metals like magnesium, but no groups have been able to
disperse ceramic nanoparticles in molten metals until now," said
Xiaochun Li, the principal investigator on the research and
Raytheon Chair in Manufacturing Engineering at UCLA. "With an
infusion of physics and materials processing, our method paves a
new way to enhance the performance of many different kinds of
metals by evenly infusing dense nanoparticles to enhance the
performance of metals to meet energy and sustainability challenges
in today's society."
Structural metals are load-bearing metals; they are used in
buildings and vehicles. Magnesium, at just two-thirds the density
of aluminum, is the lightest structural metal. Silicon carbide is
an ultra-hard ceramic commonly used in industrial cutting blades.
The researchers' technique of infusing a large number of silicon
carbide particles smaller than 100 nanometers into magnesium added
significant strength, stiffness, plasticity and durability under
The researchers' new silicon carbide-infused magnesium
demonstrated record levels of specific strength -- how much weight
a material can withstand before breaking -- and specific modulus
-- the material's stiffness-to-weight ratio. It also showed
superior stability at high temperatures.
Ceramic particles have long been considered as a potential way to
make metals stronger. However, with microscale ceramic particles,
the infusion process results in a loss of plasticity.
Nanoscale particles, by contrast, can enhance strength while
maintaining or even improving metals' plasticity. But nanoscale
ceramic particles tend to clump together rather than dispersing
evenly, due to the tendency of small particles to attract one
To counteract this issue, researchers dispersed the particles into
a molten magnesium zinc alloy. The newly discovered nanoparticle
dispersion relies on the kinetic energy in the particles'
movement. This stabilizes the particles' dispersion and prevents
To further enhance the new metal's strength, the researchers used
a technique called high-pressure torsion to compress it.
"The results we obtained so far are just scratching the surface of
the hidden treasure for a new class of metals with revolutionary
properties and functionalities," Li said.
The new metal (more accurately called a metal nanocomposite) is
about 14 percent silicon carbide nanoparticles and 86 percent
magnesium. The researchers noted that magnesium is an abundant
resource and that scaling up its use would not cause environmental
Nature 528, 539–543 (24 December 2015)
Processing and properties of
magnesium containing a dense uniform dispersion of
Lian-Yi Chen, et al
Magnesium is a light metal, with a density two-thirds that of
aluminium, is abundant on Earth and is biocompatible; it thus has
the potential to improve energy efficiency and system performance
in aerospace, automobile, defence, mobile electronics and
biomedical applications1, 2, 3, 4, 5. However, conventional
synthesis and processing methods (alloying and thermomechanical
processing) have reached certain limits in further improving the
properties of magnesium and other metals6. Ceramic particles have
been introduced into metal matrices to improve the strength of the
metals7, but unfortunately, ceramic microparticles severely
degrade the plasticity and machinability of metals7, and
nanoparticles, although they have the potential to improve
strength while maintaining or even improving the plasticity of
metals8, 9, are difficult to disperse uniformly in metal
matrices10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Here we show that a dense uniform
dispersion of silicon carbide nanoparticles (14 per cent by
volume) in magnesium can be achieved through a nanoparticle
self-stabilization mechanism in molten metal. An enhancement of
strength, stiffness, plasticity and high-temperature stability is
simultaneously achieved, delivering a higher specific yield
strength and higher specific modulus than almost all structural
Quanum Scanner : Equipment
for creating the quantum audio- and radio-matrices according
to the methods of wave genetics of Dr. Peter Gariaev.
The matrices are produced with the help of a laser beam reflected
from the object which is supposed to provide the matrix. In the
vicinity of the laser a radio-receiver is installed, which
captures the radio-waves in the necessary frequency range with
subsequent recording to computer as a sound file.
For these applications only one type of laser is suitable : the
A quantum scanner is being used in the research studies conducted
in the area of wave genetics and creating the sound matrices. Itsí
principle of functioning is based on the registration of plasma
leaps of different polarization in the laser radiator, as it
interacts with the external mirror, reflecting the ray back into
the radiator. The ray partially passes through the external mirror
and arrives at the scanned object. This influences the parameters
of plasma leaps. These are being registered with the help of
photodiodes, which sense two types of polarization: the vertical
and horizontal ones. The signal from the photodiodes modulates the
spectrum of radio-waves radiated by the laserís power supply unit.
As a result of this, the radio-waves containing information about
the quantum state of the scanned object are being emitted into the
space. With the help of a radio-receiver it is possible to
register these radio-waves and convert them into the sound
spectrum. In this spectrum the information about plasma leaps of
different polarization, occurring during the scanning of the
object, will be present.
The Qmatrices are produced with the help of a laser beam reflected
from the object which is supposed to provide the matrix. In the
vicinity of the laser a radio-receiver is installed, which
captures the radio-waves in the necessary frequency range with
subsequent recording to computer as a sound file.
For these applications only one type of laser is suitable – the
In order to create Dr. Gariaev’s matrix, an adjustment bench is
being installed at a distance of 11 cm from the laser, upon which
a photograph is placed, or a drop of blood, or some other
substance, for instance a medicine. The beam is reflected back
from that substance and returns to the laser. Near the laser there
is a radio-receiver in the AM frequency band, which receives the
radio-waves from the laser at about 600 kHz. From the
radio-receiver the signal is directed to the sound card of the
computer, where it is being recorded by any sound editor. For
example, Gold Wave can be used.
The Qmatrices are produced with the help of a laser beam reflected
from the object which is supposed to provide the matrix. In the
vicinity of the laser a radio-receiver is installed, which
captures the radio-waves in the necessary frequency range with
subsequent recording to computer as a sound file.
Where On Earth Are NASA's Rovers
Sending Pictures From? Devon Island, Canada
There is an increasing number of people who believe that NASA's
rovers never left the Earth in the first place, and the pictures
they are allegedly sending back from Mars are taken in remote
areas of our planet.
But if NASA's rovers are not on Mars, then where exactly are they?
First of all, evidence suggests that the pictures that we see on
NASA's website are not even taken by the Curiosity and Opportunity
It is very possible that by now, both rovers are stored in a
hangar, somewhere at NASA's JPL headquarters, and have been
replaced by their smaller and more practical baby brothers.
Sure, if needed, they can always be taken out for a spin, but
other than that, the smaller rovers are more convenient to work
One of the known locations where NASA is playing around with these
small rovers is Devon Island, Canada...
Scientists: Geological evidence
shows the Great Sphinx is 800,000 years old
One of the most mysterious and enigmatic monuments on the surface
of the planet is without a doubt the Great Sphinx at the Giza
plateau in Egypt. It is an ancient construction that has baffled
researchers ever since its discovery and until today, no one has
been able to accurately date the Sphinx, since there are no
written records or mentions in the past about it. Now, two
Ukrainian researchers have proposed a new provocative theory where
the two scientists propose that the Great Sphinx of Egypt is
around 800,000 years old. A Revolutionary theory that is backed up
The study was presented at the International Conference of
Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy held in Sofia titled:
GEOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM OF DATING THE GREAT EGYPTIAN
The authors of this paper are scientists Manichev Vjacheslav I.
(Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of the National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine) and Alexander G. Parkhomenko (Institute of
Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).
The starting point of these two experts is the paradigm shift
initiated by West and Schoch, a ‘debate’ intended to overcome the
orthodox view of Egyptology referring to the possible remote
origins of the Egyptian civilization and, on the other, physical
evidence of water erosion present at the monuments of the Giza
According to Manichev and Parkhomenko:
“The problem of dating the Great Egyptian Sphinx construction is
still valid, despite of the long-term history of its research.
Geological approach in connection to other scientific-natural
methods permits to answer the question about the relative age of
the Sphinx. The conducted visual investigation of the Sphinx
allowed the conclusion about the important role of water from
large water bodies which partially flooded the monument with
formation of wave-cut hollows on its vertical walls.”
“The morphology of these formations has an analogy with similar
such hollows formed by the sea in the coastal zones. Genetic
resemblance of the compared erosion forms and the geological
structure and petrographic composition of sedimentary rock
complexes lead to a conclusion that the decisive factor of
destruction of the historic monument is the wave energy rather
than sand abrasion in Eolian process. Voluminous geological
literature confirms the fact of existence of long-living
fresh-water lakes in various periods of the Quaternary from the
Lower Pleistocene to the Holocene. These lakes were distributed in
the territories adjacent to the Nile. The absolute mark of the
upper large erosion hollow of the Sphinx corresponds to the level
of water surface which took place in the Early Pleistocene. The
Great Egyptian Sphinx had already stood on the Giza Plateau by
that geological (historical) time.”
“In our geological field expeditions in different mountains and
littoral zones of the Crimea and Caucasus we could often observe
the forms of Eolian weathering which morphology differs
considerably from the weathering taking place on the GES. Most
natural forms of weathering are of smoothed character, independent
of lithological composition of the rocks...
“Our personal experience in scientific investigation of geology of
the sea coasts gives reasons to draw an analogy with the GES and
to suggest another mechanism of its destruction.
Specialists-geologists, who work in the field of sea-coast
geomorphology, know such forms of relief as wave-cut hollows
(Morskaya Geomorfologiya, 1980). They can be one- and
multi-storey. They are arranged horizontally to the sea water
surface, if the coast makes a vertical wall (cliff). Especially
deep wave-cut hollows are formed in precipitous cliffs built by
the strata of carbonaceous rocks. Such forms of the coast relief
are well-known and studied in detail on the Black-Sea coast of the
Caucasus and Crimea (Popov, 1953; Zenkovich, 1960). General model
of formation of the wave-cut hollows in the rocks of the Caucasian
flysch is given by Popov (1953, 162; Fig. 3). In dynamics of the
process of wave-cut hollows formation one can notice such a
characteristic feature that the wave energy is directed to the
rock stratum at the level of water surface. Besides, both saline
and fresh water can dissolve the rocks...”
Geoarchaeology and Archaeomineralogy
(Eds. R. I. Kostov, B. Gaydarska, M. Gurova). 2008.
Proceedings of the International Conference, 29-30 October 2008
Sofia, Publishing House “St. Ivan Rilski”, Sofia, 308-311.
March 10, 2013
Have scientists discovered
Studying house dust mites, two University of Michigan biologists
say they have discovered evidence that contracts Dollo’s law – a
long standing scientific belief claiming evolution is
Scientists at the University of Michigan announced the discovery
Friday, saying their research reveals the common house dust mite
has undergone “reverse” evolution, changing from a parasitic life
form to a free-living one. The study shows the familiar house dust
mite evolved over millions of years from free-living organisms
into parasites before evolving back into free-living organisms.
The theory of an organism reverting to the characteristics of its
ancestors is known as Dollo’s law. The hypothesis, posed by
Belgian paleontologist Louis Dollo, states that “an organism is
unable to return, even partially, to a previous stage already
realized in the ranks of its ancestors.” Although evolutionary
biologists have disagreed about how the rule is applied in nature,
they have been in general agreement on the general principle that
the evolutionary process is irreversible.
“All our analyses conclusively demonstrated that house dust mites
have abandoned a parasitic lifestyle, secondarily becoming
free-living, and then speciated in several habitats, including
human habitations,” according to Pavel Klimov and Barry O’Connor
of the University of Michigan Department of Ecology and
Apparently they haven't heard of Ebner's
amazing research @ CIBA-Geigy :
Guido EBNER : Primeval Code
Electrostatic fields & frequency cause degenerate DNA to
revert to its earlier, primitive state.
Tom Bearden's Message :
TO ALL SCIENTISTS ON THIS PLANET!
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Bearden, US Army, PhD calls for the
scientific community to act.
"To the sincere person who remains skeptical, consider this:
Absolute proof is not needed before serious research begins on the
subject. In no other field of human endeavor is proof required
before serious study and research begins; on the contrary, proof
is the result of this research. In this regard, the subject of
extraterrestrial studies is being held to an irrational
requirement of proof before serious research can begin, on the one
hand, and denounced as an area of spurious interest because no
proof exists, on the other!"
-Steven M. Greer, MD
RECOMMENDED SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY ACTIONS
As observations of the UFO phenomena reported by many thousands of
witnesses are validated, a new set of scientific paradigms will
need to be researched to explain what is being observed.
Twentieth century scientific theories have barely touched the
surface in explaining what numerous scientific, military and
civilian witnesses have observed and reported. However, in some
cases, covert military research programs appear to have advanced
much further in understanding the observed phenomena and than have
our academic and public scientists. Recent findings, such as the
demonstration of possible faster than speed of light phenomenon,
suggest that indeed there will be a whole new class of scientific
phenomena that 21st century scientists will investigate to explain
what has been declared as “impossible” by scientists of the last
There is still a major acceptance problem about UFO/ET issues with
Dr. Peter Sturrock, a highly respected solar physicist and now an
emeritus professor at Stanford University, summarized the problem
as follows: The definite resolution of the UFO enigma will not
come about unless and until the problem is subjected to open and
extensive scientific study by the normal procedures of established
science. This requires a change in attitude primarily on the part
of scientists and administrators in universities.
A further view by Dr. Sturrock on the role of scientists and
scientific journals is quoted in section 3.2.1. Surprising though
it may seem to the lay person, scientists often have trouble
changing their understanding of processes and natural phenomena
when faced with evidence that their theories may not be correct.
The history of science is replete with examples of scientists
proclaiming such and such is impossible, only to be shown later
that their assumptions were incorrect... [see full article here:
Over the last century, scientists have played both an active and
passive role, often unknowingly, in shaping the attitudes of the
“trusting” public on the UFO issue through promulgation of
misinformation and disinformation.
In summary, without investigation and research, there can be no
intelligent informed statement on the phenomena. This need was
also recommended by a panel of scientists in the
Sturrock/Rockefeller report and by scientists and military
personnel in the French COMETA report summarized in section 8.0.
We recommend SCIENTISTS take the following actions:
1. Scientists must open their minds to the possibility of the
UFO/ET phenomenon and stop prejudging others who are researching
this area. This will require each to do their own “research” into
2. Scientists who know the UFO/ET issues are real (such as those
who participate in covert research projects) should share the
reality and their understanding with scientific colleagues to
start to bring them up to speed. There will be a lot of catching
up to do and it will be difficult because of reputations and
3. Academic scientists should share this knowledge with their
students and the public, for it is the next generation of students
and graduate students that will help make the breakthroughs in
research to explain what has been observed for several
4. It is critical that scientists help make the study of UFO/ET
issues a supported and encouraged area of scientific investigation
for these future graduate students and young professional
5. Scientist/managers who run our federally funded academic
research programs should set aside a small percentage of their
budgets for “outside-the-box” research into the UFO/ET arena,
helping to make it a legitimate area of research.
6. Finally, scientists should realize that advances in science and
technology that could come from an understanding of the UFO/ET
phenomenon will have far ranging effects on the future of the
people and the environment of our planet. The opportunities for
new “breakthrough” research have never been better (as well as the
opportunity to rewrite many textbooks).
Nibiru Come Home ! We Miss You ! All is
Forgiven ! Love, Mother Earth & Father Sun
Mysterious Glowing Light In the
Early Evening Western Sky, What Is It?
[ Comments insist that it's Arcturus ,,, ]
Sky Walk Free
The Sky Walk is a magical new app that enables you to identify the
stars, planets, galaxies, constellations and even satellites you
can see above. Just stand anywhere and hold your iPhone, iPod
touch or iPad up to the sky and The Sky Walk will display the
names of the stars, planets and other objects you are able to see,
just like magic!
Ahhhh… Deeply satisfying doom art :
'Who says my work’s a disaster?' Artist
creates incredible images of how the world might end
Interview with Clif High (
NEW: The World In 2016 The Economist
Cover Released! DECODE Starts Now
Rex-ommended Viewing : Graham
Hancock : Prehistoric Civilization
GRAHAM HANCOCK : ANCIENT & FUTURE
CATACLYSM - THE GREAT RETURN OF THE COMET
Quest for the Lost civilization - Graham
Hancock (FULL MOVIE)
Graham Hancock : Fingerprints of the Gods
Long-Lost Nikola Tesla Drawings
Reveal Map To Multiplication
A recently discovered set of original Nikola Tesla drawings reveal
a map to multiplication that contains all numbers in a simple to
use system. The drawings were discovered at an antique shop in
central Phoenix Arizona by local artist, Abe Zucca. They are
believed to have been created during the last years of Tesla’s
Free Energy lab, Wardenclyffe. The manuscript is thought to
contain many solutions to unanswered questions about mathematics.
The Sketches were hidden in a small trunk with numerous other
drawings and manuscripts ranging from hand-held technological
devices to free-energy systems, many with notes scrawled all over
them. Some of the pieces are already familiar to the public, but a
few others are not. Most notably is the Map to Multiplication or
the Math Spiral. Zucca made a few copies and showed the drawings
around to different thinkers, dreamers, and mathematicians.
A few days later a Local High School Mathematics Instructor, Joey
Grether, had been working on deciphering the system and had a few
breakthroughs. Grether suggests that the Spiral not only explores
Multiplication as an interwoven web, but that it, “offers a
comprehensive visual understanding of how all numbers are
self-organized into 12 positions of compositability.”
“This device allows us to see numbers as patterns, the formation
of prime numbers, twin primes, Highly composite numbers,
multiplication and division, as well as few other systems, I
imagine, that are yet to be discovered.”
The diagram itself is very intuitive, allowing students to see how
numbers all work together based on a spiral with 12 positions. 12,
or 12x (multiples of 12) is the most highly composite system,
which is why we have 12 months in a year, 12 inches in a foot, 24
hours in a day, etc. 12 can be divided by 2, 3, 4, and 6. So can
all multiples of 12. For every 12 numbers there is a chance of 4
numbers being prime. They happen to fall in positions (think clock
positions) 5, 7, 11, and 1.
Tesla is known for the quote “If you only knew the magnificence of
the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have the key to the universe.” It
turns out that when the device is examined, the digital roots of
the numbers in positions 3, 6, 9, and 12 constantly repeat the
same sequence 3, 6, 9! Is this what Tesla was referring too? The
self-organization of numbers and their digital roots?
Its hard to say, but Grether seems to think so. “This breakthrough
is phenomenal. If we could get students all over the globe to use
this technique, to play with it, and help figure out how to use
it, we could overcome our cultural aversion to Mathematics.
Instead of memorizing the multiplication table, we could learn the
positions of numbers and have a better understanding of how they
Juan Zapata, One of Mr. G’s students believes so as well… “I used
to say I’m bad at Math… cause thats what everyone says, but now,
I’m like, dude, this is too easy.”
Theres one other fact about the Tesla Spiral that make it
interesting. The diagram is dated 12/12/12! 1912. Grether and his
students want to turn December 12 into a national holiday. So grab
a 12 pack, get a dozen donuts, and celebrate the power of 12x.
Ryan Murtha's new website on Geometry
& Theology -- a work in progress… includes Alchemy --
Bashar the PsyOops Mouthpiece --
...It seems that this channeler, who has become VERY renown for
channeling Bashar (supposedly a benevolent, super-evolved
extraterrestrial intelligence) is being fed these so-called
'transmissions' by a white male HUMAN voice that is relaying the
information to him in realtime. These are most evident at the
following timestamps, although it is happening throughout the
entirety of the responses. Again, you will need to run it through
VLC player to hear. And you will need headphones:
0:54 - this is insanely blatant. You can hear that after he says
"after we translate the phrase" the channeler momentarily stops as
you can hear a voice in the background say "isolated, limited
terrorist..." to which the channeler follows suit right away.
1:06 - after the channeler finishes saying "America", the voice in
the background goes on saying "primarily.." to which the channeler
1:17 - At the exact moment which the person finishes asking the
question "do you know when it is likely to occur?" you can
immediately hear the white male voice in the background speak
first even before Bashar speaks. This is very important since it
is a case of the background voice speaking first before the
channeler begins speaking at all, which is the clearest (and
first) case of this happening in the video. Effectively
eliminating the possibility of any audio de-synchronization, which
was already completely absurd to begin with since the questioner
has no such effect over his voice and the background voice is
clearly nothing like the channeler's...
1:25 - THIS IS THE CLEAREST, MOST UNDENIABLE EVIDENCE IN THIS
After the channeler finishes saying "2001", the white male voice
in the background goes on to very clearly say, "MOST LIKELY, in or
around" HOWEVER, the channeler does not say this right away,
instead he says "MOST LIKELY, either" (he probably says "either"
because he did not clearly hear what the other male voice said,
signalling for a repeat, or he was biding for more time just in
case the message he was receiving from the background voice would
be a little lengthy so he'd have time to relay it clearly) and
THEN after a repeat by the background voice saying "in or around"
a second time, the channeler continues with "in or around". This
undeniably proves that there are two different people involved in
this transmission and that Bashar is not an extraterrestrial
channeler but a complete deceiver and government pawn. I have just
proved this for certain.
( BTW : His interlocking coils "free energy" antenna is a
suckoff of Walter Russell )
30 Dec, 2015
The Global Economic Collapse Is
Happening As You Read These Words
The entire wealth of the planet is estimated to be around $65-7o
trillion dollars. Any debt that exceeds that amount should be
considered to be a catalyst for global economic collapse and
ultimately World War III along with the emergence of extreme
authoritarian government similar to what the world witnessed prior
to World War II.
Nations who are trying to save themselves from the abyss of
economic collapse will seek to plunder the resources of other
nations and when these predatory behaviors grow in number, global
conflict will breakout. We are already seeing evidence of this in
Ukraine (i.e. control of Eurasia’s gas) and in Syria and
Iran (i.e. control of the medium of exchange to buy oil, gold vs.
In 2011, Bloomberg reported that Bank of America shifted about $22
trillion worth of derivative obligations from Merrill Lynch and
the Bank of America Corporation holding company to the FDIC
insured retail deposit division. Along with this information came
the revelation that the FDIC insured unit was already stuffed with
$53 trillion worth of these potentially toxic obligations, making
a total of $75 trillion dollars in debt from the toxic holdings of
only one bank. In other words, the United States taxpayer owes
Bank of America $75 trillion dollars when, not if, the credit swap
derivatives market collapses. REMEMBER: ANY DEBT THAT EXCEEDS $70
TRILLION DOLLARS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED TO BE THE CATALYST FOR A
GLOBAL ECONOMIC COLLAPSE.
Although this event was prominently reported in Bloomberg, it was
not reported on Fox and CNN and the other corporate news entities.
Further, the implications of this nation-busting act were never
explained to the American people. So, the ignorant American people
continue to entrust their life savings to entities who are
planning to steal these assets.
Derivatives are highly flammable financial instruments that are
used to insure the banks against risk. The main purpose of a
derivative lies in the fact that they are used for speculation
(i.e. gambling). The derivatives market comprises the modern day
version of the big gaming casino on Wall Street!
Credit swap derivatives are bets made upon the future value of
stocks, bonds, mortgages, other loans, currencies, commodities,
volatility of financial indexes, and even weather changes. It is a
case of the Las Vegas Strip coming to Wall Street. The banksters
are playing with house money. Only in this case, the house money
is the good faith and credit of the American taxpayer.
And it is not just Bank of America that is stealing your money to
cover their derivatives debt. All of the “too big to fail” banks
(e.g. JP Morgan, Wells Fargo) have had their gambling addiction
guaranteed by the American people. This was supposed to be a
secret that would be kept from the American people in order to
keep America from rioting and stringing up every banker that they
could get their hands on. So,why isn’t that you have not heard
about this before (an estimated 95% of the readers are probably
ignorant of this fact)? Well, the fact remains that there have
been cracks in the conspiracy and there have been people telling
all of us about this very fact. Breitbart told you about this fact
last year. Politifact came to the party late, but even they
reported this fact late last year. Ellen Brown wrote about this
development last year. Forbes covered this development in 2013.
The Common Sense Show covered this event many times in 2011-12 on
several broadcasts. On November 16, 2014, I covered the fact that
the G20 nations passed a joint resolution to get their nation’s
central banking system to declare that your bank account was not
defined as money. This was done because the G20 central banks are
approaching insolvency. This put your assets at the bottom of the
list for FDIC compensation in the event of a bank failure. In
other words, your money is as good as gone.
Even if Wall Street was to net out the worth of the derivatives
involved, the amount is so large that the United States could not
hope to pay it off. Why? Because the debt is estimated to be at
$1.5 quadrillion dollar debt without a major dollar devaluation,
if another collapse were to actually occur and a large part of the
derivatives were triggered, the U.S. government cannot cover the
obligation. Rest assured that the banks would be made whole.
However, the same cannot be said for the American taxpayer. The
Federal Reserve has not only given their blessing, they approved
the transfer of the derivatives from Merrill Lynch to insured
retail unit of BAC before the deal was even done. Why would the
Federal Reserve participate in the economic suicide of our
country? Because these sacred cow banks are owned by prominent
members of the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve members
are intent on financial survival at the expense of the people.
Solely based upon the condition of the megabanks, it is a foregone
conclusion that these bank customers are going to lose their
assets. Since the U.S. only takes in $2 trillion dollars per year,
where is the money going to come from to cover the derivatives
debt? The interest on the derivatives debt is exploding faster
than we can pay the interest on it, $505 trillion per year . This
one set of circumstances is enough, on its own, to collapse the
U.S. economy. This could be the straw that breaks the camel’s
back. However, we have a lot of straws sitting upon the backs of
the American camel.
1. The national debt.
2. The national deficit.
3. The stock market bubble.
4. The MERS mortgage fraud which has stolen an estimated 13
5. The 1.5 quadrillion derivatives debt.
6. The record low Baltic Index which speaks to the health of the
7. Record consumer credit debt.
8. 5o million Americans on food stamps.
9. Shadow Stats which states that 23% of Americans are unemployed
10. A weakened military as we sit upon the edge of World War III
at a time when Obama is downsizing our military and firing its
11. Increased foreign reliance of food imports (20% of the total).
12. The FCC and Attorney General Loretta Lynch is trying to gain
control over the Internet in an attempt to silence the opposition
of the independent media.
13. Food inflation which some estimate to be at about 18%.
14. The media is owned by six corporations who have helped to
create this problem.
15. Unfunded liabilities (i.e. Social Security, Medicare) are now
in excess of $240 trillion dollars. Remember, any debt in excess
of $70 trillion dollars should be considered to be a catalyst for
global economic collapse.
Do you actually believe that various segments of the economy can
be collapsing around you and that your life savings, your
retirement and your other miscellaneous investments are going to
be safe? Why do you think Obama wants your guns? The elite knows
what is coming, they have planned for this day. And they are
laughing at your ignorance and the fact that YOU have funded their
Everybody gets the joke but the American people.
Everybody gets the joke but the American people. You are renting
your life savings and all that you own from the following people:
What Does It All Mean?
I wish all questions had answers this simple. Soon-to-be broke
bankers start wars which will kill millions/billions in order to
preserve their financial standing. Broke citizens start civil
wars. Power hungry government bureaucrats, eager to preserve their
power, promote false flag attacks to promote the implementation of
a genocidal system of global feudalism under the New World Order.
Is there anything that can be done? Not without divine
intervention. The debt could be repudiated but that would still
trigger World War III. About the one thing you can do to is store
up on God’s teachings, guns, gold, food and form trusted
How to delete your personal info.
from the internet
Air-crete dome homes
Air-crete -- Cellular Concrete or Foam Cement.
1 - LOW COST
2 - ELEGANCE
3 - FIREPROOF
4 - WATER PROOF
5 - PEST PROOF
6 - SAFETY
7 - ECOLOGY
8 - EASE
Method for Providing a Stream of Foamed Cement Material
RAW MIX TO PRODUCE EFFECTIVE FOAM CONCRETE
Heat-insulating system based on ceramic, plaster or cement
foam filled brick
Foam brick produced from waste paper and preparation
Foam concrete foaming agent
Foaming concrete all-in-one
Preparation process of high-compression-resistance light
weight foam concrete
Soundproof and heatproof light weight foam concrete
Cement foaming machine blender
Portland cement foamed lightweight partition board and
preparation method thereof
ULTRA-LIGHT MINERAL FOAM AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME
DRY MIXTURE FOR MAKING COMPOSITE FOAM CONCRETE
Andromedans are made of this stuff :
T. Karzig et al. Phys. Rev. X (2015)
Topolariton, a New Half-Matter,
Caltech scientist theorizes a new
quasiparticle with unique characteristics.
A new type of "quasiparticle" theorized by Caltech's Gil Refael, a
professor of theoretical physics and condensed matter theory,
could help improve the efficiency of a wide range of photonic
devices—technologies, such as optical amplifiers, solar
photovoltaic cells, and even barcode scanners, which create,
manipulate, or detect light.
Credit: T. Karzig et al. Phys. Rev. X (2015)
Electrons traveling through the semiconductors used in modern
computers lose energy via heat because of resistance. This is not
the case with light signals, but there can be other causes of
signal loss in light transmission, such as unwanted reflection and
scattering of photons, or light particles. Refael says that a type
of quasiparticle called the "topolariton" could reduce such signal
degradation and enhance the stability of the photons as they move
along the edges of semiconductors. He described topolaritons and
their properties in a paper published in the July 2015 issue of
the journal Physical Review X.
Refael's work at Caltech concentrates on quantum aspects of
matter, including quantum entanglement (in which quantum particles
share behaviors regardless of distance), quantum computing, and
the emergence and control of new quantum states.
Quasiparticles such as the topolariton are entities that exhibit
some, but not all, of the characteristics of elementary particles
like the electrons and quarks that make up atoms. They are
classified as emergent phenomena—those that arise from the
dynamical behavior of a system—and they exist only inside solid
materials. Some examples of quasiparticles include phonons
("packets" of atoms or molecules vibrating collectively), solitons
(solitary wave packets or pulses that retain their shape while
moving at a constant velocity), and excitons (formed when an
electron binds with an electron hole, or the void left when an
electron departs a valence orbital). The interaction of photons
with excitons can form another quasiparticle called the polariton.
During a workshop at the National Science Foundation
(NSF)-sponsored Institute for Quantum Information (now the
Institute for Quantum Information and Matter) in 2010, Refael and
two colleagues came up with the idea for the topolariton, a type
of polariton with the ability to flow in one direction along the
edges of semiconducting quantum wells embedded in optical
cavities. The quantum well and the cavity confine electrons and
photons to motion within a single plane. "We suggested that you
could take a simple semiconductor and a regular quantum well, and
give rise to a special excitation, which is a hybrid of a photon
and an electron-hole pair," that is, of a polariton. "Shining
light at the frequency can kick an electron out of the balance and
initiate a polariton that travels exclusively on the edge of the
system. The light–matter interaction, in this case, produces
so-called topological quantum states that are not there in each of
Because topolaritons are part matter and part light, they could be
guided and controlled with reflectors or with photonic
band-gaps—regions in the optical medium through which photons
cannot travel. Furthermore, the direction of a topolariton's
motion could be reversed by the application of a magnetic field.
"This would be like a one-way filter for light, providing a
directional communication with minimum losses of energy," he says.
Photonic devices are currently in widespread use, and are expected
to eventually replace traditional semiconductors in many
applications. They are more efficient and accurate, work better
over long distances, and save energy. They are also less prone to
interference from outside influences such as electromagnetic
fields. Exploiting toploaritons into such devices should lead to
further improvements in their performance.
Evolving from theory to practical applications, however, may be a
rather long process, Refael admits. "We'll need to create some new
interfaces between the photonic world and the electronic world,"
he says. "One challenge is making one-way photon wave-guides for
visible light. The topolaritons provide a route to such devices
using standard semi-conductor technology, and can also act as an
intermediary between photonic and electron-based devices—a
necessary step for any optoelectronic device."
July 1, 2015
Synopsis: Meet the Topolariton
Quasiparticles dubbed topological
polaritons make their debut in the theoretical world.
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities
called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to
explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California
Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the
theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or
“topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that
has special topological properties and might be used in devices to
transport light in one direction.
The proposed topolaritons arise from the strong coupling of a
photon and an exciton, a bound state of an electron and a hole.
Their topology can be thought of as knots in their gapped
energy-band structure. At the edge of the systems in which
topolaritons emerge, these knots unwind and allow the topolaritons
to propagate in a single direction without back-reflection. In
other words, the topolaritons cannot make U-turns. Back-reflection
is a known source of detrimental feedback and loss in photonic
devices. The topolaritons’ immunity to it may thus be exploited to
build devices with increased performance.
The researchers describe a scheme to generate topolaritons that
may be feasible to implement in common systems—such as
semiconductor structures or atomically thin layers of compounds
known as transition-metal dichalcogenides—embedded in photonic
waveguides or microcavities. Previous approaches to make similar
one-way photonic channels have mostly hinged on effects that are
only applicable at microwave frequencies. Refael and co-workers’
proposal offers an avenue to make such “one-way photonic roads” in
the optical regime, which despite progress has remained a
Shades of Lord Rayleigh's Active
Nitrogen [ http://wwwrexresearch.com/
rayleigh/activen.htm ] :
Phys. Rev. X 5, 041053 (2015)
30 December 2015
Mapping the Dissociative Ionization
Dynamics of Molecular Nitrogen with Attosecond Time
A. Trabattoni, M. Klinker, J. González-Vázquez, C. Liu, G.
Sansone, R. Linguerri, M. Hochlaf, J. Klei, M. J. J. Vrakking,
F. Martín, M. Nisoli, and F. Calegari
Molecular nitrogen plays a role in the assembly of prebiotic
molecules, and it protects humans from the Sun’s extreme
ultraviolet radiation. Researchers investigate, for the first
time, the ultrafast molecular dynamics of nitrogen as it
Studying the interaction of molecular nitrogen with extreme
ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is of prime importance to understand
radiation-induced processes occurring in Earth’s upper atmosphere.
In particular, photoinduced dissociation dynamics involving
excited states of N2+ leads to N and N+ atomic species that are
relevant in atmospheric photochemical processes. However, tracking
the relaxation dynamics of highly excited states of N2+ is
difficult to achieve, and its theoretical modeling is notoriously
complex. Here, we report on an experimental and theoretical
investigation of the dissociation dynamics of N2+ induced by
isolated attosecond XUV pulses in combination with
few-optical-cycle near-infrared/visible (NIR/VIS) pulses. The
momentum distribution of the produced N+ fragments is measured as
a function of pump-probe delay with subfemtosecond resolution
using a velocity map imaging spectrometer. The time-dependent
measurements reveal the presence of NIR/VIS-induced transitions
between N2+ states together with an interference pattern that
carries the signature of the potential energy curves activated by
the XUV pulse. We show that the subfemtosecond characterization of
the interference pattern is essential for a semiquantitative
determination of the repulsive part of these curves.
This is the stuff of Tom Bearden's wet
Phys. Rev. X 5, 041034 (2015)
30 November 2015
Towards Gauging Time-Reversal
Symmetry: A Tensor Network Approach
Xie Chen and Ashvin Vishwanath
Time-reversal symmetry is fundamental to condensed matter physics,
and now researchers show how time reversal can be applied locally,
using a tensor network representation, and how time-reversal
twists can be used to detect topological order.
It is well known that unitary symmetries can be “gauged,” i.e.,
defined to act in a local way, which leads to a corresponding
gauge field. Gauging, for example, the charge-conservation
symmetry leads to electromagnetic gauge fields. It is an open
question whether an analogous process is possible for time
reversal which is an antiunitary symmetry. Here, we discuss a
route to gauging time-reversal symmetry that applies to gapped
quantum ground states that admit a tensor network representation.
The tensor network representation of quantum states provides a
notion of locality for the wave function coefficient and hence a
notion of locality for the action of complex conjugation in
antiunitary symmetries. Based on that, we show how time reversal
can be applied locally and also describe time-reversal symmetry
twists that act as gauge fluxes through nontrivial loops in the
system. As with unitary symmetries, gauging time reversal provides
useful access to the physical properties of the system. We show
how topological invariants of certain time-reversal symmetric
topological phases in D=1, 2 are readily extracted using these
Graphene + Fermions = Quantum Queerdness :
Phys. Rev. X 5, 041042 (2015)
15 December 2015
Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene
P. San-Jose, J. L. Lado, R. Aguado, F. Guinea, and J.
Majorana particles, which are their own antiparticles and whose
recent detection in solid-state systems remains controversial, are
expected to play an important role in future quantum computing.
Now, scientists predict that graphene may host Majorana particles.
A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS) and
Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the
field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS
is through the coupling of an s-wave superconductor to a helical
half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been
put forward in the literature, most of them based on
semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit
coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for the
creation of TS in graphene-superconductor junctions without the
need for spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the
helicity of graphene’s zero-Landau-level edge states in the
presence of interactions and from the possibility, experimentally
demonstrated, of tuning their magnetic properties with in-plane
magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in
the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the
junction and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected
Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible
strategies to detect their presence in graphene Josephson
junctions through Fraunhofer pattern anomalies and Andreev
spectroscopy. The latter, in particular, exhibits strong
unambiguous signatures of the presence of the Majorana states in
the form of universal zero-bias anomalies. Remarkable progress has
recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of
junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics
in graphene systems.
Phys. Rev. X 5, 041038 (2015)
10 December 2015
Majorana Fermion Surface Code for
Universal Quantum Computation
Sagar Vijay, Timothy H. Hsieh, and Liang Fu
Fault-tolerant quantum computation has been a long-standing goal
in many fields of physics. A new model shows how logical qubits
can be encoded using anyon excitations from Majorana fermions
arranged on a two-dimensional lattice...
Meanwhile, Palmer Craig's proven geomagnetic field-powered Hall
Effect battery still sits dormant after ~80 years [ http://www.rexresearch.com/craig/craig.htm
doi: 10.1038/ncomms9913 (2015).
Nat. Commun. 6:8913
Carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in the
magnetic topological insulator Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3.
Ye, M. et al.
Magnetically doped topological insulators, possessing an energy
gap created at the Dirac point through time-reversal-symmetry
breaking, are predicted to exhibit exotic phenomena including the
quantized anomalous Hall effect and a dissipationless transport,
which facilitate the development of low-power-consumption devices
using electron spins. Although several candidates of magnetically
doped topological insulators were demonstrated to show long-range
magnetic order, the realization of the quantized anomalous Hall
effect is so far restricted to the Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 system at
extremely low temperature; however, the microscopic origin of its
ferromagnetism is poorly understood. Here we present an
element-resolved study for Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 using X-ray
magnetic circular dichroism to unambiguously show that the
long-range magnetic order is mediated by the p-hole carriers of
the host lattice, and the interaction between the Sb(Te) p and Cr
d states is crucial. Our results are important for material
engineering in realizing the quantized anomalous Hall effect at
Help ! Help ! Rex Research has been virtualized !
Rex Research Institute is a
fictional organization in Counter-Strike Online.
The Rex Research Institute is an organization of doctors and
scientists who were creating various types of medicine in an
attempt to prolong life. Gradually, they changed their objective
into trying to find a way to make humans immortal. Due to their
continuous experiments on living things, their plans backfired and
had instead created a dangerous virus, dubbed the Rex Virus. This
caused humans to turn into the undead, the zombies. The zombies
managed to escape from the lab, during Chaos chapter, and started
infecting the others. This was also the place where Jennifer was
captured and kept alive as a human experimental subject..
Oh joy ! At last, somebody understands me
Rex Research is a website which promotes pseudoscience and
conspiracy theories. It includes such things as perpetual motion
machines and Tetrasil. The site is, as a whole, very similar to
Time Cube: They both promote questionable theories in a rambling,
largely incomprehensible way, and they both have horribly designed
webpages, with Rex Research having huge walls of links...
Big SubGenius Tee-Hee-Hees from KPFA (
94.1 FM, Berkeley CA )
The Puzzling Evidence Show - November
30th, 2014 - THE REX RESEARCH BEST OF PUZZLING EVIDENCE
Here's a well-done review of Air Wells :
Air well (condenser): Wikis
Coming soon : Tesla turbines pretty please ? --
Heat-Resistant Ceramic Parts Are Now 3-D
Researchers demonstrate high-resolution printing of objects made
of versatile ceramic materials...
Science 1 January 2016:
Vol. 351 no. 6268 pp. 58-62
Additive manufacturing of
Zak C. Eckel, Chaoyin Zhou, John H. Martin, Alan J.
Jacobsen, William B. Carter, Tobias A. Schaedler
The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges
to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers.
Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily,
three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical
flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with
ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a
patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have
complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures
can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually
no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb
cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher
strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive
manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion
components, thermal protection systems, porous burners,
microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.
A New Approach of Electric Field Adoption for
Waman Ziblaji Gandhare, Mamta Samir Patwardhan
ABSTRACT: Enhancement of tomato seed germination is one of the
most important factors for developing a supply chain of increased
demand. Tomato is one of the important cash crops in the world. To
fulfill increased requirement, electric field adoption is the best
alternative. The study was undertaken at MPKV, Rahuri for
improvement in tomato seed germination. Three different approaches
were utilized as electrostatic field, microwave and corona
discharge method to treat tomato seeds. The comparative analysis
revealed that adoption of electrostatic field application was
simple as well as powerful method with significantly positive
results. In electrostatic field, the optimal dosage was 2 kV/mm
for 20 second interval to improve germination, root shoot length
and seed vigor.
December 31, 2015
Cell Tower Radiation Prevents Garden
Cress Seed Germination in Danish Experiment
…Five Danish schoolgirls proved what apparently no one in the
microwave industry wanted to. Wi-Fi radiation causes adverse
effects to any life forms, which, in their experiment, were garden
cress seeds. The young ladies placed the seeds near two Wi-Fi
routers, waited and took photographs for twelve days. The
results—failure of seeds to germinate—can be seen in the above
So, what does that experiment portend for humans? That similar
effect(s) can occur from cell towers too. Two researchers, “Drs.
Cammaerts and Johansson conducted a partial replication of the
original Danish student study using cell towers instead of WiFi
routers as the source of wireless radiation. They found that cress
seeds located 200 meters from two cell towers failed to
germinate.”  What did they conclude from their findings?
“Wireless technology may effectively and seriously impact nature
and should urgently be used much more cautiously.”…
Gold-Chloride : 94% Cure Rate for Addictions --
August 12, 2012
How the Rockefellers blocked the gold CURE for
This is the story on how the Rockefeller Empire blocked gold as a
viable treatment for addiction and set up Alcoholics Anonymous to
conceal the truth.
Injectable medicine composition used for resisting cancer
Inventor: CAI WEIHUI, et al.
GOLD (III) CHLORIDE COMPOSITIONS FOR CANCER
Inventor: GUTIERREZ SERGIO
13 October 2015
The mysterious mushroom that
triggers spontaneous orgasms in women:
Phallic fungus releases 'hormone-like compounds' to
excite with a single sniff
Orange mushroom growing in Hawaii's rumoured to
have potent properties
Oysters and chocolate maybe considered aphrodisiacs, but their
stimulating powers pale into insignificance when compared to a
mysterious mushroom found in Hawaii.
Researchers discovered 'fetid odour' of the fungi triggered
Almost half of the women in the experiment experienced an
Researchers suggest hormone-like compounds may be similar to
human neurotransmitters during sexual encounters, to trigger
An as yet unnamed species of bright orange mushroom that grows on
volcanic slopes has long been rumoured to possess potent
Researchers have discovered the 'fetid odour' of the fungus can
trigger spontaneous climaxes in females.
The mushrooms were discovered growing on lava deposits dating back
600 and 10,000 years.
It is thought they belong to the genus Dictyophora, a family of
mushrooms that bear distinctive net-like heads.
In a brief study, published in the International Journal of
Medicinal Mushrooms in 2001, John Holliday of Next Laboratories in
Kula, Hawaii and Noah Soule of Aloha Medicinals tested the
mushroom's aphrodisiac effect.
In a small experiment involving 16 women and 20 men, volunteers
were asked to sniff the mushroom, which is said to have a 'fetid
Its smell triggered spontaneous orgasms in six of the women, while
the other 10, who received smaller doses, experienced an increase
in heart rate, Snopes.com reported.
The study explained: 'There are significant sexual arousal
characteristics present in the fetid odour of this unique
'These results suggest that the hormone like compounds present in
the volatile portion of the spore mass may have some similarity to
human neurotransmitters during sexual encounters.'
However, commentators have noted that it was just one study and
more work is needed to confirm the fungi's seemingly spectacular
Interestingly Dictyophora mushrooms - also known as 'veiled
ladies' - grow length so quickly that they can 'bloom' in just 45
It is thought that the mushrooms produce the potent smells in
order to reproduce.
Another mushroom from the same family, named Dictyophora
indusiata, emits an unpleasant smell similar to faeces.
This specific branch of the fungus family has long been considered
to possess special powers.
They were ingested during ancient Mexican divinatory ceremonies
and in New Guinea the mushroom is considered sacred because of its
In Nigeria, the mushroom is one of several stinkhorns given the
name 'Akufodewa' by the Yoruba people.
The name is formed from a combination of the Yoruba words: ku
('die'), fun ('for'), ode ('hunter'), and wa ('search').
It refers to how the mushroom's stench can attract hunters who
mistake its odour for that of a dead animal.
In Chinese medicine the fungi has been used to treat many
inflammatory, gastric, and neural diseases.
Southern China's Miao people continue to use it traditionally for
a number of conditions, including coughs, dysentery, enteritis and
Here’s what blind prophet Baba Vanga
predicted for 2016 and beyond: It’s not good
A BLIND mystic who reportedly foretold 9/11, the 2004 Boxing Day
tsunami, the Fukushima nuclear spill and the birth of ISIS also
made dire predictions for 2016 and beyond.
Bulgaria-born Prophetess Baba Vanga, who died in 1996 aged 85, was
known as “Nostradamus from the Balkans” thanks to a purported 85
per cent success rate and has long been revered in Russia and
Europe as a kind of supernatural saint.
Of the hundreds of predictions Vanga made over her 50-year career
as a celebrated clairvoyant, a large number alluded to natural and
climate change-related disasters. She warned of melting polar ice
caps and rising sea temperatures back in the 1950s, decades before
anyone had heard of global warming.
Her followers believe her vivid description of a “huge wave” that
would descend on a “big coast, covering people and towns and
(causing) everything to disappear under the water” was a reference
to the 2004 tsunami and earthquake which claimed hundreds of
thousands of lives across the Pacific Rim.
But it’s Vanga’s preoccupation with a “great Muslim war” that has
sent believers, conspiracy theorists and Islamophobics into a
doomsday frenzy in recent months as the world struggles to contain
the escalating threat from Islamic State and its affiliates.
The chilling prophecies warn of a 2016 invasion of Europe by
Muslim extremists, a conflict she predicted would begin with the
Arab Spring in 2010, play out in Syria where “Muslims would use
chemical warfare against Europeans”, and culminate in the
establishment of a caliphate by 2043 with Rome at its epicentre.
According to Vanga, Europe as we know it will “cease to exist” by
the end of next year following the systematic elimination of
entire populations, leaving the continent “almost empty”, a
“wasteland almost entirely devoid of any form of life”.
If that sounds dramatic, consider the developments of the past
year, which has seen ISIS edge perilously close to Europe with the
taking of Sirte, a key Libyan city overlooking the Mediterranean
and the birthplace of the late dictator Gaddafi.
Sirte is now an Islamic State colony operating under Sharia Law.
The new regime reportedly cemented its authority by staging a
series of public executions, during which an unknown number of
people were crucified and beheaded.
And ISIS continues to gain ground in Syria, despite a massive
bombing campaign by allied forces in the wake of the Paris
attacks. To devotees and others consumed by fear of an impending
apocalypse, it’s as if Vanga’s deadly prophecies are unfolding
before their very eyes.
There’s no shortage of images like these on the internet,
particularly on Russian websites
FROM ‘ILLITERATE’ VILLAGE GIRL TO APOCALYPTIC ANGEL
Baba Vanga was born Vangelia Pandeva Dimitrova in Strumica, a
village located at the foot of a volcanic mountain range in what
was then the Ottoman Empire.
According to folklore, she led an ordinary life up until the age
of 12, when she mysteriously lost her eyesight during a massive
storm — described by some as a freak tornado. According to
folklore, the youngster was flung into the air and then dashed to
the ground by a powerful gust of wind.
What happened next is murky but her family reportedly found her in
a terrible state several days later, her injured eyes sealed shut
and encrusted with a thick layer of dust and dirt. Too poor to
afford specialist care, she was relegated to a life of blindness.
Vanga later stated that she had experienced her first vision
during the days she was missing and believed she had been
instilled with the ability to heal people and predict the future.
She was able to convince others of her paranormal powers and
quickly developed a cult following. She became the go-to psychic
for the rich and powerful and admirers, among them heads of state,
scientists and historians, would come from all over the world for
a few minutes in her company.
She later served as an adviser to Bulgarian Communist Party
leaders, some of whom allegedly exploited her gift to further
their own agendas. She was reportedly kept under surveillance by
the country’s secret service and her home, the scene of countless
meetings with visiting foreign politician and businessmen,
THE MOST FAMOUS BABA VANGA PROPHECIES TO ‘COME TRUE’
Predicted in the 1950s: Global warming and the 2004 Tsunami.
“Cold regions will become warm … and volcanoes will awaken. A huge
wave will cover a big coast covered with people and towns, and
everything will disappear beneath the water.”
“Everything will melt, just like ice.”
Predicted in 1989: The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on New
York’s Twin Towers.
“Horror, horror! The American brethren (believed to be a reference
to the two ‘brother’ towers) will fall after being attacked by the
steel birds (thought to be the two hijacked passenger planes).
“The wolves will be howling in a bush (believed to be a reference
to then US president George Bush) and innocent blood will gush.”
Predicted in 1980: The sinking of Russian nuclear submarine the
Kursk in 2000.
It saw the crew die horrible deaths over several days while
international rescue crews tried in vain to retrieve the vessel
from the depths of the ocean. Until the tragedy, people assumed
the “Kursk” Vanga referred to was the Russian city the Kursk was
“At the turn of the century, in August of 1999 or 2000, Kursk will
be covered with water, and the whole world will be weeping over
The election of Barack Obama.
Vanga reportedly correctly predicted that the 44th president of
the United States would be African American. However, she also
stated that he would be the “last US president”. We’ll have to
wait and see how that pans out.
Vanga’s prophecies mention the emergence of a Muslim group in
Syria in 2013 which will wage chemical warfare on Europe. Many
believe this is a reference to ISIS, which also came on the scene
Vanga’s prophecies mention the emergence of a Muslim group in
Syria in 2013 which will wage chemical warfare on Europe. Many
believe this is a reference to ISIS, which also came on the scene
Vanga’s 9/11 prophecy talks of “American brethren” coming under
attack “by steel birds”
APOCALYPSE SOON: VANGA’S MAJOR PROPHECIES FROM 2016 ONWARDS
2016: “Muslims” will invade Europe, which will “cease to exist” as
we know it. The ensuing campaign of destruction will last years,
driving out populations and leaving the entire continent “almost
2023: The Earth’s orbit will change (nobody really knows what this
2025: The population of Europe will reach almost zero.
2028: Mankind will fly to Venus, in hope of finding new sources of
2033: World water levels will rise as the polar ice caps melt
(this is already happening).
2043: Europe’s transformation into an Islamic caliphate is
complete. Rome is named the capital. The world’s economy thrives
under Muslim rule.
2066: America will use a new climate change weapon for the first
time in a bid to retake Rome and bring back Christianity.
2076: Communism will return to Europe and the rest of the world.
2084: Nature is reborn (nobody is really sure what this means).
2100: Man-made sun illuminates the dark side of the planet (This
is already in the pipeline — since 2008, scientists have been
working on creating an artificial sun using nuclear fusion
2130: With the help of the aliens, civilisations will live
2170: Major global drought.
2187: Two large volcanic eruptions will be successfully stopped.
2201: Temperatures drop as the sun’s thermonuclear processes slow
2262: Planets will slowly change orbits. Mars will be threatened
by a comet.
2354: An accident on the artificial sun will result in more
2480: Two artificial suns will collide and leave the Earth in the
3005: A war on Mars will change the trajectory of the planet.
3010: A comet will hit the moon. The Earth will be surrounded by a
ring of rock and ash.
3797: By this time, everything on Earth will die. However, human
civilisation will be advanced enough to move to a new star system.
22 July 2015
Near-term Habitat Loss for Humans
Fact: This planet has not harbored humans at 3.3 C or higher above
baseline (i.e., the beginning of the industrial revolution). The
number may be much lower. The jury is still out.
Fact: Humans are animals that depend on myriad other species for
survival. As with all other animals, humans require clean air,
potable water, healthy food, and the ability to maintain body
temperature to sustain themselves.
Fact: Humans will die without a living planet that continuously
supplies the elements listed above.
Fact: So far, all humans born into the physical realm have died.
There is no rational basis for expecting any human to avoid this
Fact: The Sixth Mass Extinction is under way.
Fact: All species have gone extinct or will go extinct. There is
no rational basis for expecting Homo sapiens to avoid this fate.
Earth is officially at 0.85 C above baseline. The actual,
unofficial global-average temperature is at least 0.1 C higher
than the official figure. The ongoing El Niño will take Earth well
beyond 1 C, the 1990 Rubicon from the United Nations Advisory
Group on Greenhouse Gases. As David Spratt points out in this
video from October 2014, 0.5 C is was a more reasonable target.
But those days are long behind us.
The rate of evolution via natural selection trails the rate of
climate change by a factor of 10,000, according to a paper in the
August 2013 issue of Ecology Letters. Clever as we are, we will
not evade the Sixth Mass Extinction in the absence of myriad
non-human organisms to supply the necessities of human life.
“Dramatic emission reductions (35%–80%) in anthropogenic aerosols
and their precursors projected by Representative Concentration
Pathway (RCP) 4.5 result in ~1 °C of additional warming,”
according to an analysis published in the 20 May 2013 issue of
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. Instead of taking
the cherry-picking, conservative approach assumed by academic
scientists and the International Panel on Climate Change’s RCP,
I’ll use the upper end of the conservative projection: Reducing
industrial activity by 35% results in ~1 C global-average
temperature rise, and eliminating global industrial activity
results in an attendant ~3 C global-average temperature rise.
In other words, the absence of solar dimming associated with
reflective particles could cause an abrupt rise in global-average
temperature beyond that which has supported the existence of
humans in the past (about 4 C, the number at which this headline
from 2008 in The Guardian conservatively concludes human
extinction: “On a planet 4C hotter, all we can prepare for is
extinction”). A large majority of the rise in temperature will
come much more rapidly than the initial 0.85 C. Assuming the
least-conservative end of the very conservative spectrum offered
by the journal literature and the International Panel on Climate
Change takes Earth well beyond the temperature at which human life
has been harbored on this planet. Earth only gets hotter from
On the other hand, nobody knows the global-average temperature at
which humans will become extinct. We’ve not yet completed this
trial. By the time we complete the trial, there will be nobody
left to record it. The lesson will come after the exam.
The industrial economies of the world are inextricably linked. If
Europe goes down the tubes because the derivatives bubble pops on
that continent, then there will be consequences throughout the
world. There’s a reason the Federal Reserve System of the United
States gives money directly to foreign countries.
The rapid rise in global-average temperature I’ve described in
this scenario occurs within days after collapse is complete. Sans
methane and its exponential rise in Earth’s atmosphere. Sans
10-year “lag” in maximum heating from atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Sans nuclear facilities melting down catastrophically.
I’m not suggesting all humans will die within days after the
ongoing collapse of industrial civilization is complete. Rather,
that process is likely to require months, or perhaps a few years.
But it’s difficult for me to envision Earth with humans in 2030,
notwithstanding the IPCC’s fantasy technology.
Contrary to conventional “wisdom,” we cannot sustain this
unsustainable set of living arrangements indefinitely. Industrial
civilization will end. Those of you believing somebody has the
system under control are deluded. Nobody is in charge of the
system, despite the goals of the deep state. The system teeters on
the brink, even according to the International Monetary Fund and
The Guardian (and see David Stockman’s overview from 22 December
2015 and this summary from 23 December 2015). With respect to the
lifeblood of civilization, crude oil, and its home base: “Saudi
Arabia is starting to come apart, and when its unscheduled rapid
disassembly is a little farther along, the Industrial Age will
come to an end.”
Ergo, nobody is responsible for industrial civilization, much less
in charge of it. Only you are responsible for yourself.
Shortly after civilization reaches its overdue end, habitat for
humans will disappear. Between now then, every year will be worse
than the one before, except for the few who benefit from
oppression abroad, obedience at home, and destruction of the
living planet. Obedience at home is exemplified by thoughtless
people still on their hamster wheels.
Preppers take heart: Bunkers of beans will see you through a few
years if you avoid fires, floods, superstorms, bitter cold,
infectious diseases, and numerous other hazards. After that, it’s
microbes and bacteria for ten million years or so, assuming humans
become the first animals to persist beyond seven generations
despite lethal mutations associated with bathing in ionizing
Everybody take heart: We get to live. It’s quite an amazing deal.
Let’s get on with it.
THE DAILY IMPACT -- CHRONICLING THE CRASH
OF THE INDUSTRIAL AGE
...“Saudi Arabia is starting to come apart, and when its
unscheduled rapid disassembly is a little farther along, the
Industrial Age will come to an end.”
1 January 2016
'Man stupid. Protect Earth': New
Year message from Koko the gorilla, who urges humanity to
stop destroying the planet
The 44-year-old gorilla has been learning sign
language since she was one
This year she was filmed delivering a 60-second New Year's
The 38-word bulletin revealed she loved flowers, animals and
But it also revealed the gorilla was unhappy with man
killing the earth
Given by a gorilla in sign language, it is among the more unusual
messages for the New Year.
Koko was filmed delivering a 38-word bulletin about how ‘stupid’
mankind is harming the Earth.
In the 60-second video, the 44-year-old great ape, which has been
learning sign language since she was one, said: ‘I am gorilla, I
am flowers, animals. I am Nature. Koko love man. Earth Koko love.
‘But man stupid… stupid! Koko sorry, Koko cry. Time hurry. Fix
Earth! Help Earth! Hurry! Protect Earth. Nature watches you. Thank
The message was scripted by NOE Conservation, based in France,
whose main focus is preserving biodiversity, and The Gorilla
Foundation in Woodside, California, where Koko has lived since
1979, immersed in human company.
December 28, 2015
PC Is About Control, Not Etiquette
I’d like to speak today about what political correctness is, at
least in its modern version, what it is not, and what we might do
to fight against it.
To begin, we need to understand that political correctness is not
about being nice. It’s not simply a social issue, or a subset of
the culture wars.
It’s not about politeness, or inclusiveness, or good manners. It’s
not about being respectful toward your fellow humans, and it’s not
about being sensitive or caring or avoiding hurt feelings and
But you’ve heard this argument, I’m sure. PC is about simple
respect and inclusiveness, they tell us. As though we need
progressives, the cultural enforcers, to help us understand that
we shouldn’t call someone retarded, or use the “N” word, make
hurtful comments about someone’s appearance, or tolerate bullies.
If PC truly was about kindness and respect, it wouldn’t need to be
imposed on us. After all, we already have a mechanism for the
social cohesion PC is said to represent: it’s called manners. And
we already have specific individuals charged with insuring that
good manners are instilled and upheld: they’re called parents.
Political Correctness Defined
But what exactly is PC? Let me take a stab at defining it:
Political correctness is the conscious, designed manipulation of
language intended to change the way people speak, write, think,
feel, and act, in furtherance of an agenda.
PC is best understood as propaganda, which is how I suggest we
approach it. But unlike propaganda, which historically has been
used by governments to win favor for a particular campaign or
effort, PC is all-encompassing. It seeks nothing less than to mold
us into modern versions of Marx’s un-alienated society man, freed
of all his bourgeois pretensions and humdrum social conventions.
Like all propaganda, PC fundamentally is a lie. It is about
refusing to deal with the underlying nature of reality, in fact
attempting to alter that reality by legislative and social fiat. A
is no longer A.
To quote Hans-Hermann Hoppe:
[T]he masters … stipulate that aggression,
invasion, murder and war are actually self-defense, whereas
self-defense is aggression, invasion, murder and war. Freedom is
coercion, and coercion is freedom. … Taxes are voluntary payments,
and voluntarily paid prices are exploitative taxes. In a PC world,
metaphysics is diverted and rerouted. Truth becomes malleable, to
serve a bigger purpose determined by our superiors.
But where did all this come from? Surely PC, in all its various
forms, is nothing new under the sun. I think we can safely assume
that feudal chiefs, kings, emperors, and politicians have ever and
always attempted to control the language, thoughts, and thus the
actions of their subjects. Thought police have always existed.
To understand the origins of political correctness, we might look
to the aforementioned Marx, and later the Frankfurt school. We
might consider the work of Leo Strauss for its impact on the
war-hungry think tank world. We might study the deceptive
sloganeering of Saul Alinsky. We might mention the French
philosopher Foucault, who used the term “political correctness” in
the 1960s as a criticism of unscientific dogma.
But if you really want to understand the black art of PC
propaganda, let me suggest reading one of its foremost
practitioners, Edward Bernays.
Bernays was a remarkable man, someone who literally wrote the book
on propaganda and its softer guise of public relations. He is
little discussed in the West today, despite being the godfather of
He was the nephew of Sigmund Freud, and like Mises was born in
Austria in the late nineteenth century. Unlike Mises, however, he
fortuitously came to New York City as an infant and then proceeded
to live an astonishing 103 years.
One of his first jobs was as a press agent for President Woodrow
Wilson’s Committee on Public Information, an agency designed to
gin up popular support for US entry into WW1 (German Americans and
Irish Americans especially were opposed). It was Bernays who
coined the infamous phrase “Make the World Safe for Democracy”
used by the committee.
After the war, he asked himself whether one could “apply a similar
technique to the problems of peace.” And by “problems,” Bernays
meant selling stuff. He directed very successful campaigns
promoting Ivory Soap, for bacon and eggs as a healthy breakfast,
and ballet. He directed several very successful advertising
campaigns, most notably for Lucky Strike in its efforts to make
smoking socially acceptable for women.
The Role of “Herd Psychology”
Bernays was quite open and even proud of engaging in the
“manufacturing of consent,” a term used by British surgeon and
psychologist Wilfred Trotter in his seminal Instincts of the Herd
in Peace and War published in 1919.
Bernays took the concept of herd psychology to heart. The herd
instinct entails the deep seated psychological need to win
approval of one’s social group. The herd overwhelms any other
influence; as social humans, our need to fit in is paramount.
But however ingrained, in Bernays’s view the herd instinct cannot
be trusted. The herd is irrational and dangerous, and must be
steered by wiser men in a thousand imperceptible ways — and this
is key. They must not know they are being steered.
The techniques Bernays employed are still very much being used to
shape political correctness today.
First, he understood how all-powerful the herd mind and herd
instinct really is. We are not the special snowflakes we imagine,
according to Bernays. Instead we are timorous and malleable
creatures who desperately want to fit in and win acceptance of the
Second, he understood the critical importance of using third party
authorities to promote causes or products. Celebrities, athletes,
models, politicians, and wealthy elites are the people from whom
the herd takes its cues, whether they’re endorsing transgender
awareness or selling luxury cars. So when George Clooney or Kim
Kardashian endorses Hillary Clinton, it resonates with the herd.
Third, he understood the role that emotions play in our tastes and
preferences. It’s not a particular candidate or cigarette or a
watch or a handbag we really want, it’s the emotional component of
the ad that affects us, however subconsciously.
What We Can Do About It
So the question we might ask ourselves is this: how do we fight
back against PC? What can we do, as individuals with finite
amounts of time and resources, with serious obligations to our
families, loved ones, and careers, to reverse the growing tide of
First, we must understand that we’re in a fight. PC represents a
war for our very hearts, minds, and souls. The other side
understands this, and so should you. The fight is taking place on
multiple fronts: the state-linguistic complex operates not only
within government, but also academia, media, the business world,
churches and synagogues, nonprofits, and NGOs. So understand the
forces aligned against you.
Understand that the PC enforcers are not asking you, they’re not
debating you, and they don’t care about your vote. They don’t care
whether they can win at the ballot box, or whether they use
extralegal means. There are millions of progressives in the US who
absolutely would criminalize speech that does not comport with
their sense of social justice.
One poll suggests 51 percent of Democrats and 1/3 of all Americans
would do just that.
The other side is fighting deliberately and tactically. So realize
you’re in a fight, and fight back. Culturally, this really is a
matter of life and death.
We Still Have Freedom to Act
As bad as PC contamination may be at this point, we are not like
Mises, fleeing a few days ahead of the Nazis. We have tremendous
resources at our disposal in a digital age. We can still
communicate globally and create communities of outspoken, anti-PC
voices. We can still read and share anti-state books and articles.
We can still read real history and the great un-PC literary
classics. We can still homeschool our kids. We can still hold
events like this one today.
This is not to say that bucking PC can’t hurt you: the possible
loss of one’s job, reputation, friends, and even family is very
serious. But defeatism is never called for, and it makes us
unworthy of our ancestors.
Use humor to ridicule PC. PC is absurd, and most people sense it.
And its practitioners suffer from a comical lack of self-awareness
and irony. Use every tool at your disposal to mock, ridicule, and
expose PC for what it is.
Never forget that society can change very rapidly in the wake of
certain precipitating events. We certainly all hope that no great
calamity strikes America, in the form of an economic collapse, a
currency collapse, an inability to provide entitlements and
welfare, energy shortages, food and water shortages, natural
disasters, or civil unrest. But we can’t discount the possibility
of these things happening.
And if they do, I suggest that PC language and PC thinking will be
the first ornament of the state to go. Only rich, modern,
societies can afford the luxury of a mindset that does not comport
with reality, and that mindset will be swiftly swept aside as the
“rich” part of America frays.
Men and women might start to rediscover that they need and
complement each other if the welfare state breaks down. Endless
hours spent on social media might give way to rebuilding social
connections that really matter when the chips are down.
More traditional family structures might suddenly seem less
oppressive in the face of great economic uncertainty. Schools and
universities might rediscover the value of teaching practical
skills, instead of whitewashed history and grievance studies.
One’s sexual preferences might not loom as large in the scheme of
things, certainly not as a source of rights. The rule of law might
become something more than an abstraction to be discarded in order
to further social justice and deny privilege.
Play the Long Game
I’m afraid it might not be popular to say so, but we have to be
prepared for a long and hard campaign. Let’s leave the empty
promises of quick fixes to the politicians. Progressives play the
long game masterfully. They’ve taken 100 years to ransack our
institutions inch by inch. I’m not suggesting incrementalism to
reclaim those foregone institutions, which are by all account too
far gone — but to create our own.
PC enforcers seek to divide and atomize us, by class, race, sex,
and sexuality. So let’s take them up on it. Let’s bypass the
institutions controlled by them in favor of our own. Who says we
can’t create our own schools, our own churches, our own media, our
own literature, and our own civic and social organizations?
Starting from scratch certainly is less daunting than fighting PC
on its own turf.
PC is a virus that puts us — liberty loving people — on our heels.
When we allow progressives to frame the debate and control the
narrative, we lose power over our lives. If we don’t address what
the state and its agents are doing to control us, we might
honestly wonder how much longer organizations like the Mises
Institute are going to be free to hold events like this one today.
Is it really that unimaginable that you might wake up one day and
find sites with anti-state and anti-egalitarian content blocked —
sites like mises.org and lewrockwell.com?
Or that social media outlets like Facebook might simply eliminate
opinions not deemed acceptable in the new America?
In fact, head Facebook creep Mark Zuckerberg recently was
overheard at a UN summit telling Angela Merkel that he would get
to work on suppressing Facebook comments by Germans who have the
audacity to object to the government’s handling of migrants.
Here’s the Facebook statement:
We are committed to working closely with the
German government on this important issue. We think the best
solutions to dealing with people who make racist and xenophobic
comments can be found when service providers, government, and
civil society all work together to address this common challenge.
Chilling, isn’t it? And coming soon to a server near you, unless
we all get busy.