Sci-Tech News & Olds
( July 2015 [ +/- 3.64 Days ] )
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2014 ] [ January 2014
Well, colono-copulate me running ! All this time I
thimked it were the Jesuits !
Rick DOBSON : Motion Rectifier
Advanced Propulsion System - Jewish Bankers
Are Trying To Steal My Technology
( Solid mass Closed Loop Centrifugal Propulsion System )
VIA : http://www.keelynet.com/indexapr408.htm
Simple 'superlens' sharpens focusing
A simple-to-make "superlens" can focus 10 times more sharply than
a conventional lens. It could shrink the size of features on
computer chips, or help power gadgets without wires. No matter how
powerful a conventional lens, it cannot focus light down to more
than about half its wavelength, the "diffraction limit". This
limits the amount of data that can be stored on a CD, and the size
of features on computer chips. The new lens is a
127-micrometer-thick plate of teflon and ceramic with a copper
topping. "The beauty of these is that they're planar," Grbic says,
"they're easy to fabricate." The lenses can be made through a
single step of photolithography, the process used to etch computer
chips. By selectively etching away the copper, Grbic and
colleagues created many capacitors sandwiched together. Capacitors
are typically used in electronics for storing electric charge for
short periods. In the lens, the capacitors instead interact
directly with electromagnetic waves like light. This sets up
currents in the capacitors that focus the waves passing through
the lens into a point 20 times smaller than their wavelength. That
is 10 times tighter than a conventional lens can achieve, hampered
by the diffraction limit. The team's current prototype works on
microwaves, which are easier to focus because they have longer
wavelengths than visible light. Simply making capacitors of
different sizes would allow the lens to focus other frequencies,
including visible and infrared light, says Grbic.
Apparatus for Sub-Wavelength Near-Field Focusing of
Inventor: GRBIC ANTHONY / MERLIN ROBERTO
Planar sub-wavelength structures provide superlensing, i.e.,
electromagnetic focusing beyond the diffraction limit. The planar
structures use diffraction to force the input field to converge to
a spot on the focal plane. The sub-wavelength patterned structures
manipulate the output wave in such a manner as to form a
sub-wavelength focus in the near field. In some examples, the
sub-wavelength structures may be linear grating-like structures
that can focus electromagnetic radiation to lines of arbitrarily
small sub-wavelength dimension, or two dimensional grating-like
structures and Bessel (azimuthally symmetric) structures that can
focus to spots of arbitrarily small sub-wavelength dimensions. The
particular pattern for the sub-wavelength structures may be
derived from the desired focus. Some examples describe
sub-wavelength structures that have been implemented to focus
microwave radiation to sub-wavelength dimensions in the near
VIA : https://keelynet.wordpress.com/2008/05/03/neeroga-a-wonder-anti-ageing-medicine/
Neeroga – a wonder anti-ageing
I don’t have any other information on this product but it sounds
“Neeroga is a unique formulation which can easily root out all
ailments caused by toxins and various viruses. It was developed
after seven years of dedicated research by Dr GR Saini and his
team at the Saini Herbal Research & Development Center. It is
a modern ‘Sanjivani’ (life giver) by using which old people become
young and young become younger. This product complies with the
basic Ayurvedic concept of keeping healthy persons fit and
bringing relief to the diseased. It has been tried by several
people ranging in age from15 years to 94 years and the results
have been nothing short of amazing. Ailments related to vital
organs viz kidney, liver, heart, brain and lungs were found to be
cured by this medicine and it also strengthened the body’s immune
system. This wonder drug called ‘Neeroga’ helps people to live a
healthy life and to live up to hundred. Such a composition has
been mentioned even in ancient Ayurvedic texts. Apart from giving
a younger, glowing and fairer skin, this drug can help to cure
many diseases such as diabetes, stroke, cardiac ailments, liver
disorders, respiratory stress, and many other ailments. Another
remarkable result of the trial of this drug was that the patient
remains cured and healthy even when the dosage is discontinued
after treatment. This medicine has worked wonders on people. Even
octogenarians who were unable to walk or see could actually run.
They became fitter in many ways. Their cholesterol levels, blood
sugar levels etc jumped back to normal and they stopped taking
allopathic medicines. Problems of breathlessness and other
respiratory ailments can also be treated with the help of this
medicine. People having a count of 42 breaths per minute were
treated with the help of this medicine and their count went down
to 25 breaths per minute after about a month of treatment. Within
24 hours of administering the medicine, the breathing count
reduces by 1 to 6 per minute. Dr GR Saini says, “With the
introduction of Neeroga my dream of presenting a herbal
composition which should be easy to administer, simple, quick and
effective in curing all diseases without any side effects is now
Dr. G. R. Saini is a highly renowned and respected professional in
the field of herbal hair care products. Born in Ludhiana in 1949,
Dr. Saini did his post graduation in 1972 in English and there
after a 2 years diploma course in Ayurvedic Medicine.
Sep 22, 2009
New health supplement from Saini
NEW DELHI: Saini Herbal, the makers of Saini herbal oil and other
herbal creams, has launched a new health supporting supplement
called Neeroga, which the company claims can help root out
ailments caused by toxins and various viruses.
According to the company, the formulation has been developed after
seven years of research by the Saini Herbal Research &
Mar 02, 2015
The first ever photograph of
light as both a particle and wave
Yowusa.com Planet X System Update No.
1 - HD
Astronomer Carlos Ferrada -- The Black
Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 96, Oct. 1988,
The Location of Planet X
Robert Sutton Harrington
Robert Sutton Harrington (October 21, 1942 – January 23, 1993) was
an American astronomer who worked at the United States Naval
Observatory (USNO). Harrington was born near Newport News,
Virginia. His father was an archaeologist. He was married to
Betty-Jean Maycock in 1976, with two daughters, Amy and Ann.
Harrington worked at the USNO. Another astronomer there, James W.
Christy, consulted with him after discovering bulges in the images
of Pluto, which turned out to be Pluto's satellite Charon. For
this reason, some consider Harrington to be a co-discoverer of
Charon, although Christy usually gets sole credit. By the laws
of physics, it is easy to determine the mass of a binary system
based on its orbital period, so Harrington was the first to
calculate the mass of the Pluto-Charon system, which was lower
than even the lowest previous estimates of Pluto's mass.
Harrington became a believer in the existence of a Planet X beyond
Pluto and undertook searches for it, with positive results coming
from the IRAD probe in 1983. Harrington collaborated initially
with T. C. (Tom) Van Flandern. They were both "courted" by
Zecharia Sitchin and his followers who believe in a planet Nibiru
or Marduk, who cite the research of Harrington and van Flandern as
possible collaborating evidence, though no definitive proof of a
9th planet has surfaced to date.
Harrington died of esophageal cancer in 1993. The asteroid 3216
Harrington was named in his honour.
Invention helps reverse effects of
A local dentist says he has created an orthodontic appliance that
can straighten an adult's teeth and reverse the effects of aging
by remodeling an individual's jaw bones. Catskill dentist Theodore
Belfor said the benefits of his Homeoblock Appliance include
broader smiles, fuller lips, more prominent cheekbones and a
brighter, more youthful appearance around an individual's eyes. It
also helps straighten teeth and can help eliminate snoring and
sleep apnea, he said. "There are no negative side-effects," Belfor
said of the appliance. appliance stimulates the development of a
person's jaws where that development was incomplete causing the
teeth to become crowded in the mouth. The appliance is worn at
night and works with the body so the changes occur naturally,
developing the bones of the face, he said. Belfor said the changes
that occur are based on each person's genetic potential. Often,
facial development does not reach its full potential as an
individual grows because of the food a person eats, lack of
breast-feeding as an infant or polluted air, among other causes,
he said. Belfor said the Homeoblock helps reverse the sign of
aging because as the appliance develops the bones of the face it
increases the volume and support of the soft tissue, which reduces
lines and wrinkles on the face. The Homeoblock, according to
information provided by Belfor, does not work like a typical
orthodontic appliance wherein mechanical pressure forces the teeth
and bones of the dental arches apart. The acrylic of the
Homeoblock Appliance does not actually touch the soft tissue in a
person's mouth. Instead, the device creates a bellows-like action
on an individual's dental arches, causing them to widen. Each week
the patient turns an expansion screw on the appliance to keep up
with the widening of the bones of the dental arches. As the dental
arches expand, the teeth have more room in the mouth and can
straighten out. For additional information on the Homeoblock
Appliance visit www.facialdevelopment.com.
Epigenetics & Longevity
Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 10434
22 May 2015
Epigenetic regulation of the
nuclear-coded GCAT and SHMT2 genes confers human
age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects
Osamu Hashizume, et al.
Age-associated accumulation of somatic mutations in mitochondrial
DNA (mtDNA) has been proposed to be responsible for the
age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects found in elderly
human subjects. We carried out reprogramming of human fibroblast
lines derived from elderly subjects by generating their induced
pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and examined another possibility,
namely that these aging phenotypes are controlled not by mutations
but by epigenetic regulation. Here, we show that reprogramming of
elderly fibroblasts restores age-associated mitochondrial
respiration defects, indicating that these aging phenotypes are
reversible and are similar to differentiation phenotypes in that
both are controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations in
either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome. Microarray
screening revealed that epigenetic downregulation of the
nuclear-coded GCAT gene, which is involved in glycine production
in mitochondria, is partly responsible for these aging phenotypes.
Treatment of elderly fibroblasts with glycine effectively
prevented the expression of these aging phenotypes.
The mitochondrial theory of aging proposes that age-associated
overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resultant
accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA are responsible for
aging phenotypes including age-associated mitochondrial
respiration defects1, 2, 3, 4, 5. This concept is supported
partially by subsequent findings that mtDNA mutator mice
expressing a proofreading-deficient mtDNA polymerase show
accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA, resulting
in the expression of mitochondrial respiration defects and
premature aging phenotypes6, 7, 8. In contrasts, our previous
studies proposed that the age-associated respiration defects found
in human fibroblasts are caused not by mtDNA mutations9, 10, 11
but by nuclear-recessive mutations11. However, these findings can
also be explained by assuming the involvement of epigenetic
regulation of nuclear genes in the absence of nuclear-recessive
mutations. Here, we addressed these controversial issues by
reprogramming fibroblasts derived from elderly human subjects and
examining whether age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects
could be restored after the reprogramming....
We reprogrammed human fibroblast lines by generating iPSCs, and
showed that the reprogramming of fibroblasts derived from elderly
subjects restored age-associated respiration defects. Therefore,
these age-associated phenotypes found in elderly fibroblasts are
regulated reversibly and are similar to differentiation phenotypes
in that both are controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by
mutations in either nuclear or mtDNA. Given that human aging can
be seen as a consequence of a programmed phenomenon, it is
possible that epigenetic regulation also controls human aging.
However, further studies are required to generalize the concept
that human aging and age-associated disorders—in the same way as
the respiration defects found in elderly fibroblasts—are expressed
under the control of epigenetic regulation.
We also showed that age-associated mitochondrial respiration
defects (Fig. 1a) were expressed in the absence of either ROS
overproduction in the mitochondria (Fig. 1b) or the accumulation
of somatic mutations in mtDNA (Fig. 1c). One explanation for the
absence of an age-associated increase in somatic mutations in
mtDNA (Fig. 1c) is the presence of a dynamic balance between the
creation and segregation of somatic mutations in mtDNA during
repeated cell division. This absence could also be a consequence
of the preferential growth of cells possessing mtDNA without
somatic mutations during repeated division of the primary
fibroblasts obtained by biopsy. Here, however, our focus was on
the causes of respiration defects expressed in elderly human
fibroblast lines (Fig. 1a), and respiration defects were still
expressed even after repeated divisions of cells from the primary
biopsy samples. It is therefore likely that these age-associated
respiration defects are caused neither by ROS overproduction nor
by the accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA. Furthermore,
even when somatic mutations accumulate in the mtDNA, consequent
mitochondrial respiration defects would still be prevented by the
exchange of genetic products throughout the mitochondria within a
cell19, 20, 21, 22. The question that then arises is: What causes
age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects by epigenetic
Our findings revealed that epigenetic downregulation of
nuclear-coded genes, including GCAT and SHMT2, which regulate
glycine production in mitochondria17, 18, results in respiration
defects. Our previous studies showed that the age-associated
respiration defects in elderly fibroblasts10 are likely due in
part to reduced translation activity in the mitochondria, but not
in the cytoplasm11. Therefore, defects in glycine metabolism in
the mitochondria as a result of a reduction in SHMT2 and GCAT
expression would be partly responsible for the reduction in
mitochondrial translation, resulting in the expression of
age-associated respiration defects. Because continuous glycine
treatment restored respiration defects in elderly human
fibroblasts (Supplementary Fig. 6), glycine supplementation may be
effective in preventing age-associated respiration defects and
thus benefiting the health of elderly human subjects. To confirm
this hypothesis model mice deficient in GCAT or SHMT2, or both,
would need to be generated to examine whether they expressed
respiration defects and premature aging phenotypes and, if so,
whether these disorders could be prevented by continuous glycine
Recently, abnormalities of autophagy were proposed to be involved
in the dysfunction of organelles, including mitochondria23. We
showed that no genes were selected from our microarray analysis by
using the GO terms, aging and autophagy (Supplementary Fig. 4a),
and that no morphological abnormalities developed in the
mitochondria of elderly fibroblasts (Supplementary Fig 1b).
However, further work is required to examine whether
age-associated abnormalities of autophagy in the mitochondria are
in fact involved in the expression of age-associated respiration
defects and are under the control of epigenetic regulation.
University of Tsukuba
26 May 2015
Tsukuba scientists reverse aging in
human cell lines and give theory of aging a new lease of
Can the process of aging be delayed or even reversed? Research led
by specially appointed Professor Jun-Ichi Hayashi from the
University of Tsukuba in Japan has shown that, in human cell lines
at least, it can. They also found that the regulation of two genes
involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest
amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics
Professor Hayashi and his team made this exciting discovery while
in the process of addressing some controversial issues surrounding
a popular theory of aging.
This theory, the mitochondrial theory of aging, proposes that
age-associated mitochondrial defects are controlled by the
accumulation of mutations in the mitochondrial DNA.
Abnormal mitochondrial function is one of the hallmarks of aging
in many species, including humans. This is mostly due to the fact
that the mitochondrion is the so-called powerhouse of the cell as
it produces energy in a process called cellular respiration.
Damage to the mitochondrial DNA results in changes or mutations in
the DNA sequence. Accumulation of these changes is associated with
a reduced lifespan and early onset of aging-related
characteristics such as weight and hair loss, curvature of the
spine and osteoporosis.
There is, however, a growing body of conflicting evidence that has
raised doubts about the validity of this theory. The Tsukuba team
in particular has performed some compelling research that has led
them to propose that age-associated mitochondrial defects are not
controlled by the accumulation of mutations in the mitochondrial
DNA but by another form of genetic regulation. The research,
published this month in the prestigious journal Nature’s
‘Scientific Reports’, looked at the function of the mitochondria
in human fibroblast cell lines derived from young people (ranging
in age from a fetus to a 12 year old) and elderly people (ranging
in age from 80-97 years old). The researchers compared the
mitochondrial respiration and the amount of DNA damage in the
mitochondria of the two groups, expecting respiration to be
reduced and DNA damage to be increased in the cells from the
elderly group. While the elderly group had reduced respiration, in
accordance with the current theory, there was, however, no
difference in the amount of DNA damage between the elderly and
young groups of cells. This led the researchers to propose that
another form of genetic regulation, epigenetic regulation, may be
responsible for the age-associated effects seen in the
Epigenetic regulation refers to changes, such as the addition of
chemical structures or proteins, which alter the physical
structure of the DNA, resulting in genes turning on or off.
Unlike mutations, these changes do not affect the DNA sequence
itself. If this theory is correct, then genetically reprogramming
the cells to an embryonic stem cell–like state would remove any
epigenetic changes associated with the mitochondrial DNA. In order
to test this theory, the researchers reprogrammed human fibroblast
cell lines derived from young and elderly people to an embryonic
stem cell-like state. These cells were then turned back into
fibroblasts and their mitochondrial respiratory function examined.
Incredibly, the age-associated defects had been reversed - all of
the fibroblasts had respiration rates comparable to those of the
fetal fibroblast cell line, irrespective of whether they were
derived from young or elderly people. This indicates that the
aging process in the mitochondrion is controlled by epigenetic
regulation, not by mutations.
The researchers then looked for genes that might be controlled
epigenetically resulting in these age-associated mitochondrial
defects. Two genes that regulate glycine production in
mitochondria, CGAT and SHMT2, were found. The researchers showed
that by changing the regulation of these genes, they could induce
defects or restore mitochondrial function in the fibroblast cell
lines. In a compelling finding, the addition of glycine for 10
days to the culture medium of the 97 year old fibroblast cell line
restored its respiratory function. This suggests that glycine
treatment can reverse the age-associated respiration defects in
the elderly human fibroblasts.
These findings reveal that, contrary to the mitochondrial theory
of aging, epigenetic regulation controls age-associated
respiration defects in human fibroblast cell lines. Can epigenetic
regulation also control aging in humans? That theory remains to be
tested, and if proven, could result in glycine supplements giving
our older population a new lease of life.
Diabetes pill might cure Aging
A pill that's been used for decades could be the fountain of
youth—and scientists are hoping to test it this year. Quartz
reports that a drug called metformin could slow the aging process
and keep people healthier, longer.
Metformin, a drug that currently is used to treat type 2 diabetes,
increases your sensitivity to insulin by making your liver produce
less glucose. It's been used safely on diabetes patients for more
than 60 years. But scientists have tested the drug on animals like
worms and mice and found that it also increases life spans and
delays the onset of other diseases.
A group of scientists are set to meet with the Food and Drug
Administration to push for a clinical trial. If they get
permission, the researchers will give a drug called metformin to
about 3,000 elderly people who either suffer from or have a high
risk for diseases like cancer, heart disease, or cognitive
problems. They'll then track these participants to see if the drug
prevents aging-related diseases they don't already have, prevents
diabetes and lengthens their life spans.
Trade names Glucophage
Protein binding Minimal
Metabolism Not by liver
Biological half-life 4-8.7 hours
Excretion Urine (90%)
CAS Registry Number 657-24-9 Yes
ATC code A10BA02
PubChem CID: 4091
ChemSpider 3949 Yes
UNII 9100L32L2N Yes
KEGG D04966 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:6801 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1431 Yes
Molecular mass 129.16364 g/mol
[ Excerpt ]
And rapalogs are not the only game in town. The most commonly used
medicine for type 2 diabetes, metformin, also seems to extend the
lifespan of many small animals, including mice, by around 5 per
There have been no trials of metformin as a longevity drug in
people, but a recent study hinted that it might have a similar
effect. The study was designed to compare metformin with another
diabetes medicine, using records of 180,000 UK patients. To tease
out the differences between the drugs, people who started taking
them were compared with people without diabetes who had been
closely matched for age and other health factors, and tracked over
Surprisingly, diabetics taking metformin were not only less likely
to die in that time than those on the other medicine but they were
also about 15 per cent less likely to die than people without
diabetes who took neither drug. "This shows we already have a drug
that we can potentially use in humans," says Nir Barzilai, who
heads the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein
College of Medicine in New York.
Metformin promotes lifespan through
mitohormesis via the peroxiredoxin PRDX-2
Wouter De Haesa, et al.
Recently it has been suggested that metformin, the most commonly
used antidiabetic drug, might also possess general
health-promoting properties. Elucidating metformin’s mode of
action will vastly increase its application range and will
contribute to healthy aging. We reveal a signaling cascade in
which metformin is able to extend lifespan by increasing the
production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This allowed us to
further work at the crossroads of human disease and aging
research, identifying a key molecule that is able to translate the
ROS signal into a prolongevity cue: an antioxidant peroxiredoxin
is also able to activate a lifespan-promoting signaling cascade,
here described in detail. Continued research efforts in this field
lead toward a targeted improvement of aging-related complications.
The antiglycemic drug metformin, widely prescribed as first-line
treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, has lifespan-extending
properties. Precisely how this is achieved remains unclear. Via a
quantitative proteomics approach using the model organism
Caenorhabditis elegans, we gained molecular understanding of the
physiological changes elicited by metformin exposure, including
changes in branched-chain amino acid catabolism and cuticle
maintenance. We show that metformin extends lifespan through the
process of mitohormesis and propose a signaling cascade in which
metformin-induced production of reactive oxygen species increases
overall life expectancy. We further address an important issue in
aging research, wherein so far, the key molecular link that
translates the reactive oxygen species signal into a prolongevity
cue remained elusive. We show that this beneficial signal of the
mitohormetic pathway is propagated by the peroxiredoxin PRDX-2.
Because of its evolutionary conservation, peroxiredoxin signaling
might underlie a general principle of prolongevity signaling.
Metformin, an antiglycemic biguanide drug and the most common
treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, has life-extending
capabilities (1, 2). Several other human diseases, such as cancer
(3) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (4), are also potentially
alleviated by metformin treatment. This suggests that metformin
acts on common pathways involved in a spectrum of aging-related
disorders. Because of its demonstrated beneficial effect on
lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (5, 6) and in the
rodents Rattus norvegicus (1) and Mus musculus (2), these models
facilitate research into the underlying mode of action.
It has been hypothesized that metformin elicits its beneficial
effects by mimicking dietary restriction (DR) (7), a regimen
wherein a physiological response is triggered by reducing the
uptake of nutritive calories. The physiological response to DR
causes lifespan extension and delays age-dependent decline from
yeast to primates (8). The idea of similarity sprouts from the
observed low blood glucose and insulin levels combined with
increased glucose utilization in both calorically restricted and
metformin-treated animals (7). In addition, metformin-treated
worms show phenotypes similar to DR worms (5), and transcript
profiles of metformin-treated and DR mice also overlap
Caution is due, however, in referring to DR, because different
methods to induce DR in C. elegans act through different genes to
elicit corresponding effects on lifespan (10?–12). Glucose
restriction, a specific type of DR, requires AMP-dependent kinase
(AMPK) to extend lifespan. Activation of AMPK leads to increased
mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which
induces stress defense and results in a net increase in longevity.
This process of lifespan extension based on mitochondrial
oxidative stress is known as mitohormesis (13).
Despite its similarities to DR and its widespread use as an
antiglycemic drug, the actual mode of action of metformin is
largely unknown and a subject of much debate. In mammals,
metformin is generally believed to act through the activation of
AMPK, one of the main regulators of cellular energy homeostasis
(2, 14?–16), but recent research suggests the existence of
AMPK-independent mechanisms as well (17, 18). More upstream,
metformin is thought to activate AMPK through partial inhibition
of complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) and a resultant
increase in the AMP/ATP ratio (19?–21), although again, not all
data support this theory (16, 22). Important players in
metformin-induced lifespan extension in C. elegans are the liver
kinase B1 ortholog PAR-4, the AMPK ortholog AMP-activated kinase-2
(AAK-2), and the skinhead-1 (SKN-1) transcription factor, which is
involved in activating phase II detoxification mechanisms (5). It
has recently been demonstrated that in C. elegans, metformin
partly elicits its effects through altering the folate metabolism
of its microbial food source (6), but questions about its direct
effects are largely unaddressed. It is, for instance, unclear how
metformin induces AAK-2 and SKN-1 activity. Overall, many gaps
remain in our knowledge of metformin-induced lifespan extension.
To study the targets of metformin, we performed a proteomic
analysis on metformin-treated C. elegans and used the results as a
framework for follow-up experiments. We observed striking
similarities between metformin-treated and glucose-restricted
worms and discovered several factors involved in mitohormetic
regulation of lifespan, including a previously unidentified role
for peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX-2), which seems to be responsible for
translating oxidative stress into a downstream prolongevity
signal. In addition to lifespan extension, we also report features
that contribute to the healthspan of metformin-treated worms.
Molecular Changes in Caenorhabditis elegans upon Metformin
Exposure: A Proteomic Approach.
To gain a deeper understanding of the physiological changes
elicited by metformin exposure, a differential gel-based
proteomics experiment was performed. A total of 164 spots with
differential abundances were detected, 134 of which could be
identified by mass spectrometry. After removal of duplicate
identifications, the final analysis resulted in a list of 58
up-regulated and 30 down-regulated proteins (Dataset S1).
Enrichment analysis (23) of the up-regulated proteins resulted in
the detection of several overrepresented pathways (Table 1), of
which the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation pathway was
most markedly enriched. All other enriched pathways, including
glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, are involved in
general energy metabolism. No significant pathway enrichment was
observed in the analysis of down-regulated proteins. Combined
analysis of all differential proteins (both up and down) did not
reveal additional pathways of interest.
Further functional clustering was used to subdivide the up- and
down-regulated proteins into meaningful groups (Table 1). For each
functional cluster detailed information, including subterms and
proteins in each group, was gathered to assist in data
interpretation (Dataset S1). These results were used as the
backbone of hypothesis-driven experiments into the mechanisms
induced by metformin treatment.
Metformin Does Not Induce Mitochondrial Protein Unfolding Stress.
Because of the marked clustering of mitochondrial proteins (Table
1) and metformin’s putative inhibitory effect on complex I of the
ETC, it needs to be tested whether metformin is capable of
inducing the mitochondria-specific unfolded protein response
(UPRmt). This is essential because the UPRmt increases lifespan in
response to either misfolding of mitochondrial proteins or
stoichiometric abnormalities in the ETC complexes (24).
We did not observe up-regulation of the UPRmt marker hsp-6 in
worms exposed to metformin (Fig. 1). Additional experiments with
higher concentrations of metformin and different exposure times
yielded similar negative results (Fig. S1). As such, lifespan
extension of metformin via the induction of the UPRmt is unlikely,
which suggests that the drug affects the mitochondria in another
Metformin Increases Lifespan Through Hormetic Phenomena.
Metformin has been put forward as a possible DR mimetic (7), and
because DR has been linked to mitohormesis (13, 25), we looked
into evidence for a role for mitohormesis in metformin-induced
lifespan extension. Clustering analysis of the proteomics
experiments revealed a significant overrepresentation of several
mitochondrial proteins and proteins involved in catabolism (Table
1). These clusters might point to an increase in respiration, one
of the hallmarks of mitohormesis (13). Indeed, upon metformin
treatment, we observed a significant increase in respiration (45%)
and metabolic heat production (38%) (Fig. 2A) in wild-type worms.
These changes, in combination with the AMPK-dependence of
metformin-mediated longevity (5), strongly resemble the
mitohormetic pathway (13) and might point toward an increase in
To verify whether mitochondrial ROS production was affected by
metformin treatment, we measured hydrogen peroxide levels in
metformin-treated worms. ROS production was indeed increased (Fig.
2B), further supporting the mitohormesis hypothesis. Induction of
ROS production was already clear after 24 h of exposure to
metformin (Fig. 2B). This increase in ROS seems to be an integral
part of metformin-induced lifespan extension, because treatment
with the potent antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (13) and
butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (26) abolished the positive effect
of metformin on lifespan (Fig. 2C and Fig. S2A). Finally, the
critical phase for metformin-mediated lifespan extension clearly
resembles the critical phase for other mitohormetic stressors
(13), because treatment with metformin starting from adulthood
onward or during the first few days of adulthood only were
sufficient to increase lifespan. This is opposed to treatment with
metformin during larval development only, which had no detectable
effect on lifespan (Fig. S2B).
Metformin-Mediated Lifespan Extension Requires the
The mitohormetic pathway as seen during glucose restriction is
induced when low availability of glucose causes low energy levels,
which in turn activates AMPK (13). AMPK activity increases
catabolism and respiration, which results in the increased
production of ROS and a resultant activation of hormetic
protective mechanisms (13). The largest hiatus in this pathway is
the step between the increased ROS production and the induction of
stress defense: no molecule was put forward that might translate
the ROS signal into further downstream defense. We therefore set
out to reveal this missing link and to further complete the
hormetic signaling pathway.
Peroxiredoxins are known hydrogen peroxide scavengers, and their
oxidized dimeric form is involved in the direct activation of
kinases in mammalian cells (27). Because the peroxiredoxin PRDX-2
was up-regulated during metformin treatment (Dataset S1), this
protein is of particular interest as a potential inductor of
mitohormesis. Deletion of the prdx-2 gene results in an extreme
decrease in lifespan upon metformin treatment (Fig. 2D). Not only
did the positive effect of metformin on lifespan disappear, the
prdx-2 experimental group collapsed when exposed to metformin.
Treatment with NAC partially rescued this deleterious effect,
implying that excessive ROS production is at least partly
responsible for the detrimental effect of metformin on these
mutants (Fig. S2C). In support of these results, we observed
increased formation of PRDX-2 dimers after metformin treatment
(Fig. 2E and Fig. S3). Because these oxidized dimers are likely
involved in cellular signaling (27), we propose that PRDX-2
induces prolongevity signaling during the mitohormetic response to
One of the potential downstream targets of PRDX-2 is the p38 MAP
kinase family-1 (PMK-1) protein, which is involved in the
activation of the SKN-1 transcription factor (28). This
transcription factor is in turn required for metformin-mediated
longevity (5). Western blot analysis revealed a marked increase in
phosphorylation of PMK-1 after metformin treatment. In contrast,
deletion of prdx-2 resulted in an absence of metformin-induced
phosphorylation of PMK-1 (Fig. 2F). These data strongly imply that
PRDX-2 is required for PMK-1 activation after metformin treatment.
In sum, all these findings subscribe that metformin extends
lifespan via mitohormesis in C. elegans and that PRDX-2 is an
integral part of the mitohormetic pathway.
Metformin Inhibits Complex I of the ETC.
Metformin is generally believed to act through inhibition of
complex I of the ETC (19?–21), although some recent findings cast
doubt on this (16, 22). Treatment of C. elegans with rotenone,
another complex I inhibitor, at a concentration that extends
longevity, results in a decrease in total oxygen consumption (25).
Our finding that metformin increases respiration in worms
therefore raises the question of whether it is truly capable of
inhibiting complex I of the ETC.
We tested whether metformin is able to affect electron flow in
mitochondria extracted from C. elegans and observed a clear and
specific inhibition of electron flow from complex I, whereas the
electron flow from complex II was unaffected (Fig. 3A and Fig. S4
A and B). These results, clearly mimicking the inhibitory action
of rotenone (Fig. S4A), complement our previous data only if
metformin inhibits complex I in a distinct way. To this end, we
tested whether metformin and rotenone had different effects on ROS
production in mitochondria. At concentrations at which both
completely inhibit complex I respiration and after feeding only
complex I, metformin increased ROS production, whereas rotenone
decreased it (Fig. 3B), implying a fundamental difference between
rotenone’s and metformin’s inhibitory action on complex I.
ACS Nano, 2015, 9 (6), pp 5725–5740
Nanoparticles target and kill cancer
stem cells that drive tumor growth
"Chitosan-Decorated Doxorubicin-Encapsulated Nanoparticle
Targets and Eliminates Tumor Reinitiating Cancer Stem-like
Wei Rao, Hai Wang, Jianfeng Han, Shuting Zhao, Jenna Dumbleton,
Pranay Agarwal, Wujie Zhang, Gang Zhao, Jianhua Yu, Debra L.
Zynger, Xiongbin Lu, and Xiaoming He
Many cancer patients survive treatment only to have a recurrence
within a few years. Recurrences and tumor spreading are likely due
to cancer stem cells that can be tough to kill with conventional
cancer drugs. But now researchers have designed nanoparticles that
specifically target these hardy cells to deliver a drug. The
nanoparticle treatment, reported in the journal ACS Nano, worked
far better than the drug alone in mice.
Anti-cancer drugs can often shrink tumors but don’t kill cancer
stem cells (CSCs). Although CSCs might only make up a small part
of a tumor, their resistance to drugs allows them to persist. They
can then cause a tumor to regrow or spread cancerous cells
throughout the body. Xiaoming He and colleagues wanted to develop
a nanoparticle system to overcome these cells’ defenses.
The researchers packaged the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin into
nanoparticles coated with chitosan, a natural polysaccharide that
can specifically target CSCs. Once in the acidic environment of
the tumor, the nanoparticles degraded and released the drug. Tests
on tiny, tissue-like clumps of both normal and cancer stem cells
in vitro and on human breast tumors grown in mice showed the
therapy successfully killed CSCs and destroyed tumors. The mice
showed no obvious side effects.
Tumor reinitiating cancer stem-like cells are responsible for
cancer recurrence associated with conventional chemotherapy. We
developed a doxorubicin-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticle
surface-decorated with chitosan that can specifically target the
CD44 receptors of these cells. This nanoparticle system was
engineered to release the doxorubicin in acidic environments,
which occurs when the nanoparticles are localized in the acidic
tumor microenvironment and when they are internalized and
localized in the cellular endosomes/lysosomes. This nanoparticle
design strategy increases the cytotoxicity of the doxorubicin by
six times in comparison to the use of free doxorubicin for
eliminating CD44+ cancer stem-like cells residing in 3D mammary
tumor spheroids (i.e., mammospheres). We further show these
nanoparticles reduced the size of tumors in an orthotopic
xenograft tumor model with no evident systemic toxicity. The
development of nanoparticle system to target cancer stem-like
cells with low systemic toxicity provides a new treatment arsenal
for improving the survival of cancer patients.
June 23, 2015
Single-catalyst water splitter
produces clean-burning hydrogen 24/7
Stanford scientists have invented a device that produces
clean-burning hydrogen from water 24 hours a day, seven days a
week. Unlike conventional water splitters, the Stanford device
uses a single low-cost catalyst to generate hydrogen bubbles on
one electrode and oxygen bubbles on the other.
The device, described in a study published June 23 in Nature
Communications, could provide a renewable source of clean-burning
hydrogen fuel for transportation and industry.
'We have developed a low-voltage, single-catalyst water splitter
that continuously generates hydrogen and oxygen for more than 200
hours, an exciting world-record performance,' said study co-author
Yi Cui, an associate professor of materials science and
engineering at Stanford and of photon science at the SLAC National
In an engineering first, Cui and his colleagues used lithium-ion
battery technology to create one low-cost catalyst that is capable
of driving the entire water-splitting reaction.
'Our group has pioneered the idea of using lithium-ion batteries
to search for catalysts,' Cui said. 'Our hope is that this
technique will lead to the discovery of new catalysts for other
reactions beyond water splitting.'
Hydrogen has long been promoted as an emissions-free
alternative to gasoline. Despite its sustainable reputation, most
commercial-grade hydrogen is made from natural gas, a fossil fuel
that contributes to global warming. As an alternative, scientists
have been trying to develop a cheap and efficient way to extract
pure hydrogen from water.
A conventional water-splitting device consists of two electrodes
submerged in a water-based electrolyte. A low-voltage current
applied to the electrodes drives a catalytic reaction that
separates molecules of H2O, releasing bubbles of hydrogen on one
electrode and oxygen on the other.
Each electrode is embedded with a different catalyst, typically
platinum and iridium, two rare and costly metals. But in 2014,
Stanford chemist Hongjie Dai developed a water splitter made of
inexpensive nickel and iron that runs on an ordinary 1.5-volt
In the new study, Cui and his colleagues advanced that
'Our water splitter is unique, because we only use one catalyst,
nickel-iron oxide, for both electrodes,' said graduate student
Haotian Wang, lead author of the study. 'This bifunctional
catalyst can split water continuously for more than a week with a
steady input of just 1.5 volts of electricity. That's an
unprecedented water-splitting efficiency of 82 percent at room
In conventional water splitters, the hydrogen and oxygen catalysts
often require different electrolytes with different pH -- one
acidic, one alkaline -- to remain stable and active. 'For
practical water splitting, an expensive barrier is needed to
separate the two electrolytes, adding to the cost of the device,'
Wang said. 'But our single-catalyst water splitter operates
efficiently in one electrolyte with a uniform pH.'
Wang and his colleagues discovered that nickel-iron oxide, which
is cheap and easy to produce, is actually more stable than some
commercial catalysts made of precious metals.
'We built a conventional water splitter with two benchmark
catalysts, one platinum and one iridium,' Wang said. 'At first the
device only needed 1.56 volts of electricity to split water, but
within 30 hours we had to increase the voltage nearly 40 percent.
That's a significant loss of efficiency.'
Marriage of batteries and catalysis
To find catalytic material suitable for both electrodes, the
Stanford team borrowed a technique used in battery research called
lithium-induced electrochemical tuning. The idea is to use lithium
ions to chemically break the metal oxide catalyst into smaller and
'Breaking down metal oxide into tiny particles increases its
surface area and exposes lots of ultra-small, interconnected grain
boundaries that become active sites for the water-splitting
catalytic reaction,' Cui said. 'This process creates tiny
particles that are strongly connected, so the catalyst has very
good electrical conductivity and stability.'
Wang used electrochemical tuning -- putting lithium in, taking
lithium out -- to test the catalytic potential of several metal
'Haotian eventually discovered that nickel-iron oxide is a
world-record performing material that can catalyze both the
hydrogen and the oxygen reaction,' Cui said. 'No other catalyst
can do this with such great performance.'
Using one catalyst made of nickel and iron has significant
implications in terms of cost, he added.
'Not only are the materials cheaper, but having a single catalyst
also reduces two sets of capital investment to one,' Cui said. 'We
believe that electrochemical tuning can be used to find new
catalysts for other chemical fuels beyond hydrogen. The technique
has been used in battery research for many years, but it's a new
approach for catalysis. The marriage of these two fields is very
Other Stanford co-authors of the study are postdoctoral scholar
Hyun-Wook Lee, visiting student Zhiyi Lu, and graduate students
Yong Deng, Po-Chun Hsu, Yayuan Liu and Dingchang Lin.
Video of the water-splitting device
Nature Communications, 2015; 6: 7261
Bifunctional non-noble metal oxide
nanoparticle electrocatalysts through lithium-induced
conversion for overall water splitting.
Haotian Wang, et al.
A picture is worth a thousand calories :
School Lunches : Italy / USA
Jefimenko's ES Motor :
Nov 26, 2013
Free Atmospheric Electricity Powers
Posted by lasersaber
3D Printed AtmoMotor Updates and
Experiments - Upcoming 3D printer giveaway!
3D Printed AtmoMotor HV Atmospheric Motor -
Atmospheric Powered Motor 2.0
Free Atmospheric Electricity Powers Small
Bill / July 26, 2014
I read about a device invented in 1894 that generated electricity
by discharging static electricity (sparked) within a perminant
magnet’s magnetic field. A coil was placed within the magnet’s
field, as well.
There is a brief but intense magnetic field created when static
electricity sparks. This caused the magnet’s field to fluctuate
with each discharge. The coil transduced electricity from the
movement in the magnet’s field caused by the discharge of static
This 100+ year old machine had no moving parts. Just food for
Oleg JEFIMENKO : Atmospheric ES Motors
[ Popular Science, April 1971 ]
: Grow Plants by Conducted Chlorophyll Energy
Hi everyone! I wanted to share an experiment I "replicated" about
four years ago. Dr. T. Galen Hieronymous conducted this experiment
back in the 1930s and he called it "Conducting Chlorophyll Energy
over Wires". I call it "Growing Plants in the Dark". It's actually
an easy experiment to do, but if you don't follow his
instructions, it will fail (
http://www.rexresearch.com/hieronym/1hieron.htm ). I feel this is
solar energy at its finest with Simple Tesla tech involved. I
tried to upload pictures but was unsuccessful so here is a link
where I posted at another site with explanations.
I started this project in either October or November of 2010; too
much water has passed under the bridge to remember. I ran across
Dr. T. Galen Hieronymous' work at the Rex Research site You must
be logged in to see this link. (scroll to the bottom)
If you have never been to the Rex Research site go check it out;
it has a ton of stuff.
For those who haven't seen my project, I have some pictures with a
This first picture shows the plate on the roof. The plate is
insulated from the mounting bracket and has 5 coats of clear paint
to protect it from rust. It has an 18 AWG speaker wire attached to
it that runs down into the basement of the house.
In the basement I have a similar plate attached to the other end
of the speaker wire and suspended over a planter. In the bottom of
the planter I have a metal plate that is attached to an earth
ground via an 18 AWG speaker wire. I enclosed the wooden frame to
keep light out. Basically I just made a tall box out of it with
access through the top.
I did not have a control with the first go at this project as I
was very skeptical to begin with. 10 days after planting a tomato
seed, I came home from school and had the surprise of my life. The
photo below is the tomato sprout and is the first time the sprout
had light on it.
The tomato died a few days later with the same signs indicated by
Dr. Hieronymous as if it had received too much energy. I made
another wooden box for a control side and repeated the experiment.
This time I used potatoes as we live in Idaho USA with potatoes
growing out our ears and my girl friend didn't want me using the
Below is the control side of the experiment and I know we've all
seen potatoes do this in storage at our houses:
This is the experiment side with the plates. Notice how the plant
is growing upwards with well formed stalks. The stalks did not
turn green, however, the leaves clearly show chlorophyll being
I will be doing another "growing plants in the dark" experiment
this year but will take some time to get under way as I am
enrolled in 14 credits this semester. None the less, this project
has opened my mind concerning the mysteries of energy surrounding
our lives on planet Earth. See ya later tater:)
3 Apr 2014
Glycine - Improving sleep quality
Tamara Eriksen, ND
Sleeping can be complicated business! Those individuals with no
difficulty achieving healthy, regular sleep would think it the
simplest of physiologic phenomena. Roughly 30% of the population
suffers from insomnia, however, which has real and important
health consequences, in addition to affecting quality of life.
Even short-term sleep disruption is associated with metabolic
problems, insulin insensitivity, poor bloodsugar control,
increased body mass index (BMI), increased pain and inflammation
levels, and even increased mortality. And pathogenic sleep
disruption may be a hallmark of or contribute to both psychiatric
 and neurodegenerative disorders.
If you're among the thousands of individuals who suffer from sleep
difficulties, you might be aware that modern science still has a
relatively tenuous grasp on the complicated relationships between
diet, hydration, emotional/spiritual health, environmental
contributors, and brain chemistry related to sleep. This is an
area that is receiving considerable attention in scientific study
at present, and the findings are having far-reaching implications.
Glycine's role in sleep regulation is an excellent example.
Glycine is a small, nonessential amino acid. It is relatively
ubiquitous in our muscle tissue and skin, and it plays an
important role in the regulation and support of many critical
pathways. Previously considered to be biologically inert,
unexpected findings in a study using glycine as a placebo to
investigate the function of other amino acids on the brain led to
a study on the effects of glycine on human sleep quality and
Glycine undergoes passive diffusion through the blood-brain
barrier and acts primarily on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors
(NMDA). Its actions on the NMDA receptor are believed
responsible for inhibiting muscle activity during rapid eye
movement (REM) sleep, and for lowering core body temperature to
facilitate sleep.[7, 8] Oral glycine administration also increases
serotonin levels without increasing dopamine levels  to help
normalize circadian rhythms.
In addition to helping objectively normalize the physiology of
sleep, oral glycine supplementation ameliorates the subjective
symptoms of sleep deprivation. On testing, subjects report
improved sleep satisfaction and decreased daytime sleepiness and
cognitive impairment.[2, 9]
A pinch of glycine powder under the tongue can give immediate
relief from "spinning thoughts" or over-thinking, which is a
common complaint among insomniac patients and contributes to
difficult sleep onset. Indeed, oral glycine powder at bedtime
ameliorates all subjective symptoms of sleep deprivation, from
morning fatigue to eye strain and feelings of unease and
difficulty concentrating, as well as improving memory
This naturally sweet amino acid is safe for ongoing use as an oral
supplement. At moderate doses, glycine supplementation can help
normalize sleep architecture to restore the myriad benefits of
restful, restorative sleep.
Glycine and Mental Health
Glycine — this smallest and simplest of amino acids was first
thought to be inert in its effects on physiology. But study in
recent years shows this little molecule to be a powerhouse! We
have already discussed the impact of glycine on normalizing sleep
by acting on the NMDA receptors.[12, 13, 14, 15] Through the same
mechanism, oral glycine supplementation also helps normalize the
brain chemistry of addiction and prevent relapse.
Glycine is critically involved in regulating ethanol (alcohol)
consumption. Elevating concentrations of glycine in the
signalling junction between neurons has consistently been
demonstrated to reduce alcohol intake, and inhibit
drug-seeking for cocaine and amphetamines.[14, 15] The mechanism
of these effects is still poorly understood, but evidence suggests
that increased glycine levels also attenuate the effects of
amphetamines on the brain.
To date, medicine has focused on blocking drug effects in order to
treat and manage the physiology of addictions. The fact that
glycine helps both attenuate the effects of drugs like alcohol,
cocaine, and amphetamines, and to decrease the drive to consume
these substances is very exciting. It's so exciting, in fact, that
a series of pharmaceutical drugs are currently being tested to
modulate glycine uptake, in order to effectively increase the
amount of glycine in the brain in therapeutic applications.
Human trials have not yet reported their results for most of these
medications, but we do know that simply supplementing with oral
glycine will have similar effects!
We can utilize oral glycine to decrease the urge to consume drugs
and alcohol (both in addicts and among moderate users), and to
help block the effects when the drugs are consumed. But glycine
doesn't stop there! Supplementing with oral glycine can improve
behavioural training to overcome addictions and prevent relapse
(extinction training).[14, 18, 19] It's unclear whether these
improvements are related to improved memory recall, such that
recovering addicts are able to remember and employ their cognitive
behavioural techniques. We do know, however, that changes to
glycine levels in the brain correspond with improved attention,
memory, impulsivity, emotional memory, and intellectual learning
memory. These traits are all negatively impacted with
addiction, so a treatment protocol with potential "side effects"
that help normalize behaviour-related changes opens a world of
Glycine's therapeutic uses to treat addictions go yet a step
further. There is evidence that supplemental glycine helps reduce
liver toxicity from chronic alcohol consumption and expedites
recovery from alcohol-induced liver injury.
Risks of oral glycine supplementation, even at therapeutic levels,
are negligible. And so, for a vast number of reasons and
applications, this little amino acid packs a big punch in
The growing body of evidence regarding impact of glycine levels in
the brain does not end with sleep implications and addictions,
though these effects alone are exciting for their therapeutic
implications and potential improvement to quality of life. A good
deal of study is also looking at the effects of supplementing oral
glycine as part of pharmacologic management of schizophrenia to
benefit patient outcomes. Since the late 1980s, there has been
an understanding that glycine therapy is useful to treat negative
symptoms of schizophrenia, such as depression and loss of mental
fluency or flexibility. Recent double-blinded,
placebo-controlled trials consistently support the conclusions
that adding oral glycine to the pharmacologic protocols markedly
improves negative symptoms and cognitive troubles, and may even
improve psychotic symptoms in some cases.[25, 26, 27, 28]
Since negative symptoms of schizophrenia typically have a larger
impact on real-world function and impact of the illness than do
positive symptoms, such as psychosis, the finding that glycine
supplementation can improve these devastating symptoms is highly
significant. What's more, these benefits to learning and memory
retrieval appear to extend beyond applications to mental health
and addiction recovery to healthy volunteers as well.
As pharmaceutical companies develop drugs to mimic the impact of
supplementing oral glycine, there is a renewed interest in the
role of glycine on schizophrenic pathology. Current thinking is
that impairment of the NMDA receptor system (stimulated by
glycine) may actually be the cause and pathogenicity of
This new insight into the effects of glycine on the brain spills
into other psychiatric, mood, and cognitive disorders, ranging
from psychosis and depression through neurodegenerative diseases
such as Huntinton's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This line
of scientific study has led to greater understanding of how oral
glycine may even be of benefit in treating and managing brain
injury and stroke.[30, 31, 32]
Examining regulation of NMDA receptors and amino-acid balance has
led to potential implications with respect to ADHD and autism,
and greater understanding of the neurochemistry of posttraumatic
stress disorder and Parkinson's. The implications are
far-reaching and profound. While some of the study into these
areas focuses on glycine supplementation directly, much is
directed toward pharmacologic targets to inhibit NMDA receptors.
Oral glycine supplementation may effectively accomplish the same
task. However, while the safety profile of the pharmaceuticals
has barely begun to be established, oral glycine supplementation
has a well-established safety profile at therapeutic doses.
As medical science continues to explore the therapeutic benefits
of glycine supplementation, we will see a growing list of
advantageous effects for adding this inexpensive amino acid to
many therapeutic protocols.
Somatic Effects and Dosing
In addition to the psychiatric and neurochemical applications of
glycine supplementation, recent studies are leading us to consider
this powerhouse amino acid for somatic applications. We have
already mentioned the hepatoprotective benefit of glycine
supplementation in the context of chronic and acute alcohol
abuse. We have also touched on the benefits to traumatic brain
injury and stroke.[32, 34] These demonstrate additional,
nonpsychiatric benefits of glycine on other body tissues.
Ischemia (loss of blood supply) is a major cause of death in
trauma, surgery, and organ replacement. Glycine significantly
reduces tissue damage and loss in these cases, though the
mechanism is not fully understood. What is clear is that glycine
has direct cell-protective effects. It protects against the
damage of the inflammatory response, which is triggered as
bloodflow returns to ischemic areas (ischemic reperfusion
injury).[35, 36] These cell-protective and anti-inflammatory
effects are not limited to tissue trauma due to ischemia. In fact,
the anti-inflammatory benefits of glycine have been applied to the
prevention and treatment of other inflammatory conditions.
Inflammation is the primary mechanism in arthritis. Animal studies
indicate that oral glycine supplementation can mitigate this
inflammatory process, and mechanistic study suggests these
effects have multiple potential therapeutic applications in humans
as well.[37, 38] Conditions such as ulcerative colitis,
inflammatory pain, muscle wasting in cancer, and even
inflammatory contributors to obesity [42, 43, 44] show improvement
with glycine supplementation.
With the growing body of data supporting therapeutic use of
supplemental glycine, it is important to note that appropriate
dosing is not clearly established for most applications. Table 1
reflects established dosing.
Table 1. Appropriate Dosing of Oral Glycine Indication
Sleep 3 g daily, at bedtime
Helps normalize sleep architecture.
Improves daytime symptoms of sleep deprivation.
Manages "spinning thoughts" that cause delayed sleep onset.
Schizophrenia 15 - 60 mg daily
Improves negative symptoms such as depression,
Part of polypharmacy protocol. Should be utilized with guidance
from qualified professionals only.
Cocaine addiction treatment 2 - 12 g daily
Helps normalize neurochemistry to decrease
drug-seeking (short-term effects.)
Improves memory recall and response to cognitive behavioural
training in addiction recovery.
The safety of glycine supplementation has been clearly
established. Surgeons routinely utilize an irrigation solution of
glycine during procedures, delivering relatively high-dose glycine
without adverse effects. Clinical trials have investigated oral
glycine supplementation in humans quite thoroughly, indicating
that long-term oral doses of 31 g/d  and 50 g/d  yield no
adverse events. Short-term studies of 200 mg/kg daily of IV
glycine also yielded no adverse effects. While more study is
required to fully elucidate the full breadth and potential of
therapeutic glycine, the mounting body of evidence is certainly
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Strange Trumpet Sounds Debunked 2015
Bisphenol A (BPA) Contaminating Our
Food -- The Undeniable Truth About Plastics and Canned Foods
Don't just suck eggs -- Chew 'em !
VIA : http://keelynet.com/news/061015u.html
VIA : http://naturalsociety.com/the-1-weird-way-to-remineralize-teeth-and-heal-cavities/
October 19, 2014
Forget Filling Cavities: Regrow Your
by Anya V
Modern society is the first to routinely fill teeth cavities with
toxic materials as soon as they occur. But we may not need to turn
to these modern practices if we simply take natural precautions.
In fact, we may actually be able to remineralize teeth and heal
cavities naturally with some natural solutions.
For many decades, mercury amalgam fillings were used because the
malleability of the mercury allowed for the fillings to completely
fill all the small spaces, tiny grooves, and narrow crevices. The
temperature sensitivity of the mercury also permitted the filling
to expand and contract accordingly.
Unfortunately, this practice of immediately filling cavities
precluded the possibility of the teeth regenerating themselves.
Plus, we now know that the amalgam solutions pose a noteworthy
health risk due to mercury exposure.
With the right natural remedies and proper technique, teeth may
actually be able to rebuild their tooth structure. In this manner
the tincture of time and patience become the necessary components
of a self-healing program.
Using Eggshells to Remineralize Teeth
One example of a reportedly efficacious protocol for healing
cavities includes eggshells. Here’s why eggshells are made to make
for the perfect ingredient:
“Eggshells contain the perfect amount of the ideal substances for
healing cavities – massive amounts of calcium and 27 other
minerals. The composition of eggshells resembles our teeth.
Eggshells provide the necessary amount of calcium to remineralize
The real key to effectively remineralizing the teeth is providing
the right minerals in the right balance so that the teeth can
rebuild themselves. This process can begin in earnest only after
the mouth has been properly cleansed.
By cleansing it should be understood that all dental materials
that are toxic or allergenic for an individual are safely removed
by a biological dentist. Holistic dentistry should also be
utilized to address any persistent infections in the teeth or
gums. Cavitation sites, in particular, must be appropriately
remediated so that any focal infections are completely treated.
By using only dental materials and techniques utilized by a
toxin-free dentist, the naturally occurring bacterial flora in the
mouth can be re-established. Likewise, the normal pH of the mouth,
which is the most conducive for this difficult type of tissue
regeneration, will prevail over the long term necessary for
natural cavity filling.
Though it’s recommended to take the previous steps mentioned, one
thing you can and should do on your own to cleanse your mouth is
oil pulling. Oil pulling is a very interesting mouth-cleansing
method that could lead to numerous benefits, and few people know
about this practice. Read more about the art of oil pulling here.
What is it about eggshells that makes them so special?
“Bone tissue is composed of calcium. Actually, human bones and
teeth are very similar to an eggshell’s composition. One of the
benefits of eggshells is the calcium contained in the shell (93
%), the bone marrow is fulfilling its hematopoietic function
Additionally, eggshells also contain mineral elements: magnesium,
phosphorus, silicon, sodium, potassium, iron, sulfur, aluminum,
There are 27 elements found in the eggshells. Also the protein of
a shell is composed of such essential amino acids as methionine,
cysteine, lysine, isoleucine. Thus, properly prepared eggshells
are the most balanced natural means to obtain calcium.” 
Refilling teeth cavities naturally is no small task; therefore,
using the very best filling material that nature has to offer is
absolutely vital to a successful outcome.
Best Recipe for the Eggshell Formulation
First and foremost, the eggshells ought to come from free range,
organic chicken farms in order to avoid any unwanted chemicals or
antibiotics. The recipe for this Eggshell Tonic formulation is
simple and easy to prepare.
How to prepare:
“Take eggshells and put them in boiling water for about 5 minutes.
The boiling will kill any pathogens. Then, air dry the shells and
grind the shells in a coffee grinder. Take a 1/2 teaspoon a day.
It is important to note that Vitamin D [via exposure to sunlight]
greatly aids calcium absorption.” 
Homemade eggshell toothpaste can also be made by consulting this
recipe. By using both the tonic and the toothpaste together, the
odds will be significantly put in the favor of sufficiently
remineralizing your teeth so that dental visits can be minimized.
Eggshell toothpaste recipe:
¼ cup ground up eggshells or calcium magnesium tablets
About 2-3 Tbs. coconut oil
1 Tbs. baking soda
Optional ingredients: 1 tsp. castile soap, 1 tsp. sea salt, and/or
a few drops of peppermint essential oil.
Rinse eggshells and boil them for a few minutes. This will help
get rid of any pathogens. Air dry. Grind up the shells into a fine
powder. Combine the ingredients in a bowl, adding coconut oil
until it reaches a smooth consistency. Store in a container (jar).
Every time your teeth are drilled by a dentist, they are
undermined in profound and irreparable ways. The most common
dental materials in use today are often toxic and further impede
the natural healing of the teeth.
Because dental patients are so conditioned over decades to submit
to highly invasive procedures like root canal therapy, they are
unaware of the safe natural approaches that have no unhealthy
Eggshell tonic and toothpaste are only two of the ways which can
help restore the teeth of those who faithfully follow this
Mosquito-Repellant Plants :
Sage & Rosemary
2015 & still waiting ...
December 13, 2010
Injecting New Bone
An artificial bone-like material could speed up recovery from
Today, a broken hip usually means surgery and extensive rehab. But
what if all you needed was an injection and a shorter recovery
period? That’s the vision that inspires Thomas Webster, an
associate professor of engineering at Brown University.
Webster has developed a nanomaterial that quickly solidifies at
body temperature into a bone-like substance. This week, Brown
announced a deal with medical device maker Audax Medical of
Littleton, Massachusetts, to further develop the material and
launch trials in animals.
The material contains the same nucleic acids as DNA, Webster says.
Each molecule has two covalent bonds and links with other
molecules to form a tube. Hence it’s called a “twin-base linker.”
(Audax will develop it under the name Arxis.)
“It self-assembles into a nano structure, emulates natural tissue,
solidifies quickly at body temperature, and can be made to match
the mechanical properties of the tissue you inject it into,”
That sounds great, says tissue engineer Kevin Shakesheff, of the
University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom, but it will also
need to sustain weight like bone can.
He and his colleagues have developed a different material for the
same purpose. “If you press down on our material, it’s as strong
as bone, but if you try and snap it, it’s nowhere near as strong,”
Webster says he’s confident that his material, which has so far
only been tested in a laboratory, will be able to bear weight like
“It will have that strength after solidifying in the body — after
a couple of minutes,” he says.
Ali Khademhosseini, an assistant professor of medicine at Brigham
and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston says
Webster’s material sounds interesting, and there’s plenty of room
for innovation in the area of bone-like materials.
Today, metal plates are often inserted to provide strength and
support while bones, such as the hip joint, slowly heal. But the
metal degrades over time, and particularly in younger patients, it
may eventually have to be replaced. Khademhosseini says tissue
engineers are looking for materials that will better integrate
with the body and last longer. If Webster succeeds in developing
such a material to replace metal entirely, that would transform
the field, he says.
Audax will begin testing Arxis in the hip and knee, according to
company president and CEO Mark Johanson. Johanson hopes to have
the first product ready for market in 2013. The company recently
raised $1 million and plans to raise more capital soon, Johanson
says. If Arxis is injectable on an outpatient basis, the sales
volume will be high and the price relatively low, Johanson
predicts. An injection is likely to run $1,000 to $1,500.
“The material can be processed and manufactured relatively
inexpensively, which positions it well for the
higher-volume-procedural market,” Johanson
NANOMATERIALS FOR THE INTEGRATION OF SOFT INTO HARD TISSUE
Inventor: HICKEY DANIEL et al.
Nanocomposite materials are provided for attaching soft tissue to
hard tissue of a mammalian subject. The materials include a
biodegradable polymer network suffused with mineral nanoparticles.
The nanocomposite materials have a surface structure that promotes
the infiltration, adhesion and proliferation of cells such as
osteoblasts and fibroblasts, and are useful to reconstruct
enthesis tissue, such as a tendon bone insertion. Devices
containing the nanocomposites and methods for implantation of the
devices at a tendon-bone interface or ligament-bone interface are
provided for reconstructive surgery.
Rex-ommended Viewing :
The True Cost
True Cost is a documentary film exploring
the impact of fashion on people and the planet.
Directed by: Andrew Morgan
( Watch the Moevideo version -- fewer popup ads &c...
extremely obnoxious )
Magnetic Field Weakening Ten Times
Faster than Thought
Russian 4kW generator
1.5khz tesla coil...he uses a .3 sec impulse from the battery to
get it started, then switches over to earth currents to keep it
lit at 4kw in this demo but says it can handle 4.5kw.
Of course no schematic and its hard to understand the translator
or how it works from what I could tell. You can see the black wire
is connected to an earth ground which goes to the power module
tesla coil...and the output of that goes into the load through the
two white wires. It is possible the load is also connected to
ground so it is in series like others who built earth current
devices. To make a closed loop.
He notes in the video, "Tesla uses sinusoidal signal as a
carrier"...that is modulated by impulse modulation using right
timing and (my comment nanosec long impulses).
Free Energy June 2015 Ruslan 4kW generator
English translation by Wesley
Patent Updates from Panacea-Bocaf :
US6126794 -- Xogen's Water-Splitting patent : another version of
Stan Meyers water-splitting cell, produced by his brother in law
EP0,405,919 -- Juan Aguero's Hydrogen/Steam : describes a high
efficiency method of converting water into hydrogen and oxygen
gasses to be used a fuel for an engine.
US6208061 -- Jong-Sok An : a simple 'no-load' electrical generator
which, unlike convential generators, has reduced input power
requirements for increased generated current draw.
US20020125774 -- Alberto Molina-Martinez : a self-powered
Continuous Electricity Generator.
WO9528510 -- Spiro Spiros : electrolyser which operates in
over-unity mode. It also has the possibility of operating an
internal combustion engine without needing any electrics at all.
It is interesting to note that the Patent Office has granted Spiro
a patent which clearly states, measures and documents over-unity
US4041465 -- Philip Brody : for a very high voltage solar cell /
solid-state memory, etc.
US5892311 -- Shigeaki Hayasaka : INDUCTION GENERATOR -- an
electrical generator which needs less than 20% of the input power
of a standard generator.
US5590031 -- Mead/Nachamk : a device for converting Zero-Point
Energy to electrical energy.
WO2009065210 -- Richard Willis gener
US20110113772 -- John ROHANER -- Papp engine
11 Apr 2014
Why you should never eat tilapia
Tilapia , one of the cheapest and most popular fish in the United
States, may actually lead to many serious health problems.
Their feed is not natural — in the wild, tilapia would eat algae
and lake plants, but the farms fatten up the fish on GMO corn and
soy pellets. The amount of healthful fish oils in these creatures
is almost non-existent, negating the main reason why fish is so
good for us. Almost all tilapia sold in the U.S. is hormone drug
treated. Did you know that the low price of tilapia is achieved by
converting the young females to males through the use of the
hormone drug 17alpha-methytestosterone? By having all male
population allows fish farmers to produce larger fish in a short
period of time.
Additionally, farmed fish consist of more fat and less Omega-3
fatty acids due to the smaller area in which they swim, and the
constant availability of food. Unlike many other fish, farm-raised
tilapia contains high levels of an unhealthy kind of omega-6. It
also contains less than 0.5 grams of omega-3s per 100 grams of
According to one of the studies, farm-raised tilapia contains
significantly higher concentrations of PCBs, dioxin and other
cancer-causing contaminants than salmon caught in the wild. Farmed
fish contain higher concentrations of contaminants than wild fish
largely because they are fed meal that consists of ground-up fish
tainted with contaminants. Many researchers are convinced that
eating farmed fish leads to an increased cancer risk due to high
amounts of PCB's the low-quality of nutrients.
Farm-bred fish also have lower levels of healthy nutrients. Many
of us consume fish, hoping to reap the omega-3 fatty acid benefits
that come with it. However, did you know that the omega-3-acids
that are found in farm-raised fish are less usable to our bodies
compared to wild bred fish. Farm-raised fish also has a lower
protein content. Not only that, because farm-raised fish are kept
in cages, they have the tendency to be fattier, and can have a
higher concentration of omega-6 acids. The problem with getting
too much omega-6 acids is that they may cause inflammation to the
body due to imbalance.
Dioxin levels are 11 times higher in farm-bred fish compared to
wild fish. Dioxin is actually a very toxic chemical that can
contribute to cancer and other complications. The problem with
dioxin is that once it enters our system, it can take a very long
time until it is let out. The half life of dioxin is about 7 to 11
John KHEIR, et al
: Oxygen Microbubbles
June 27, 2012
Injecting Life-Saving Oxygen Into a
June 27, 2012 — Patients unable to breathe because of acute
lung failure or an obstructed airway need another way to get
oxygen to their blood -- and fast -- to avoid cardiac arrest and
brain injury. A team led by researchers at Boston Children's
Hospital has designed tiny, gas-filled microparticles that can be
injected directly into the bloodstream to quickly oxygenate the
The microparticles consist of a single layer of lipids (fatty
molecules) that surround a tiny pocket of oxygen gas, and are
delivered in a liquid solution. In a cover article in the June 27
issue of Science Translational Medicine, John Kheir, MD, of the
Department of Cardiology at Boston Children's Hospital, and
colleagues report that an infusion of these microparticles into
animals with low blood oxygen levels restored blood oxygen
saturation to near-normal levels, within seconds.
When the trachea was completely blocked -- a more dangerous "real
world" scenario -- the infusion kept the animals alive for 15
minutes without a single breath, and reduced the incidence of
cardiac arrest and organ injury.
The microparticle solutions are portable and could stabilize
patients in emergency situations, buying time for paramedics,
emergency clinicians or intensive care clinicians to more safely
place a breathing tube or perform other life-saving therapies,
"This is a short-term oxygen substitute -- a way to safely inject
oxygen gas to support patients during a critical few minutes," he
says. "Eventually, this could be stored in syringes on every code
cart in a hospital, ambulance or transport helicopter to help
stabilize patients who are having difficulty breathing."
The microparticles would likely only be administered for a short
time, between 15 and 30 minutes, because they are carried in fluid
that would overload the blood if used for longer periods, Kheir
Kheir also notes that the particles are different from blood
substitutes, which carry oxygen but are not useful when the lungs
are unable to oxygenate them. Instead, the microparticles are
designed for situations in which the lungs are completely
Kheir began investigating the idea of injectable oxygen in 2006,
after caring for a little girl who sustained a severe brain injury
resulting from a severe pneumonia that caused bleeding into her
lungs and severely low oxygen levels. Despite the team's best
efforts, she died before they could place her on a heart-lung
machine. Frustrated by this, Kheir formed a team to search for
another way to deliver oxygen.
"Some of the most convincing experiments were the early ones," he
says. "We drew each other's blood, mixed it in a test tube with
the microparticles, and watched blue blood turn immediately red,
right before our eyes."
Over the years, Kheir and his team have tested various
concentrations and sizes of the microparticles to optimize their
effectiveness and to make them safe for injection. "The effort was
truly multidisciplinary," says Kheir. "It took chemical engineers,
particle scientists and medical doctors to get the mix just
In the studies reported in the paper, they used a device called a
sonicator, which uses high-intensity sound waves to mix the oxygen
and lipids together. The process traps oxygen gas inside particles
averaging 2 to 4 micrometers in size (not visible without a
microscope). The resulting solution, with oxygen gas making up 70
percent of the volume, mixed efficiently with human blood.
"One of the keys to the success of the project was the ability to
administer a concentrated amount of oxygen gas in a small amount
of liquid," Kheir says. "The suspension carries three to four
times the oxygen content of our own red blood cells."
Intravenous administration of oxygen gas was tried in the early
1900s, but these attempts failed to oxygenate the blood and often
caused dangerous gas embolisms.
"We have engineered around this problem by packaging the gas into
small, deformable particles," Kheir explains. "They dramatically
increase the surface area for gas exchange and are able to squeeze
through capillaries where free gas would get stuck."
The study was funded by three awards from the Technology
Development Fund at Boston Children's Hospital Boston and a U.S.
Department of Defense Basic Research Award to Kheir.
John N. Kheir, Laurie A. Scharp, Mark A. Borden, Edward J.
Swanson, Andrew Loxley, James H. Reese, Katherine J. Black, Luis
A. Velazquez, Lindsay M. Thomson, Brian K. Walsh, Kathryn E.
Mullen, Dionne A. Graham, Michael W. Lawlor, Carlo Brugnara, David
C. Bell, and Francis X. McGowan, Jr. Oxygen Gas–Filled
Microparticles Provide Intravenous Oxygen Delivery. Science
Translational Medicine, 27 June 2012 DOI:
GAS-FILLED MICROBUBBLES AND SYSTEMS FOR GAS
MICROBUBBLES AND METHODS FOR OXYGEN DELIVERY
Compositions containing a carrier and microbubbles encapsulating
one or more gases, preferably oxygen, and methods for making and
using the compositions are described herein. The microbubbles
contain a lipid envelope. The compositions may be administered to
a patient to quickly deliver large amounts of oxygen to the
patient's blood supply or directly to a tissue in need of oxygen.
The compositions may be administered via injection or as a
continuous infusion. The compositions contain a concentrated
microbubble suspension, where the suspension contains at least 40
mL oxygen/dL suspension. The microbubbles are preferably less than
20 microns in diameter, more preferably less than 15 microns in
diameter. The microbubbles described herein may be administered to
a patient in an effective amount to increase in oxygen
concentration in the patient's blood, and/or one or more tissues
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Every human cell requires a constant supply of oxygen to
maintain cellular structure and homeostasis. This supply is
primarily provided by hemoglobin, which carries inspired oxygen
from the pulmonary capillaries to the tissues. In cases where a
patient's lungs are unable to transfer adequate amounts of oxygen
to circulating erythrocytes, severe hypoxia results and can
quickly lead to severe organ injury and death.
 Restoration of blood oxygen tension is paramount to
resuscitation of the majority of pathophysiologic states. Some
clinical states, such as lung injury, airway obstruction, and
intracardiac mixing, exhibit hypoxemia and desaturation refractory
to medical efforts to restore levels of oxygen saturation
sufficient to limit ischemic injury. Ischemic injury may take
place within minutes or seconds of insufficient oxygen delivery.
In these conditions, low oxygen tension can result in end-organ
dysfunction, failure, and mortality. The ability to augment
oxygenation quickly and non-invasively would have dramatic
implications on the morbidity and mortality from acute hypoxia, in
addition to a number of other clinical situations.
 Conventional attempts to restore oxygen levels in patients
utilize supportive therapy of the patient's respiratory system,
most commonly by way of mechanical ventilation. However, patients
with lung injury, comprising a significant population of intensive
care unit patients, have difficulty exchanging oxygen across a
damaged alveolar unit. This requires clinicians to increase
ventilator pressures, often causing further lung injury and
systemic inflammation. Significant morbidity and mortality has
been associated with ventilator induced lung injury, and
barotrauma to the lungs is often necessitated by inadequate
systemic oxygen delivery. The ability to non-invasively supplement
even small percentages of oxygen delivery may significantly reduce
the morbidity of mechanical ventilation.
 Furthermore, emergency efforts to deliver oxygen to a
patient are often inadequate and/or require too long to take
effect, either due to lack of an adequate airway or overwhelming
lung injury. This results in irreversible injury to the brain and
other organs. Initiation of rescue therapy in these patients is
burdensome and time consuming, and is available only at a limited
number of specialized health care centers. There remains a need to
quickly deliver oxygen directly to the blood of patients, thereby
preventing or minimizing irreversible injury due to hypoxemia.
 Therefore it is an object of the invention to provide
improved methods for delivering oxygen to patients, tissues or
 It is yet a further object of the invention to provide
improved compositions for delivering oxygen to patients, tissues
 It is a still further object of the invention to provide
improved methods for producing compositions for delivering oxygen
to patients, tissues or organs.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 Compositions containing a carrier and microbubbles
encapsulating one or more gases, preferably oxygen, and methods
for making and using the compositions are described herein. The
microbubbles contain a lipid envelope formed of at least one base
lipid and at least one emulsifying agent. The compositions may be
administered to a patient to quickly deliver large amounts of
oxygen to the patient's blood supply or directly to a tissue in
need of oxygen. The compositions may be administered via injection
or as a continuous infusion. The compositions contain a
concentrated microbubble suspension, where the suspension contains
at least 40 mL oxygen/dL suspension. The microbubbles are
preferably less than 20 microns in diameter, more preferably less
than 15 microns in diameter. The microbubbles described herein may
be administered to a patient in an effective amount to increase
the oxygen concentration in the patient's blood, and/or one or
more tissues or organs, preferably in an amount effective to
prevent or alleviate ischemic injury. The microbubbles may be
administered alone or in combination with other treatments as an
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 Compositions containing a carrier and microbubbles
encapsulating one or more gases, preferably where at least one gas
is oxygen, for administration to patients, tissues or organs in
need of treatment are described herein. The compositions are
particularly preferred for quickly delivering large amounts of
oxygen to a patient's blood supply or directly to a tissue or
organ in need of oxygen. The compositions may be administered via
injection or as a continuous infusion.
 A. Microbubbles
 A typical structure for the microbubbles is illustrated in
FIG. 1. As shown in FIG. 1, the microbubbles contain a gas core
surrounded by an envelope formed from one or more lipids and one
or more emulsifying agents in the form of a lipid monolayer or
multilayer. The outer surface of the envelope forms a protective
film, preferably formed from polyethylene glycol (see FIG. 1).
 1. Envelope
 The envelope is in the form of a lipid film, in the form of
a monolayer or multilayer, preferably in the form of a monolayer.
The lipid film may be between 1 and 100 nm thick, preferably
between 1 and 10 nm thick, most preferably between 2 and 5 nm
thick. In one preferred embodiment, the lipid film is a monolayer
that is about 10 nm thick. A thin lipid film affords a high
permeability to oxygen, while preventing a direct gas-blood
 Preferably the overall charge for the envelope is neutral.
 The protective border prevents coalescence of the
microbubbles through either a repulsive electrostatic double layer
or a short-range repulsive steric barrier. The border also
decreases recognition and uptake by the reticuloendothelial cells
(RES) of the microbubble and inhibits complement activation and
other immunogenic, toxic or thrombogenic effects. Typically, the
envelope contains from 0.1 to 20% (molar), preferably from 5 to
10% (molar) emulsifying agent. The emulsifying agent generally
contains a hydrophilic portion, typically a hydrophilic polymer,
and a hydrophobic portion. The emulsifying agent or a portion
thereof, generally the hydrophilic portion of the emulsifying
agent, forms a protective border on the outer surface of the
microbubble. Preferably the border is in the form of a brush where
the hydrophilic portion of the emulsifying agent extends from the
lipid containing portion of the envelope to form a border on the
outer surface of the microbubble.
 a. Lipids
 A variety of lipids may be used to form the lipid film. The
lipids may be natural or synthetic. Suitable lipids include
phospholipids, fatty acids, triacyl glycerols, sphingolipids,
terpenes, and waxes. Preferably the envelope contains one or more
 Generally the lipid envelope contains at least one base
lipid and at least one emulsifying agent, where at least a portion
of the emulsifying agent forms a protective film on the outer
surface of the envelope. "Base lipid" as used herein refers to the
one or more lipids in the envelope that do not contain a component
for forming a protective film that reduces surface tension,
provides mechanical stability and limits gas diffusion.
 The lipid envelope may contain lipids with acyl chains of
varying lengths and degrees of saturation. The lipid envelope may
contain lipids with a single acyl chain length, or different
lipids with different acyl chain lengths. In a preferred
embodiment, the lipid is a long-chain lipid, preferably a
saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholine (Di-Cn-PC, where n is between
12 and 24, preferably where n is 16 or 18), which imparts low
surface tension, high stability against envelope dissolution, and
low gas permeability prior to administration in vivo. Suitable
lipids include phosphocholines, phosphoglycerols, phosphatidic
acids, phosphoethanolamines, and phosphoserines. Examples include
1,2-Dimyristoyl-3-Trimethylammonium-Propane, cholesterol and its
derivatives, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and fatty esters.
 D. Concentration of Microbubbles
 The microbubbles are designed to release oxygen in
clinically significant amounts quickly following injection, while
minimizing build-up in the circulation of the components that form
the envelope and carrier.
 Thus, the injectable compositions generally contain high
concentrations of microbubbles, in a minimal amount of carrier for
the composition to be injected. Typical concentrations range from
70 to 90% (volume gas/volume injectable composition), preferably
80 to 90%. As shown in the Examples, suspensions containing from
40 to 70 mL oxygen per dL suspension have favorable mixing
 As shown in the Examples, the volume of the gas core is a
function of the selection of the length of the acyl chains in the
lipids that form the envelope. Further, the maximum packing
density, which is a function of the microbubble size distribution
and the shape and deformability of the microbubbles, limits the
maximum gas fraction of the suspension. Preferably the volume of
the gas core comprises 50% or more of the overall volume of the
suspension. In one preferred embodiment, the volume of the gas
core is 50 to 60% of the overall volume of the suspension. In
another embodiment, lower volume percentages are preferred.
Microbubble suspensions containing less than 50% gas (by volume),
may be useful when resuscitation is desired in trauma, or in
microvascular flaps being treated with microbubbles.
 E. Size
 The overall diameter of the microbubbles is selected to
provide a high surface area to volume ratio, thereby favoring
rapid transfer of the gas out of the microbubbles. For delivery of
oxygen to a patient, typically, the microbubbles have diameters of
about 20 microns or smaller, preferably the upper limit for the
diameter of the microbubbles ranges from 15 microns or smaller, or
10 microns or smaller in order to pass through the pulmonary
capillary bed following intravenous injection.
 Preferably, the lipid monolayer is quite thin (e.g. about
10 nm), and the volume of the gas core comprises 90% or more of
the overall volume of the microbubble, typically comprises between
99.00 to 99.99% of the overall volume of the microbubble.
 F. Stability of Microbubble Suspensions
 Microbubbles containing oxygen in their gas core may
coarsen and break down by ripening (transfer of oxygen from a
smaller particle to a larger particle due to differences in
Laplace pressures) or by microbubble coalescence. The rate at
which both of these processes occur is inversely proportional to
the envelope cohesiveness, which increases with increasing lipid
packing density and increasing lipid acyl chain length. Other
factors, such as suspension viscosity, temperature and
concentration of oxygen and other gases in the suspension may also
 The microbubbles described herein may be designed to be
used immediately following production. In these embodiments, the
microbubbles are relatively unstable, such as for only a few hours
 In other embodiments, the microbubbles are stable in
storage for weeks to months at room temperature and standard
pressures (e.g. 1 atm) or at lower temperatures, such at
refrigeration at 4[deg.] C.
II. Methods of Making the Microbubble Compositions
 Any suitable method for forming the microbubbles, or
precursors for the microbubbles, may be used. Gas-filled
microbubbles form by the adsorption of lipid components in the
precursor suspension to the gas liquid interface of entrained gas
bodies. This adsorption is generally accomplished by high energy
conditions, such as amalgamation (intense shaking) or sonication.
Other methods of gas injection may be used to form microbubbles,
such as flow focusing, T-junctions or electrohydrodynamic
 Formation of concentrated microparticle suspensions
requires four general steps: (1) generation of the precursor
suspension, (2) dispersion of the gas into the precursor
suspension to form microbubbles, (3) concentration of the
microbubble suspension and (4) size isolation to form a
concentrated microbubble suspension with microbubbles having
diameters below a selected upper size limit.
 The microbubble suspensions may be formed on-site, just
prior to administration. Alternatively the microbubble suspensions
may be formed and stored for a suitable period of time and then
used when needed.
 A system for rapidly delivering oxygen to a patient in need
thereof typically includes (a) means for generating a microbubble
suspension, and (b) means for administering microbubbles
continuously or discontinuously to a patient, tissue or organ in
need thereof. Means for generating microbubble suspensions include
sonicator and mechanical agitators, as described below. The
microbubble suspensions can be administered via injection or by
continuous infusion or by any other suitable means.
 A. Methods for Forming Microbubbles
 Typical methods of forming microbubbles and microbubble
precursors are known in the art. These methods generally include
the first two steps listed above and may include additional steps.
 For example, microbubbles may be formed by mixing the
lipids, i.e. base lipid(s) and PEGylated lipids, in a suitable
organic solvent, such as chloroform; then evaporating the solvent
to form a dry lipid film, and resuspending the lipid film in an
aqueous medium and sonicating to form microbubbles. (see e.g. U.S.
Pat. No. 7,105,151 to Unger et al.)
 Alternatively, as disclosed in EP 0 077 752 to Schering AG,
suspensions of gas microbubbles can be made by mixing an aqueous
solution of a surfactant with a solution of a viscosity enhancer
as a stabilizer. The gas bubbles are then introduced into the
mixture by forcing the mixture of reagents and air through a small
aperture. Similarly, suspensions of gas microbubbles can be formed
by dissolving each of the lipids in an aqueous solution, such as
sterile phosphate-buffered saline or sterile saline; then mixing
the individual lipid solutions in the desired molar ratio to form
a precursor solution, next the gas can be added to the precursor
solution by any suitable means, including injecting the gas into a
sealed container containing the precursor solution and agitating
the solution to form microbubbles. The desired gas or mixture of
gases, e.g. oxygen gas, may be perfused through the precursor
suspension, thereby oxygenating the precursor solution.
 Formation of microparticles is optimal when the suspension
is kept cool. Thus, preferably the precursor suspension is cooled
by suitable means.
 Mechanical agitation has been the main method to create
encapsulated microbubbles for biomedical applications, since their
inception by Feinstein et al. Feinstein, et al., "Microbubble
Dynamics Visualized in the Intact Capillary Circulation", J. Amer.
College of Card., 4(3): 595-600 (1984). Mechanical agitation is a
common emulsification procedure in which a hydrophobic phase
(i.e., gas) is dispersed within an aqueous surfactant solution by
disruption of the interface. Shaking a serum vial with a device
similar to a dental amalgamator may be used to for oxygen
 Acoustic emulsification (i.e. sonication) may also be used
to agitate the precursor solution and form microbubbles.
Sonication generates large quantities of microbubbles (100
mL*10<10 >mL<-1>) rapidly and reproducibly within just
a few seconds. In sonication, the sonicator horn is typically
placed at the suspension-gas interface. The precursor suspension
is sonicated for a sufficient time period at a sufficient power to
produce the microbubbles. Microbubbles created in this way follow
a heterogenous size distribution.
 The largest microbubbles are the most buoyant and rise to
the top of the suspension, while less buoyant, smaller
microbubbles remain motile in the sonicated suspension. This
allows for separation based on different migration rates in a
 B. Concentration of the Microbubble Suspension and Size
 In a bench scale operation, microparticle suspensions are
pumped out via a port at the bottom of the glass beaker and into a
 To continue production of the microbubbles, another pump
simultaneously replaces fresh precursor suspension into the top of
the glass beaker. Unprocessed microbubble suspensions created in
this way typically contain 8-10 mL oxygen per dL of suspension.
The amount of oxygen in the microbubble suspensions can be
increased by centrifugation.
 A rapid and simple method for concentrating and isolating
sub-populations of lipid coated microbubbles has been developed.
This method involves the use of differential centrifugation to
isolate size-selected microbubbles based on their migration in a
 The relative centrifugal force (RCF) needed for a
microbubble size class to rise through the column of length L for
a fixed centrifugation time can be calculated. For example,
Stokes' equation for the rise velocity of a buoyant particle
relative to the bulk fluid under creeping flow conditions can be
used as follows:
 [mathematical formula]
 where subscript i refers to the microbubble size class, ri
is the microbubble radius and g is the gravitational (centrifugal)
acceleration measured in RCF. (see Kvale, et al., "Size
fractionation of gas-filled microspheres by flotation",
Separations Technology, 6(4):219-226 (1996)). The effective
viscosity, [eta]2*, of the microbubble suspension can be
calculated using Batchelor and Greene's correlation for the
modified fluid viscosity:
 [mathematical formula]
 where [Phi] is total the microbubble volume fraction for Nd
size classes. (Batchelo & Green, "Determination of Bulk Stress
in a Suspension of Spherical-Particles to Order C-2", J. of Fluid
Mech., 56: 401-427 (1972).) Equations 1-3 can be used to calculate
the strength of the centrifugal field (in RCF) for a given initial
size distribution, time period and syringe column length.
 Then the centrifuge is run at the rate calculated above to
remove the largest microbubbles, e.g. greater than 20 microns,
greater than 15 microns, or greater than 10 microns. For example,
to remove microbubbles having diameters greater than 10 microns,
the sample may be run for one cycle at 30 RCF for 1 min. Then the
cake is discarded, and the infranatant which contains the smaller
microbubbles is saved.
 If smaller microbubbles are desired, the infranatant is
redispersed in an appropriate volume of diluent, such as PBS. Then
the centrifuge can be run at a higher speed, as calculated above,
to remove the large microbubbles from the sample.
 Using this method, the amount of gas (e.g. oxygen) in the
microbubble suspensions can be increased 4-fold to 10-fold, or by
even greater amounts. For example, an unconcentrated suspension
which contained 8-10 mL oxygen per dL of suspension, was
concentrated to produce a microbubble suspensions with between 40
and 90 mL per dL of suspension.
IV. Uses for the Microbubbles
 The microbubbles may be administered to any patient, tissue
or organ in need of an increase in oxygen concentration in their
blood, tissue or organ. The microbubbles may be administered alone
or in combination with other treatments as an adjuctive therapy.
 Fully saturated whole blood with physiologic hemoglobin
contains 20 mL oxygen per dL. Microparticle suspensions can be
manufactured to contain between 40 and 70 mL oxygen per dL of
suspension. Thus, the injection of one dL of suspension can
deliver about 40-70 mL of oxygen directly to a tissue or organ in
need of immediate oxygenation.
 In preferred embodiments, the microbubbles contain oxygen
and are administered to patients experiencing local or systemic
hypoxia. Hypoxic or ischemic conditions may arise in a patient as
a result of a variety of mechanisms, including, but not limited
to, congenital physical or physiologic disease or disorders,
embolisms, including thromboembolisms, peripheral artery occlusive
disease, transient ischemic attacks, strokes, acute trauma,
surgical interventions, or exposure to chemical or environmental
agents. The microbubbles are administered in an effective amount
and at suitable rate for increasing or maintaining the PO2 in a
patient following administration. Typically, the microbubbles are
administered in an effective amount and at suitable rate to
deliver an effective amount of oxygen to a patient to ischemic
tissues or to desaturated blood in a time ranging from 0.5 to 30
seconds following administration, wherein the amount of oxygen
that is delivered is effective to restore PO2 levels to normal
levels or prevent or alleviate ischemic injury. Microbubbles
providing immediate release of oxygen are particularly preferred
for acute resuscitations and resuscitation the heart of a patient.
 In another embodiment the microbubbles provide sustained
release of oxygen. Such microbubbles may be used to deliver oxygen
to the brain and other tissues.
 Hemorrhagic Shock and Other Trauma Applications
 In acute hemorrhage, resuscitative trauma therapy focuses
upon restoration of circulating blood volume and oxygen carrying
capacity. In states of hypovolemic shock, such as resulting from
severe blood loss, the oxygen extraction ratio of peripheral
tissues is increased. The result is further desaturation of blood
returning to the right heart. Models of blunt chest trauma and
hemorrhagic shock have suggested that right ventricular (RV)
dysfunction impedes resuscitation efforts.
 In late hemorrhagic shock, myocardial ischemia causes
impaired contractility. Volume resuscitation of an ischemic,
dysfunctional right ventricle may lead to increased RV
end-diastolic volume, causing septal shift into the left ventricle
(LV), and decreased LV end-diastolic volume.
 The microbubble suspensions can be injected at an
appropriate concentration and rate to deliver oxygen directly to
the myocardium in a time period ranging from 3 to 10 second
following injection. For example, if the microbubble suspensions
contains from 40 to 70 mL oxygen per dL of suspension, the
injection of one dL of suspension could deliver approximately
40-70 mL of oxygen directly to the myocardium.
 Optionally, the microbubble suspension may contain a
specialized resuscitation fluid, such as synthetic colloid (e.g.
Hextend(R)) or hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) as the
carrier. When the microbubbles deliver oxygen directly to ischemic
tissues, they would leave behind their PEG-rich lipid shell (which
exhibits favorable oncotic properties) and carrier, serving as a
 Microbubbles as an Adjunctive Therapy
 Oxygen-carrying microparticle suspensions are a useful
adjunctive therapy in traumatic injury for several reasons.
 In patients with airway failures, injectable microbubbles
provide a route of oxygen administration which allows survival of
previously lethal injuries, such as wounds involving the airways
and those causing severe lung injury. Oxygenated microbubbles
provide a highly portable form of intravenous oxygen which may be
used to rescue such patients, allowing them to be transported to
definitive therapy without ischemic injuries to other organs.
 In patients with cardiac arrest, whether traumatic,
ischemic or otherwise, successful resuscitation depends upon
establishing a patent airway, ventilating the patient with high
oxygen concentrations and adequate chest compressions to provide
active pulmonary blood flow. All of these interventions must be in
place in order to raise coronary arterial oxygen content to
maximize the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation.
Intravenous administration of the microbubbles containing oxygen
may provide a bolus of oxygen to the right side of the heart, in
an effective amount to improve right heart function via
endocardial oxygen delivery, improve pulmonary arterial perfusion
and delivery of blood to the left side of the heart compared to no
intravenous administration of the microbubbles. Even prior to
restoration of appropriate mechanical ventilation, microbubbles
administered via intravenous injection can traverse atelectatic
lung and perfuse the left heart. The microbubbles may be delivered
to the left heart in an effective amount to decrease time to
return of spontaneous circulation and improve outcomes in cardiac
 In patients with hemorrhagic shock, in the low cardiac
output state, an intravenous injection of rapidly dissolving
oxygen microbubbles targets the myocardium (the first place the
microbubbles reach) and delivers the gas core to surrounding
endocardium. As shown in the animal studies described in the
Examples, the microbubbles can deliver an effective amount of
oxygen to rapidly improve cardiac output compared to no treatment
and serve as an adjunct therapy to volume repletion.
 A concentrated suspension of microbubbles may be added
directly to existing volume expanders in the field, which may
improve cardiovascular and cerebral resuscitation. This may serve
as a useful adjunctive therapy to rescue patients with severe
hemorrhagic shock, when myocardial ischemia leads to dysfunction,
inadequate pulmonary blood flow and systemic desaturation. The
microbubble suspensions can be design to be stable for extended
periods of time, ranging from days to weeks.
 Microvascular Operations
 Microbubbles having diameters of less than 5 microns in a
diluent such as Dextran may be administered via direct
intraarterial injection. Microbubbles that are infused towards
at-risk tissues or a recent microvascular operation, may deliver
an effective amount of oxygen to improve rheology and oxygen
content of the perfusate, and thereby improve oxygen delivery in
 As a corollary, in circumstances of focal low flow states,
such as near-amputations, microbubbles with prolonged bloodstream
persistence, such as from about 15 to about 45 seconds following
administration, may be designed such that they circulate in vivo
until local conditions favor diffusion of oxygen from the
microbubble core into ischemic tissues (i.e. when they are
surrounded by a hypoxemic milieu). Because the oxygen content of
microparticle suspensions upon injection is greater than that of
saturated whole blood (40-60 mL O2/dL suspension vs. 20 mL O2/dL
blood), continuous microbubble infusions may be used to raise the
oxygen content of circulating blood.
 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
 Oxygenated microbubble suspensions carry within them high
concentrations of oxygen. As such, they may be effective in
displacing hemoglobin scavengers, such as carbon monoxide. In
cases of severe carbon monoxide poisoning, circulating
microbubbles could deliver oxygen directly to the tissues in an
effective amount to improve hemoglobin function, providing a
portable temporizing therapy for patients with impaired hemoglobin
 Traumatic Brain Injury
 Infusion of oxygen-bearing microbubbles into the cerebral
circulation may decrease neuronal death at the ischemic penumbra.
Given the improved oxygen content of microbubble suspensions over
that of whole blood, patients with impaired cerebral blood flow,
e.g. in traumatic brain injury or intracranial hypertension,
directed administration of oxygenated microbubbles into a carotid
artery would increase the oxygen content (CaO2) of blood flow
directed to the brain, and may balance the decrease in flow with
an improvement in oxygen content. Microbubbles may be mixed in a
buffered, low viscosity solution (e.g. THAM) and may contain
antioxidants and other factors known to mitigate neuronal injury
(e.g. DHA). The polyethylene glycol moiety of the lipids utilized
in the microbubble envelope exerts significant oncotic pressure,
which may decrease vasogenic edema.
 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
 A unique feature of congenital heart disease is partial or
complete mixing of saturated and desaturated blood. In
perioperative states, systemic desaturation can lead to
significant cerebral and myocardial dysfunction. For example,
frequently patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome require
extracorporeal life support in the perioperative period primarily
to prevent death due to hypoxemia and the concomitant myocardial
dysfunction. ELSO. Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report,
International Summary; 2008 January, 2008.
 Microbubbles containing oxygen may be administered
intravenously in an effective amount to raise mixed venous oxygen
content, systemic oxygen content, and improve myocardial function
in patients in a perioperative states. Thus the microbubbles can
be administered in place of a more invasive use of extracorporeal
life support device.
 Pulmonary Hypertension
 Pulmonary hypertension remains a health care problem with
few effective therapies. Oxygen is known to be a potent pulmonary
vasodilator. Thus, the microbubbles containing oxygen may be
administered intravenously in an effective amount to raise the
oxygen content in pre-capillary pulmonary arterioles and improve
pulmonary vasodilation compared to no treatment in patients with
 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
 Refractory hypoxemia is the hallmark of acute lung injury
 Profound hypoxemia accounts for 10% of the mortality of
this common disorder. Meade et al., "Ventilation strategy using
low tidal volumes, recruitment maneuvers, and high positive
end-expiratory pressure for acute lung injury and acute
respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial."
JAMA, 299(6):637-45 (2008). Microbubbles containing oxygen may be
administered intravenously in an effective amount to alleviate the
hypoxemia associated with severe intrapulmonary shunting and
decrease the mortality and morbidity of ARDS.
 Delivery of Microbubbles to Fetuses, Neonates and
 The microbubbles may be administered to a fetus, neonate,
or infant in need of additional oxygen. The microbubbles may be
administered to low birth weight infants or premature infants. In
one embodiment, the microbubbles are administered in an effective
amount to ensure that the fetus, neonate, or infant is receiving
sufficient oxygen, particularly to ensure that the brain of the
fetus, neonate or infant receives sufficient oxygen for
development and maintenance of normal function.
 If a mother is experiencing preeclampsia, the baby must be
born. Optionally, the microbubbles can be administered to the
baby, mother, or both in effective amount to deliver an effective
amount of oxygen to maintain normal normal bodily functions when
the mother is experiencing preeclampsia.
 Neonates with hypoxic ischemic brain injury at the time of
birth often suffer from extensive brain injury, manifested as
cerebral palsy. This may occur due to even brief periods of
hypoxia during the peripartum period. In clinical situations where
this is appreciated prior to delivery, such as a nuchal cord or
placental abruption, injection of microbubbles into the umbilical
circulation or into the dural space may avert critical hypoxia and
may ameliorate some forms of hypoxic ischemic brain injury in this
 B. Methods of Administration
 The compositions containing microbubble suspensions may be
administered locally or systemically, depending on the condition
to be treated. The compositions are typically administered via
injection. In some embodiments the compositions can be
administered as continuous infusions. In some embodiments the
compositions are administered intravenously or intraarterially. In
others, the compositions are administered directly to the tissue
or organ in need of treatment.
 In one embodiment, the microbubble suspensions are stable
in storage for prolonged periods of time, and may be withdrawn and
directly injected without further alterations of the solution.
 In another embodiment, the microbubbles may be formed just
prior to administration, e.g. within seconds or minutes of
injection, by a suitable device. The methods disclosed herein
allow for rapid production of oxygen-containing microbubbles for
use in clinical settings or in the field.
 C. Rates of Administration
 The volume of the gas-filled microbubble suspension to be
administered is a function of a number of factors including, the
method of administration, the gas percentage of the microbubble
suspension, and the age, sex, weight, oxygen or carbon dioxide
tension, blood pressure, systemic venous return, pulmonary
vascular resistance, and physical condition of the patient to be
 The whole body oxygen consumption of an adult at rest is
approximately 200 mL oxygen per minute. Thus, in the setting of an
acute airway obstruction, for example, infusion of 200 mL/minute
of oxygen would prevent critical ischemic injury. For example
microbubble suspensions containing 70 mL/dL of suspension can be
administered at 285 mL/minute to transfer 200 mL/minute of oxygen
in vivo. Since most of the suspension contains oxygen gas, most of
the volume decreases following administration and release of the
gas. Values of co-administered volumes for physiologically
relevant oxygen demands are shown below in Table 1. Additionally,
when used in the setting of an acute resuscitation or in
organ-targeted oxygen delivery, volumes of co-infusate may be much
lower. For example, a 10 mL bolus of 50% (volume gas/volume
suspension) microbubbles in adults may provide a suitable amount
of oxygen to improve the survival of the organ.
List of Administration Rates for Carrier and Lipids to
100 mL/min or 200 mL/min of Oxygen
O2 Delivery 70 Vol % 90 Vol %
Carrier 100 mL/min 30 mL/min 10
Volume 200 mL/min 60 mL/min 20
Lipid Volume 100 mL/min 0.054 mL/min 0.054
200 mL/min 0.108 mL/min 0.108 mL/min
 D. Gas Release
 The microbubbles are preferably designed to release the gas
encapsulated therein quickly following administration in vivo.
Typical release times range from 0.5 seconds to 1 minute, with
shorter time periods, such as from 0.5 to 30 seconds, more
preferably from 0.5 to 10 seconds, being preferred for acute
resuscitations and resuscitations of the heart and with longer
time periods being preferred for delivery of oxygen to the brain.
 In some embodiments, the microbubbles are designed to
persist in vivo until they reach hypoxic tissue, at which time
they will release the encapsulated oxygen and the lipid envelope
 As oxygen is released and the encapsulating envelope
collapses, the lipid material sheds as micelles and vesicles,
typically having sizes ranging from 10 nm to 100 nm, which then
undergo hepatic metabolism. Due to the small size of the lipid
film relative to the radius of the microbubble, the effective
volume of lipid is approximately one thousandth of one percent of
the volume of suspension.
 The lipid material does not persist in vivo for a
sufficient time to carry carbon dioxide or other gases to the
lungs. The microbubbles generally release the encapsulated gas and
the gas is absorbed by hemoglobin prior to the first circulation
into the pulmonary vasculature. In a healthy adult patient with a
normal cardiac output, the release of the encapsulated gas
typically occurs from 4 to 5 seconds following injection, or
March 24, 2014
An Electric Thinking Cap Increases
Learning Capacity Of The Brain
Cannot study for an upcoming exam and wished there was a magic to
help to pass? Well, your wish just came true in the form of an
electric thinking cap that speeds up learning and can give you an
almost super human learning power. So you know what we learn from,
don’t you? Mistakes. We learn from mistakes and scientists have
come up with a method that will help you learn from your mistakes
faster than usual and the next time you will do the task without
making the same mistake again.
The medial frontal cortex of the brain is believed to be
responsible for instinctive response when we make a mistake.
Previous studies have shown that a spike of negative voltage
originates from medial frontal cortex, milliseconds after the
person makes a mistake but they never answer why. Researchers
Robert Reinhart and Geoffrey Woodman from Vanderbilt University
tested this observation that this activity influences learning by
allowing the brain to learn from our mistakes.
They carried out experiment to test:
If it’s possible to control the brain’s electrophysiological
response to mistakes.
If its effect could be intentionally regulated up and down
depending on the direction of an electrical current applied to it.
And how long the result would last and whether the results could
be applied to other tasks.
The bi-directionality regulated the up and down, depending on the
direction of current given. The bi-directionality had been
observed in other animals but not humans.
Researchers applied 20 min of transcranial direct current
stimulation (tDCS) by using an elastic headband that had two
electrodes conducted by saline soaked sponges to the cheek and the
crown of the head. In the process, a mild direct current travels
from the anodal electrode through skin, muscle, bones, brain and
out through the cathodal electrode. It does not cause any
discomfort but a few seconds of tingling or itching. Three
sessions were carried out randomly on the subjects who were given
either anodal current that traveled from electrode on the head to
the cheek or cathodal in which current traveled from cheek to head
or a sham condition in which the tingling sensation was replicated
under the electrodes that did not affect brain. The subjects were
able to tell difference.
After 20 min of stimulation, subjects were given a learning task
in which they had to figure out which buttons on the game
controller correspond to specific colors displayed on a monitor.
Occasionally, a signal was displayed for the subject not to
respond and they had less than a second to respond, all of which
made the task quite difficult to provide more opportunities to
make mistakes and thus for medial frontal cortex to respond.
The moment subjects made mistakes, their electrical brain activity
was measured. This helped the researchers understand how brain
activity changed on electrical stimulation.
When anodal current was applied, the spike of negative voltage
from medial frontal cortex was twice larger. This was reflected in
their behavior because they made few mistakes and learned from
them more quickly as compared to sham stimulation. When cathodal
current was given , the result was totally opposite as the spike
was quite smaller and the subjects made more errors and took
longer to learn the task. It was found that the effects of a 20
min stimulation did transfer to other tasks and lasted about 5
It has greater capacity to change learning skill than any
pharmaceutical products or psychological therapies ever invented.
It cannot only make you less vulnerable to making mistakes while
performing a task but also more adaptable to new and changing
situations and makes you take more cautions.
This awesome invention can help you get through exam, any business
obstacle or even if you want to invent something while wearing it,
you can invent which you cannot do under normal circumstances with
average spike of voltage.
Get smart : Osculate bosoms
Moderation of breastfeeding effects on
the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism
Avshalom Caspi, et al.
Children’s intellectual development is influenced by both genetic
inheritance and environmental experiences. Breastfeeding is one of
the earliest such postnatal experiences. Breastfed children attain
higher IQ scores than children
not fed breast milk, presumably because of
the fatty acids uniquely available in breast milk. Here we
show that the association between
breastfeeding and IQ is moderated by a genetic
variant in FADS2, a gene involved in the genetic control of fatty
acid pathways. We confirmed this gene-environment interaction in
two birth cohorts, and we ruled out alternative explanations of
the finding involving gene–exposure correlation, intrauterine
growth, social class, and maternal cognitive ability, as well as
maternal genotype effects on breastfeeding and breast milk. The
finding shows that environmental exposures can be used to uncover
novel candidate genes in complex phenotypes. It also shows that
genes may work via the environment to shape the IQ, helping to
close the nature versus nurture debate.
*** Social Studies 101 ***
The Collapse of Complex Societies
Joseph A. Tainter
[ PDF ]
The Dumbest People Ever
by P.J. Watson
Dr Paul Craig Roberts @ his best :
Dr Paul Craig Roberts: GREAT DANGERS AHEAD
- June 2015
Rex-ommended Viewing :
Mind the Matrix FULL FILM
June 22, 2015
Smoking Gun: Active Shooter Drills
Charleston S.C. Day of Shooting.
Resistance Journals Special Report!
Andrew Pontbriand (Allison Fey contributing) — Resistance Journal
June 21, 2015
...What are the chances that the government (DHS) would be doing
an “Active Shooter Drill,” in the same exact town, on the same
exact day that a mass shooting takes place? The answer? Quite
frankly, almost NONE. No chance.
Furthermore, Jeff Giles from Major Mind job, asked the same
question I did as well, which was “what are the chances a State
Senator would die in a mass shooting?” According to Jeff Giles
numbers, 1 in 1.3 trillion...\
SMOKING GUN: DHS Drill During SC
26 February 2014
British Intelligence: Obama born in
Kenya; CIA’s DNA test shows Dunhams not his grandparents
Michael Shrimpton is a British barrister (attorney), an adviser to
British intelligence, and a serious person.
He also is a contributing columnist for the blog, Veterans Today.
This is his biographical sketch on Veterans Today:
Shrimpton has his own blog, The Shrimpton Report. His email
address is firstname.lastname@example.org. And Wikipedia used to have an
entry on him
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Michael_Shrimpton), but if you
go to that URL, you’ll get the messsage: “This page has been
After you’ve read this post, you’ll know why Wikipedia scrubbed
its page on Michael Shrimpton.
Shrimpton was a speaker at a forum, date unknown, but probably
sometime in 2008 (more on this later). Beginning at the 1:42 mark
of the video below, Shrimpton dropped a bombshell about Obama.
Shrimpton made the following startling claims:
Although Barack Hussein Obama (BHO) is said to have been born on
August 4, 1961, he actually was born in 1960.
Obama’s alleged mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, was not pregnant in
Although BHO is said to have been born in Honolulu, Hawaii, he
actually was born in Mombasa, Kenya, which was then British
territory, which means British intelligence has his records.
The C.I.A. surreptiously took a DNA sample of Obama at a
fundraising dinner and ran a test, but could not match Obama’s DNA
with his [maternal] grandparents, the Dunhams.
Former New York governor and GOP presidential aspirant Rudy
Giuliani told Shrimpton at a recent lunch that he (Giuliani) knows
all about this. Giuliani had hoped he would be the GOP
presidential candidate and he’d then use the information against
The Clintons (Bill and Hillary) also know about this.
For the rest of the 1½ hour video, Shrimpton talked about British
politics and the European Union. However, at the 1:09:30 mark, a
man in the audience asked Shrimpton a question about Obama and
Kenya. In his response, beginning at about the 1:11:55 mark,
Shrimpton alluded to the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign as if it
was ongoing as he spoke, which suggests that the forum took place
in 2008. Shrimpton also made these additional claims:
He believes, given the above British intelligence on the year
(1960, not 1961) and place (Kenya, not USA) of Obama’s birth,
Obama would “soon be pressured into withdrawing” from the
presidential race. With the benefit of hindsight, we of course
know that didn’t happen.
Senator John Edwards also knows because Shrimpton had briefed him.
Former CIA director (under Bill Clinton) also knows. Shrimpton
does not name him. Clinton had 3 successive CIA directors: James
Woolsey, John Deutsch, and George Tenet.
The Kenyan government, of course, knows.
The UK newspaper Daily Telegraph also knows.
The Honolulu press is aware that Obama’s birth records in
Honolulu’s Queens Medical Center are fake. The Honolulu Advertiser
Sen. John McCain knows.
British Intelligence knows because MI5 got the Nairobi Special
Intelligence files when Kenya became independent.
Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations from 1997 to
2006, also knows.
Shrimpton also said something very strange — that Obama’s
half-sister is actually his full sister, and that the sister is
“missing.” (The only “half sister” of Obama about whom we are told
is Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of Stanley Ann Dunham and her
Indonesian husband, Lolo Soetoro.)...
<== I'm with Stupid ==>
Brasting News from Lala-Land :
It's Not The Economy, Stupid. It's The
Dr J S Chiappalone
This is a lengthy, detailed essay which to some may appear a
little disjointed. But stay with me as I attempt, in a few words,
to establish the baseline for the Plan of the Imminent
Extermination of ‘Humanity’ and this Planet, along with all the
structures in this Galaxy!
For over 30 years I have attempted to deliver a Message of
Finality for ‘Human Existence’.
However, the Message has been thwarted by the Fools all of them
ignorant, and the majority of them EVIL.
The Message was, and is, for all people to prepare mentally,
emotionally and spiritually for the end of this Physical
This IS the Final Generation for “Humanity” and for Planet Earth!
Physical existence is a sham! It is an Illusion!!
Think about it: We are born. Some die almost immediately. Many
others die after 50, 60, 70 or so years. The few that live longer
are, in general, useless, demented cretins who soak up the major
portion of Social Services and the Health Dollar. Few are wealthy
enough to be independent of public resources.
The fact that Re-incarnation occurs (yes it does!) only compounds
the stupidity of recycling idiocy into the Physical. I will refer
to this topic again below.
Physical Existence has all been an Evil Plot to trap the True
Spirits in flesh, and exploit them for all they are worth, by the
Evil Mind that developed this Evil Scheme.
This is a difficult point of the Gnostic Ancient Wisdom to
comprehend if you are meeting it for the first time. I suggest you
start by reading my website, if you want to understand what it
means and then perhaps read my books in the little time that
remains for a more complete comprehension of the Status Quo.
It was certainly not a benign, loving Entity who thought up this
Abomination called the Physical Universe. (My Kingdom is not of
this World! Jesus said, as per John 8:36
Forget the Fools, such as the brain-dead Scientists, who claim all
we are, and see around us, is an accident of Unknown Idiocy. They
may be that, but the rest of us are not!
There are Levels of Consciousness beyond Humanity that contain,
and create, Good and Evil things.
This Physical Universe is Evil. It is the Product of EVIL
It has been created by an Evil Mind that lives on exploitation of
energy from those who have it. Not all consciousnesses have the
energy that is needed for existence for they are NOT true
‘God-created’ consciousnesses. For details you will have to read
my books, or at least glance at my website: www.jchiappalone.com
Think for a moment. Is not this existence of ours run on a
Would a Just, Loving Creator really create this mess of pain,
suffering, misery, mendacity, hypocrisy, murder, deceit,
injustice, exploitation, disease, injury and death?
Why does the Creator in control seem to favour the biggest
bastards over the innocent ones?
Yes, in the main, those in control are big, big, spiritual
bastards, as you will learn if you read my books.
The evil Fools (the Archons, Elite, Illuminati, Reptilians,
Demons) are clever and stupid at the same time.
They lay the blame for this mess on ‘Man’ for ‘sinning’.
And both mindless idiots and stuporous innocent ones, who, on this
level, were cut off from the Truth of the Greater Reality, have
swallowed this tripe for a long, long time.
What is “Sin”? It is a definition the Evil Ones give to exploit
and punish the rest of us.
Common Man’s Sin is in believing what these Evil Shills tell us,
even after the Truth is revealed.
If this Mess called Human Existence, with all its misery and
ignorance, was really due to Man’s Sins, how long do you think it
would take “man to wake up and correct the situation? 5 Minutes
perhaps? Most would want to do it instantly, don’t you think?
But no correction has ever happened, has it?
Of course not! That is because this Evil Mess in which we live has
nothing to do with “Man”.
The System has been created by an Evil Entity this way for ‘its’
benefit, not Man’s.
If, at this late hour, as you look around a World that is about to
explode, due to Evil, and you do not belief in Evil, you do not
deserve to exist any longer. And you won’t! You are brain-dead.
And soon you will be totally dead Physically, Ethereally,
Astrally, and Spiritually. The fact that you do not know what that
implies is of no concern. All you need to know is that very soon
you will no longer exist in any manner, shape or form!
If you know a little more and are aware of Re-incarnation, the
evil distortion of Religions, History, Science, the Media, the
Injustice System, etc., etc., you may still be in the Dark.
Ok, so you know about Aliens and UFO’s, about the Annunaki, the
Zetas and the Pleiadians, and so on. Big deal! They are all
non-local aspects of Physicality.
So you read that the Annunaki created Modern Man by genetic
manipulating of monkey-type precursors. Again, big deal! All they
did was modify the PHYSICAL BODY in which to trap the same
consciousnesses and use them as subservient entities, physically
created in their image.
They themselves were, and are, Evil Bastards who are part of the
Plot of Exploitation. Bet you didn’t know that, did you?
And they are in physical bodies too, ruling this place as they
wish. Yep, nearly all of the Elite who occupy positions of Power
and Governance on this evil, evil Earth are Annunaki Reptiles.
They will shortly meet their DOOM, as will all others of Evil who
have been diagnosed as Non-Viable Entities.
Diagnosed as non-Viable? Then there must be Viable entities?
Indeed there are.
So, ‘Judgement’ of Consciousness has already occurred?
Indeed it has. That is the Final Judgment the shills are telling
you is still to take place.
What does this Viability mean?
It means that those who have been diagnosed as worthy will
continue their existence in an Evil-free Dimension. This dimension
is being TOTALLY destroyed!
The ones diagnosed as non-Viable will be TRANSMUTED. They will
cease to exist FOREVER!
Viability means that those beings can, and will, live in Peace,
Harmony, and Love, unlike the Evil Bastards who don’t even know
what those words of Peace, Harmony and Love mean.
There are, on this level, two intermingling Creations: a Benign
One and an Evil One.
I will give you examples of the Evil One which will support the
case for extermination of this Evil Existence. This extermination
is going on right now and we are all intimately involved in the
process as I shall explain.
Regarding the Evil Creation and its Evil Bastards, I refer you to
what Jesus is said to have said:
John 8: 44 “For you are the children of your father the DEVIL,
and you love to do the evil things he does. He was a murderer from
the beginning. He has always hated the TRUTH, because there is no
TRUTH in him. When he lies, it is consistent with his character;
for he is a liar and the father of lies.”
Those Evil bastards, Sons and Daughters of the Evil Curse, are
You don’t really need an example of their Evil and Hypocrisy, do
you, at this late stage?
OK. Let’s go to the incident called 9/11, as an example, which I
said was the Key to the Collapse of the USA.
Those ‘citizens’, in charge of the USA, who planned it and lied
about it, are all Annunaki Reptiles. They exist as most of you now
know, in the human bodies. Their eyes reveal their true nature.
Feel free to search for other material yourself on this topic.
With the 9/11 plot, they (these Reptilian Demons who were, or are
still, in charge) unscrupulously murdered the 3,000 plus people,
their own citizens. The plot was premeditated. It was no accident.
And it was meticulously, extensively planned, as are most of their
Evil Moves and Wars as you will see in due course.
These are Demons, made of Evil Stuff.
They cannot create anything but EVIL.
They use evil methods to attain evil gains.
As I implied, they have no guilt, no scruples, no honesty, no
benign consciousness, no morals or ethics whatsoever. And the
personnel in the Judiciary, the Media, and the Military that they
select to protect them are, in the main, of exactly the same
ontology. Those that are not are bribed, threatened or removed.
Many, many with scruples, as History reveals, have been
‘suicided’. I give some examples below.
These Reptilian Demons hypocritically blamed innocent Nations and
bombed the existence out of them, murdering millions while
stealing their wealth. In the meantime, they turned the USA into
an exploitative prison where the other 99.99% of the population
were humiliated and made to suffer inexorably with the new
alphabet groups that joined the jungle of pre-existing ones:
They (the Evil Archons, Demons, and Reptiles) are incapable of
speaking Truth, because such ‘people, beings, illicit, evil
consciousnesses’ don’t know what Truth is.
Here is one little example:
President G.W. Bush claimed, instantly on being told of the Towers
being attacked, within that hour, that he saw the first plane hit
the towers on TV. WHAT???? How big a lie was that? The only film
of the first plane crashing was released a day AFTER the event and
a day after he said this. Why have the truthful people not erupted
in indignation about all those lies?
Next: Lies upon lies, upon lies, upon lies.
This is nothing but EVIL!!
This is NOT a one-off occasion.
Villainous Untruth is always presented as Truth by the Evil
The Norm for them, and for this Plane of Existence which they
fully control, has always been to distort Truth, wherever it
appears, and to make it non-sensical and perverse, inducing
Ignorance, Hate and Malice.
Do you recall how incensed the populace was that day after the
initial shock passed? They were willing to retaliate on that day
of 9/11? They were willing to attack and murder anybody, anywhere
to gain revenge.
That was the whole purpose of 9/11 - to mobilize violence, hate,
anarchy and murder, the very things that feed those of Evil.
Truth is murdered in all the following areas of Human Existence on
Government: You don’t really need me to tell you politicians and
governments lie to everybody do you?
Science: They are expert at camouflage. Look back through History
and see how Evil Science has been.
The latest lying fiasco, of course, is the way NASA has lied to us
about the existence of Planet X. Cursed they are indeed. The
honest scientists who want to reveal the Truth are silenced by
blackmail, or else are ‘suicided”
Here is Dr David Morrison, on behalf of NASA denying the existence
of Planet X:
Dr Harrington’s murder is an excellent example of silencing those
with the Truth that the Archons do not want revealed:
Religions: There is no greater perversion of Truth than what
religions present. Read my book ‘Death of an Evil God’ for
History being written at ALL times by the victors in any
conflict, what else would you expect but lies, lies, and more
lies. See the reports on Hitler and the Holocaust below.
Medicine: Now you would think this Discipline would be on the
Check out the dishonesty of the FDA,
Check out the evilness of the Cancer Industry:
Doctors are the Third Leading Cause of Death
Death by Medicine and Medical Errors:
Psychiatry: This farcical aspect of Medicine has no soul. Read my
The most classical errors are in the non-recognition of
Schizophrenia’s cause (discarnates and demonic entities invading
damaged centres of consciousness) and its poisonous treatments.
Read this and shudder:
The Food Industry: The Complete History of Monsanto, “The World’s
Most Evil Corporation”
The Pharmaceutical Industry,
Dr Peter Gøtzsche: Big Pharma Is Organized Crime
The Injustice Systems of the world: It is not just the case of
innocent ones imprisoned:
Think of the false reasons for destroying, with horrendous war,
other Nations which can hardly defend themselves against the lies.
Think of the Corrupt Courts and Politicians which uphold the lies.
The Iraq war was a perfect example, was it not?
The Mass Media: Hollywood and the General Mass Media play their
parts to distribute lie upon lie upon lie and also corrupt the
honesty and the morality of innocent victims, for that is what
some of the audiences are, in contrast to these monstrous demonic
Here are 2 par excellence examples that further expose the Evil
distortion of facts:
1 Adolf Hitler: The Most Lied about Man in History
* [ But he's still a psychopathic asshole --
2 The Holocaust Hoax Exposed by Victor Thorn (Barnes review)
Get it and read it!
I have gone to some length to make this point of Evil’s Untruth in
society, for in every facets of existence on this level that you
can name you will find Untruth and the Perversion of Truth. If you
want more details, read my website and books.
Why is it so? Jesus had the answer, as revealed in the Gospel of
Thomas (Nag Hammadi Library
‘The sacerdotes (priests, those in charge) have taken the Keys of
Knowledge and hidden them’
Matthew 23:113: “But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees,
hypocrites! For you shut the kingdom of heaven in people’s faces.
For you neither enter yourselves nor allow those who would enter
to go in.”
My point is that this ‘Human” existence is an evil pack of lies,
And it must be brought to an End, as it shall be!
Fear Not! Evil Beings are cursed by their Evilness.
Once out of the Physical each being will receive exactly what it
deserves, no more and no less!
Do some of the Merry Cans reading this essay find it hard to
believe that their illustrious and eminent Leaders, controllers of
the wealthiest, and militarily the most potent, Nation on Earth
are capable of such deception, mendacity, and hypocritically
murderous acts that others clearly see, in 9/11, and in all the
other wars in which they have engaged?
For elucidation of such Evil, and the reason why it exists as it
does, consider these facts:
At Foundation, the Fathers of the fledgling United States
dedicated the Nation to the Evil Principal, Satan, no less.
All bar 2 of the Founding Fathers were Masons who worshipped, and
continue to worship, even in this day and age, Satan.
Watch the video below to dispel any doubt that indeed that is what
I guess some of you will want to know the names of the 2
exceptions. B. F. and T. P. are the two.
BTW, there is an evil creep (a Vulturite Reptilian no less) called
Steffan Stanford who claims he is the re-incarnation of Thomas
Paine. Lend him no ear. He is an evil fool and he was certainly
Since its inception, the USA has been the most notoriously cruel
and efficient tool of the Evil Principle.
It has waged unjust war on more countries than people can
virtually count, and it has been an instrument of murder, pain,
torture and pilfery, never seen in the History of Modern Man.
Apart from the facts of 9/11, consider the lies that the Leaders
have used for all the wars enumerated in the articles below and
all the illegal and criminal abuse and torture of victims that it
has refused to disclose but which are well known by those who
truly seek the Truth. Getting their Courts to rule that details
will not be publically disclosed adds insult to injury.
As the evil Karma which the USA has earned makes itself known to
its people who supported it in its iniquities, you will know the
trauma to ensue was earned by the spilling of blood of many
innocents in the last 200 years or so.
Read of prosaic reasons for America’s wars:
The real, but esoteric reason for the never-ending bellicosity is
the fact that these wars are conducted for the Evil Essence to
gain energy from the trapped TRUE souls on this planet.
(AS to why I say TRUE souls, you will have to read my website
Thus, all this time the USA has been efficiently doing the work of
Satan, whether you want to believe it or not.
Under those circumstances, how could the Real GOD Consciousness
It is true that the people whom they ruled were, and to some
extent are still, blinded to these facts. But, no more! Now with
all the afflictions they have imposed on American citizens,
including Jade Helm, we have the abundantly clear cue to awaken
fully to the evil that has us all trapped in this “Human
On this level, as on all physical levels, we are in a War of
That is why prophecy is not always accurate. Often it is used as
Propaganda to fool the other side in the War. For example, I said
a massive Earthquake would hit California in late May this year in
a recent radio Show with Jeff Rense. Nothing much happened apart
from lots and lots of other earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
everywhere else around the Pacific Rim. Well, I did give a 4%
window of it not happening in the show. But, a far more massive
event will occur in the future, make no mistake about that.
Let’s move on.
These Evil Bastards created by the Essence of Evil, in its Image,
do not acknowledge any Truth.
They do NOT respond to True, Universal Love. They do not possess
it either. Sure, they respond to Emotional Love which is a
biological phenomenon created by our hormones. In place of True
Love they have unfathomable GREED and LUST.
These evil beings exist everywhere throughout the Universe or what
remains of it!
Why do I say that?
Well, while we Humans have been isolated to such an extent that
the majority don’t even believe in LIFE outside of our little nest
called Earth, 95-96% of the Physical Universe has been purposely
dismantled by the ‘Sons’ of the True Light. Mind you, there is no
gender in spiritual existence.
Yes, once the Error occurred and the Evil Mind that spawned it
refused to allow correction of the Error that spawned Evil, a War
ensued whose endpoint we on Earth are to experience in the next
The entire illicit Physical Universe is being dismantled brick by
brick. Over 95% is already gone.
The Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the result of dismantling
‘normal’ Matter created by Evil.
Those substances cannot now sustain consciousness and will
disappear when the dimension is totally dismantled and “closed”.
It is now the turn of this Galaxy, called the Milky Way, to
undergo this fate.
That is why the consciousnesses in all classes within it have been
diagnosed as either Viable or non-Viable. This includes the
Elementals in the Mineral Class, Consciousness in Vegetation, the
Animals Consciousnesses, Humans, the beings in the 5th Class which
is the Devic Kingdom where Angles, Devas, and the evil, ruling
Demons come from, the Galactic Class which spawns the
consciousness of planets, Comets, Meteors and Solar Systems, etc.,
etc., and finally Class 7 the Universal Consciousness.
You don’t believe this?
Ask your friendly Astronomer to find what happened to the 95% of
the Physical Universe that is missing!
The Whole Galaxy is being destroyed and all the evil components
trashed back into Primordial Energy so that the EVIL in them can
no longer manifest.
Have you not been paying attention to the skies?
Have you not seen photos of other Galaxies being destroyed or
swallowed up by massive Black Holes?
Have you not been aware of the disintegration of Mars, and
Jupiter, and Neptune, and Venus, etc.?
Where have you been? Asleep?
I repeat: The Whole Galaxy is scheduled for demolition, and that
includes our physical home the Earth.
From the outset, 30 years ago I mentioned the destructive process
to affect Earth, including meteors, comets and rogue planetary
bodies. It is the Final Solution to the Problem of Evil.
That meteors strike the Earth is a fact. The timing of future ones
Planet X is a rogue Planetary Constellation, is it not?
You don’t believe it exists? Do your homework.
The Elite are attempting to keep the general populace blind and
stupefied by many means, including Chemtrails, Fluoride in
drinking water, GMO food products, drugs, legalized Marijuana with
which to pacify the fools that consume it, etc., etc.
But, they know it is a pointless exercise and that sooner rather
than later the populations at large will know of the danger Planet
X presents to unprepared ones who will panic in the extreme. That
is why the Military of all Nations has been primed to corral and
kill those who react with anger and create anarchy.
What those Military fools obeying such orders don’t realize is
that, apart from shooting and killing their own Nationals, their
own parents and families, their own children and friends, they are
exposed to the same dangers and death processes as everyone else.
Why can they not see that? They have been drugged enough to become
mindless automatons, unthinking, valueless, robotic beings.
The real answer to what is before us is not to fool the masses and
then kill those who complain and the revolutionaries.
What is the real answer? The real answer, for which it is almost
too late, was to tell people the Truth, as I have been trying to
do for 30 years, and advise them to prepare for the Physical
Extermination of the Planet and the PHYSICAL Human Race.
But, the evil fools who are the Elite think they can outrun this
danger by hiding as rats do in their DUMPS (Deep Underground
I am here to tell you they cannot cheat their Fate. They will NOT
They will be subjected to the same diagnostic fate as the rest.
And, being failures, they will undergo that which awaits them.
The Russian, Norwegian & Brazilian Governments have all made
some efforts to inform their Populace about the Pending Danger
from Planet X
The Evil Essence could never get anything correct. That is why
everything in the Physical broke, and still breaks down. Some say
Murphy’s Law in this evil environment is optimistic.
Anyhow, this Planet X Constellation has been a curse to this Solar
System for a long time. But this will be the last time, for it and
the whole Solar System and the Galaxy, like I said, are being
Within this month of June, 2015, and certainly in July, Planet X
will probably be visible to the naked eye from everywhere on
planet Earth. It will grow larger and larger in the sky for all to
Its effects on the planet will increase with an unmistakeable
It will get warmer;
The Earth will boil from within;
Volcanic Eruptions will lead to more problems as will the
Earthquakes and Tsunamis that follow.
Apart from the dust and meteorites in the tail of the
Constellation that will bombard and suffocate all life on the
planet, in due course, there are 2 other major meteors scheduled
to strike Earth and cause massive destruction, one in September
and one in November this year.
By mid-March 2016, the Iron Oxide Dust from Planet X will be so
effusive on Earth that most aerobes will perish and water,
massively polluted, will be deadly to living things.
Revelations 16:3: The second angel poured out his bowl on the sea,
and it turned into blood like that of a dead person, and every
living thing in the sea died.
Revelations 16:4: Then the third angel poured out his bowl on the
rivers and springs, and they became blood.
As Planet X approaches us and then heads outward again, its
magnetic and gravitational effects will cause the Earth to fall on
its Physical Axis and the displaced Seas will drown everything
even as the Earth fractures.
The fools who thought they would survive this calamity will be
boiled in, and drowned by, the lava seeping up from the depths of
No one will survive to the end of 2016 according to the
information at hand.
What about all the accounts of time-travellers who give accounts
of Earth way beyond the 21st Century?
They are either recounting implanted thoughts or else relating
stories of existence in parallel physical dimensions which are
more advanced than this one, still evil, yet similar, and also
scheduled for destruction.
I have had this information to distribute since 1985. Few
What is the point of it all?
The point is for ALL people, especially the Viables, to prepare
Mentally, Emotionally and Spiritually.
So, we are ALL going to physically die?
So what? Who cares?
Do you know how many times you have physically died? It is
thousands of times for sure. And yet you are still in existence,
are you not?
It is the Ignorance imposed on us by the Evil Controller that
denies us this knowledge. The physical bodies have a Filtering
Mechanism that prevents us from recalling our Past Lives and
Experiences. That fact in itself is evil. Why should we not have
Not knowing who we are, and were, and what has happened to us
makes us easier targets to be exploited by this cruel, very Evil
System in which we live. Indeed it is an Illusion of a Virtual
Reality which must, and will be, destroyed totally.
Using certain abilities, some people are able to bypass the
Filtering Mechanisms and recall Past Lives on Earth, on other
planets, in other Galaxies, in sub-dimensions and also lives in
the Astral World.
Some children under the age of 8, in particular, are able to
recall Past Lives, and the literature is replete with such
examples. Here are 2:
Physical Death is no more that the Consciousness moving out of the
useless and obviously dysfunctional meat bag Cardboard Box as
I like to call it, into another level of existence.
On death, one will experience something similar to what Near Death
But now, as it is the Endtime for this Galaxy, the ethereal and
Astral Realms around each planet are being dismantled and each
consciousness will be in the “Void”, twixt Heaven and Hell as it
There it will be given its assessment.
Those to proceed will go to where they are directed.
Those who are to be terminated will go into Transmutation Vats and
will soon be gone forever.
But, for the very Evil Demons, it is not a simple matter of
‘Lights Out’. No; they will pay a heavy price for the iniquities
they forced innocent ones to bear. I will not go into detail lest
you become even more stirred than what you already are with this
Divine Justice will prevail.
Mercy is wasted on the Evil Ones, for they know not genuine
This brings me to the idiotic and very evil shills you will come
across on the Internet urging you to hurry up and repent as ‘Jesus
the Christ’ is coming!
They are as stupid as they are evil.
You cannot be saved by saying a few words in a state of self-pity.
‘Jesus the Christ’ is not coming in the future.
“He”, that Energy/Consciousness, has been on the planet for quite
I wrote above that the ‘Final Judgement’ has already occurred and
that the course of spiritual separation of Viables and Non-Viables
has already been set.
In fact, it occurred before November 1999 when the majority of
Theomorphic Viables, about one billion individuals, were
spiritually evacuated. You can read about hat in my essay called
“The Phase of the Shells” on this site and on my website.
What these evil shills and idiots on the internet are calling the
“Lord” is Planet X, a bomb for the physical.
So, let’s end this essay with a very important question.
How does one know if s/he is a viable?
That’s easy to answer. Read the following carefully.
After you have bypassed the shock of what I have written, the
shock felt on your outer mind, and after you have bypassed those
eruptive emotions within you, and after you have settled down and
contemplated on this essay, and its Message, and after you have
even had a good night’s sleep and thought deeply about his, how do
you feel, deep within your soul?
If you are truly joyous at seeing the end of all the Pain,
Suffering and Misery this world contains, and which are shocking
the very life out of you and all ‘good’ people, and you are
impatient to see the end of all Evil and willing to journey forth
to a Home of Truth, Peace, Love and Eternal Tranquillity, then
friend, get ready to zoom into the Evil-free dimension.
If you are frightened witless by this essay, I urge you to
contemplate the information in it further. All may not be lost.
Cleanse you mind and body. Get off alcohol, meat, most dairy
products, and illicit drugs. Wave your evil friends goodbye. You
know who they are. These are all instruments of pollution which
cut your spiritual sight. Turn your mind to things of importance,
to the Numinous, and then see how you feel.
If you are externally angered by what I have written, but in all
honesty feel fear in the very depth of your being, prepare to meet
the real Godforce who will direct you.
If you laugh this information off, you are an oaf who does not
deserve to continue.
I will be seeing all the Viables ON THE OTHER SIDE.
THERE IS NO CHANCE WE WILL MISS EACH OTHER.
Where do I get the audacity (and authority) to write such an
Who do I think I am to scare people this way?
My aim is not to scare anyone.
My aim is to prepare all of you for the inevitable.
My identity is not important.
What IS important is the answer to this question: Are you Viable
You will know the answer to that question as soon as you decipher
Here is a detailed lecture about “What’s Going On?” which I gave
in Brisbane in November 2012 :
America the Mad Bomber :
Belgian Congo 1964
Dominican Republic 1965-66
El Salvador 1981-92
Yugoslavia – Serbia 1999
Why the Right to Vote in the United
States is a Fraud
Pao L. Chang
28 U.S. Code § 3002 : 15 and 15(A)
““United States”[ viz., Washington D.C. ] means — (A) a Federal
USA Bankrupt : President Roosevelt in Executive Orders 6073, 6102,
6111, and finally, as consolidated in Executive Order 6260,
The United States defined as “…the District of Columbia et
alia” went “Bankrupt” in 1933 and was declared so by President
Roosevelt in Executive Orders 6073, 6102, 6111, and finally, as
consolidated in Executive Order 6260,
(See: Senate Report 93-549, pages 187 & 594) under the
“Trading With The Enemy Act” (Sixty-Fifth Congress, Sess. I,
Chs. 105, 106, October 6, 1917), and as codified at 12 U.S.C.A.
How many nations has the USA bombed since 9/11?? ANSWER : 14
June 10, 2015
Putin Long Dead Says Ex-Wife
The mystery swirling around Vladimir Putin has just gotten
According to Putin’s ex wife, former First Lady of Russia Lyudmila
Putina, Putin has been long dead and she refused to cooperate with
Power Elite in this ruse.
She claims that Putin’s assassination had been in the works for
some time and was a well plotted out plan.
Putina also claims her and her daughter were threatened with death
if they didn’t play along.
Translation of German article:
A german newspaper ie Welt published a sensational interview with
former First Lady of Russia Lyudmila Putina.
My husband, unfortunately, have long been dead.
I have to admit it publicly, because I could no longer see what is
happening on his behalf.
It’s terrible people.
They did not stop at nothing.
I am afraid that now they will kill me and daughters as well as
Our family was not exactly perfect.
When I got married, I was in love with intelligence officers. But
the reality was quite different.
Putin was a vile, cruel man, a tyrant.
He never considered me, simply did not notice my existence.
I needed it only for reference and the composition of the family
as a mother for his children.
I find it hard to talk about it, but Putin beat me, humiliated,
made fun of me.
Life with him was torture.
I tried to fight, not just going to file for divorce.
But this man did not have anything sacred.
To silence me, he handed me over to a psychiatric clinic.
I went through all the circles of hell … narcotics, psychotropic
For a long time I was locked up in prison for a long time and I
never saw sunlight never seen people.
I still remember it with horror.
From young and self-confident woman, I became a shadow, my will
was broken, I sogalsilas all conditions, only to come out.
But that began after his death, all is beyond description.
He was then a difficult period.
I’m sure he did not tell, I became even more withdrawn.
A month before the death of the night, without warning brought
daughters – I do not even know where.
And then he was gone completely.
At night we came home, some people – some of them I knew, someone
saw the first time.
Break everything upside down, we reviewed all the papers, all the
walls in the house rattled.
They told me only one thing: “If you want to live – be silent.”
All questions about her husband briefly replied that he would soon
come that he important retreat and in the interest of national
security is not worth it to me with anybody to discuss.
A few days later came his first … understudy.
Later I learned that the murder of Vladimir prepared ahead of
time, it eliminated when the first twin was almost ready to take
Outwardly, he was of course very much like Putin – I was
But it was a completely different person.
They somehow managed to track down the girls.
And I issued an ultimatum – or I play the role of devoted wife or
me or daughters no longer live.
I had no choice. I first tried to avoid public events.
Corrosive media attention, intrigue and gossip – all this sickens
But I pretend to be the wife of another man was even worse.
So they prepared a double for me – when I say that something does
not go as planned scenario, wipe out embarrassments.
If they had time to bring my double to more or less successful
similarities would have killed me long ago.
Miraculously, we managed to escape.
For obvious reasons, I can not call the people who have helped us
to stop this terrible dramatization and escape.
“Divorce” was my deliverance.
Now I live abroad, I’m fine.
But I’m afraid to see what is happening with Russia.
People come to your senses!
You live like beggars, barely making ends meet, because you
mercilessly obovorovyvayut and deceive.
And now there is a question of the survival of the indigenous
people of Russia.
If you do not stop a coward and ignore what is happening in the
country – you do not live.
So could this account by Putina be true?
Is Vladimir dead and been dead for some time now?
The conspiracy surrounding the question of body doubles and fake
Putins is confirmed by his ex wife.
Another possible ocnfirmation to this is last year WorldTruth.Tv
published an article titled ‘NWO Attempted Assassination of
Vladimir Putin, But Got the Wrong Plane‘ and I got a lot of slack
for publishing the truth.
Now the elite have completed their agenda, they actually got to
Vladimir Putin and he was killed and replaced with a body double.
The German newspaper Die Welt published a sensational interview
with former First Lady of Russia Lyudmila Putina.
My husband, unfortunately, have long been dead.
I have to admit it publicly, because I could no longer see what is
happening on his behalf. It’s terrible people.
They did not stop at nothing. I am afraid that now they will kill
me and daughters as well as killed him.
Our family was not exactly perfect.
When I got married, I was in love with intelligence officers.
But the reality was quite different. Putin was a vile, cruel man,
He never considered me, simply did not notice my existence.
I needed it only for reference and the composition of the family
as a mother for his children.
I find it hard to talk about it, but Putin beat me, humiliated,
made fun of me.
Life with him was torture.
June 5, 2015
Time For The Second American
“. . .In defence of the freedom that is our birthright. . .we have
taken up arms. We shall lay them down when hostilities shall cease
on the part of the agressors, and all danger of their being
renewed shall be removed, and not before.” -John Hancock
For well over the last decade BATR has argued that the Republic is
dead. Now that the Supreme Court has rendered their decision on
Obamacare, there can be no doubt that the funeral for a nation,
born out of a revolution for liberty, is over. The country, buried
in the ashes of totalitarian despotism, is now history.
The plurality of citizens naively accepts that the national
government has legitimacy. Such a claim is erroneous. What more
proof does one need that slavery is the official status for the
American public. The implication of affirming the health insurance
mandate sets the precedent for and escalates an unlimited federal
The twisted interpretation that a forced and binding purchase of
medical coverage is justified because the government can tax its
citizens is demonic in its inception. Coercion as a mean for
compliance is like whipping your indentured servant for the
privilege of serving the master.
By opening the flood-gate of unlimited federal taxation authority
to compel behavior, guarantees punitive submission for a limitless
concoction of social engineering. It is a short leap to require ID
chip implants and compulsory designated conduct.
The hijacking of health care by a mandatory federal oppression
pushes citizens to renounce their fidelity to a constitutional
framework, already abandoned by the political power elite.
Constrains and separation of the “Federalism” system of shared
authority, is now eliminated. The central government is
all-supreme in the gulag version of benevolent dependency.
The Supreme Court is a pitiful tool of the executive autocrat that
wheels administrative regulation like a crazed beast. Chief
Justice John G. Roberts Jr. is a disgrace. Whether his decision
reflects intimidation or legacy hubris, the net effect is that he
shoveled dirt on the tombstone of the constitution.
The seemingly limit on the commerce clause is circumvented by
validating that taxing obligated conduct is legal. This extreme
viewpoint condones any dictate by government fiat that Congress
conspires to force people to obey. Such a conclusion abdicates the
essence of constitutional protections.
Natural law is not arbitrary and subject to the whims of radical
statists. Ignoring fundamental human rights is the definitive
abuse against humanity. The federal government is making the nanny
state into a chamber of horror.
Immutable principles that protect individuals from compulsory
demands that violate free choice always are reprehensible.
However, the latest rebuke to the sovereign dignity of citizens –
poisons the water for any thirsty seeker of liberty and justice.
The consequences of the added financial costs from the Obamacare
administration are frightening. The devil is in the details, never
was more appropriate. Driving the economy off a cliff is a
designed strategy of the collectivist criminals. The unholy
alliance of big pharma, health insurance corporatists and
dedicated Marxists want the public to be docile serfs in a land of
Add this dire result of the horrendous increase in taxes from the
“Taxmageddon” catastrophe come the end of this year and you have a
meltdown formula for a second depression. The Tea Party advocates
are correct, “Taxed Enough Already” gains new meaning with the
legalization of Obamacare.
Conversely, how can the legislation be legal when a Supreme Court
that is determined to worship at the altar of an absolute tyranny
violates the rule of law itself?
Incrementalism is the gradual assimilation of society into a
different matrix of acceptability. This judicial tragedy is a
rapid surge to the system. The body politic is under assault by a
deadly virus of biblical dimensions. The core reasons for the War
of American Independence seem trite when compared to the level of
perdition experienced under the succession of recent presidents.
The bipartisan despotism of both Bush presidents, Clinton and now
Obama only accelerate acquiescence to a virtual dictatorship. In
order to understand the nature of the dilemma, appreciate the
message in The Meaning of Independence Day.
The justification for a Second American Revolution should be
self-evident. However, there are few real Americans left, who
comprehend the unique heritage of this nation. A spontaneous
uprising to overthrow the political outlaws is unlikely. With that
admission, the moral imperative still requires a personal
commitment to oppose the corrupt regime that proceeds in enslaving
The tipping point is upon us. The chains you wear are shackles you
lock each day; you observe, obey or consent to unlawful
government. You have the power to refuse compliance. Confront the
consequences or suffer the indignation of a life of servitude.
Celebrate this July 4th with a renewed dedication that the future
of American lies in the moral authority of civil disobedience.
“A general dissolution of principles and manners will more surely
overthrow the liberties of America than the whole force of the
common enemy. While the people are virtuous they cannot be
subdued; but when once they lose their virtue then will be ready
to surrender their liberties to the first external or internal
invader.” – Samuel Adams
SARTRE is the pen name of James Hall
his website at http://batr.org.
An intereactive graphic from UK -- Americans keep moving -- nothing to see here
The Counted : People Killed by Police
in the US
Rex-ommended Viewing :
9/11 CONSPIRACY: THE BALL NEXT TO
9-11 Synchronicity in "Back To The
Pilot Who Flew Two of the 9-11
Planes Speaks Out
“I flew the two actual aircraft which were involved in 9/11;
the Fight number 175 and Flight 93, the 757 that allegedly
went down in Shanksville and Flight 175 is the aircraft that’s
alleged to have hit the South Tower.
I don’t believe it’s possible for, like I said, for a
terrorist, a so-called terrorist to train on a [Cessna] 172,
then jump in a cockpit of a 757-767 class cockpit, and
vertical navigate the aircraft, lateral navigate the aircraft,
and fly the airplane at speeds exceeding it’s design limit
speed by well over 100 knots, make high-speed high-banked
turns, exceeding — pulling probably 5, 6, 7 G’s.
And the aircraft would literally fall out of the sky. I
couldn’t do it and I’m absolutely positive they couldn’t do
For a guy to just jump into the cockpit and fly like an ace is
impossible – there is not one chance in a thousand,” said
Wittenberg, recalling that when he made the jump from Boeing
727’s to the highly sophisticated computerized characteristics
of the 737’s through 767’s it took him considerable time to
feel comfortable flying.
“The airplane could not have flown at those speeds which they
said it did without going into what they call a high speed
The airplane won’t go that fast if you start pulling those
high G maneuvers at those bank angles. … To expect this
alleged airplane to run these maneuvers with a total amateur
at the controls is simply ludicrous…
It’s roughly a 100 ton airplane. And an airplane that weighs
100 tons all assembled is still going to have 100 tons of
disassembled trash and parts after it hits a building.
There was no wreckage from a 757 at the Pentagon. … The
vehicle that hit the Pentagon was not Flight 77. We think, as
you may have heard before, it was a cruise missile.”
Rex-ommended Visit/Reading :
Well-written anarchist blogs vs civilization
Daily Paul Liberty Forum
Why Most People Do Not Have to Pay
Their Medical Bills
If you want to understand why medical care expenses are so
expensive today and want to be able to explain it to others, read
If you know someone faced with huge medical bills they cannot
afford, read this post.
I am in favor of paying bills. I am in favor of paying medical
bills - REASONABLE medical bills. Most medical bills today are NOT
reasonable. The prices charged are far too high (as compared with
a free market system), and they are (most of them) what are known
as "adhesion contracts." I'll explain what that is, but first some
The reason medical care costs today are so expensive is because
the government has become more and more involved in the industry,
and this has raised the cost for everyone.
Before WWII and for all of American history before that, people
could pay their own medical bills with no problem. There was no
"crisis." There will always be poor people in society, especially
when "poor" is defined as the bottom X% of the population. By that
definition, there will always be poor people, and they can and
should turn to charity for help.
Back then, there was no such thing as health insurance. People
could pay their doctor bills. Health insurance came about as a way
for people NOT to pay their doctor bills but to recover LOST WAGES
during times they were sick. Lost time from work was a bigger
financial problem than the bills themselves. Originally, "health
insurance" was more like what today would be called disability
During WWII, the federal government instituted price and wage
controls. This meant that employers could not increase salaries.
So, employers started offering "fringe benefits" as a way to
attract the best people. This is when employers started paying for
health insurance for employees.
In the 1950's, the tax code was changed so that employers could
deduct health care insurance paid on behalf of employees. Tax
deductions are good, but it should have been at the individual
level. Since so many employers were now paying these costs
(because of the previous government meddling), this was very
In 1965, Medicare was passed, making the federal government a huge
"payor" of health care costs. In 1973, Congress passed the HMO
Act, requiring larger employers to provide HMO's for employees.
Since then, there have been numerous other ways the federal
government has pushed its way in (unconstitutionally) to the
health care industry.
Today, even before Odumbacare, the federal government is by far
the largest payor of health care expenses, and HMO's are next
largest. Together, they dominate the terms of what they will pay
for health care expenses.
Since the individual usually does not pay for their medical
expenses, doctors make more money doing multiple tests. They get
paid more for that, too. But the government and HMO's often refuse
to pay the full price. So, doctors get paid less than they
expected on the procedures they do, and so they look to everybody
else to make up the slack.
The slack is paid for by individuals with their own health
insurance and those who pay cash. Since doctors are so used to
doing every test and procedure they can think of (because they
benefit from that by charging more to the government and HMO's),
they do this with individuals, too. It is estimated that people
paying cash pay 3 times the amount that the federal government
does for the same things.
This is why health care costs are so high.
But, if you get a doctor or hospital bill, you usually do NOT have
to pay it.
That's because almost all such bills are adhesion contracts. An
adhesion contract is a "take it or leave it" contract. One side
dictates the terms, and the other side must take it or leave it.
But the terms are not known up front. So, the person taking it has
no idea what they are taking.
In fact, most such bills are not contracts at all. A contract
requires a "meeting of the minds." If a doctor does not tell a
patient (a) what will be done or (b) how much it will cost, then
there is no meeting of the minds. Further, even if it is a
contract, it is an adhesion contract.
Adhesion contracts are VOIDABLE by the party who did not create
the contract. So, a person with a huge medical bill can REFUSE to
pay it by declaring it VOID.
Having said that, I do not recommend actually voiding it. Better
is to notify the doctor or hospital that you MIGHT declare it void
and instead work out a reasonable fee that you will pay in a
reasonable amount of time.
Today, there are more and more clinics actually publishing their
rates. A person could use those prices as a good faith method of
determining a fair price to pay (and doing business with such
doctors are NOT adhesion contracts because the amounts are known
up front, unlike 99% of the industry). One doctor running such a
clinic stated that he originally thought his costs would be 1/2 of
what other doctors were charging. He really had no idea because he
never had control over costs. What he found was that his costs are
actually 1/6 to 1/8 of the costs of doctors who get paid by
traditional means. So, the health care industry is costing 6-8
times what would be the case in a free market.
So, the government has created this mess with more and more
intrusion into the health care industry over several decades. The
solution, of course, is to REPEAL such laws (including the
prohibition of selling insurance across state lines). Let the FREE
MARKET return to the health care industry and the problems will be
In the meantime, any large medical bills can be NEGOTIATED down to
a reasonable amount and, if necessary, declared VOID.
Free Speech on Trial: IRS v. Hendrickson
By Tax Truth Now
This is a short presentation about what is being done to
everyone's rights and the rule of law by way of the assault on
Doreen Hendrickson, which is a crime being committed for the
equally evil purpose of keeping you and your neighbors from
knowing the liberating truth about the tax.
Youtube description: The Shocking Truth the IRS Doesn't Want You
to Know: The limited nature of the 'income' tax...
Buried in Supreme Court rulings, legal minutia, tax code jargon,
and the minutes from Congressional hearings is the truth that the
what is commonly referred to as the income tax is meant to be a
simple excise tax levied on those benefiting in some way from a
This means that government workers and office-holders, federal
reserve bankers, subsidy recipients, investors in federal
corporations, and any other person benefiting from the profitable
exercise of federal privilege were meant to pay the tax, NOT
independent hard-working American citizens.
Relevant Court Hearings:
"...in Spinger v. U. S., 102 W.U. 568 (1880), it was held that
[the] tax upon gains, profits, and income was an excise tax or
duty, and not a direct tax, within the meaning of the
constitution, and that its imposition was not, therefore,
unconstitutional." - United States Supreme Court, Pollock v.
Farmer's Loan & Trust, 158 U.S. 601 (1895)
"...taxation on income was in its nature an excise entitled to be
enforces as such," United States Supreme Court, Brushaber v. Union
Pacific R. Co., 240 U.S. 1 (1916), quoting and reiterating
language used in its ruling in Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust
It Did Not Change After 16th Amendment:
"The provisions of the Sixteenth Amendment conferred no new power
of taxation..." - Stanton vs. Baltic Mining Co., 240 U.S. 103
"The Sixteenth Amendment, although referred to in argument, has no
real bearing and may be put out of view. As pointed out in recent
decisions, it does not extend the taxing power to new or excepted
subjects..." - Peck vs. Lowe, 247 U.S. 165 (1918)
“The income tax is, therefore, not a tax on income as such. It is
an excise tax with respect to certain activities and privileges
which is measured by reference to the income which they produce.
The income is not the subject of the tax: it is the basis for
determining the amount of tax.”
–F. Morse Hubbard, Treasury Dept legislative draftsman. House
Congressional Record, March 27, 1943
These findings, along with other research meticulously gathered by
Pete Hendrickson and presented in Cracking the Code, outline the
limited nature of the income tax. This information, if truly
understood and effectuated by the American public, could limit
government faster than any electoral result or any half-baked
reform scheme coming out of Washington D.C.
In 'Free Speech on Trial,' you will see the lengths to which the
minions of the corrupt federal system will stoop to tread upon the
rights of freedom-loving Americans and keep their illicit scam
Buy the book 'Cracking the Code' and learn how to get your
rightful earnings back from the federal criminals -
Your Tax Dollars @ Work :
Doreen Hendrickson Sentenced to 18
Months in Prison for Upholding the First Amendment in Court
Editor's Note: Doreen has just been sentenced to 18 months prison.
Doreen Hendrickson, wife of Pete Hendrickson, author of Cracking
the Code- The Fascinating Truth About Taxation In America will
soon have a court hearing set for sentencing by Eastern District
of Michigan federal judge Victoria Roberts on a contempt of court
charge. Sentencing had originally been set for November 20, 2014,
was then changed to Dec. 10, and now will take place in early
This is a case of retaliation against Doreen’s husband for his
book, which clearly defines the difference between taxable income
and earnings that are not taxable under the IRS Code. Though
numerous attempts have been made to discredit and suppress the
book, especially through deliberate misrepresentation of its
contents by government officials, nothing actually revealed in the
book has ever been disputed.
Not being able to dispute the veracity of the book, and having
been forced to return billions of improperly-collected tax dollars
to hundreds of thousands of readers over the eleven years Cracking
the Code... has been in print, the full weight and force of the
IRS and the United States Justice Department have been leveled
against the wife of the author. It might be noted here that even
organized crime has a code of honor that they will do no harm to
the wives and children of their adversaries.
Officially, Doreen is being punished for resisting orders written
by a DOJ attorney and issued by a federal judge commanding her to
replace her previous sworn statements in a legal dispute over
whether or not she owed federal income taxes with sworn statements
dictated by the government. The coerced statements would declare
that she believes herself liable for the disputed amounts.
Although a government official signing such statements himself
would serve as a claim to the money, none has been willing to do
so. The total dollar figure involved in the case that would either
remain with Mrs. Hendrickson or transfer to the United States is
less than $1000.
This is not a Tax Case!
This case involves government orders that Doreen declare, under
penalty of perjury, something she believes to be untrue. The
contempt charge is for refusing to obey the order. This is a
blatant disregard of her First Amendment right to free speech. Can
the government, even through a judge, order anyone to say
something not believed to be true and then cite her for contempt
for refusing to obey the order? The government says yes, but the
First Amendment says no!
The federal prosecutors-- specialists flown in from Washington--
even had the audacity to ask (and were granted) that the jury be
barred from considering the “unlawfulness or unconstitutionality”
of the orders.
The jury was lied to by the DOJ prosecutors, while Doreen was
prevented from completing her opening and closing arguments. Over
and over again, throughout the trial, the US attorneys kept saying
Doreen was only being ordered to "say what was correct". Their
Closing Argument was little more than pounding on the podium and
shouting that Doreen was told what was correct by the judge, and
so how could the jury imagine that she could honestly believe
The First and Fifth Amendment rights of all Americans are on the
chopping block in the prosecution of Doreen Hendrickson, and the
precedent it sets. What might YOU be ordered to say for the
For a detailed summary of the ordeal of Doreen Hendrickson visit:
Suck my political correctness, ya
craven faggot !
Remove it if you're "man" enough ...
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