Stuff & Stuff

Sci-Tech News & Olds

( July 2015 [ +/- 3.64 Days ] )

Gratuitous Complimentary Supplementary Edition
( & Bonus Complemental Appendices & Appendages )

Table of Contents

Sciency Thingys

Rick DOBSON : Motion Rectifier Propulsion

Anthony GRBIC : Superlens

Dr G. SAINI : Neeroga – a wonder anti-ageing medicine

First photograph of light as both a particle and wave

R.S. HARRINGTON : Nibiru / Planet X

Theodore BELFOR : Homeoblock vs Ageing

Eosamu HASHIZUME, et al. : Epigenetics & Longevity

Jun-Ichi HAYASHI : Ageing Reversal

Wouter De HAESA, et al. : Metformin for Longevity

Xiaoming HE : Nanoparticles vs cancer stem cells

Yi CUI : Single-catalyst Electrolysis

Free Atmospheric Electricity Powers Small Motor

Tho. HIERONYMOUS : Grow Plants by Conducted Chlorophyll Energy -- Replication

Glycine for sleep

Strange Trumpet Sounds Debunked 2015

Bisphenol A (BPA) Contaminating Our Food

Eggshell for Tooth Remineralization

Mosquito-Repelling Plants

Thomas WEBSTER : Injectable artifical bone

The True Cost -- Documentary : The impact of fashion on people and the planet

Magnetic Field Weakening Ten Times Faster than Thought

Russian 4kW generator

Patent Updates from Panacea-Bocaf

Anya V : Why you should never eat tilapia

John KHEIR, et al : Oxygen Microbubbles

Avshalom CASPI, et al. : Breastfeeding effects on the IQ

Social Studies 101

Joseph TAINTER : The Collapse of Complex Societies [ PDF ]

P.J. WATSON: The Dumbest People Ever


"Mind the Matrix" Film

Andrew PONTBRIAND : Smoking Gun: Active Shooter Drills Charleston S.C. Day of Shooting

Dr. EOWYN : British Intelligence / CIA’s DNA test -- Obama born in Kenya

Dr J S CHIAPPALONE : It's Not The Economy, Stupid. It's The END !!!

America the Mad Bomber

Putin Long Dead Says Ex-Wife

James HALL : Time For The Second American Revolution

The Counted : People Killed by Police in the US

9/11 Redux

Tommy PAINE : Why Most People Do Not Have to Pay Their Medical Bills

Free Speech on Trial: IRS v. Hendrickson

Stuff 'n Stuff : Sci-Tech News & Olds -- Back & 4th Issues, 1st Editions &c -- [ June 2015 ] [ May 2015 ] [ April 2015 ] [ March 2015 ] [ February 2015 ] [ January 2015 ] [ December 2014 ] [ November 2014 ] [ October 2014 ] [ September 2014 ] [ August 2014 ] [ July 2014 ] [ June 2014 ] [ May 2014 ] [ April 2014 ] [ March 2014 ] [ February 2014 ] [ January 2014 ] **

Well, colono-copulate me running ! All this time I thimked it were the Jesuits !

Rick DOBSON : Motion Rectifier Propulsion

Advanced Propulsion System - Jewish Bankers Are Trying To Steal My Technology

( Solid mass Closed Loop Centrifugal Propulsion System )


Simple 'superlens' sharpens focusing power

A simple-to-make "superlens" can focus 10 times more sharply than a conventional lens. It could shrink the size of features on computer chips, or help power gadgets without wires. No matter how powerful a conventional lens, it cannot focus light down to more than about half its wavelength, the "diffraction limit". This limits the amount of data that can be stored on a CD, and the size of features on computer chips. The new lens is a 127-micrometer-thick plate of teflon and ceramic with a copper topping. "The beauty of these is that they're planar," Grbic says, "they're easy to fabricate." The lenses can be made through a single step of photolithography, the process used to etch computer chips. By selectively etching away the copper, Grbic and colleagues created many capacitors sandwiched together. Capacitors are typically used in electronics for storing electric charge for short periods. In the lens, the capacitors instead interact directly with electromagnetic waves like light. This sets up currents in the capacitors that focus the waves passing through the lens into a point 20 times smaller than their wavelength. That is 10 times tighter than a conventional lens can achieve, hampered by the diffraction limit. The team's current prototype works on microwaves, which are easier to focus because they have longer wavelengths than visible light. Simply making capacitors of different sizes would allow the lens to focus other frequencies, including visible and infrared light, says Grbic.

Apparatus for Sub-Wavelength Near-Field Focusing of Electromagnetic Waves


Planar sub-wavelength structures provide superlensing, i.e., electromagnetic focusing beyond the diffraction limit. The planar structures use diffraction to force the input field to converge to a spot on the focal plane. The sub-wavelength patterned structures manipulate the output wave in such a manner as to form a sub-wavelength focus in the near field. In some examples, the sub-wavelength structures may be linear grating-like structures that can focus electromagnetic radiation to lines of arbitrarily small sub-wavelength dimension, or two dimensional grating-like structures and Bessel (azimuthally symmetric) structures that can focus to spots of arbitrarily small sub-wavelength dimensions. The particular pattern for the sub-wavelength structures may be derived from the desired focus. Some examples describe sub-wavelength structures that have been implemented to focus microwave radiation to sub-wavelength dimensions in the near field.


Neeroga – a wonder anti-ageing medicine

I don’t have any other information on this product but it sounds fascinating!

“Neeroga is a unique formulation which can easily root out all ailments caused by toxins and various viruses. It was developed after seven years of dedicated research by Dr GR Saini and his team at the Saini Herbal Research & Development Center. It is a modern ‘Sanjivani’ (life giver) by using which old people become young and young become younger. This product complies with the basic Ayurvedic concept of keeping healthy persons fit and bringing relief to the diseased. It has been tried by several people ranging in age from15 years to 94 years and the results have been nothing short of amazing. Ailments related to vital organs viz kidney, liver, heart, brain and lungs were found to be cured by this medicine and it also strengthened the body’s immune system. This wonder drug called ‘Neeroga’ helps people to live a healthy life and to live up to hundred. Such a composition has been mentioned even in ancient Ayurvedic texts. Apart from giving a younger, glowing and fairer skin, this drug can help to cure many diseases such as diabetes, stroke, cardiac ailments, liver disorders, respiratory stress, and many other ailments. Another remarkable result of the trial of this drug was that the patient remains cured and healthy even when the dosage is discontinued after treatment. This medicine has worked wonders on people. Even octogenarians who were unable to walk or see could actually run. They became fitter in many ways. Their cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels etc jumped back to normal and they stopped taking allopathic medicines. Problems of breathlessness and other respiratory ailments can also be treated with the help of this medicine. People having a count of 42 breaths per minute were treated with the help of this medicine and their count went down to 25 breaths per minute after about a month of treatment. Within 24 hours of administering the medicine, the breathing count reduces by 1 to 6 per minute. Dr GR Saini says, “With the introduction of Neeroga my dream of presenting a herbal composition which should be easy to administer, simple, quick and effective in curing all diseases without any side effects is now fulfilled.”

Dr. G. R. Saini is a highly renowned and respected professional in the field of herbal hair care products. Born in Ludhiana in 1949, Dr. Saini did his post graduation in 1972 in English and there after a 2 years diploma course in Ayurvedic Medicine.
Sep 22, 2009

New health supplement from Saini Herbal

NEW DELHI: Saini Herbal, the makers of Saini herbal oil and other herbal creams, has launched a new health supporting supplement called Neeroga, which the company claims can help root out ailments caused by toxins and various viruses.

According to the company, the formulation has been developed after seven years of research by the Saini Herbal Research & Development Center.
Mar 02, 2015

The first ever photograph of light as both a particle and wave


Nibiru / Planet X Planet X System Update No. 1 - HD
Astronomer Carlos Ferrada -- The Black Sun
Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 96, Oct. 1988, p. 1476-1478.

The Location of Planet X

R.S. Harrington

[ PDF ]

Robert Sutton Harrington

Robert Sutton Harrington (October 21, 1942 – January 23, 1993) was an American astronomer who worked at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). Harrington was born near Newport News, Virginia. His father was an archaeologist. He was married to Betty-Jean Maycock in 1976, with two daughters, Amy and Ann.[1]

Harrington worked at the USNO. Another astronomer there, James W. Christy, consulted with him after discovering bulges in the images of Pluto, which turned out to be Pluto's satellite Charon.[1] For this reason, some consider Harrington to be a co-discoverer of Charon,[2] although Christy usually gets sole credit. By the laws of physics, it is easy to determine the mass of a binary system based on its orbital period, so Harrington was the first to calculate the mass of the Pluto-Charon system, which was lower than even the lowest previous estimates of Pluto's mass.

Harrington became a believer in the existence of a Planet X beyond Pluto and undertook searches for it, with positive results coming from the IRAD probe in 1983. Harrington collaborated initially with T. C. (Tom) Van Flandern.[1] They were both "courted" by Zecharia Sitchin and his followers who believe in a planet Nibiru or Marduk, who cite the research of Harrington and van Flandern as possible collaborating evidence, though no definitive proof of a 9th planet has surfaced to date.

Harrington died of esophageal cancer in 1993.[1] The asteroid 3216 Harrington was named in his honour.

Invention helps reverse effects of aging

A local dentist says he has created an orthodontic appliance that can straighten an adult's teeth and reverse the effects of aging by remodeling an individual's jaw bones. Catskill dentist Theodore Belfor said the benefits of his Homeoblock Appliance include broader smiles, fuller lips, more prominent cheekbones and a brighter, more youthful appearance around an individual's eyes. It also helps straighten teeth and can help eliminate snoring and sleep apnea, he said. "There are no negative side-effects," Belfor said of the appliance. appliance stimulates the development of a person's jaws where that development was incomplete causing the teeth to become crowded in the mouth. The appliance is worn at night and works with the body so the changes occur naturally, developing the bones of the face, he said. Belfor said the changes that occur are based on each person's genetic potential. Often, facial development does not reach its full potential as an individual grows because of the food a person eats, lack of breast-feeding as an infant or polluted air, among other causes, he said. Belfor said the Homeoblock helps reverse the sign of aging because as the appliance develops the bones of the face it increases the volume and support of the soft tissue, which reduces lines and wrinkles on the face. The Homeoblock, according to information provided by Belfor, does not work like a typical orthodontic appliance wherein mechanical pressure forces the teeth and bones of the dental arches apart. The acrylic of the Homeoblock Appliance does not actually touch the soft tissue in a person's mouth. Instead, the device creates a bellows-like action on an individual's dental arches, causing them to widen. Each week the patient turns an expansion screw on the appliance to keep up with the widening of the bones of the dental arches. As the dental arches expand, the teeth have more room in the mouth and can straighten out. For additional information on the Homeoblock Appliance visit

Epigenetics & Longevity
Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 10434
22 May 2015
Epigenetic regulation of the nuclear-coded GCAT and SHMT2 genes confers human age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects

Osamu Hashizume, et al.


Age-associated accumulation of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been proposed to be responsible for the age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects found in elderly human subjects. We carried out reprogramming of human fibroblast lines derived from elderly subjects by generating their induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and examined another possibility, namely that these aging phenotypes are controlled not by mutations but by epigenetic regulation. Here, we show that reprogramming of elderly fibroblasts restores age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects, indicating that these aging phenotypes are reversible and are similar to differentiation phenotypes in that both are controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations in either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome. Microarray screening revealed that epigenetic downregulation of the nuclear-coded GCAT gene, which is involved in glycine production in mitochondria, is partly responsible for these aging phenotypes. Treatment of elderly fibroblasts with glycine effectively prevented the expression of these aging phenotypes.


The mitochondrial theory of aging proposes that age-associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resultant accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA are responsible for aging phenotypes including age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects1, 2, 3, 4, 5. This concept is supported partially by subsequent findings that mtDNA mutator mice expressing a proofreading-deficient mtDNA polymerase show accelerated accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA, resulting in the expression of mitochondrial respiration defects and premature aging phenotypes6, 7, 8. In contrasts, our previous studies proposed that the age-associated respiration defects found in human fibroblasts are caused not by mtDNA mutations9, 10, 11 but by nuclear-recessive mutations11. However, these findings can also be explained by assuming the involvement of epigenetic regulation of nuclear genes in the absence of nuclear-recessive mutations. Here, we addressed these controversial issues by reprogramming fibroblasts derived from elderly human subjects and examining whether age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects could be restored after the reprogramming....


We reprogrammed human fibroblast lines by generating iPSCs, and showed that the reprogramming of fibroblasts derived from elderly subjects restored age-associated respiration defects. Therefore, these age-associated phenotypes found in elderly fibroblasts are regulated reversibly and are similar to differentiation phenotypes in that both are controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations in either nuclear or mtDNA. Given that human aging can be seen as a consequence of a programmed phenomenon, it is possible that epigenetic regulation also controls human aging. However, further studies are required to generalize the concept that human aging and age-associated disorders—in the same way as the respiration defects found in elderly fibroblasts—are expressed under the control of epigenetic regulation.

We also showed that age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects (Fig. 1a) were expressed in the absence of either ROS overproduction in the mitochondria (Fig. 1b) or the accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA (Fig. 1c). One explanation for the absence of an age-associated increase in somatic mutations in mtDNA (Fig. 1c) is the presence of a dynamic balance between the creation and segregation of somatic mutations in mtDNA during repeated cell division. This absence could also be a consequence of the preferential growth of cells possessing mtDNA without somatic mutations during repeated division of the primary fibroblasts obtained by biopsy. Here, however, our focus was on the causes of respiration defects expressed in elderly human fibroblast lines (Fig. 1a), and respiration defects were still expressed even after repeated divisions of cells from the primary biopsy samples. It is therefore likely that these age-associated respiration defects are caused neither by ROS overproduction nor by the accumulation of somatic mutations in mtDNA. Furthermore, even when somatic mutations accumulate in the mtDNA, consequent mitochondrial respiration defects would still be prevented by the exchange of genetic products throughout the mitochondria within a cell19, 20, 21, 22. The question that then arises is: What causes age-associated mitochondrial respiration defects by epigenetic regulation?

Our findings revealed that epigenetic downregulation of nuclear-coded genes, including GCAT and SHMT2, which regulate glycine production in mitochondria17, 18, results in respiration defects. Our previous studies showed that the age-associated respiration defects in elderly fibroblasts10 are likely due in part to reduced translation activity in the mitochondria, but not in the cytoplasm11. Therefore, defects in glycine metabolism in the mitochondria as a result of a reduction in SHMT2 and GCAT expression would be partly responsible for the reduction in mitochondrial translation, resulting in the expression of age-associated respiration defects. Because continuous glycine treatment restored respiration defects in elderly human fibroblasts (Supplementary Fig. 6), glycine supplementation may be effective in preventing age-associated respiration defects and thus benefiting the health of elderly human subjects. To confirm this hypothesis model mice deficient in GCAT or SHMT2, or both, would need to be generated to examine whether they expressed respiration defects and premature aging phenotypes and, if so, whether these disorders could be prevented by continuous glycine administration.

Recently, abnormalities of autophagy were proposed to be involved in the dysfunction of organelles, including mitochondria23. We showed that no genes were selected from our microarray analysis by using the GO terms, aging and autophagy (Supplementary Fig. 4a), and that no morphological abnormalities developed in the mitochondria of elderly fibroblasts (Supplementary Fig 1b). However, further work is required to examine whether age-associated abnormalities of autophagy in the mitochondria are in fact involved in the expression of age-associated respiration defects and are under the control of epigenetic regulation.

University of Tsukuba
26 May 2015

Tsukuba scientists reverse aging in human cell lines and give theory of aging a new lease of life

Can the process of aging be delayed or even reversed? Research led by specially appointed Professor Jun-Ichi Hayashi from the University of Tsukuba in Japan has shown that, in human cell lines at least, it can. They also found that the regulation of two genes involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics of aging.

Professor Hayashi and his team made this exciting discovery while in the process of addressing some controversial issues surrounding a popular theory of aging.

This theory, the mitochondrial theory of aging, proposes that age-associated mitochondrial defects are controlled by the accumulation of mutations in the mitochondrial DNA.

Abnormal mitochondrial function is one of the hallmarks of aging in many species, including humans. This is mostly due to the fact that the mitochondrion is the so-called powerhouse of the cell as it produces energy in a process called cellular respiration. Damage to the mitochondrial DNA results in changes or mutations in the DNA sequence. Accumulation of these changes is associated with a reduced lifespan and early onset of aging-related characteristics such as weight and hair loss, curvature of the spine and osteoporosis.

There is, however, a growing body of conflicting evidence that has raised doubts about the validity of this theory. The Tsukuba team in particular has performed some compelling research that has led them to propose that age-associated mitochondrial defects are not controlled by the accumulation of mutations in the mitochondrial DNA but by another form of genetic regulation. The research, published this month in the prestigious journal Nature’s ‘Scientific Reports’, looked at the function of the mitochondria in human fibroblast cell lines derived from young people (ranging in age from a fetus to a 12 year old) and elderly people (ranging in age from 80-97 years old). The researchers compared the mitochondrial respiration and the amount of DNA damage in the mitochondria of the two groups, expecting respiration to be reduced and DNA damage to be increased in the cells from the elderly group. While the elderly group had reduced respiration, in accordance with the current theory, there was, however, no difference in the amount of DNA damage between the elderly and young groups of cells. This led the researchers to propose that another form of genetic regulation, epigenetic regulation, may be responsible for the age-associated effects seen in the mitochondria.

Epigenetic regulation refers to changes, such as the addition of chemical structures or proteins, which alter the physical structure of the DNA, resulting in genes turning on or off.

Unlike mutations, these changes do not affect the DNA sequence itself. If this theory is correct, then genetically reprogramming the cells to an embryonic stem cell–like state would remove any epigenetic changes associated with the mitochondrial DNA. In order to test this theory, the researchers reprogrammed human fibroblast cell lines derived from young and elderly people to an embryonic stem cell-like state. These cells were then turned back into fibroblasts and their mitochondrial respiratory function examined. Incredibly, the age-associated defects had been reversed - all of the fibroblasts had respiration rates comparable to those of the fetal fibroblast cell line, irrespective of whether they were derived from young or elderly people. This indicates that the aging process in the mitochondrion is controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations.

The researchers then looked for genes that might be controlled epigenetically resulting in these age-associated mitochondrial defects. Two genes that regulate glycine production in mitochondria, CGAT and SHMT2, were found. The researchers showed that by changing the regulation of these genes, they could induce defects or restore mitochondrial function in the fibroblast cell lines. In a compelling finding, the addition of glycine for 10 days to the culture medium of the 97 year old fibroblast cell line restored its respiratory function. This suggests that glycine treatment can reverse the age-associated respiration defects in the elderly human fibroblasts.

These findings reveal that, contrary to the mitochondrial theory of aging, epigenetic regulation controls age-associated respiration defects in human fibroblast cell lines. Can epigenetic regulation also control aging in humans? That theory remains to be tested, and if proven, could result in glycine supplements giving our older population a new lease of life.

Diabetes pill might cure Aging

A pill that's been used for decades could be the fountain of youth—and scientists are hoping to test it this year. Quartz reports that a drug called metformin could slow the aging process and keep people healthier, longer.

Metformin, a drug that currently is used to treat type 2 diabetes, increases your sensitivity to insulin by making your liver produce less glucose. It's been used safely on diabetes patients for more than 60 years. But scientists have tested the drug on animals like worms and mice and found that it also increases life spans and delays the onset of other diseases.

A group of scientists are set to meet with the Food and Drug Administration to push for a clinical trial. If they get permission, the researchers will give a drug called metformin to about 3,000 elderly people who either suffer from or have a high risk for diseases like cancer, heart disease, or cognitive problems. They'll then track these participants to see if the drug prevents aging-related diseases they don't already have, prevents diabetes and lengthens their life spans.


N,N-Dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide
Trade names     Glucophage
Bioavailability     50–60%[1][2]
Protein binding     Minimal[1]
Metabolism     Not by liver[1]
Biological half-life     4-8.7 hours[1]
Excretion     Urine (90%)[1]
CAS Registry Number     657-24-9 Yes
ATC code     A10BA02
PubChem     CID: 4091
IUPHAR/BPS     4779
DrugBank     DB00331
ChemSpider     3949 Yes
UNII     9100L32L2N Yes
KEGG     D04966 Yes
ChEBI     CHEBI:6801 Yes
ChEMBL     CHEMBL1431 Yes
Chemical data
Formula     C4H11N5
Molecular mass     129.16364 g/mol


[ Excerpt ]

Everyday remedies

And rapalogs are not the only game in town. The most commonly used medicine for type 2 diabetes, metformin, also seems to extend the lifespan of many small animals, including mice, by around 5 per cent.

There have been no trials of metformin as a longevity drug in people, but a recent study hinted that it might have a similar effect. The study was designed to compare metformin with another diabetes medicine, using records of 180,000 UK patients. To tease out the differences between the drugs, people who started taking them were compared with people without diabetes who had been closely matched for age and other health factors, and tracked over five years..

Surprisingly, diabetics taking metformin were not only less likely to die in that time than those on the other medicine but they were also about 15 per cent less likely to die than people without diabetes who took neither drug. "This shows we already have a drug that we can potentially use in humans," says Nir Barzilai, who heads the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.


Metformin promotes lifespan through mitohormesis via the peroxiredoxin PRDX-2

Wouter De Haesa, et al.

Recently it has been suggested that metformin, the most commonly used antidiabetic drug, might also possess general health-promoting properties. Elucidating metformin’s mode of action will vastly increase its application range and will contribute to healthy aging. We reveal a signaling cascade in which metformin is able to extend lifespan by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This allowed us to further work at the crossroads of human disease and aging research, identifying a key molecule that is able to translate the ROS signal into a prolongevity cue: an antioxidant peroxiredoxin is also able to activate a lifespan-promoting signaling cascade, here described in detail. Continued research efforts in this field lead toward a targeted improvement of aging-related complications.

The antiglycemic drug metformin, widely prescribed as first-line treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, has lifespan-extending properties. Precisely how this is achieved remains unclear. Via a quantitative proteomics approach using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we gained molecular understanding of the physiological changes elicited by metformin exposure, including changes in branched-chain amino acid catabolism and cuticle maintenance. We show that metformin extends lifespan through the process of mitohormesis and propose a signaling cascade in which metformin-induced production of reactive oxygen species increases overall life expectancy. We further address an important issue in aging research, wherein so far, the key molecular link that translates the reactive oxygen species signal into a prolongevity cue remained elusive. We show that this beneficial signal of the mitohormetic pathway is propagated by the peroxiredoxin PRDX-2. Because of its evolutionary conservation, peroxiredoxin signaling might underlie a general principle of prolongevity signaling.

Metformin, an antiglycemic biguanide drug and the most common treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, has life-extending capabilities (1, 2). Several other human diseases, such as cancer (3) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (4), are also potentially alleviated by metformin treatment. This suggests that metformin acts on common pathways involved in a spectrum of aging-related disorders. Because of its demonstrated beneficial effect on lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (5, 6) and in the rodents Rattus norvegicus (1) and Mus musculus (2), these models facilitate research into the underlying mode of action.

It has been hypothesized that metformin elicits its beneficial effects by mimicking dietary restriction (DR) (7), a regimen wherein a physiological response is triggered by reducing the uptake of nutritive calories. The physiological response to DR causes lifespan extension and delays age-dependent decline from yeast to primates (8). The idea of similarity sprouts from the observed low blood glucose and insulin levels combined with increased glucose utilization in both calorically restricted and metformin-treated animals (7). In addition, metformin-treated worms show phenotypes similar to DR worms (5), and transcript profiles of metformin-treated and DR mice also overlap significantly (9).

Caution is due, however, in referring to DR, because different methods to induce DR in C. elegans act through different genes to elicit corresponding effects on lifespan (10?–12). Glucose restriction, a specific type of DR, requires AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) to extend lifespan. Activation of AMPK leads to increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induces stress defense and results in a net increase in longevity. This process of lifespan extension based on mitochondrial oxidative stress is known as mitohormesis (13).

Despite its similarities to DR and its widespread use as an antiglycemic drug, the actual mode of action of metformin is largely unknown and a subject of much debate. In mammals, metformin is generally believed to act through the activation of AMPK, one of the main regulators of cellular energy homeostasis (2, 14?–16), but recent research suggests the existence of AMPK-independent mechanisms as well (17, 18). More upstream, metformin is thought to activate AMPK through partial inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) and a resultant increase in the AMP/ATP ratio (19?–21), although again, not all data support this theory (16, 22). Important players in metformin-induced lifespan extension in C. elegans are the liver kinase B1 ortholog PAR-4, the AMPK ortholog AMP-activated kinase-2 (AAK-2), and the skinhead-1 (SKN-1) transcription factor, which is involved in activating phase II detoxification mechanisms (5). It has recently been demonstrated that in C. elegans, metformin partly elicits its effects through altering the folate metabolism of its microbial food source (6), but questions about its direct effects are largely unaddressed. It is, for instance, unclear how metformin induces AAK-2 and SKN-1 activity. Overall, many gaps remain in our knowledge of metformin-induced lifespan extension.

To study the targets of metformin, we performed a proteomic analysis on metformin-treated C. elegans and used the results as a framework for follow-up experiments. We observed striking similarities between metformin-treated and glucose-restricted worms and discovered several factors involved in mitohormetic regulation of lifespan, including a previously unidentified role for peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX-2), which seems to be responsible for translating oxidative stress into a downstream prolongevity signal. In addition to lifespan extension, we also report features that contribute to the healthspan of metformin-treated worms.

Molecular Changes in Caenorhabditis elegans upon Metformin Exposure: A Proteomic Approach.

To gain a deeper understanding of the physiological changes elicited by metformin exposure, a differential gel-based proteomics experiment was performed. A total of 164 spots with differential abundances were detected, 134 of which could be identified by mass spectrometry. After removal of duplicate identifications, the final analysis resulted in a list of 58 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated proteins (Dataset S1).

Enrichment analysis (23) of the up-regulated proteins resulted in the detection of several overrepresented pathways (Table 1), of which the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation pathway was most markedly enriched. All other enriched pathways, including glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, are involved in general energy metabolism. No significant pathway enrichment was observed in the analysis of down-regulated proteins. Combined analysis of all differential proteins (both up and down) did not reveal additional pathways of interest.

Further functional clustering was used to subdivide the up- and down-regulated proteins into meaningful groups (Table 1). For each functional cluster detailed information, including subterms and proteins in each group, was gathered to assist in data interpretation (Dataset S1). These results were used as the backbone of hypothesis-driven experiments into the mechanisms induced by metformin treatment.
Metformin Does Not Induce Mitochondrial Protein Unfolding Stress.

Because of the marked clustering of mitochondrial proteins (Table 1) and metformin’s putative inhibitory effect on complex I of the ETC, it needs to be tested whether metformin is capable of inducing the mitochondria-specific unfolded protein response (UPRmt). This is essential because the UPRmt increases lifespan in response to either misfolding of mitochondrial proteins or stoichiometric abnormalities in the ETC complexes (24).

We did not observe up-regulation of the UPRmt marker hsp-6 in worms exposed to metformin (Fig. 1). Additional experiments with higher concentrations of metformin and different exposure times yielded similar negative results (Fig. S1). As such, lifespan extension of metformin via the induction of the UPRmt is unlikely, which suggests that the drug affects the mitochondria in another way.

Metformin Increases Lifespan Through Hormetic Phenomena.

Metformin has been put forward as a possible DR mimetic (7), and because DR has been linked to mitohormesis (13, 25), we looked into evidence for a role for mitohormesis in metformin-induced lifespan extension. Clustering analysis of the proteomics experiments revealed a significant overrepresentation of several mitochondrial proteins and proteins involved in catabolism (Table 1). These clusters might point to an increase in respiration, one of the hallmarks of mitohormesis (13). Indeed, upon metformin treatment, we observed a significant increase in respiration (45%) and metabolic heat production (38%) (Fig. 2A) in wild-type worms. These changes, in combination with the AMPK-dependence of metformin-mediated longevity (5), strongly resemble the mitohormetic pathway (13) and might point toward an increase in ROS production.

To verify whether mitochondrial ROS production was affected by metformin treatment, we measured hydrogen peroxide levels in metformin-treated worms. ROS production was indeed increased (Fig. 2B), further supporting the mitohormesis hypothesis. Induction of ROS production was already clear after 24 h of exposure to metformin (Fig. 2B). This increase in ROS seems to be an integral part of metformin-induced lifespan extension, because treatment with the potent antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (13) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (26) abolished the positive effect of metformin on lifespan (Fig. 2C and Fig. S2A). Finally, the critical phase for metformin-mediated lifespan extension clearly resembles the critical phase for other mitohormetic stressors (13), because treatment with metformin starting from adulthood onward or during the first few days of adulthood only were sufficient to increase lifespan. This is opposed to treatment with metformin during larval development only, which had no detectable effect on lifespan (Fig. S2B).

Metformin-Mediated Lifespan Extension Requires the Peroxiredoxin PRDX-2.

The mitohormetic pathway as seen during glucose restriction is induced when low availability of glucose causes low energy levels, which in turn activates AMPK (13). AMPK activity increases catabolism and respiration, which results in the increased production of ROS and a resultant activation of hormetic protective mechanisms (13). The largest hiatus in this pathway is the step between the increased ROS production and the induction of stress defense: no molecule was put forward that might translate the ROS signal into further downstream defense. We therefore set out to reveal this missing link and to further complete the hormetic signaling pathway.

Peroxiredoxins are known hydrogen peroxide scavengers, and their oxidized dimeric form is involved in the direct activation of kinases in mammalian cells (27). Because the peroxiredoxin PRDX-2 was up-regulated during metformin treatment (Dataset S1), this protein is of particular interest as a potential inductor of mitohormesis. Deletion of the prdx-2 gene results in an extreme decrease in lifespan upon metformin treatment (Fig. 2D). Not only did the positive effect of metformin on lifespan disappear, the prdx-2 experimental group collapsed when exposed to metformin. Treatment with NAC partially rescued this deleterious effect, implying that excessive ROS production is at least partly responsible for the detrimental effect of metformin on these mutants (Fig. S2C). In support of these results, we observed increased formation of PRDX-2 dimers after metformin treatment (Fig. 2E and Fig. S3). Because these oxidized dimers are likely involved in cellular signaling (27), we propose that PRDX-2 induces prolongevity signaling during the mitohormetic response to metformin treatment.

One of the potential downstream targets of PRDX-2 is the p38 MAP kinase family-1 (PMK-1) protein, which is involved in the activation of the SKN-1 transcription factor (28). This transcription factor is in turn required for metformin-mediated longevity (5). Western blot analysis revealed a marked increase in phosphorylation of PMK-1 after metformin treatment. In contrast, deletion of prdx-2 resulted in an absence of metformin-induced phosphorylation of PMK-1 (Fig. 2F). These data strongly imply that PRDX-2 is required for PMK-1 activation after metformin treatment.

In sum, all these findings subscribe that metformin extends lifespan via mitohormesis in C. elegans and that PRDX-2 is an integral part of the mitohormetic pathway.
Metformin Inhibits Complex I of the ETC.

Metformin is generally believed to act through inhibition of complex I of the ETC (19?–21), although some recent findings cast doubt on this (16, 22). Treatment of C. elegans with rotenone, another complex I inhibitor, at a concentration that extends longevity, results in a decrease in total oxygen consumption (25). Our finding that metformin increases respiration in worms therefore raises the question of whether it is truly capable of inhibiting complex I of the ETC.

We tested whether metformin is able to affect electron flow in mitochondria extracted from C. elegans and observed a clear and specific inhibition of electron flow from complex I, whereas the electron flow from complex II was unaffected (Fig. 3A and Fig. S4 A and B). These results, clearly mimicking the inhibitory action of rotenone (Fig. S4A), complement our previous data only if metformin inhibits complex I in a distinct way. To this end, we tested whether metformin and rotenone had different effects on ROS production in mitochondria. At concentrations at which both completely inhibit complex I respiration and after feeding only complex I, metformin increased ROS production, whereas rotenone decreased it (Fig. 3B), implying a fundamental difference between rotenone’s and metformin’s inhibitory action on complex I.

ACS Nano, 2015, 9 (6), pp 5725–5740
DOI: 10.1021/nn506928p

Nanoparticles target and kill cancer stem cells that drive tumor growth

"Chitosan-Decorated Doxorubicin-Encapsulated Nanoparticle Targets and Eliminates Tumor Reinitiating Cancer Stem-like Cells"

Wei Rao, Hai Wang, Jianfeng Han, Shuting Zhao, Jenna Dumbleton, Pranay Agarwal, Wujie Zhang, Gang Zhao, Jianhua Yu, Debra L. Zynger, Xiongbin Lu, and Xiaoming He

Many cancer patients survive treatment only to have a recurrence within a few years. Recurrences and tumor spreading are likely due to cancer stem cells that can be tough to kill with conventional cancer drugs. But now researchers have designed nanoparticles that specifically target these hardy cells to deliver a drug. The nanoparticle treatment, reported in the journal ACS Nano, worked far better than the drug alone in mice.

Anti-cancer drugs can often shrink tumors but don’t kill cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although CSCs might only make up a small part of a tumor, their resistance to drugs allows them to persist. They can then cause a tumor to regrow or spread cancerous cells throughout the body. Xiaoming He and colleagues wanted to develop a nanoparticle system to overcome these cells’ defenses.

The researchers packaged the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin into nanoparticles coated with chitosan, a natural polysaccharide that can specifically target CSCs. Once in the acidic environment of the tumor, the nanoparticles degraded and released the drug. Tests on tiny, tissue-like clumps of both normal and cancer stem cells in vitro and on human breast tumors grown in mice showed the therapy successfully killed CSCs and destroyed tumors. The mice showed no obvious side effects.


Tumor reinitiating cancer stem-like cells are responsible for cancer recurrence associated with conventional chemotherapy. We developed a doxorubicin-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticle surface-decorated with chitosan that can specifically target the CD44 receptors of these cells. This nanoparticle system was engineered to release the doxorubicin in acidic environments, which occurs when the nanoparticles are localized in the acidic tumor microenvironment and when they are internalized and localized in the cellular endosomes/lysosomes. This nanoparticle design strategy increases the cytotoxicity of the doxorubicin by six times in comparison to the use of free doxorubicin for eliminating CD44+ cancer stem-like cells residing in 3D mammary tumor spheroids (i.e., mammospheres). We further show these nanoparticles reduced the size of tumors in an orthotopic xenograft tumor model with no evident systemic toxicity. The development of nanoparticle system to target cancer stem-like cells with low systemic toxicity provides a new treatment arsenal for improving the survival of cancer patients.
June 23, 2015

Single-catalyst water splitter produces clean-burning hydrogen 24/7

Stanford scientists have invented a device that produces clean-burning hydrogen from water 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Unlike conventional water splitters, the Stanford device uses a single low-cost catalyst to generate hydrogen bubbles on one electrode and oxygen bubbles on the other.

The device, described in a study published June 23 in Nature Communications, could provide a renewable source of clean-burning hydrogen fuel for transportation and industry.

'We have developed a low-voltage, single-catalyst water splitter that continuously generates hydrogen and oxygen for more than 200 hours, an exciting world-record performance,' said study co-author Yi Cui, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at Stanford and of photon science at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

In an engineering first, Cui and his colleagues used lithium-ion battery technology to create one low-cost catalyst that is capable of driving the entire water-splitting reaction.

'Our group has pioneered the idea of using lithium-ion batteries to search for catalysts,' Cui said. 'Our hope is that this technique will lead to the discovery of new catalysts for other reactions beyond water splitting.'

Clean hydrogen

Hydrogen has long been promoted as an emissions-free alternative to gasoline. Despite its sustainable reputation, most commercial-grade hydrogen is made from natural gas, a fossil fuel that contributes to global warming. As an alternative, scientists have been trying to develop a cheap and efficient way to extract pure hydrogen from water.

A conventional water-splitting device consists of two electrodes submerged in a water-based electrolyte. A low-voltage current applied to the electrodes drives a catalytic reaction that separates molecules of H2O, releasing bubbles of hydrogen on one electrode and oxygen on the other.

Each electrode is embedded with a different catalyst, typically platinum and iridium, two rare and costly metals. But in 2014, Stanford chemist Hongjie Dai developed a water splitter made of inexpensive nickel and iron that runs on an ordinary 1.5-volt battery.

Single catalyst

In the new study, Cui and his colleagues advanced that technology further.

'Our water splitter is unique, because we only use one catalyst, nickel-iron oxide, for both electrodes,' said graduate student Haotian Wang, lead author of the study. 'This bifunctional catalyst can split water continuously for more than a week with a steady input of just 1.5 volts of electricity. That's an unprecedented water-splitting efficiency of 82 percent at room temperature.'

In conventional water splitters, the hydrogen and oxygen catalysts often require different electrolytes with different pH -- one acidic, one alkaline -- to remain stable and active. 'For practical water splitting, an expensive barrier is needed to separate the two electrolytes, adding to the cost of the device,' Wang said. 'But our single-catalyst water splitter operates efficiently in one electrolyte with a uniform pH.'

Wang and his colleagues discovered that nickel-iron oxide, which is cheap and easy to produce, is actually more stable than some commercial catalysts made of precious metals.

'We built a conventional water splitter with two benchmark catalysts, one platinum and one iridium,' Wang said. 'At first the device only needed 1.56 volts of electricity to split water, but within 30 hours we had to increase the voltage nearly 40 percent. That's a significant loss of efficiency.'

Marriage of batteries and catalysis

To find catalytic material suitable for both electrodes, the Stanford team borrowed a technique used in battery research called lithium-induced electrochemical tuning. The idea is to use lithium ions to chemically break the metal oxide catalyst into smaller and smaller pieces.

'Breaking down metal oxide into tiny particles increases its surface area and exposes lots of ultra-small, interconnected grain boundaries that become active sites for the water-splitting catalytic reaction,' Cui said. 'This process creates tiny particles that are strongly connected, so the catalyst has very good electrical conductivity and stability.'

Wang used electrochemical tuning -- putting lithium in, taking lithium out -- to test the catalytic potential of several metal oxides.

'Haotian eventually discovered that nickel-iron oxide is a world-record performing material that can catalyze both the hydrogen and the oxygen reaction,' Cui said. 'No other catalyst can do this with such great performance.'

Using one catalyst made of nickel and iron has significant implications in terms of cost, he added.

'Not only are the materials cheaper, but having a single catalyst also reduces two sets of capital investment to one,' Cui said. 'We believe that electrochemical tuning can be used to find new catalysts for other chemical fuels beyond hydrogen. The technique has been used in battery research for many years, but it's a new approach for catalysis. The marriage of these two fields is very powerful. '

Other Stanford co-authors of the study are postdoctoral scholar Hyun-Wook Lee, visiting student Zhiyi Lu, and graduate students Yong Deng, Po-Chun Hsu, Yayuan Liu and Dingchang Lin.

Video of the water-splitting device

Nature Communications, 2015; 6: 7261
DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8261

Bifunctional non-noble metal oxide nanoparticle electrocatalysts through lithium-induced conversion for overall water splitting.

Haotian Wang, et al.

A picture is worth a thousand calories :

School Lunches : Italy / USA

Jefimenko's ES Motor :
Nov 26, 2013

Free Atmospheric Electricity Powers Small Motor

Posted by lasersaber
3D Printed AtmoMotor Updates and Experiments - Upcoming 3D printer giveaway!
3D Printed AtmoMotor HV Atmospheric Motor - Wireless Energy
Atmospheric Powered Motor 2.0
Free Atmospheric Electricity Powers Small Motor

Bill / July 26, 2014

I read about a device invented in 1894 that generated electricity by discharging static electricity (sparked) within a perminant magnet’s magnetic field. A coil was placed within the magnet’s field, as well.

There is a brief but intense magnetic field created when static electricity sparks. This caused the magnet’s field to fluctuate with each discharge. The coil transduced electricity from the movement in the magnet’s field caused by the discharge of static electricity.

This 100+ year old machine had no moving parts. Just food for thought.

Oleg JEFIMENKO : Atmospheric ES Motors

[ Popular Science, April 1971 ]

Tho. Hieronymous : Grow Plants by Conducted Chlorophyll Energy


Hi everyone! I wanted to share an experiment I "replicated" about four years ago. Dr. T. Galen Hieronymous conducted this experiment back in the 1930s and he called it "Conducting Chlorophyll Energy over Wires". I call it "Growing Plants in the Dark". It's actually an easy experiment to do, but if you don't follow his instructions, it will fail ( ). I feel this is solar energy at its finest with Simple Tesla tech involved. I tried to upload pictures but was unsuccessful so here is a link where I posted at another site with explanations.

I started this project in either October or November of 2010; too much water has passed under the bridge to remember. I ran across Dr. T. Galen Hieronymous' work at the Rex Research site You must be logged in to see this link. (scroll to the bottom)

If you have never been to the Rex Research site go check it out; it has a ton of stuff.

For those who haven't seen my project, I have some pictures with a brief explanation.

This first picture shows the plate on the roof. The plate is insulated from the mounting bracket and has 5 coats of clear paint to protect it from rust. It has an 18 AWG speaker wire attached to it that runs down into the basement of the house.

In the basement I have a similar plate attached to the other end of the speaker wire and suspended over a planter. In the bottom of the planter I have a metal plate that is attached to an earth ground via an 18 AWG speaker wire. I enclosed the wooden frame to keep light out. Basically I just made a tall box out of it with access through the top.

I did not have a control with the first go at this project as I was very skeptical to begin with. 10 days after planting a tomato seed, I came home from school and had the surprise of my life. The photo below is the tomato sprout and is the first time the sprout had light on it.

The tomato died a few days later with the same signs indicated by Dr. Hieronymous as if it had received too much energy. I made another wooden box for a control side and repeated the experiment. This time I used potatoes as we live in Idaho USA with potatoes growing out our ears and my girl friend didn't want me using the tomato seeds.

Below is the control side of the experiment and I know we've all seen potatoes do this in storage at our houses:

This is the experiment side with the plates. Notice how the plant is growing upwards with well formed stalks. The stalks did not turn green, however, the leaves clearly show chlorophyll being produced.

I will be doing another "growing plants in the dark" experiment this year but will take some time to get under way as I am enrolled in 14 credits this semester. None the less, this project has opened my mind concerning the mysteries of energy surrounding our lives on planet Earth. See ya later tater:)

3 Apr 2014
Naturopathic Currents

Glycine - Improving sleep quality


Tamara Eriksen, ND


Sleeping can be complicated business! Those individuals with no difficulty achieving healthy, regular sleep would think it the simplest of physiologic phenomena. Roughly 30% of the population suffers from insomnia, however,[1] which has real and important health consequences, in addition to affecting quality of life. Even short-term sleep disruption is associated with metabolic problems, insulin insensitivity, poor bloodsugar control, increased body mass index (BMI), increased pain and inflammation levels, and even increased mortality.[2] And pathogenic sleep disruption may be a hallmark of or contribute to both psychiatric [3] and neurodegenerative disorders.[4]

If you're among the thousands of individuals who suffer from sleep difficulties, you might be aware that modern science still has a relatively tenuous grasp on the complicated relationships between diet, hydration, emotional/spiritual health, environmental contributors, and brain chemistry related to sleep. This is an area that is receiving considerable attention in scientific study at present, and the findings are having far-reaching implications. Glycine's role in sleep regulation is an excellent example.

Glycine is a small, nonessential amino acid. It is relatively ubiquitous in our muscle tissue and skin, and it plays an important role in the regulation and support of many critical pathways. Previously considered to be biologically inert, unexpected findings in a study using glycine as a placebo to investigate the function of other amino acids on the brain led to a study on the effects of glycine on human sleep quality and patterns.[5]

Glycine undergoes passive diffusion through the blood-brain barrier and acts primarily on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA).[5] Its actions on the NMDA receptor are believed responsible for inhibiting muscle activity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep,[6] and for lowering core body temperature to facilitate sleep.[7, 8] Oral glycine administration also increases serotonin levels without increasing dopamine levels [5] to help normalize circadian rhythms.

In addition to helping objectively normalize the physiology of sleep,[8] oral glycine supplementation ameliorates the subjective symptoms of sleep deprivation.[9] On testing, subjects report improved sleep satisfaction and decreased daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairment.[2, 9]

A pinch of glycine powder under the tongue can give immediate relief from "spinning thoughts" or over-thinking, which is a common complaint among insomniac patients and contributes to difficult sleep onset.[9] Indeed, oral glycine powder at bedtime ameliorates all subjective symptoms of sleep deprivation, from morning fatigue to eye strain and feelings of unease and difficulty concentrating, as well as improving memory recognition.[10, 11]

This naturally sweet amino acid is safe for ongoing use as an oral supplement. At moderate doses, glycine supplementation can help normalize sleep architecture to restore the myriad benefits of restful, restorative sleep.

Glycine and Mental Health

Glycine — this smallest and simplest of amino acids was first thought to be inert in its effects on physiology.[6] But study in recent years shows this little molecule to be a powerhouse! We have already discussed the impact of glycine on normalizing sleep by acting on the NMDA receptors.[12, 13, 14, 15] Through the same mechanism, oral glycine supplementation also helps normalize the brain chemistry of addiction and prevent relapse.

Glycine is critically involved in regulating ethanol (alcohol) consumption.[13] Elevating concentrations of glycine in the signalling junction between neurons has consistently been demonstrated to reduce alcohol intake,[13] and inhibit drug-seeking for cocaine and amphetamines.[14, 15] The mechanism of these effects is still poorly understood, but evidence suggests that increased glycine levels also attenuate the effects of amphetamines on the brain.[14]

To date, medicine has focused on blocking drug effects in order to treat and manage the physiology of addictions. The fact that glycine helps both attenuate the effects of drugs like alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamines, and to decrease the drive to consume these substances is very exciting. It's so exciting, in fact, that a series of pharmaceutical drugs are currently being tested to modulate glycine uptake, in order to effectively increase the amount of glycine in the brain in therapeutic applications.[16] Human trials have not yet reported their results for most of these medications, but we do know that simply supplementing with oral glycine will have similar effects![3]

We can utilize oral glycine to decrease the urge to consume drugs and alcohol (both in addicts and among moderate users),[17] and to help block the effects when the drugs are consumed. But glycine doesn't stop there! Supplementing with oral glycine can improve behavioural training to overcome addictions and prevent relapse (extinction training).[14, 18, 19] It's unclear whether these improvements are related to improved memory recall, such that recovering addicts are able to remember and employ their cognitive behavioural techniques.[20] We do know, however, that changes to glycine levels in the brain correspond with improved attention, memory, impulsivity, emotional memory, and intellectual learning memory.[21] These traits are all negatively impacted with addiction, so a treatment protocol with potential "side effects" that help normalize behaviour-related changes opens a world of possibilities.

Glycine's therapeutic uses to treat addictions go yet a step further. There is evidence that supplemental glycine helps reduce liver toxicity from chronic alcohol consumption and expedites recovery from alcohol-induced liver injury.[22]

Risks of oral glycine supplementation, even at therapeutic levels, are negligible. And so, for a vast number of reasons and applications, this little amino acid packs a big punch in addiction-recovery protocols.

Brain Health

The growing body of evidence regarding impact of glycine levels in the brain does not end with sleep implications and addictions, though these effects alone are exciting for their therapeutic implications and potential improvement to quality of life. A good deal of study is also looking at the effects of supplementing oral glycine as part of pharmacologic management of schizophrenia to benefit patient outcomes.[23] Since the late 1980s, there has been an understanding that glycine therapy is useful to treat negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as depression and loss of mental fluency or flexibility.[24] Recent double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials consistently support the conclusions that adding oral glycine to the pharmacologic protocols markedly improves negative symptoms and cognitive troubles, and may even improve psychotic symptoms in some cases.[25, 26, 27, 28]

Since negative symptoms of schizophrenia typically have a larger impact on real-world function and impact of the illness than do positive symptoms, such as psychosis, the finding that glycine supplementation can improve these devastating symptoms is highly significant. What's more, these benefits to learning and memory retrieval appear to extend beyond applications to mental health and addiction recovery to healthy volunteers as well.[3]

As pharmaceutical companies develop drugs to mimic the impact of supplementing oral glycine, there is a renewed interest in the role of glycine on schizophrenic pathology. Current thinking is that impairment of the NMDA receptor system (stimulated by glycine) may actually be the cause and pathogenicity of schizophrenia.[29, 30]

This new insight into the effects of glycine on the brain spills into other psychiatric, mood, and cognitive disorders, ranging from psychosis and depression through neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntinton's disease and Alzheimer's disease.[29] This line of scientific study has led to greater understanding of how oral glycine may even be of benefit in treating and managing brain injury and stroke.[30, 31, 32]

Examining regulation of NMDA receptors and amino-acid balance has led to potential implications with respect to ADHD and autism,[31] and greater understanding of the neurochemistry of posttraumatic stress disorder and Parkinson's.[32] The implications are far-reaching and profound. While some of the study into these areas focuses on glycine supplementation directly, much is directed toward pharmacologic targets to inhibit NMDA receptors. Oral glycine supplementation may effectively accomplish the same task.[5] However, while the safety profile of the pharmaceuticals has barely begun to be established, oral glycine supplementation has a well-established safety profile at therapeutic doses.

As medical science continues to explore the therapeutic benefits of glycine supplementation, we will see a growing list of advantageous effects for adding this inexpensive amino acid to many therapeutic protocols.

Somatic Effects and Dosing

In addition to the psychiatric and neurochemical applications of glycine supplementation, recent studies are leading us to consider this powerhouse amino acid for somatic applications. We have already mentioned the hepatoprotective benefit of glycine supplementation in the context of chronic and acute alcohol abuse.[33] We have also touched on the benefits to traumatic brain injury and stroke.[32, 34] These demonstrate additional, nonpsychiatric benefits of glycine on other body tissues.

Ischemia (loss of blood supply) is a major cause of death in trauma, surgery, and organ replacement. Glycine significantly reduces tissue damage and loss in these cases, though the mechanism is not fully understood. What is clear is that glycine has direct cell-protective effects.[35] It protects against the damage of the inflammatory response, which is triggered as bloodflow returns to ischemic areas (ischemic reperfusion injury).[35, 36] These cell-protective and anti-inflammatory effects are not limited to tissue trauma due to ischemia. In fact, the anti-inflammatory benefits of glycine have been applied to the prevention and treatment of other inflammatory conditions.

Inflammation is the primary mechanism in arthritis. Animal studies indicate that oral glycine supplementation can mitigate this inflammatory process,[5] and mechanistic study suggests these effects have multiple potential therapeutic applications in humans as well.[37, 38] Conditions such as ulcerative colitis,[39] inflammatory pain,[40] muscle wasting in cancer,[41] and even inflammatory contributors to obesity [42, 43, 44] show improvement with glycine supplementation.

With the growing body of data supporting therapeutic use of supplemental glycine, it is important to note that appropriate dosing is not clearly established for most applications. Table 1 reflects established dosing.

Table 1. Appropriate Dosing of Oral Glycine Indication     Dose     Comment
Sleep     3 g daily, at bedtime     Helps normalize sleep architecture.
Improves daytime symptoms of sleep deprivation.
Manages "spinning thoughts" that cause delayed sleep onset.
Schizophrenia     15 - 60 mg daily     Improves negative symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment.
Part of polypharmacy protocol. Should be utilized with guidance from qualified professionals only.
Cocaine addiction treatment     2 - 12 g daily     Helps normalize neurochemistry to decrease drug-seeking (short-term effects.)
Improves memory recall and response to cognitive behavioural training in addiction recovery.

The safety of glycine supplementation has been clearly established. Surgeons routinely utilize an irrigation solution of glycine during procedures, delivering relatively high-dose glycine without adverse effects. Clinical trials have investigated oral glycine supplementation in humans quite thoroughly, indicating that long-term oral doses of 31 g/d [44] and 50 g/d [5] yield no adverse events. Short-term studies of 200 mg/kg daily of IV glycine also yielded no adverse effects.[5] While more study is required to fully elucidate the full breadth and potential of therapeutic glycine, the mounting body of evidence is certainly exciting.


1. Ohayon, M. "Epidemiology of insomnia: what we known and what we still need to learn". Sleep Medicine Reviews Vol. 6 (2002): 97 - 111. 2. Grandner, M., et al. "Relationships among dietary nutrients and subjective sleep, objective sleep, and napping in women". Sleep Medicine Vol. 11, No. 2 (2010): 180 - 184.

3. Wallace, T.L., et al. "Drug targets for cognitive enhancement in neuropsychiatric disorders". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Vol. 99, No. 2 (2011): 130 - 145.

4. Brooks, P. and M. Peever. "Impaired GABA and glycine transmission triggers cardinal features of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in mice". The Journal of Neuroscience Vol. 31, No. 19 (2011): 7111 - 7121.

5. Bannai, M. and N. Kawai. "New therapeutic strategy for amino acid medicine: glycine improves the quality of sleep". Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 118 (2011): 145 - 148.

6. Brooks, P. and J. Peever. "Unraveling the mechanisms of REM sleep atonia". Sleep Vol. 31, No. 11 (2008): 1492 - 1497.

7. Zulley, J., R. Wever, and J. Aschoff. "The dependence of onset and duration of sleep of sleep on the circadian rhythm of rectal temperature". Pflügers Archiv Vol. 391 (1981): 314 - 318.

8. Kawai, N., M. Bannai, and M. Takahashi. "Glycine decreases core body temperature and increases cutaneous blood flow via NMDA receptors in rats". Neuroscience 2009, Abstract.

9. Chase, M. "Confirmation of the consensus that glycinergic postsynaptic inhibition is responsible for the atonia of REM sleep". The Journal of Neuroscience Vol. 31, No. 11 (2008): 1487-1491.

10. Bannai, M., et al. "The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers". Frontiers in Neurology Vol. 18, No. 3 (2012): 61.

11. Inagawa, K., et al. "Subjective effects of glycine ingestion before bedtime on sleep quality". Sleep and Biological Rhythms Vol. 4, No. 1 (2006): 75 - 77.

12. Inagawa, K., et al. "Glycine ingestions improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes". Sleep and Biological Rhythms Vol. 5, No. 2 (2007): 126 - 131.

13. Soja, P. "Glycine-mediated postsynaptic inhibition is responsible for REM sleep atonia". The Journal of Neuroscience Vol. 31, No. 11 (2008): 1483 - 1486.

14. Lidö, H.H., et al. "The glycine reuptake inhibitor Org24598 and acamprosate reduce ethanol intake in the rat; tolerance development to acamprosate but not to Org24598". Addiction Biology Vol. 17, No. 5 (2012): 897 - 907.

15. Wang, X., et al. "Role of mGluR5 neurotransmission in reinstated cocaine-seeking". Addiction Biology Vol. 18, No. 1 (2013): 40 - 49.

16. Schwendt, M., S.A. Sigmon, and J.F. McGinty. "RGS4 overexpression in the rat dorsal striatum modulates mGluR5- and amphetamine-mediated behavior and signaling". Psychopharmacology Vol. 221, No. 4 (2012): 621 - 635.

17. Harvey, R.J. and B.K. Yee. "Glycine transporters as novel therapeutic targets in schizophrenia, alcohol dependence and pain". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery Vol. 12 (2013): 866 - 885.

18. Li, J., et al. "Microinjection of glycine into the ventral tegmental area selectively decreases ethanol consumption". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol. 341, No. 1 (2012): 196 - 204.

19. Achat-Mendes, C., et al. "Glycine transporter-1 inhibition preceding extinction training inhibits reacquisition of cocaine seeking". Neuropsychopharmacology Vol. 37, No. 13 (2012): 2837 - 2845.

20. Nic Dhonnchadha B.Á., et al. "Inhibiting glycine transporter-1 facilitates cocaine-cue extinction and attenuates reacquisition of cocaine-seeking behavior". Drug and Alcohol Dependence Vol. 122, No. 1 - 2 (2012): 119 - 126.

21. Zhou, S.J., et al. "NMDA receptor glycine modulatory site in the ventral tegmental area regulates the acquisition, retrieval, and reconsolidation of cocaine reward memory". Psychopharmacology Vol. 221, No. 1 (2012): 79 - 89.

22. Nic Dhonnchadha, B.Á. and K.M. Kantak. "Cognitive enhancers for facilitating drug cue extinction: insights from animal models". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Vol. 99, No. 2 (2011): 229 - 244.

23. Yin, M., et al. "Glycine accelerates recovery from alcohol-induced liver injury". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol. 286, No. 2 (1998): 1014 - 1019.

24. Shim, S., M. Hammonds, and B. Kee. "Potentiation of the NMDA receptor in the treatment of schizophrenia: focused on the glycine site". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol. 258, No. 1 (2007): 16 - 27.

25. Waziri, R. "Glycine therapy of schizophrenia". Biological Psychiatry Vol. 23 (1988): 210 - 211.

26. Costa, J., et al. "An open trial of glycine as an adjunct to neuroleptics in chronic treatment-refractory schizophrenics". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Vol. 10 (1990): 71 - 72.

27. Heresco-Levy U. and D.C. Javitt. "Comparative effects of glycine and D-cycloserine on persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a retrospective analysis". Schizophrenia Research Vol. 66 (2004): 89 - 96.

28. Heresco-Levy U., et al. "Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia". Archives of General Psychiatry Vol. 56 (1999): 29 - 36.

29. Javitt, D.C., et al. "Amelioration of negative symptoms in schizophrenia by glycine". The American Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 151 (1994): 1234 - 1236.

30. Lakhan, S., M. Caro, and N. Hadzimichalis. "NMDA receptor activity in neuropsychiatric disorders". Front Psychiatry Vol. 4 (2013): 52.

31. D'Souza SW, et al. "Glycine site of the excitatory amino acid N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in neonatal and adult brain". Archives of Disease in Childhood Vol. 69 (1993): 212 - 215.

32. Zavala, M., et al. "Imbalance of plasma amino acids in patients with autism and subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Revue Neurologique Vol. 33, No. 5 (2001): 401 - 408.

33. Shohami, E. and A. Biegon. "Novel approach to the role of NMDA receptors in traumatic brain injury". CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets 2013 Oct 28. [Epub ahead of print]

34. Yamashina, S., et al. "Glycine as a therapeutic immuno-nutrient for alcoholic liver disease". Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research Vol. 29, No. 11 Suppl. (2005): 162S - 165S.

35. Petrat, F., et al. "Glycine, a simple physiological compound protecting by yet puzzling mechanism(s) against ischaemia-reperfusion injury: current knowledge". British Journal of Pharmacology Vol. 165, No. 7 (2012): 2059 - 2072.

36. Spittler, A., et al. "Immunomodulatory effects of glycine on LPS-treated monocytes: reduced TNF-alpha production and accelerated IL 10 expression". FASEB Journal Vol. 13, No. 3 (1999): 563 - 571.

37. Li, X., et al. "Dietary glycine prevents peptidoglycan polysaccharide-induced reactive arthritis in the rat: role for glycine-gated chloride channel". Infection and Immunity Vol. 69, No. 9 (2001): 5883 - 5891.

38. Zhong, Z., et al. "L Glycine: a novel antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and cytoprotective agent". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care Vol. 6, No. 2 (2003): 229 - 240.

39. Wheeler, M.D., et al. "Glycine: a new anti-inflammatory immunonutrient". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Vol. 56, No. 9 - 10 (1999): 843 - 856.

40. Chou, W.Y., et al. "Role of glycine N-methyltransferase in experimental ulcerative colitis". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Vol. 29, No. 3 (2014): 494 - 501.

41. Ikeda, H., K. Mochizuki, and K. Murase. "Astrocytes are involved in long-term facilitation of neuronal excitation in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice with inflammatory pain". Pain Vol. 154, No. 12 (2013): 2836 - 2843.

42. Ham, D.J., et al. "Glycine administration attenuates skeletal muscle wasting in a mouse model of cancer cachexia". Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2013) pii: S0261 - 5614 (13) 00185 - 4 [Epub ahead of print].

43. Blancas-Flores G, F.J. et al. "Glycine suppresses TNF-a-induced activation of NF-?B in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes". European Journal of Pharmacology Vol. 689, No. 1 - 3 (2012): 270 - 277.

44. Alarcon-Aguilar, F.J., et al. "Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice". European Journal of Pharmacology Vol. 599, No. 1 - 3 (2008): 152 - 158.

45. Almanza-Perez, J.C., et al. "Glycine regulates inflammatory markers modifying the energetic balance through PPAR and UCP-2". Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Vol. 64, No. 8 (2010): 534 - 540.

Strange Trumpet Sounds Debunked 2015

Bisphenol A (BPA) Contaminating Our Food -- The Undeniable Truth About Plastics and Canned Foods

Don't just suck eggs -- Chew 'em !

October 19, 2014

Forget Filling Cavities: Regrow Your Teeth Instead

by Anya V

Modern society is the first to routinely fill teeth cavities with toxic materials as soon as they occur. But we may not need to turn to these modern practices if we simply take natural precautions. In fact, we may actually be able to remineralize teeth and heal cavities naturally with some natural solutions.

For many decades, mercury amalgam fillings were used because the malleability of the mercury allowed for the fillings to completely fill all the small spaces, tiny grooves, and narrow crevices. The temperature sensitivity of the mercury also permitted the filling to expand and contract accordingly.

Unfortunately, this practice of immediately filling cavities precluded the possibility of the teeth regenerating themselves. Plus, we now know that the amalgam solutions pose a noteworthy health risk due to mercury exposure.

With the right natural remedies and proper technique, teeth may actually be able to rebuild their tooth structure. In this manner the tincture of time and patience become the necessary components of a self-healing program.

Using Eggshells to Remineralize Teeth

One example of a reportedly efficacious protocol for healing cavities includes eggshells. Here’s why eggshells are made to make for the perfect ingredient:

“Eggshells contain the perfect amount of the ideal substances for healing cavities – massive amounts of calcium and 27 other minerals. The composition of eggshells resembles our teeth. Eggshells provide the necessary amount of calcium to remineralize teeth.” [1]

The real key to effectively remineralizing the teeth is providing the right minerals in the right balance so that the teeth can rebuild themselves. This process can begin in earnest only after the mouth has been properly cleansed.

By cleansing it should be understood that all dental materials that are toxic or allergenic for an individual are safely removed by a biological dentist. Holistic dentistry should also be utilized to address any persistent infections in the teeth or gums. Cavitation sites, in particular, must be appropriately remediated so that any focal infections are completely treated.

By using only dental materials and techniques utilized by a toxin-free dentist, the naturally occurring bacterial flora in the mouth can be re-established. Likewise, the normal pH of the mouth, which is the most conducive for this difficult type of tissue regeneration, will prevail over the long term necessary for natural cavity filling.

Though it’s recommended to take the previous steps mentioned, one thing you can and should do on your own to cleanse your mouth is oil pulling. Oil pulling is a very interesting mouth-cleansing method that could lead to numerous benefits, and few people know about this practice. Read more about the art of oil pulling here.
What is it about eggshells that makes them so special?

“Bone tissue is composed of calcium. Actually, human bones and teeth are very similar to an eggshell’s composition. One of the benefits of eggshells is the calcium contained in the shell (93 %), the bone marrow is fulfilling its hematopoietic function better.

Additionally, eggshells also contain mineral elements: magnesium, phosphorus, silicon, sodium, potassium, iron, sulfur, aluminum, etc.

There are 27 elements found in the eggshells. Also the protein of a shell is composed of such essential amino acids as methionine, cysteine, lysine, isoleucine. Thus, properly prepared eggshells are the most balanced natural means to obtain calcium.” [1]

Refilling teeth cavities naturally is no small task; therefore, using the very best filling material that nature has to offer is absolutely vital to a successful outcome.

Best Recipe for the Eggshell Formulation

First and foremost, the eggshells ought to come from free range, organic chicken farms in order to avoid any unwanted chemicals or antibiotics. The recipe for this Eggshell Tonic formulation is simple and easy to prepare.

How to prepare:

“Take eggshells and put them in boiling water for about 5 minutes. The boiling will kill any pathogens. Then, air dry the shells and grind the shells in a coffee grinder. Take a 1/2 teaspoon a day. It is important to note that Vitamin D [via exposure to sunlight] greatly aids calcium absorption.” [1]

Homemade eggshell toothpaste can also be made by consulting this recipe. By using both the tonic and the toothpaste together, the odds will be significantly put in the favor of sufficiently remineralizing your teeth so that dental visits can be minimized.

Eggshell toothpaste recipe:

¼ cup ground up eggshells or calcium magnesium tablets

About 2-3 Tbs. coconut oil

1 Tbs. baking soda

Optional ingredients: 1 tsp. castile soap, 1 tsp. sea salt, and/or a few drops of peppermint essential oil.


Rinse eggshells and boil them for a few minutes. This will help get rid of any pathogens. Air dry. Grind up the shells into a fine powder. Combine the ingredients in a bowl, adding coconut oil until it reaches a smooth consistency. Store in a container (jar).


Every time your teeth are drilled by a dentist, they are undermined in profound and irreparable ways. The most common dental materials in use today are often toxic and further impede the natural healing of the teeth.

Because dental patients are so conditioned over decades to submit to highly invasive procedures like root canal therapy, they are unaware of the safe natural approaches that have no unhealthy consequences.

Eggshell tonic and toothpaste are only two of the ways which can help restore the teeth of those who faithfully follow this holistic program.

Mosquito-Repellant Plants :

Lemon Balm
Sage & Rosemary

2015 & still waiting ...
December 13, 2010

Injecting New Bone

An artificial bone-like material could speed up recovery from injury.


Karen Weintraub

Today, a broken hip usually means surgery and extensive rehab. But what if all you needed was an injection and a shorter recovery period? That’s the vision that inspires Thomas Webster, an associate professor of engineering at Brown University.

Webster has developed a nanomaterial that quickly solidifies at body temperature into a bone-like substance. This week, Brown announced a deal with medical device maker Audax Medical of Littleton, Massachusetts, to further develop the material and launch trials in animals.

The material contains the same nucleic acids as DNA, Webster says. Each molecule has two covalent bonds and links with other molecules to form a tube. Hence it’s called a “twin-base linker.” (Audax will develop it under the name Arxis.)

“It self-assembles into a nano structure, emulates natural tissue, solidifies quickly at body temperature, and can be made to match the mechanical properties of the tissue you inject it into,” Webster says.

That sounds great, says tissue engineer Kevin Shakesheff, of the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom, but it will also need to sustain weight like bone can.

He and his colleagues have developed a different material for the same purpose. “If you press down on our material, it’s as strong as bone, but if you try and snap it, it’s nowhere near as strong,” he says.

Webster says he’s confident that his material, which has so far only been tested in a laboratory, will be able to bear weight like bone.

“It will have that strength after solidifying in the body — after a couple of minutes,” he says.

Ali Khademhosseini, an assistant professor of medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston says Webster’s material sounds interesting, and there’s plenty of room for innovation in the area of bone-like materials.

Today, metal plates are often inserted to provide strength and support while bones, such as the hip joint, slowly heal. But the metal degrades over time, and particularly in younger patients, it may eventually have to be replaced. Khademhosseini says tissue engineers are looking for materials that will better integrate with the body and last longer. If Webster succeeds in developing such a material to replace metal entirely, that would transform the field, he says.

Audax will begin testing Arxis in the hip and knee, according to company president and CEO Mark Johanson. Johanson hopes to have the first product ready for market in 2013. The company recently raised $1 million and plans to raise more capital soon, Johanson says. If Arxis is injectable on an outpatient basis, the sales volume will be high and the price relatively low, Johanson predicts. An injection is likely to run $1,000 to $1,500.

“The material can be processed and manufactured relatively inexpensively, which positions it well for the higher-volume-procedural market,” Johanson

Inventor: HICKEY DANIEL et al.
Nanocomposite materials are provided for attaching soft tissue to hard tissue of a mammalian subject. The materials include a biodegradable polymer network suffused with mineral nanoparticles. The nanocomposite materials have a surface structure that promotes the infiltration, adhesion and proliferation of cells such as osteoblasts and fibroblasts, and are useful to reconstruct enthesis tissue, such as a tendon bone insertion. Devices containing the nanocomposites and methods for implantation of the devices at a tendon-bone interface or ligament-bone interface are provided for reconstructive surgery.

Rex-ommended Viewing :

The True Cost

True Cost is a documentary film exploring the impact of fashion on people and the planet.
Directed by: Andrew Morgan
( Watch the Moevideo version -- fewer popup ads &c... extremely obnoxious )

Magnetic Field Weakening Ten Times Faster than Thought

Russian 4kW generator

1.5khz tesla coil...he uses a .3 sec impulse from the battery to get it started, then switches over to earth currents to keep it lit at 4kw in this demo but says it can handle 4.5kw.

Of course no schematic and its hard to understand the translator or how it works from what I could tell. You can see the black wire is connected to an earth ground which goes to the power module tesla coil...and the output of that goes into the load through the two white wires. It is possible the load is also connected to ground so it is in series like others who built earth current devices. To make a closed loop.

He notes in the video, "Tesla uses sinusoidal signal as a carrier"...that is modulated by impulse modulation using right timing and (my comment nanosec long impulses).

Free Energy June 2015 Ruslan 4kW generator English translation by Wesley

Patent Updates from Panacea-Bocaf :

US6126794 -- Xogen's Water-Splitting patent : another version of Stan Meyers water-splitting cell, produced by his brother in law Stephen Chambers.

EP0,405,919 -- Juan Aguero's Hydrogen/Steam : describes a high efficiency method of converting water into hydrogen and oxygen gasses to be used a fuel for an engine.

US6208061 -- Jong-Sok An : a simple 'no-load' electrical generator which, unlike convential generators, has reduced input power requirements for increased generated current draw.

US20020125774 -- Alberto Molina-Martinez : a self-powered Continuous Electricity Generator.

WO9528510 -- Spiro Spiros : electrolyser which operates in over-unity mode. It also has the possibility of operating an internal combustion engine without needing any electrics at all. It is interesting to note that the Patent Office has granted Spiro a patent which clearly states, measures and documents over-unity operation.

US4041465 -- Philip Brody : for a very high voltage solar cell / solid-state memory, etc.

US5892311 -- Shigeaki Hayasaka : INDUCTION GENERATOR -- an electrical generator which needs less than 20% of the input power of a standard generator.

US5590031 -- Mead/Nachamk : a device for converting Zero-Point Energy to electrical energy.

WO2009065210 -- Richard Willis gener

US20110113772 -- John ROHANER -- Papp engine
11 Apr 2014

Why you should never eat tilapia


Anya V

Tilapia , one of the cheapest and most popular fish in the United States, may actually lead to many serious health problems.

Their feed is not natural — in the wild, tilapia would eat algae and lake plants, but the farms fatten up the fish on GMO corn and soy pellets. The amount of healthful fish oils in these creatures is almost non-existent, negating the main reason why fish is so good for us. Almost all tilapia sold in the U.S. is hormone drug treated. Did you know that the low price of tilapia is achieved by converting the young females to males through the use of the hormone drug 17alpha-methytestosterone? By having all male population allows fish farmers to produce larger fish in a short period of time.

Additionally, farmed fish consist of more fat and less Omega-3 fatty acids due to the smaller area in which they swim, and the constant availability of food. Unlike many other fish, farm-raised tilapia contains high levels of an unhealthy kind of omega-6. It also contains less than 0.5 grams of omega-3s per 100 grams of fish.

According to one of the studies, farm-raised tilapia contains significantly higher concentrations of PCBs, dioxin and other cancer-causing contaminants than salmon caught in the wild. Farmed fish contain higher concentrations of contaminants than wild fish largely because they are fed meal that consists of ground-up fish tainted with contaminants. Many researchers are convinced that eating farmed fish leads to an increased cancer risk due to high amounts of PCB's the low-quality of nutrients.

Farm-bred fish also have lower levels of healthy nutrients. Many of us consume fish, hoping to reap the omega-3 fatty acid benefits that come with it. However, did you know that the omega-3-acids that are found in farm-raised fish are less usable to our bodies compared to wild bred fish. Farm-raised fish also has a lower protein content. Not only that, because farm-raised fish are kept in cages, they have the tendency to be fattier, and can have a higher concentration of omega-6 acids. The problem with getting too much omega-6 acids is that they may cause inflammation to the body due to imbalance.

Dioxin levels are 11 times higher in farm-bred fish compared to wild fish. Dioxin is actually a very toxic chemical that can contribute to cancer and other complications. The problem with dioxin is that once it enters our system, it can take a very long time until it is let out. The half life of dioxin is about 7 to 11 years.

John KHEIR, et al : Oxygen Microbubbles
June 27, 2012

Injecting Life-Saving Oxygen Into a Vein

June 27, 2012 — Patients unable to breathe because of acute lung failure or an obstructed airway need another way to get oxygen to their blood -- and fast -- to avoid cardiac arrest and brain injury. A team led by researchers at Boston Children's Hospital has designed tiny, gas-filled microparticles that can be injected directly into the bloodstream to quickly oxygenate the blood.

The microparticles consist of a single layer of lipids (fatty molecules) that surround a tiny pocket of oxygen gas, and are delivered in a liquid solution. In a cover article in the June 27 issue of Science Translational Medicine, John Kheir, MD, of the Department of Cardiology at Boston Children's Hospital, and colleagues report that an infusion of these microparticles into animals with low blood oxygen levels restored blood oxygen saturation to near-normal levels, within seconds.

When the trachea was completely blocked -- a more dangerous "real world" scenario -- the infusion kept the animals alive for 15 minutes without a single breath, and reduced the incidence of cardiac arrest and organ injury.

The microparticle solutions are portable and could stabilize patients in emergency situations, buying time for paramedics, emergency clinicians or intensive care clinicians to more safely place a breathing tube or perform other life-saving therapies, says Kheir.

"This is a short-term oxygen substitute -- a way to safely inject oxygen gas to support patients during a critical few minutes," he says. "Eventually, this could be stored in syringes on every code cart in a hospital, ambulance or transport helicopter to help stabilize patients who are having difficulty breathing."

The microparticles would likely only be administered for a short time, between 15 and 30 minutes, because they are carried in fluid that would overload the blood if used for longer periods, Kheir says.

Kheir also notes that the particles are different from blood substitutes, which carry oxygen but are not useful when the lungs are unable to oxygenate them. Instead, the microparticles are designed for situations in which the lungs are completely incapacitated.

Kheir began investigating the idea of injectable oxygen in 2006, after caring for a little girl who sustained a severe brain injury resulting from a severe pneumonia that caused bleeding into her lungs and severely low oxygen levels. Despite the team's best efforts, she died before they could place her on a heart-lung machine. Frustrated by this, Kheir formed a team to search for another way to deliver oxygen.

"Some of the most convincing experiments were the early ones," he says. "We drew each other's blood, mixed it in a test tube with the microparticles, and watched blue blood turn immediately red, right before our eyes."

Over the years, Kheir and his team have tested various concentrations and sizes of the microparticles to optimize their effectiveness and to make them safe for injection. "The effort was truly multidisciplinary," says Kheir. "It took chemical engineers, particle scientists and medical doctors to get the mix just right."

In the studies reported in the paper, they used a device called a sonicator, which uses high-intensity sound waves to mix the oxygen and lipids together. The process traps oxygen gas inside particles averaging 2 to 4 micrometers in size (not visible without a microscope). The resulting solution, with oxygen gas making up 70 percent of the volume, mixed efficiently with human blood.

"One of the keys to the success of the project was the ability to administer a concentrated amount of oxygen gas in a small amount of liquid," Kheir says. "The suspension carries three to four times the oxygen content of our own red blood cells."

Intravenous administration of oxygen gas was tried in the early 1900s, but these attempts failed to oxygenate the blood and often caused dangerous gas embolisms.

"We have engineered around this problem by packaging the gas into small, deformable particles," Kheir explains. "They dramatically increase the surface area for gas exchange and are able to squeeze through capillaries where free gas would get stuck."

The study was funded by three awards from the Technology Development Fund at Boston Children's Hospital Boston and a U.S. Department of Defense Basic Research Award to Kheir.


John N. Kheir, Laurie A. Scharp, Mark A. Borden, Edward J. Swanson, Andrew Loxley, James H. Reese, Katherine J. Black, Luis A. Velazquez, Lindsay M. Thomson, Brian K. Walsh, Kathryn E. Mullen, Dionne A. Graham, Michael W. Lawlor, Carlo Brugnara, David C. Bell, and Francis X. McGowan, Jr. Oxygen Gas–Filled Microparticles Provide Intravenous Oxygen Delivery. Science Translational Medicine, 27 June 2012 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003679




Compositions containing a carrier and microbubbles encapsulating one or more gases, preferably oxygen, and methods for making and using the compositions are described herein. The microbubbles contain a lipid envelope. The compositions may be administered to a patient to quickly deliver large amounts of oxygen to the patient's blood supply or directly to a tissue in need of oxygen. The compositions may be administered via injection or as a continuous infusion. The compositions contain a concentrated microbubble suspension, where the suspension contains at least 40 mL oxygen/dL suspension. The microbubbles are preferably less than 20 microns in diameter, more preferably less than 15 microns in diameter. The microbubbles described herein may be administered to a patient in an effective amount to increase in oxygen concentration in the patient's blood, and/or one or more tissues or organs...


[0004] Every human cell requires a constant supply of oxygen to maintain cellular structure and homeostasis. This supply is primarily provided by hemoglobin, which carries inspired oxygen from the pulmonary capillaries to the tissues. In cases where a patient's lungs are unable to transfer adequate amounts of oxygen to circulating erythrocytes, severe hypoxia results and can quickly lead to severe organ injury and death.

[0005] Restoration of blood oxygen tension is paramount to resuscitation of the majority of pathophysiologic states. Some clinical states, such as lung injury, airway obstruction, and intracardiac mixing, exhibit hypoxemia and desaturation refractory to medical efforts to restore levels of oxygen saturation sufficient to limit ischemic injury. Ischemic injury may take place within minutes or seconds of insufficient oxygen delivery. In these conditions, low oxygen tension can result in end-organ dysfunction, failure, and mortality. The ability to augment oxygenation quickly and non-invasively would have dramatic implications on the morbidity and mortality from acute hypoxia, in addition to a number of other clinical situations.

[0006] Conventional attempts to restore oxygen levels in patients utilize supportive therapy of the patient's respiratory system, most commonly by way of mechanical ventilation. However, patients with lung injury, comprising a significant population of intensive care unit patients, have difficulty exchanging oxygen across a damaged alveolar unit. This requires clinicians to increase ventilator pressures, often causing further lung injury and systemic inflammation. Significant morbidity and mortality has been associated with ventilator induced lung injury, and barotrauma to the lungs is often necessitated by inadequate systemic oxygen delivery. The ability to non-invasively supplement even small percentages of oxygen delivery may significantly reduce the morbidity of mechanical ventilation.

[0007] Furthermore, emergency efforts to deliver oxygen to a patient are often inadequate and/or require too long to take effect, either due to lack of an adequate airway or overwhelming lung injury. This results in irreversible injury to the brain and other organs. Initiation of rescue therapy in these patients is burdensome and time consuming, and is available only at a limited number of specialized health care centers. There remains a need to quickly deliver oxygen directly to the blood of patients, thereby preventing or minimizing irreversible injury due to hypoxemia.

[0008] Therefore it is an object of the invention to provide improved methods for delivering oxygen to patients, tissues or organs.

[0009] It is yet a further object of the invention to provide improved compositions for delivering oxygen to patients, tissues or organs.

[0010] It is a still further object of the invention to provide improved methods for producing compositions for delivering oxygen to patients, tissues or organs.


[0011] Compositions containing a carrier and microbubbles encapsulating one or more gases, preferably oxygen, and methods for making and using the compositions are described herein. The microbubbles contain a lipid envelope formed of at least one base lipid and at least one emulsifying agent. The compositions may be administered to a patient to quickly deliver large amounts of oxygen to the patient's blood supply or directly to a tissue in need of oxygen. The compositions may be administered via injection or as a continuous infusion. The compositions contain a concentrated microbubble suspension, where the suspension contains at least 40 mL oxygen/dL suspension. The microbubbles are preferably less than 20 microns in diameter, more preferably less than 15 microns in diameter. The microbubbles described herein may be administered to a patient in an effective amount to increase the oxygen concentration in the patient's blood, and/or one or more tissues or organs, preferably in an amount effective to prevent or alleviate ischemic injury. The microbubbles may be administered alone or in combination with other treatments as an adjective therapy.


I. Compositions

[0021] Compositions containing a carrier and microbubbles encapsulating one or more gases, preferably where at least one gas is oxygen, for administration to patients, tissues or organs in need of treatment are described herein. The compositions are particularly preferred for quickly delivering large amounts of oxygen to a patient's blood supply or directly to a tissue or organ in need of oxygen. The compositions may be administered via injection or as a continuous infusion.

[0022] A. Microbubbles

[0023] A typical structure for the microbubbles is illustrated in FIG. 1. As shown in FIG. 1, the microbubbles contain a gas core surrounded by an envelope formed from one or more lipids and one or more emulsifying agents in the form of a lipid monolayer or multilayer. The outer surface of the envelope forms a protective film, preferably formed from polyethylene glycol (see FIG. 1).

[0024] 1. Envelope

[0025] The envelope is in the form of a lipid film, in the form of a monolayer or multilayer, preferably in the form of a monolayer. The lipid film may be between 1 and 100 nm thick, preferably between 1 and 10 nm thick, most preferably between 2 and 5 nm thick. In one preferred embodiment, the lipid film is a monolayer that is about 10 nm thick. A thin lipid film affords a high permeability to oxygen, while preventing a direct gas-blood interface.

[0026] Preferably the overall charge for the envelope is neutral.

[0027] The protective border prevents coalescence of the microbubbles through either a repulsive electrostatic double layer or a short-range repulsive steric barrier. The border also decreases recognition and uptake by the reticuloendothelial cells (RES) of the microbubble and inhibits complement activation and other immunogenic, toxic or thrombogenic effects. Typically, the envelope contains from 0.1 to 20% (molar), preferably from 5 to 10% (molar) emulsifying agent. The emulsifying agent generally contains a hydrophilic portion, typically a hydrophilic polymer, and a hydrophobic portion. The emulsifying agent or a portion thereof, generally the hydrophilic portion of the emulsifying agent, forms a protective border on the outer surface of the microbubble. Preferably the border is in the form of a brush where the hydrophilic portion of the emulsifying agent extends from the lipid containing portion of the envelope to form a border on the outer surface of the microbubble.

[0028] a. Lipids

[0029] A variety of lipids may be used to form the lipid film. The lipids may be natural or synthetic. Suitable lipids include phospholipids, fatty acids, triacyl glycerols, sphingolipids, terpenes, and waxes. Preferably the envelope contains one or more phospholipids.

[0030] Generally the lipid envelope contains at least one base lipid and at least one emulsifying agent, where at least a portion of the emulsifying agent forms a protective film on the outer surface of the envelope. "Base lipid" as used herein refers to the one or more lipids in the envelope that do not contain a component for forming a protective film that reduces surface tension, provides mechanical stability and limits gas diffusion.

[0031] The lipid envelope may contain lipids with acyl chains of varying lengths and degrees of saturation. The lipid envelope may contain lipids with a single acyl chain length, or different lipids with different acyl chain lengths. In a preferred embodiment, the lipid is a long-chain lipid, preferably a saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholine (Di-Cn-PC, where n is between 12 and 24, preferably where n is 16 or 18), which imparts low surface tension, high stability against envelope dissolution, and low gas permeability prior to administration in vivo. Suitable lipids include phosphocholines, phosphoglycerols, phosphatidic acids, phosphoethanolamines, and phosphoserines. Examples include 1,2-Dilauroyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, DLPC), 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, DMPC), 1,2-Dipentadecanoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (dipentadecanoylphosphatidylcholine, DPDPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), 1-Myristoyl-2-Palmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (1-myristoyl-2-palmitoylphosphatidylcholine, MPPC), 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-Glycero-3-[Phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG), 1,2-Dimyristoyl-3-Trimethylammonium-Propane, cholesterol and its derivatives, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and fatty esters.

[0067] D. Concentration of Microbubbles

[0068] The microbubbles are designed to release oxygen in clinically significant amounts quickly following injection, while minimizing build-up in the circulation of the components that form the envelope and carrier.

[0069] Thus, the injectable compositions generally contain high concentrations of microbubbles, in a minimal amount of carrier for the composition to be injected. Typical concentrations range from 70 to 90% (volume gas/volume injectable composition), preferably 80 to 90%. As shown in the Examples, suspensions containing from 40 to 70 mL oxygen per dL suspension have favorable mixing properties.

[0070] As shown in the Examples, the volume of the gas core is a function of the selection of the length of the acyl chains in the lipids that form the envelope. Further, the maximum packing density, which is a function of the microbubble size distribution and the shape and deformability of the microbubbles, limits the maximum gas fraction of the suspension. Preferably the volume of the gas core comprises 50% or more of the overall volume of the suspension. In one preferred embodiment, the volume of the gas core is 50 to 60% of the overall volume of the suspension. In another embodiment, lower volume percentages are preferred. Microbubble suspensions containing less than 50% gas (by volume), may be useful when resuscitation is desired in trauma, or in microvascular flaps being treated with microbubbles.

[0071] E. Size

[0072] The overall diameter of the microbubbles is selected to provide a high surface area to volume ratio, thereby favoring rapid transfer of the gas out of the microbubbles. For delivery of oxygen to a patient, typically, the microbubbles have diameters of about 20 microns or smaller, preferably the upper limit for the diameter of the microbubbles ranges from 15 microns or smaller, or 10 microns or smaller in order to pass through the pulmonary capillary bed following intravenous injection.

[0073] Preferably, the lipid monolayer is quite thin (e.g. about 10 nm), and the volume of the gas core comprises 90% or more of the overall volume of the microbubble, typically comprises between 99.00 to 99.99% of the overall volume of the microbubble.

[0074] F. Stability of Microbubble Suspensions

[0075] Microbubbles containing oxygen in their gas core may coarsen and break down by ripening (transfer of oxygen from a smaller particle to a larger particle due to differences in Laplace pressures) or by microbubble coalescence. The rate at which both of these processes occur is inversely proportional to the envelope cohesiveness, which increases with increasing lipid packing density and increasing lipid acyl chain length. Other factors, such as suspension viscosity, temperature and concentration of oxygen and other gases in the suspension may also affect stability.

[0076] The microbubbles described herein may be designed to be used immediately following production. In these embodiments, the microbubbles are relatively unstable, such as for only a few hours following production.

[0077] In other embodiments, the microbubbles are stable in storage for weeks to months at room temperature and standard pressures (e.g. 1 atm) or at lower temperatures, such at refrigeration at 4[deg.] C.

II. Methods of Making the Microbubble Compositions

[0078] Any suitable method for forming the microbubbles, or precursors for the microbubbles, may be used. Gas-filled microbubbles form by the adsorption of lipid components in the precursor suspension to the gas liquid interface of entrained gas bodies. This adsorption is generally accomplished by high energy conditions, such as amalgamation (intense shaking) or sonication. Other methods of gas injection may be used to form microbubbles, such as flow focusing, T-junctions or electrohydrodynamic atomization.

[0079] Formation of concentrated microparticle suspensions requires four general steps: (1) generation of the precursor suspension, (2) dispersion of the gas into the precursor suspension to form microbubbles, (3) concentration of the microbubble suspension and (4) size isolation to form a concentrated microbubble suspension with microbubbles having diameters below a selected upper size limit.

[0080] The microbubble suspensions may be formed on-site, just prior to administration. Alternatively the microbubble suspensions may be formed and stored for a suitable period of time and then used when needed.

[0081] A system for rapidly delivering oxygen to a patient in need thereof typically includes (a) means for generating a microbubble suspension, and (b) means for administering microbubbles continuously or discontinuously to a patient, tissue or organ in need thereof. Means for generating microbubble suspensions include sonicator and mechanical agitators, as described below. The microbubble suspensions can be administered via injection or by continuous infusion or by any other suitable means.

[0082] A. Methods for Forming Microbubbles

[0083] Typical methods of forming microbubbles and microbubble precursors are known in the art. These methods generally include the first two steps listed above and may include additional steps.

[0084] For example, microbubbles may be formed by mixing the lipids, i.e. base lipid(s) and PEGylated lipids, in a suitable organic solvent, such as chloroform; then evaporating the solvent to form a dry lipid film, and resuspending the lipid film in an aqueous medium and sonicating to form microbubbles. (see e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 7,105,151 to Unger et al.)

[0085] Alternatively, as disclosed in EP 0 077 752 to Schering AG, suspensions of gas microbubbles can be made by mixing an aqueous solution of a surfactant with a solution of a viscosity enhancer as a stabilizer. The gas bubbles are then introduced into the mixture by forcing the mixture of reagents and air through a small aperture. Similarly, suspensions of gas microbubbles can be formed by dissolving each of the lipids in an aqueous solution, such as sterile phosphate-buffered saline or sterile saline; then mixing the individual lipid solutions in the desired molar ratio to form a precursor solution, next the gas can be added to the precursor solution by any suitable means, including injecting the gas into a sealed container containing the precursor solution and agitating the solution to form microbubbles. The desired gas or mixture of gases, e.g. oxygen gas, may be perfused through the precursor suspension, thereby oxygenating the precursor solution.

[0086] Formation of microparticles is optimal when the suspension is kept cool. Thus, preferably the precursor suspension is cooled by suitable means.

[0087] Mechanical agitation has been the main method to create encapsulated microbubbles for biomedical applications, since their inception by Feinstein et al. Feinstein, et al., "Microbubble Dynamics Visualized in the Intact Capillary Circulation", J. Amer. College of Card., 4(3): 595-600 (1984). Mechanical agitation is a common emulsification procedure in which a hydrophobic phase (i.e., gas) is dispersed within an aqueous surfactant solution by disruption of the interface. Shaking a serum vial with a device similar to a dental amalgamator may be used to for oxygen microbubbles.

[0088] Acoustic emulsification (i.e. sonication) may also be used to agitate the precursor solution and form microbubbles. Sonication generates large quantities of microbubbles (100 mL*10<10 >mL<-1>) rapidly and reproducibly within just a few seconds. In sonication, the sonicator horn is typically placed at the suspension-gas interface. The precursor suspension is sonicated for a sufficient time period at a sufficient power to produce the microbubbles. Microbubbles created in this way follow a heterogenous size distribution.

[0089] The largest microbubbles are the most buoyant and rise to the top of the suspension, while less buoyant, smaller microbubbles remain motile in the sonicated suspension. This allows for separation based on different migration rates in a gravitational field.

[0090] B. Concentration of the Microbubble Suspension and Size Isolation

[0091] In a bench scale operation, microparticle suspensions are pumped out via a port at the bottom of the glass beaker and into a sterile syringe.

[0092] To continue production of the microbubbles, another pump simultaneously replaces fresh precursor suspension into the top of the glass beaker. Unprocessed microbubble suspensions created in this way typically contain 8-10 mL oxygen per dL of suspension. The amount of oxygen in the microbubble suspensions can be increased by centrifugation.

[0093] A rapid and simple method for concentrating and isolating sub-populations of lipid coated microbubbles has been developed. This method involves the use of differential centrifugation to isolate size-selected microbubbles based on their migration in a centrifugal field.

[0094] The relative centrifugal force (RCF) needed for a microbubble size class to rise through the column of length L for a fixed centrifugation time can be calculated. For example, Stokes' equation for the rise velocity of a buoyant particle relative to the bulk fluid under creeping flow conditions can be used as follows:

[0000] [mathematical formula]

[0000] where subscript i refers to the microbubble size class, ri is the microbubble radius and g is the gravitational (centrifugal) acceleration measured in RCF. (see Kvale, et al., "Size fractionation of gas-filled microspheres by flotation", Separations Technology, 6(4):219-226 (1996)). The effective viscosity, [eta]2*, of the microbubble suspension can be calculated using Batchelor and Greene's correlation for the modified fluid viscosity:

[0000] [mathematical formula]

[0000] where [Phi] is total the microbubble volume fraction for Nd size classes. (Batchelo & Green, "Determination of Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Spherical-Particles to Order C-2", J. of Fluid Mech., 56: 401-427 (1972).) Equations 1-3 can be used to calculate the strength of the centrifugal field (in RCF) for a given initial size distribution, time period and syringe column length.

[0095] Then the centrifuge is run at the rate calculated above to remove the largest microbubbles, e.g. greater than 20 microns, greater than 15 microns, or greater than 10 microns. For example, to remove microbubbles having diameters greater than 10 microns, the sample may be run for one cycle at 30 RCF for 1 min. Then the cake is discarded, and the infranatant which contains the smaller microbubbles is saved.

[0096] If smaller microbubbles are desired, the infranatant is redispersed in an appropriate volume of diluent, such as PBS. Then the centrifuge can be run at a higher speed, as calculated above, to remove the large microbubbles from the sample.

[0097] Using this method, the amount of gas (e.g. oxygen) in the microbubble suspensions can be increased 4-fold to 10-fold, or by even greater amounts. For example, an unconcentrated suspension which contained 8-10 mL oxygen per dL of suspension, was concentrated to produce a microbubble suspensions with between 40 and 90 mL per dL of suspension.
IV. Uses for the Microbubbles

[0105] The microbubbles may be administered to any patient, tissue or organ in need of an increase in oxygen concentration in their blood, tissue or organ. The microbubbles may be administered alone or in combination with other treatments as an adjuctive therapy.

[0106] Fully saturated whole blood with physiologic hemoglobin contains 20 mL oxygen per dL. Microparticle suspensions can be manufactured to contain between 40 and 70 mL oxygen per dL of suspension. Thus, the injection of one dL of suspension can deliver about 40-70 mL of oxygen directly to a tissue or organ in need of immediate oxygenation.

[0107] In preferred embodiments, the microbubbles contain oxygen and are administered to patients experiencing local or systemic hypoxia. Hypoxic or ischemic conditions may arise in a patient as a result of a variety of mechanisms, including, but not limited to, congenital physical or physiologic disease or disorders, embolisms, including thromboembolisms, peripheral artery occlusive disease, transient ischemic attacks, strokes, acute trauma, surgical interventions, or exposure to chemical or environmental agents. The microbubbles are administered in an effective amount and at suitable rate for increasing or maintaining the PO2 in a patient following administration. Typically, the microbubbles are administered in an effective amount and at suitable rate to deliver an effective amount of oxygen to a patient to ischemic tissues or to desaturated blood in a time ranging from 0.5 to 30 seconds following administration, wherein the amount of oxygen that is delivered is effective to restore PO2 levels to normal levels or prevent or alleviate ischemic injury. Microbubbles providing immediate release of oxygen are particularly preferred for acute resuscitations and resuscitation the heart of a patient.

[0108] In another embodiment the microbubbles provide sustained release of oxygen. Such microbubbles may be used to deliver oxygen to the brain and other tissues.

[0109] Hemorrhagic Shock and Other Trauma Applications

[0110] In acute hemorrhage, resuscitative trauma therapy focuses upon restoration of circulating blood volume and oxygen carrying capacity. In states of hypovolemic shock, such as resulting from severe blood loss, the oxygen extraction ratio of peripheral tissues is increased. The result is further desaturation of blood returning to the right heart. Models of blunt chest trauma and hemorrhagic shock have suggested that right ventricular (RV) dysfunction impedes resuscitation efforts.

[0111] In late hemorrhagic shock, myocardial ischemia causes impaired contractility. Volume resuscitation of an ischemic, dysfunctional right ventricle may lead to increased RV end-diastolic volume, causing septal shift into the left ventricle (LV), and decreased LV end-diastolic volume.

[0112] The microbubble suspensions can be injected at an appropriate concentration and rate to deliver oxygen directly to the myocardium in a time period ranging from 3 to 10 second following injection. For example, if the microbubble suspensions contains from 40 to 70 mL oxygen per dL of suspension, the injection of one dL of suspension could deliver approximately 40-70 mL of oxygen directly to the myocardium.

[0113] Optionally, the microbubble suspension may contain a specialized resuscitation fluid, such as synthetic colloid (e.g. Hextend(R)) or hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) as the carrier. When the microbubbles deliver oxygen directly to ischemic tissues, they would leave behind their PEG-rich lipid shell (which exhibits favorable oncotic properties) and carrier, serving as a volume expander.

[0114] Microbubbles as an Adjunctive Therapy

[0115] Oxygen-carrying microparticle suspensions are a useful adjunctive therapy in traumatic injury for several reasons.

[0116] In patients with airway failures, injectable microbubbles provide a route of oxygen administration which allows survival of previously lethal injuries, such as wounds involving the airways and those causing severe lung injury. Oxygenated microbubbles provide a highly portable form of intravenous oxygen which may be used to rescue such patients, allowing them to be transported to definitive therapy without ischemic injuries to other organs.

[0117] In patients with cardiac arrest, whether traumatic, ischemic or otherwise, successful resuscitation depends upon establishing a patent airway, ventilating the patient with high oxygen concentrations and adequate chest compressions to provide active pulmonary blood flow. All of these interventions must be in place in order to raise coronary arterial oxygen content to maximize the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation. Intravenous administration of the microbubbles containing oxygen may provide a bolus of oxygen to the right side of the heart, in an effective amount to improve right heart function via endocardial oxygen delivery, improve pulmonary arterial perfusion and delivery of blood to the left side of the heart compared to no intravenous administration of the microbubbles. Even prior to restoration of appropriate mechanical ventilation, microbubbles administered via intravenous injection can traverse atelectatic lung and perfuse the left heart. The microbubbles may be delivered to the left heart in an effective amount to decrease time to return of spontaneous circulation and improve outcomes in cardiac arrest.

[0118] In patients with hemorrhagic shock, in the low cardiac output state, an intravenous injection of rapidly dissolving oxygen microbubbles targets the myocardium (the first place the microbubbles reach) and delivers the gas core to surrounding endocardium. As shown in the animal studies described in the Examples, the microbubbles can deliver an effective amount of oxygen to rapidly improve cardiac output compared to no treatment and serve as an adjunct therapy to volume repletion.

[0119] A concentrated suspension of microbubbles may be added directly to existing volume expanders in the field, which may improve cardiovascular and cerebral resuscitation. This may serve as a useful adjunctive therapy to rescue patients with severe hemorrhagic shock, when myocardial ischemia leads to dysfunction, inadequate pulmonary blood flow and systemic desaturation. The microbubble suspensions can be design to be stable for extended periods of time, ranging from days to weeks.

[0120] Microvascular Operations

[0121] Microbubbles having diameters of less than 5 microns in a diluent such as Dextran may be administered via direct intraarterial injection. Microbubbles that are infused towards at-risk tissues or a recent microvascular operation, may deliver an effective amount of oxygen to improve rheology and oxygen content of the perfusate, and thereby improve oxygen delivery in these settings.

[0122] As a corollary, in circumstances of focal low flow states, such as near-amputations, microbubbles with prolonged bloodstream persistence, such as from about 15 to about 45 seconds following administration, may be designed such that they circulate in vivo until local conditions favor diffusion of oxygen from the microbubble core into ischemic tissues (i.e. when they are surrounded by a hypoxemic milieu). Because the oxygen content of microparticle suspensions upon injection is greater than that of saturated whole blood (40-60 mL O2/dL suspension vs. 20 mL O2/dL blood), continuous microbubble infusions may be used to raise the oxygen content of circulating blood.

[0123] Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

[0124] Oxygenated microbubble suspensions carry within them high concentrations of oxygen. As such, they may be effective in displacing hemoglobin scavengers, such as carbon monoxide. In cases of severe carbon monoxide poisoning, circulating microbubbles could deliver oxygen directly to the tissues in an effective amount to improve hemoglobin function, providing a portable temporizing therapy for patients with impaired hemoglobin function.

[0125] Traumatic Brain Injury

[0126] Infusion of oxygen-bearing microbubbles into the cerebral circulation may decrease neuronal death at the ischemic penumbra. Given the improved oxygen content of microbubble suspensions over that of whole blood, patients with impaired cerebral blood flow, e.g. in traumatic brain injury or intracranial hypertension, directed administration of oxygenated microbubbles into a carotid artery would increase the oxygen content (CaO2) of blood flow directed to the brain, and may balance the decrease in flow with an improvement in oxygen content. Microbubbles may be mixed in a buffered, low viscosity solution (e.g. THAM) and may contain antioxidants and other factors known to mitigate neuronal injury (e.g. DHA). The polyethylene glycol moiety of the lipids utilized in the microbubble envelope exerts significant oncotic pressure, which may decrease vasogenic edema.

[0127] Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

[0128] A unique feature of congenital heart disease is partial or complete mixing of saturated and desaturated blood. In perioperative states, systemic desaturation can lead to significant cerebral and myocardial dysfunction. For example, frequently patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome require extracorporeal life support in the perioperative period primarily to prevent death due to hypoxemia and the concomitant myocardial dysfunction. ELSO. Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report, International Summary; 2008 January, 2008.

[0129] Microbubbles containing oxygen may be administered intravenously in an effective amount to raise mixed venous oxygen content, systemic oxygen content, and improve myocardial function in patients in a perioperative states. Thus the microbubbles can be administered in place of a more invasive use of extracorporeal life support device.

[0130] Pulmonary Hypertension

[0131] Pulmonary hypertension remains a health care problem with few effective therapies. Oxygen is known to be a potent pulmonary vasodilator. Thus, the microbubbles containing oxygen may be administered intravenously in an effective amount to raise the oxygen content in pre-capillary pulmonary arterioles and improve pulmonary vasodilation compared to no treatment in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

[0132] Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

[0133] Refractory hypoxemia is the hallmark of acute lung injury and ARDS.

[0134] Profound hypoxemia accounts for 10% of the mortality of this common disorder. Meade et al., "Ventilation strategy using low tidal volumes, recruitment maneuvers, and high positive end-expiratory pressure for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial." JAMA, 299(6):637-45 (2008). Microbubbles containing oxygen may be administered intravenously in an effective amount to alleviate the hypoxemia associated with severe intrapulmonary shunting and decrease the mortality and morbidity of ARDS.

[0135] Delivery of Microbubbles to Fetuses, Neonates and Infants

[0136] The microbubbles may be administered to a fetus, neonate, or infant in need of additional oxygen. The microbubbles may be administered to low birth weight infants or premature infants. In one embodiment, the microbubbles are administered in an effective amount to ensure that the fetus, neonate, or infant is receiving sufficient oxygen, particularly to ensure that the brain of the fetus, neonate or infant receives sufficient oxygen for development and maintenance of normal function.

[0137] If a mother is experiencing preeclampsia, the baby must be born. Optionally, the microbubbles can be administered to the baby, mother, or both in effective amount to deliver an effective amount of oxygen to maintain normal normal bodily functions when the mother is experiencing preeclampsia.

[0138] Neonates with hypoxic ischemic brain injury at the time of birth often suffer from extensive brain injury, manifested as cerebral palsy. This may occur due to even brief periods of hypoxia during the peripartum period. In clinical situations where this is appreciated prior to delivery, such as a nuchal cord or placental abruption, injection of microbubbles into the umbilical circulation or into the dural space may avert critical hypoxia and may ameliorate some forms of hypoxic ischemic brain injury in this setting.

[0144] B. Methods of Administration

[0145] The compositions containing microbubble suspensions may be administered locally or systemically, depending on the condition to be treated. The compositions are typically administered via injection. In some embodiments the compositions can be administered as continuous infusions. In some embodiments the compositions are administered intravenously or intraarterially. In others, the compositions are administered directly to the tissue or organ in need of treatment.

[0146] In one embodiment, the microbubble suspensions are stable in storage for prolonged periods of time, and may be withdrawn and directly injected without further alterations of the solution.

[0147] In another embodiment, the microbubbles may be formed just prior to administration, e.g. within seconds or minutes of injection, by a suitable device. The methods disclosed herein allow for rapid production of oxygen-containing microbubbles for use in clinical settings or in the field.

[0148] C. Rates of Administration

[0149] The volume of the gas-filled microbubble suspension to be administered is a function of a number of factors including, the method of administration, the gas percentage of the microbubble suspension, and the age, sex, weight, oxygen or carbon dioxide tension, blood pressure, systemic venous return, pulmonary vascular resistance, and physical condition of the patient to be treated.

[0150] The whole body oxygen consumption of an adult at rest is approximately 200 mL oxygen per minute. Thus, in the setting of an acute airway obstruction, for example, infusion of 200 mL/minute of oxygen would prevent critical ischemic injury. For example microbubble suspensions containing 70 mL/dL of suspension can be administered at 285 mL/minute to transfer 200 mL/minute of oxygen in vivo. Since most of the suspension contains oxygen gas, most of the volume decreases following administration and release of the gas. Values of co-administered volumes for physiologically relevant oxygen demands are shown below in Table 1. Additionally, when used in the setting of an acute resuscitation or in organ-targeted oxygen delivery, volumes of co-infusate may be much lower. For example, a 10 mL bolus of 50% (volume gas/volume suspension) microbubbles in adults may provide a suitable amount of oxygen to improve the survival of the organ.



List of Administration Rates for Carrier and Lipids to Administer

100 mL/min or 200 mL/min of Oxygen
O2 Delivery  70 Vol %  90 Vol %
Carrier  100 mL/min   30 mL/min   10 mL/min
Volume  200 mL/min   60 mL/min   20 mL/min
Lipid Volume  100 mL/min  0.054 mL/min  0.054 mL/min
200 mL/min  0.108 mL/min  0.108 mL/min

[0151] D. Gas Release

[0152] The microbubbles are preferably designed to release the gas encapsulated therein quickly following administration in vivo. Typical release times range from 0.5 seconds to 1 minute, with shorter time periods, such as from 0.5 to 30 seconds, more preferably from 0.5 to 10 seconds, being preferred for acute resuscitations and resuscitations of the heart and with longer time periods being preferred for delivery of oxygen to the brain.

[0153] In some embodiments, the microbubbles are designed to persist in vivo until they reach hypoxic tissue, at which time they will release the encapsulated oxygen and the lipid envelope with collapse.

[0154] As oxygen is released and the encapsulating envelope collapses, the lipid material sheds as micelles and vesicles, typically having sizes ranging from 10 nm to 100 nm, which then undergo hepatic metabolism. Due to the small size of the lipid film relative to the radius of the microbubble, the effective volume of lipid is approximately one thousandth of one percent of the volume of suspension.

[0155] The lipid material does not persist in vivo for a sufficient time to carry carbon dioxide or other gases to the lungs. The microbubbles generally release the encapsulated gas and the gas is absorbed by hemoglobin prior to the first circulation into the pulmonary vasculature. In a healthy adult patient with a normal cardiac output, the release of the encapsulated gas typically occurs from 4 to 5 seconds following injection, or faster.
March 24, 2014

An Electric Thinking Cap Increases Learning Capacity Of The Brain

Cannot study for an upcoming exam and wished there was a magic to help to pass? Well, your wish just came true in the form of an electric thinking cap that speeds up learning and can give you an almost super human learning power. So you know what we learn from, don’t you? Mistakes. We learn from mistakes and scientists have come up with a method that will help you learn from your mistakes faster than usual and the next time you will do the task without making the same mistake again.

The medial frontal cortex of the brain is believed to be responsible for instinctive response when we make a mistake. Previous studies have shown that a spike of negative voltage originates from medial frontal cortex, milliseconds after the person makes a mistake but they never answer why. Researchers Robert Reinhart and Geoffrey Woodman from Vanderbilt University tested this observation that this activity influences learning by allowing the brain to learn from our mistakes.

They carried out experiment to test:

If it’s possible to control the brain’s electrophysiological response to mistakes.
If its effect could be intentionally regulated up and down depending on the direction of an electrical current applied to it.
And how long the result would last and whether the results could be applied to other tasks.

The bi-directionality regulated the up and down, depending on the direction of current given. The bi-directionality  had been observed in other animals but not humans.

Researchers applied 20 min of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) by using an elastic headband that had two electrodes conducted by saline soaked sponges to the cheek and the crown of the head. In the process, a mild direct current travels from the anodal electrode through skin, muscle, bones, brain and out through the cathodal electrode.  It does not cause any discomfort but a few seconds of tingling or itching. Three sessions were carried out randomly on the subjects who were given either anodal current that traveled from electrode on the head to the cheek or cathodal in which current traveled from cheek to head or a sham condition in which the tingling sensation was replicated under the electrodes that did not affect brain. The subjects were able to tell difference.

After 20 min of stimulation, subjects were given a learning task in which they had to figure out which buttons on the game controller correspond to specific colors displayed on a monitor. Occasionally, a signal was displayed for the subject not to respond and they had less than a second to respond, all of which made the task quite difficult to provide more opportunities to make mistakes and thus for medial frontal cortex to respond.

The moment subjects made mistakes, their electrical brain activity was measured. This helped the researchers understand how brain activity changed on electrical stimulation.

When anodal current was applied, the spike of negative voltage from medial frontal cortex was twice larger. This was reflected in their behavior because they made few mistakes and learned from them more quickly as compared to sham stimulation. When cathodal current was given , the result was totally opposite as the spike was quite smaller and the subjects made more errors and took longer to learn the task. It was found that the effects of a 20 min stimulation did transfer to other tasks and lasted about 5 hours.

It has greater capacity to change learning skill than any pharmaceutical products or psychological therapies ever invented. It cannot only make you less vulnerable to making mistakes while performing a task but also more adaptable to new and changing situations and makes you take more cautions.

This awesome invention can help you get through exam, any business obstacle or even if you want to invent something while wearing it, you can invent which you cannot do under normal circumstances with average spike of voltage.

Get smart : Osculate bosoms --

Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism

Avshalom Caspi, et al.

Children’s intellectual development is influenced by both genetic inheritance and environmental experiences. Breastfeeding is one of the earliest such postnatal experiences. Breastfed children attain higher  IQ  scores  than  children  not  fed  breast  milk,  presumably because of the fatty acids uniquely available in breast milk. Here we  show  that  the  association  between  breastfeeding  and  IQ  is moderated by a genetic variant in FADS2, a gene involved in the genetic control of fatty acid pathways. We confirmed this gene-environment interaction in two birth cohorts, and we ruled out alternative explanations of the finding involving gene–exposure correlation, intrauterine growth, social class, and maternal cognitive ability, as well as maternal genotype effects on breastfeeding and breast milk. The finding shows that environmental exposures can be used to uncover novel candidate genes in complex phenotypes. It also shows that genes may work via the environment to shape the IQ, helping to close the nature versus nurture debate.

*** Social Studies 101

The Collapse of Complex Societies


Joseph A. Tainter

[ PDF ]

The Dumbest People Ever

by P.J. Watson

Dr Paul Craig Roberts @ his best :

Dr Paul Craig Roberts: GREAT DANGERS AHEAD - June 2015

Rex-ommended Viewing :

Mind the Matrix FULL FILM

June 22, 2015

Smoking Gun: Active Shooter Drills Charleston S.C. Day of Shooting.

Resistance Journals Special Report!

Andrew Pontbriand (Allison Fey contributing) — Resistance Journal June 21, 2015

...What are the chances that the government (DHS) would be doing an “Active Shooter Drill,” in the same exact town, on the same exact day that a mass shooting takes place? The answer? Quite frankly, almost NONE. No chance.

Furthermore, Jeff Giles from Major Mind job, asked the same question I did as well, which was “what are the chances a State Senator would die in a mass shooting?” According to Jeff Giles numbers, 1 in 1.3 trillion...\

SMOKING GUN: DHS Drill During SC Shooting


Andrew Pontbriand
26 February 2014

British Intelligence: Obama born in Kenya; CIA’s DNA test shows Dunhams not his grandparents

Dr. Eowyn

Michael Shrimpton is a British barrister (attorney), an adviser to British intelligence, and a serious person.

He also is a contributing columnist for the blog, Veterans Today. This is his biographical sketch on Veterans Today:

Shrimpton has his own blog, The Shrimpton Report. His email address is And Wikipedia used to have an entry on him (, but if you go to that URL, you’ll get the messsage: “This page has been deleted”.

After you’ve read this post, you’ll know why Wikipedia scrubbed its page on Michael Shrimpton.

Shrimpton was a speaker at a forum, date unknown, but probably sometime in 2008 (more on this later). Beginning at the 1:42 mark of the video below, Shrimpton dropped a bombshell about Obama.

Shrimpton made the following startling claims:

Although Barack Hussein Obama (BHO) is said to have been born on August 4, 1961, he actually was born in 1960.

Obama’s alleged mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, was not pregnant in July 1961.

Although BHO is said to have been born in Honolulu, Hawaii, he actually was born in Mombasa, Kenya, which was then British territory, which means British intelligence has his records.

The C.I.A. surreptiously took a DNA sample of Obama at a fundraising dinner and ran a test, but could not match Obama’s DNA with his [maternal] grandparents, the Dunhams.

Former New York governor and GOP presidential aspirant Rudy Giuliani told Shrimpton at a recent lunch that he (Giuliani) knows all about this. Giuliani had hoped he would be the GOP presidential candidate and he’d then use the information against the Democrats.

The Clintons (Bill and Hillary) also know about this.

For the rest of the 1½ hour video, Shrimpton talked about British politics and the European Union. However, at the 1:09:30 mark, a man in the audience asked Shrimpton a question about Obama and Kenya. In his response, beginning at about the 1:11:55 mark, Shrimpton alluded to the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign as if it was ongoing as he spoke, which suggests that the forum took place in 2008. Shrimpton also made these additional claims:

He believes, given the above British intelligence on the year (1960, not 1961) and place (Kenya, not USA) of Obama’s birth, Obama would “soon be pressured into withdrawing” from the presidential race. With the benefit of hindsight, we of course know that didn’t happen.

Senator John Edwards also knows because Shrimpton had briefed him.

Former CIA director (under Bill Clinton) also knows. Shrimpton does not name him. Clinton had 3 successive CIA directors: James Woolsey, John Deutsch, and George Tenet.

The Kenyan government, of course, knows.

The UK newspaper Daily Telegraph also knows.

The Honolulu press is aware that Obama’s birth records in Honolulu’s Queens Medical Center are fake. The Honolulu Advertiser knows this.

Sen. John McCain knows.

British Intelligence knows because MI5 got the Nairobi Special Intelligence files when Kenya became independent.

Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations from 1997 to 2006, also knows.

Shrimpton also said something very strange — that Obama’s half-sister is actually his full sister, and that the sister is “missing.” (The only “half sister” of Obama about whom we are told is Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of Stanley Ann Dunham and her Indonesian husband, Lolo Soetoro.)...

<== I'm with Stupid ==> 

Brasting News from Lala-Land :

It's Not The Economy, Stupid. It's The END !!!


Dr J S Chiappalone

This is a lengthy, detailed essay which to some may appear a little disjointed. But stay with me as I attempt, in a few words, to establish the baseline for the Plan of the Imminent Extermination of ‘Humanity’ and this Planet, along with all the structures in this Galaxy!

For over 30 years I have attempted to deliver a Message of Finality for ‘Human Existence’.

However, the Message has been thwarted by the Fools ­ all of them ignorant, and the majority of them EVIL.

The Message was, and is, for all people to prepare mentally, emotionally and spiritually for the end of this Physical Existence.

This IS the Final Generation for “Humanity” and for Planet Earth!

Physical existence is a sham! It is an Illusion!!

Think about it: We are born. Some die almost immediately. Many others die after 50, 60, 70 or so years. The few that live longer are, in general, useless, demented cretins who soak up the major portion of Social Services and the Health Dollar. Few are wealthy enough to be independent of public resources.

The fact that Re-incarnation occurs (yes it does!) only compounds the stupidity of recycling idiocy into the Physical. I will refer to this topic again below.

Physical Existence has all been an Evil Plot to trap the True Spirits in flesh, and exploit them for all they are worth, by the Evil Mind that developed this Evil Scheme.

This is a difficult point of the Gnostic Ancient Wisdom to comprehend if you are meeting it for the first time. I suggest you start by reading my website, if you want to understand what it means and then perhaps read my books in the little time that remains for a more complete comprehension of the Status Quo.

It was certainly not a benign, loving Entity who thought up this Abomination called the Physical Universe. (My Kingdom is not of this World! Jesus said, as per John 8:36 ­ .

Forget the Fools, such as the brain-dead Scientists, who claim all we are, and see around us, is an accident of Unknown Idiocy. They may be that, but the rest of us are not!

There are Levels of Consciousness beyond Humanity that contain, and create, Good and Evil things.

This Physical Universe is Evil. It is the Product of EVIL

It has been created by an Evil Mind that lives on exploitation of energy from those who have it. Not all consciousnesses have the energy that is needed for existence for they are NOT true ‘God-created’ consciousnesses. For details you will have to read my books, or at least glance at my website:

Think for a moment. Is not this existence of ours run on a dog-eat-dog basis?

Would a Just, Loving Creator really create this mess of pain, suffering, misery, mendacity, hypocrisy, murder, deceit, injustice, exploitation, disease, injury and death?

Why does the Creator in control seem to favour the biggest bastards over the innocent ones?

Yes, in the main, those in control are big, big, spiritual bastards, as you will learn if you read my books.

The evil Fools (the Archons, Elite, Illuminati, Reptilians, Demons) are clever and stupid at the same time.

They lay the blame for this mess on ‘Man’ for ‘sinning’.

And both mindless idiots and stuporous innocent ones, who, on this level, were cut off from the Truth of the Greater Reality, have swallowed this tripe for a long, long time.

What is “Sin”? It is a definition the Evil Ones give to exploit and punish the rest of us.

Common Man’s Sin is in believing what these Evil Shills tell us, even after the Truth is revealed.

If this Mess called Human Existence, with all its misery and ignorance, was really due to Man’s Sins, how long do you think it would take “man to wake up and correct the situation? 5 Minutes perhaps? Most would want to do it instantly, don’t you think?

But no correction has ever happened, has it?

Of course not! That is because this Evil Mess in which we live has nothing to do with “Man”.

The System has been created by an Evil Entity this way for ‘its’ benefit, not Man’s.

If, at this late hour, as you look around a World that is about to explode, due to Evil, and you do not belief in Evil, you do not deserve to exist any longer. And you won’t! You are brain-dead. And soon you will be totally dead ­ Physically, Ethereally, Astrally, and Spiritually. The fact that you do not know what that implies is of no concern. All you need to know is that very soon you will no longer exist in any manner, shape or form!

If you know a little more and are aware of Re-incarnation, the evil distortion of Religions, History, Science, the Media, the Injustice System, etc., etc., you may still be in the Dark.

Ok, so you know about Aliens and UFO’s, about the Annunaki, the Zetas and the Pleiadians, and so on. Big deal! They are all non-local aspects of Physicality.

So you read that the Annunaki created Modern Man by genetic manipulating of monkey-type precursors. Again, big deal! All they did was modify the PHYSICAL BODY in which to trap the same consciousnesses and use them as subservient entities, physically created in their image.

They themselves were, and are, Evil Bastards who are part of the Plot of Exploitation. Bet you didn’t know that, did you?

And they are in physical bodies too, ruling this place as they wish. Yep, nearly all of the Elite who occupy positions of Power and Governance on this evil, evil Earth are Annunaki Reptiles. They will shortly meet their DOOM, as will all others of Evil who have been diagnosed as Non-Viable Entities.

Diagnosed as non-Viable? Then there must be Viable entities?

Indeed there are.

So, ‘Judgement’ of Consciousness has already occurred?

Indeed it has. That is the Final Judgment the shills are telling you is still to take place.

What does this Viability mean?

It means that those who have been diagnosed as worthy will continue their existence in an Evil-free Dimension. This dimension is being TOTALLY destroyed!

The ones diagnosed as non-Viable will be TRANSMUTED. They will cease to exist FOREVER!

Viability means that those beings can, and will, live in Peace, Harmony, and Love, unlike the Evil Bastards who don’t even know what those words of Peace, Harmony and Love mean.

There are, on this level, two intermingling Creations: a Benign One and an Evil One.

I will give you examples of the Evil One which will support the case for extermination of this Evil Existence. This extermination is going on right now and we are all intimately involved in the process as I shall explain.

Regarding the Evil Creation and its Evil Bastards, I refer you to what Jesus is said to have said:

John 8: 44 ­ “For you are the children of your father the DEVIL, and you love to do the evil things he does. He was a murderer from the beginning. He has always hated the TRUTH, because there is no TRUTH in him. When he lies, it is consistent with his character; for he is a liar and the father of lies.”

Those Evil bastards, Sons and Daughters of the Evil Curse, are also hypocrites.

You don’t really need an example of their Evil and Hypocrisy, do you, at this late stage?

You do?

OK. Let’s go to the incident called 9/11, as an example, which I said was the Key to the Collapse of the USA.

Those ‘citizens’, in charge of the USA, who planned it and lied about it, are all Annunaki Reptiles. They exist as most of you now know, in the human bodies. Their eyes reveal their true nature.

Feel free to search for other material yourself on this topic.

With the 9/11 plot, they (these Reptilian Demons who were, or are still, in charge) unscrupulously murdered the 3,000 plus people, their own citizens. The plot was premeditated. It was no accident. And it was meticulously, extensively planned, as are most of their Evil Moves and Wars as you will see in due course.

These are Demons, made of Evil Stuff.

They cannot create anything but EVIL.

They use evil methods to attain evil gains.

As I implied, they have no guilt, no scruples, no honesty, no benign consciousness, no morals or ethics whatsoever. And the personnel in the Judiciary, the Media, and the Military that they select to protect them are, in the main, of exactly the same ontology. Those that are not are bribed, threatened or removed. Many, many with scruples, as History reveals, have been ‘suicided’. I give some examples below.

These Reptilian Demons hypocritically blamed innocent Nations and bombed the existence out of them, murdering millions while stealing their wealth. In the meantime, they turned the USA into an exploitative prison where the other 99.99% of the population were humiliated and made to suffer inexorably with the new alphabet groups that joined the jungle of pre-existing ones:

They (the Evil Archons, Demons, and Reptiles) are incapable of speaking Truth, because such ‘people, beings, illicit, evil consciousnesses’ don’t know what Truth is.

Here is one little example:

President G.W. Bush claimed, instantly on being told of the Towers being attacked, within that hour, that he saw the first plane hit the towers on TV. WHAT???? How big a lie was that? The only film of the first plane crashing was released a day AFTER the event and a day after he said this. Why have the truthful people not erupted in indignation about all those lies?

Next: Lies upon lies, upon lies, upon lies.

This is nothing but EVIL!!

This is NOT a one-off occasion.

Villainous Untruth is always presented as Truth by the Evil Archons.

The Norm for them, and for this Plane of Existence which they fully control, has always been to distort Truth, wherever it appears, and to make it non-sensical and perverse, inducing Ignorance, Hate and Malice.

Do you recall how incensed the populace was that day after the initial shock passed? They were willing to retaliate on that day of 9/11? They were willing to attack and murder anybody, anywhere to gain revenge.

That was the whole purpose of 9/11 - to mobilize violence, hate, anarchy and murder, the very things that feed those of Evil.

Truth is murdered in all the following areas of Human Existence on this Level:

Government: You don’t really need me to tell you politicians and governments lie to everybody do you?

Science: They are expert at camouflage. Look back through History and see how Evil Science has been.

The latest lying fiasco, of course, is the way NASA has lied to us about the existence of Planet X. Cursed they are indeed. The honest scientists who want to reveal the Truth are silenced by blackmail, or else are ‘suicided”

Here is Dr David Morrison, on behalf of NASA denying the existence of Planet X:

Dr Harrington’s murder is an excellent example of silencing those with the Truth that the Archons do not want revealed:

Religions: There is no greater perversion of Truth than what religions present. Read my book ‘Death of an Evil God’ for details.

History ­ being written at ALL times by the victors in any conflict, what else would you expect but lies, lies, and more lies. See the reports on Hitler and the Holocaust below.

Medicine: Now you would think this Discipline would be on the ball, right?

Check out the dishonesty of the FDA,

Check out the evilness of the Cancer Industry:
Doctors are the Third Leading Cause of Death

Death by Medicine and Medical Errors:

Psychiatry: This farcical aspect of Medicine has no soul. Read my book “Psychiatry”.

The most classical errors are in the non-recognition of Schizophrenia’s cause (discarnates and demonic entities invading damaged centres of consciousness) and its poisonous treatments.

Read this and shudder:

The Food Industry: The Complete History of Monsanto, “The World’s Most Evil Corporation”

The Pharmaceutical Industry,

Dr Peter Gøtzsche: Big Pharma Is Organized Crime

The Injustice Systems of the world: It is not just the case of innocent ones imprisoned:

Think of the false reasons for destroying, with horrendous war, other Nations which can hardly defend themselves against the lies.

Think of the Corrupt Courts and Politicians which uphold the lies.

The Iraq war was a perfect example, was it not?

The Mass Media: Hollywood and the General Mass Media play their parts to distribute lie upon lie upon lie and also corrupt the honesty and the morality of innocent victims, for that is what some of the audiences are, in contrast to these monstrous demonic influences.

Here are 2 par excellence examples that further expose the Evil distortion of facts:

1 Adolf Hitler: The Most Lied about Man in History

* [ But he's still a psychopathic asshole -- Ed. ]

2 The Holocaust Hoax Exposed by Victor Thorn (Barnes review) ­book.

Get it and read it!

I have gone to some length to make this point of Evil’s Untruth in society, for in every facets of existence on this level that you can name you will find Untruth and the Perversion of Truth. If you want more details, read my website and books.

Why is it so? Jesus had the answer, as revealed in the Gospel of Thomas (Nag Hammadi Library -

‘The sacerdotes (priests, those in charge) have taken the Keys of Knowledge and hidden them’

Matthew 23:113: “But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut the kingdom of heaven in people’s faces. For you neither enter yourselves nor allow those who would enter to go in.”

My point is that this ‘Human” existence is an evil pack of lies,

And it must be brought to an End, as it shall be!

Fear Not! Evil Beings are cursed by their Evilness.

Once out of the Physical each being will receive exactly what it deserves, no more and no less!

Do some of the Merry Cans reading this essay find it hard to believe that their illustrious and eminent Leaders, controllers of the wealthiest, and militarily the most potent, Nation on Earth are capable of such deception, mendacity, and hypocritically murderous acts that others clearly see, in 9/11, and in all the other wars in which they have engaged?

For elucidation of such Evil, and the reason why it exists as it does, consider these facts:

At Foundation, the Fathers of the fledgling United States dedicated the Nation to the Evil Principal, Satan, no less.

All bar 2 of the Founding Fathers were Masons who worshipped, and continue to worship, even in this day and age, Satan.

Watch the video below to dispel any doubt that indeed that is what Masons do!

I guess some of you will want to know the names of the 2 exceptions. B. F. and T. P. are the two.

BTW, there is an evil creep (a Vulturite Reptilian no less) called Steffan Stanford who claims he is the re-incarnation of Thomas Paine. Lend him no ear. He is an evil fool and he was certainly not Paine.

Since its inception, the USA has been the most notoriously cruel and efficient tool of the Evil Principle.

It has waged unjust war on more countries than people can virtually count, and it has been an instrument of murder, pain, torture and pilfery, never seen in the History of Modern Man.

Apart from the facts of 9/11, consider the lies that the Leaders have used for all the wars enumerated in the articles below and all the illegal and criminal abuse and torture of victims that it has refused to disclose but which are well known by those who truly seek the Truth. Getting their Courts to rule that details will not be publically disclosed adds insult to injury.

As the evil Karma which the USA has earned makes itself known to its people who supported it in its iniquities, you will know the trauma to ensue was earned by the spilling of blood of many innocents in the last 200 years or so.

Read of prosaic reasons for America’s wars:

The real, but esoteric reason for the never-ending bellicosity is the fact that these wars are conducted for the Evil Essence to gain energy from the trapped TRUE souls on this planet.

(AS to why I say TRUE souls, you will have to read my website and/or books.

Thus, all this time the USA has been efficiently doing the work of Satan, whether you want to believe it or not.

Under those circumstances, how could the Real GOD Consciousness Bless America?

It is true that the people whom they ruled were, and to some extent are still, blinded to these facts. But, no more! Now with all the afflictions they have imposed on American citizens, including Jade Helm, we have the abundantly clear cue to awaken fully to the evil that has us all trapped in this “Human Existence”!

On this level, as on all physical levels, we are in a War of Essences.

That is why prophecy is not always accurate. Often it is used as Propaganda to fool the other side in the War. For example, I said a massive Earthquake would hit California in late May this year in a recent radio Show with Jeff Rense. Nothing much happened apart from lots and lots of other earthquakes and volcanic eruptions everywhere else around the Pacific Rim. Well, I did give a 4% window of it not happening in the show. But, a far more massive event will occur in the future, make no mistake about that.

Let’s move on.

These Evil Bastards created by the Essence of Evil, in its Image, do not acknowledge any Truth.

They do NOT respond to True, Universal Love. They do not possess it either. Sure, they respond to Emotional Love which is a biological phenomenon created by our hormones. In place of True Love they have unfathomable GREED and LUST.

These evil beings exist everywhere throughout the Universe or what remains of it!

Why do I say that?

Well, while we Humans have been isolated to such an extent that the majority don’t even believe in LIFE outside of our little nest called Earth, 95-96% of the Physical Universe has been purposely dismantled by the ‘Sons’ of the True Light. Mind you, there is no gender in spiritual existence.

Yes, once the Error occurred and the Evil Mind that spawned it refused to allow correction of the Error that spawned Evil, a War ensued whose endpoint we on Earth are to experience in the next TWO YEARS.

The entire illicit Physical Universe is being dismantled brick by brick. Over 95% is already gone.

The Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the result of dismantling ‘normal’ Matter created by Evil.

Those substances cannot now sustain consciousness and will disappear when the dimension is totally dismantled and “closed”.

It is now the turn of this Galaxy, called the Milky Way, to undergo this fate.

That is why the consciousnesses in all classes within it have been diagnosed as either Viable or non-Viable. This includes the Elementals in the Mineral Class, Consciousness in Vegetation, the Animals Consciousnesses, Humans, the beings in the 5th Class which is the Devic Kingdom where Angles, Devas, and the evil, ruling Demons come from, the Galactic Class which spawns the consciousness of planets, Comets, Meteors and Solar Systems, etc., etc., and finally Class 7 ­ the Universal Consciousness.

You don’t believe this?

Ask your friendly Astronomer to find what happened to the 95% of the Physical Universe that is missing!

The Whole Galaxy is being destroyed and all the evil components trashed back into Primordial Energy so that the EVIL in them can no longer manifest.

Have you not been paying attention to the skies?

Have you not seen photos of other Galaxies being destroyed or swallowed up by massive Black Holes?

Have you not been aware of the disintegration of Mars, and Jupiter, and Neptune, and Venus, etc.?

Where have you been? Asleep?

I repeat: The Whole Galaxy is scheduled for demolition, and that includes our physical home ­ the Earth.

From the outset, 30 years ago I mentioned the destructive process to affect Earth, including meteors, comets and rogue planetary bodies. It is the Final Solution to the Problem of Evil.

That meteors strike the Earth is a fact. The timing of future ones is debatable.


Planet X is a rogue Planetary Constellation, is it not?

You don’t believe it exists? Do your homework.

The Elite are attempting to keep the general populace blind and stupefied by many means, including Chemtrails, Fluoride in drinking water, GMO food products, drugs, legalized Marijuana with which to pacify the fools that consume it, etc., etc.

But, they know it is a pointless exercise and that sooner rather than later the populations at large will know of the danger Planet X presents to unprepared ones who will panic in the extreme. That is why the Military of all Nations has been primed to corral and kill those who react with anger and create anarchy.

What those Military fools obeying such orders don’t realize is that, apart from shooting and killing their own Nationals, their own parents and families, their own children and friends, they are exposed to the same dangers and death processes as everyone else.

Why can they not see that? They have been drugged enough to become mindless automatons, unthinking, valueless, robotic beings.

The real answer to what is before us is not to fool the masses and then kill those who complain and the revolutionaries.

What is the real answer? The real answer, for which it is almost too late, was to tell people the Truth, as I have been trying to do for 30 years, and advise them to prepare for the Physical Extermination of the Planet and the PHYSICAL Human Race.

But, the evil fools who are the Elite think they can outrun this danger by hiding as rats do in their DUMPS (Deep Underground Military Bases).

I am here to tell you they cannot cheat their Fate. They will NOT PHYSICALLY SURVIVE.

They will be subjected to the same diagnostic fate as the rest. And, being failures, they will undergo that which awaits them.

The Russian, Norwegian & Brazilian Governments have all made some efforts to inform their Populace about the Pending Danger from Planet X

The Evil Essence could never get anything correct. That is why everything in the Physical broke, and still breaks down. Some say Murphy’s Law in this evil environment is optimistic.

Anyhow, this Planet X Constellation has been a curse to this Solar System for a long time. But this will be the last time, for it and the whole Solar System and the Galaxy, like I said, are being destroyed.

Within this month of June, 2015, and certainly in July, Planet X will probably be visible to the naked eye from everywhere on planet Earth. It will grow larger and larger in the sky for all to see.

Its effects on the planet will increase with an unmistakeable maliciousness.

It will get warmer;

The Earth will boil from within;

Volcanic Eruptions will lead to more problems as will the Earthquakes and Tsunamis that follow.

Apart from the dust and meteorites in the tail of the Constellation that will bombard and suffocate all life on the planet, in due course, there are 2 other major meteors scheduled to strike Earth and cause massive destruction, one in September and one in November this year.

By mid-March 2016, the Iron Oxide Dust from Planet X will be so effusive on Earth that most aerobes will perish and water, massively polluted, will be deadly to living things.

Revelations 16:3: The second angel poured out his bowl on the sea, and it turned into blood like that of a dead person, and every living thing in the sea died.

Revelations 16:4: Then the third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and springs, and they became blood.

As Planet X approaches us and then heads outward again, its magnetic and gravitational effects will cause the Earth to fall on its Physical Axis and the displaced Seas will drown everything even as the Earth fractures.

The fools who thought they would survive this calamity will be boiled in, and drowned by, the lava seeping up from the depths of Tartarus.

No one will survive to the end of 2016 according to the information at hand.

What about all the accounts of time-travellers who give accounts of Earth way beyond the 21st Century?

They are either recounting implanted thoughts or else relating stories of existence in parallel physical dimensions which are more advanced than this one, still evil, yet similar, and also scheduled for destruction.

I have had this information to distribute since 1985. Few listened.

What is the point of it all?

The point is for ALL people, especially the Viables, to prepare Mentally, Emotionally and Spiritually.

So, we are ALL going to physically die?

So what? Who cares?

Do you know how many times you have physically died? It is thousands of times for sure. And yet you are still in existence, are you not?

It is the Ignorance imposed on us by the Evil Controller that denies us this knowledge. The physical bodies have a Filtering Mechanism that prevents us from recalling our Past Lives and Experiences. That fact in itself is evil. Why should we not have that knowledge?

Not knowing who we are, and were, and what has happened to us makes us easier targets to be exploited by this cruel, very Evil System in which we live. Indeed it is an Illusion of a Virtual Reality which must, and will be, destroyed totally.

Using certain abilities, some people are able to bypass the Filtering Mechanisms and recall Past Lives on Earth, on other planets, in other Galaxies, in sub-dimensions and also lives in the Astral World.

Some children under the age of 8, in particular, are able to recall Past Lives, and the literature is replete with such examples. Here are 2:

Physical Death is no more that the Consciousness moving out of the useless and obviously dysfunctional meat bag ­ Cardboard Box ­ as I like to call it, into another level of existence.

On death, one will experience something similar to what Near Death Experiencers describe.

But now, as it is the Endtime for this Galaxy, the ethereal and Astral Realms around each planet are being dismantled and each consciousness will be in the “Void”, twixt Heaven and Hell as it were.

There it will be given its assessment.

Those to proceed will go to where they are directed.

Those who are to be terminated will go into Transmutation Vats and will soon be gone forever.

But, for the very Evil Demons, it is not a simple matter of ‘Lights Out’. No; they will pay a heavy price for the iniquities they forced innocent ones to bear. I will not go into detail lest you become even more stirred than what you already are with this essay.

Divine Justice will prevail.

Mercy is wasted on the Evil Ones, for they know not genuine repentance.

This brings me to the idiotic and very evil shills you will come across on the Internet urging you to hurry up and repent as ‘Jesus the Christ’ is coming!

They are as stupid as they are evil.

You cannot be saved by saying a few words in a state of self-pity.

‘Jesus the Christ’ is not coming in the future.

“He”, that Energy/Consciousness, has been on the planet for quite a while.

I wrote above that the ‘Final Judgement’ has already occurred and that the course of spiritual separation of Viables and Non-Viables has already been set.

In fact, it occurred before November 1999 when the majority of Theomorphic Viables, about one billion individuals, were spiritually evacuated. You can read about hat in my essay called “The Phase of the Shells” on this site and on my website.

What these evil shills and idiots on the internet are calling the “Lord” is Planet X, a bomb for the physical.

So, let’s end this essay with a very important question.

How does one know if s/he is a viable?

That’s easy to answer. Read the following carefully.

After you have bypassed the shock of what I have written, the shock felt on your outer mind, and after you have bypassed those eruptive emotions within you, and after you have settled down and contemplated on this essay, and its Message, and after you have even had a good night’s sleep and thought deeply about his, how do you feel, deep within your soul?

If you are truly joyous at seeing the end of all the Pain, Suffering and Misery this world contains, and which are shocking the very life out of you and all ‘good’ people, and you are impatient to see the end of all Evil and willing to journey forth to a Home of Truth, Peace, Love and Eternal Tranquillity, then friend, get ready to zoom into the Evil-free dimension.

If you are frightened witless by this essay, I urge you to contemplate the information in it further. All may not be lost. Cleanse you mind and body. Get off alcohol, meat, most dairy products, and illicit drugs. Wave your evil friends goodbye. You know who they are. These are all instruments of pollution which cut your spiritual sight. Turn your mind to things of importance, to the Numinous, and then see how you feel.

If you are externally angered by what I have written, but in all honesty feel fear in the very depth of your being, prepare to meet the real Godforce who will direct you.

If you laugh this information off, you are an oaf who does not deserve to continue.

I will be seeing all the Viables ON THE OTHER SIDE.


Where do I get the audacity (and authority) to write such an essay?

Who do I think I am to scare people this way?

My aim is not to scare anyone.

My aim is to prepare all of you for the inevitable.

My identity is not important.

What IS important is the answer to this question: Are you Viable or non-Viable?

You will know the answer to that question as soon as you decipher the conundrum.

Here is a detailed lecture about “What’s Going On?” which I gave in Brisbane in November 2012  :

America the Mad Bomber :

China 1945-46
Korea 1950-53
China 1950-53
Guatemala 1954
Indonesia 1958
Cuba 1959-60
Guatemala 1960
Belgian Congo 1964
Guatemala 1964
Dominican Republic 1965-66
Peru 1965
Laos 1964-73
Vietnam 1961-73
Cambodia 1969-70
Guatemala 1967-69
Lebanon 1982-84
Grenada 1983-84
Libya 1986
El Salvador 1981-92
Nicaragua 1981-90
Iran 1987-88
Libya 1989
Panama 1989-90
Iraq 1991
Kuwait 1991
Somalia 1992-94
Bosnia 1995
Iran 1998
Sudan 1998
Afghanistan 1998
Yugoslavia – Serbia 1999
Afghanistan 2001
Libya 2011

Why the Right to Vote in the United States is a Fraud

Pao L. Chang

28 U.S. Code § 3002 : 15 and 15(A)
““United States”[ viz., Washington D.C. ] means — (A) a Federal corporation.”
USA Bankrupt : President Roosevelt in Executive Orders 6073, 6102, 6111, and finally, as consolidated in Executive Order 6260,
The United States  defined as “…the District of Columbia et alia” went “Bankrupt” in 1933 and was declared so by President Roosevelt in Executive Orders 6073, 6102, 6111, and finally, as consolidated in Executive Order 6260,

(See: Senate Report 93-549, pages 187 & 594) under the “Trading With The Enemy Act” (Sixty-Fifth Congress,  Sess. I, Chs. 105, 106, October 6, 1917), and as codified at 12 U.S.C.A. 95a. [Source]

How many nations has the USA bombed since 9/11?? ANSWER : 14
June 10, 2015

Putin Long Dead Says Ex-Wife

The mystery swirling around Vladimir Putin has just gotten stranger.

According to Putin’s ex wife, former First Lady of Russia Lyudmila Putina, Putin has been long dead and she refused to cooperate with Power Elite in this ruse.

She claims that Putin’s assassination had been in the works for some time and was a well plotted out plan.

Putina also claims her and her daughter were threatened with death if they didn’t play along.

Translation of German article:

A german newspaper ie Welt published a sensational interview with former First Lady of Russia Lyudmila Putina.

My husband, unfortunately, have long been dead.

I have to admit it publicly, because I could no longer see what is happening on his behalf.

It’s terrible people.

They did not stop at nothing.

I am afraid that now they will kill me and daughters as well as killed him.

Our family was not exactly perfect.

When I got married, I was in love with intelligence officers. But the reality was quite different.

Putin was a vile, cruel man, a tyrant.

He never considered me, simply did not notice my existence.

I needed it only for reference and the composition of the family as a mother for his children.

I find it hard to talk about it, but Putin beat me, humiliated, made fun of me.

Life with him was torture.

I tried to fight, not just going to file for divorce.

But this man did not have anything sacred.

To silence me, he handed me over to a psychiatric clinic.

I went through all the circles of hell … narcotics, psychotropic substances, bullying.

For a long time I was locked up in prison for a long time and I never saw sunlight never seen people.

I still remember it with horror.

From young and self-confident woman, I became a shadow, my will was broken, I sogalsilas all conditions, only to come out.

But that began after his death, all is beyond description.

He was then a difficult period.

I’m sure he did not tell, I became even more withdrawn.

A month before the death of the night, without warning brought daughters – I do not even know where.

And then he was gone completely.

At night we came home, some people – some of them I knew, someone saw the first time.

Break everything upside down, we reviewed all the papers, all the walls in the house rattled.

They told me only one thing: “If you want to live – be silent.”

All questions about her husband briefly replied that he would soon come that he important retreat and in the interest of national security is not worth it to me with anybody to discuss.

A few days later came his first … understudy.

Later I learned that the murder of Vladimir prepared ahead of time, it eliminated when the first twin was almost ready to take his place.

Outwardly, he was of course very much like Putin – I was impressed.

But it was a completely different person.

They somehow managed to track down the girls.

And I issued an ultimatum – or I play the role of devoted wife or me or daughters no longer live.

I had no choice. I first tried to avoid public events.

Corrosive media attention, intrigue and gossip – all this sickens me.

But I pretend to be the wife of another man was even worse.

So they prepared a double for me – when I say that something does not go as planned scenario, wipe out embarrassments.

If they had time to bring my double to more or less successful similarities would have killed me long ago.

Miraculously, we managed to escape.

For obvious reasons, I can not call the people who have helped us to stop this terrible dramatization and escape.

“Divorce” was my deliverance.

Now I live abroad, I’m fine.

But I’m afraid to see what is happening with Russia.

People come to your senses!

You live like beggars, barely making ends meet, because you mercilessly obovorovyvayut and deceive.

And now there is a question of the survival of the indigenous people of Russia.

If you do not stop a coward and ignore what is happening in the country – you do not live.

So could this account by Putina be true?

Is Vladimir dead and been dead for some time now?

The conspiracy surrounding the question of body doubles and fake Putins is confirmed by his ex wife.

Another possible ocnfirmation to this is last year WorldTruth.Tv published an article titled  ‘NWO Attempted Assassination of Vladimir Putin, But Got the Wrong Plane‘ and I got a lot of slack for publishing the truth.

Now the elite have completed their agenda, they actually got to Vladimir Putin and he was killed and replaced with a body double.

The German newspaper Die Welt published a sensational interview with former First Lady of Russia Lyudmila Putina.

My husband, unfortunately, have long been dead.

I have to admit it publicly, because I could no longer see what is happening on his behalf. It’s terrible people.

They did not stop at nothing. I am afraid that now they will kill me and daughters as well as killed him.

Our family was not exactly perfect.

When I got married, I was in love with intelligence officers.

But the reality was quite different. Putin was a vile, cruel man, a tyrant.

He never considered me, simply did not notice my existence.

I needed it only for reference and the composition of the family as a mother for his children.

I find it hard to talk about it, but Putin beat me, humiliated, made fun of me.

Life with him was torture.

June 5, 2015

Time For The Second American Revolution


James Hall
“. . .In defence of the freedom that is our birthright. . .we have taken up arms. We shall lay them down when hostilities shall cease on the part of the agressors, and all danger of their being renewed shall be removed, and not before.”  -John Hancock

For well over the last decade BATR has argued that the Republic is dead. Now that the Supreme Court has rendered their decision on Obamacare, there can be no doubt that the funeral for a nation, born out of a revolution for liberty, is over. The country, buried in the ashes of totalitarian despotism, is now history.

The plurality of citizens naively accepts that the national government has legitimacy. Such a claim is erroneous. What more proof does one need that slavery is the official status for the American public. The implication of affirming the health insurance mandate sets the precedent for and escalates an unlimited federal tyranny.

The twisted interpretation that a forced and binding purchase of medical coverage is justified because the government can tax its citizens is demonic in its inception. Coercion as a mean for compliance is like whipping your indentured servant for the privilege of serving the master.

By opening the flood-gate of unlimited federal taxation authority to compel behavior, guarantees punitive submission for a limitless concoction of social engineering. It is a short leap to require ID chip implants and compulsory designated conduct.

The hijacking of health care by a mandatory federal oppression pushes citizens to renounce their fidelity to a constitutional framework, already abandoned by the political power elite. Constrains and separation of the “Federalism” system of shared authority, is now eliminated. The central government is all-supreme in the gulag version of benevolent dependency.

The Supreme Court is a pitiful tool of the executive autocrat that wheels administrative regulation like a crazed beast. Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. is a disgrace. Whether his decision reflects intimidation or legacy hubris, the net effect is that he shoveled dirt on the tombstone of the constitution.

The seemingly limit on the commerce clause is circumvented by validating that taxing obligated conduct is legal. This extreme viewpoint condones any dictate by government fiat that Congress conspires to force people to obey. Such a conclusion abdicates the essence of constitutional protections.

Natural law is not arbitrary and subject to the whims of radical statists. Ignoring fundamental human rights is the definitive abuse against humanity. The federal government is making the nanny state into a chamber of horror.

Immutable principles that protect individuals from compulsory demands that violate free choice always are reprehensible. However, the latest rebuke to the sovereign dignity of citizens – poisons the water for any thirsty seeker of liberty and justice.

The consequences of the added financial costs from the Obamacare administration are frightening. The devil is in the details, never was more appropriate. Driving the economy off a cliff is a designed strategy of the collectivist criminals. The unholy alliance of big pharma, health insurance corporatists and dedicated Marxists want the public to be docile serfs in a land of slaves.

Add this dire result of the horrendous increase in taxes from the “Taxmageddon” catastrophe come the end of this year and you have a meltdown formula for a second depression. The Tea Party advocates are correct, “Taxed Enough Already” gains new meaning with the legalization of Obamacare.

Conversely, how can the legislation be legal when a Supreme Court that is determined to worship at the altar of an absolute tyranny violates the rule of law itself?

Incrementalism is the gradual assimilation of society into a different matrix of acceptability. This judicial tragedy is a rapid surge to the system. The body politic is under assault by a deadly virus of biblical dimensions. The core reasons for the War of American Independence seem trite when compared to the level of perdition experienced under the succession of recent presidents.

The bipartisan despotism of both Bush presidents, Clinton and now Obama only accelerate acquiescence to a virtual dictatorship. In order to understand the nature of the dilemma, appreciate the message in The Meaning of Independence Day.

The justification for a Second American Revolution should be self-evident. However, there are few real Americans left, who comprehend the unique heritage of this nation. A spontaneous uprising to overthrow the political outlaws is unlikely. With that admission, the moral imperative still requires a personal commitment to oppose the corrupt regime that proceeds in enslaving society.

The tipping point is upon us. The chains you wear are shackles you lock each day; you observe, obey or consent to unlawful government. You have the power to refuse compliance. Confront the consequences or suffer the indignation of a life of servitude.

Celebrate this July 4th with a renewed dedication that the future of American lies in the moral authority of civil disobedience.

“A general dissolution of principles and manners will more surely overthrow the liberties of America than the whole force of the common enemy. While the people are virtuous they cannot be subdued; but when once they lose their virtue then will be ready to surrender their liberties to the first external or internal invader.” – Samuel Adams

SARTRE is the pen name of James Hall
his website at

An intereactive graphic from UK -- Americans keep moving -- nothing to see here !

The Counted : People Killed by Police in the US

Rex-ommended Viewing :



9-11 Synchronicity in "Back To The Future"


Pilot Who Flew Two of the 9-11 Planes Speaks Out

“I flew the two actual aircraft which were involved in 9/11; the Fight number 175 and Flight 93, the 757 that allegedly went down in Shanksville and Flight 175 is the aircraft that’s alleged to have hit the South Tower.

I don’t believe it’s possible for, like I said, for a terrorist, a so-called terrorist to train on a [Cessna] 172, then jump in a cockpit of a 757-767 class cockpit, and vertical navigate the aircraft, lateral navigate the aircraft, and fly the airplane at speeds exceeding it’s design limit speed by well over 100 knots, make high-speed high-banked turns, exceeding — pulling probably 5, 6, 7 G’s.

And the aircraft would literally fall out of the sky. I couldn’t do it and I’m absolutely positive they couldn’t do it.”

For a guy to just jump into the cockpit and fly like an ace is impossible – there is not one chance in a thousand,” said Wittenberg, recalling that when he made the jump from Boeing 727’s to the highly sophisticated computerized characteristics of the 737’s through 767’s it took him considerable time to feel comfortable flying.

“The airplane could not have flown at those speeds which they said it did without going into what they call a high speed stall.

The airplane won’t go that fast if you start pulling those high G maneuvers at those bank angles. … To expect this alleged airplane to run these maneuvers with a total amateur at the controls is simply ludicrous…

It’s roughly a 100 ton airplane. And an airplane that weighs 100 tons all assembled is still going to have 100 tons of disassembled trash and parts after it hits a building.

There was no wreckage from a 757 at the Pentagon. … The vehicle that hit the Pentagon was not Flight 77. We think, as you may have heard before, it was a cruise missile.”

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Why Most People Do Not Have to Pay Their Medical Bills

by TommyPaine

If you want to understand why medical care expenses are so expensive today and want to be able to explain it to others, read this post.

If you know someone faced with huge medical bills they cannot afford, read this post.

I am in favor of paying bills. I am in favor of paying medical bills - REASONABLE medical bills. Most medical bills today are NOT reasonable. The prices charged are far too high (as compared with a free market system), and they are (most of them) what are known as "adhesion contracts." I'll explain what that is, but first some history.

The reason medical care costs today are so expensive is because the government has become more and more involved in the industry, and this has raised the cost for everyone.

Before WWII and for all of American history before that, people could pay their own medical bills with no problem. There was no "crisis." There will always be poor people in society, especially when "poor" is defined as the bottom X% of the population. By that definition, there will always be poor people, and they can and should turn to charity for help.

Back then, there was no such thing as health insurance. People could pay their doctor bills. Health insurance came about as a way for people NOT to pay their doctor bills but to recover LOST WAGES during times they were sick. Lost time from work was a bigger financial problem than the bills themselves. Originally, "health insurance" was more like what today would be called disability insurance.

During WWII, the federal government instituted price and wage controls. This meant that employers could not increase salaries. So, employers started offering "fringe benefits" as a way to attract the best people. This is when employers started paying for health insurance for employees.

In the 1950's, the tax code was changed so that employers could deduct health care insurance paid on behalf of employees. Tax deductions are good, but it should have been at the individual level. Since so many employers were now paying these costs (because of the previous government meddling), this was very popular.

In 1965, Medicare was passed, making the federal government a huge "payor" of health care costs. In 1973, Congress passed the HMO Act, requiring larger employers to provide HMO's for employees.

Since then, there have been numerous other ways the federal government has pushed its way in (unconstitutionally) to the health care industry.

Today, even before Odumbacare, the federal government is by far the largest payor of health care expenses, and HMO's are next largest. Together, they dominate the terms of what they will pay for health care expenses.

Since the individual usually does not pay for their medical expenses, doctors make more money doing multiple tests. They get paid more for that, too. But the government and HMO's often refuse to pay the full price. So, doctors get paid less than they expected on the procedures they do, and so they look to everybody else to make up the slack.

The slack is paid for by individuals with their own health insurance and those who pay cash. Since doctors are so used to doing every test and procedure they can think of (because they benefit from that by charging more to the government and HMO's), they do this with individuals, too. It is estimated that people paying cash pay 3 times the amount that the federal government does for the same things.

This is why health care costs are so high.

But, if you get a doctor or hospital bill, you usually do NOT have to pay it.

That's because almost all such bills are adhesion contracts. An adhesion contract is a "take it or leave it" contract. One side dictates the terms, and the other side must take it or leave it. But the terms are not known up front. So, the person taking it has no idea what they are taking.

In fact, most such bills are not contracts at all. A contract requires a "meeting of the minds." If a doctor does not tell a patient (a) what will be done or (b) how much it will cost, then there is no meeting of the minds. Further, even if it is a contract, it is an adhesion contract.

Adhesion contracts are VOIDABLE by the party who did not create the contract. So, a person with a huge medical bill can REFUSE to pay it by declaring it VOID.

Having said that, I do not recommend actually voiding it. Better is to notify the doctor or hospital that you MIGHT declare it void and instead work out a reasonable fee that you will pay in a reasonable amount of time.

Today, there are more and more clinics actually publishing their rates. A person could use those prices as a good faith method of determining a fair price to pay (and doing business with such doctors are NOT adhesion contracts because the amounts are known up front, unlike 99% of the industry). One doctor running such a clinic stated that he originally thought his costs would be 1/2 of what other doctors were charging. He really had no idea because he never had control over costs. What he found was that his costs are actually 1/6 to 1/8 of the costs of doctors who get paid by traditional means. So, the health care industry is costing 6-8 times what would be the case in a free market.

So, the government has created this mess with more and more intrusion into the health care industry over several decades. The solution, of course, is to REPEAL such laws (including the prohibition of selling insurance across state lines). Let the FREE MARKET return to the health care industry and the problems will be solved.

In the meantime, any large medical bills can be NEGOTIATED down to a reasonable amount and, if necessary, declared VOID.

Free Speech on Trial: IRS v. Hendrickson

By Tax Truth Now

This is a short presentation about what is being done to everyone's rights and the rule of law by way of the assault on Doreen Hendrickson, which is a crime being committed for the equally evil purpose of keeping you and your neighbors from knowing the liberating truth about the tax.

Youtube description: The Shocking Truth the IRS Doesn't Want You to Know: The limited nature of the 'income' tax...

Buried in Supreme Court rulings, legal minutia, tax code jargon, and the minutes from Congressional hearings is the truth that the what is commonly referred to as the income tax is meant to be a simple excise tax levied on those benefiting in some way from a federal privilege.

This means that government workers and office-holders, federal reserve bankers, subsidy recipients, investors in federal corporations, and any other person benefiting from the profitable exercise of federal privilege were meant to pay the tax, NOT independent hard-working American citizens.

Relevant Court Hearings:

" Spinger v. U. S., 102 W.U. 568 (1880), it was held that [the] tax upon gains, profits, and income was an excise tax or duty, and not a direct tax, within the meaning of the constitution, and that its imposition was not, therefore, unconstitutional." - United States Supreme Court, Pollock v. Farmer's Loan & Trust, 158 U.S. 601 (1895)

"...taxation on income was in its nature an excise entitled to be enforces as such," United States Supreme Court, Brushaber v. Union Pacific R. Co., 240 U.S. 1 (1916), quoting and reiterating language used in its ruling in Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust

It Did Not Change After 16th Amendment:

"The provisions of the Sixteenth Amendment conferred no new power of taxation..." - Stanton vs. Baltic Mining Co., 240 U.S. 103 (1916)

"The Sixteenth Amendment, although referred to in argument, has no real bearing and may be put out of view. As pointed out in recent decisions, it does not extend the taxing power to new or excepted subjects..." - Peck vs. Lowe, 247 U.S. 165 (1918)

“The income tax is, therefore, not a tax on income as such. It is an excise tax with respect to certain activities and privileges which is measured by reference to the income which they produce. The income is not the subject of the tax: it is the basis for determining the amount of tax.”
–F. Morse Hubbard, Treasury Dept legislative draftsman. House Congressional Record, March 27, 1943

These findings, along with other research meticulously gathered by Pete Hendrickson and presented in Cracking the Code, outline the limited nature of the income tax. This information, if truly understood and effectuated by the American public, could limit government faster than any electoral result or any half-baked reform scheme coming out of Washington D.C.

In 'Free Speech on Trial,' you will see the lengths to which the minions of the corrupt federal system will stoop to tread upon the rights of freedom-loving Americans and keep their illicit scam under wraps.

Buy the book 'Cracking the Code' and learn how to get your rightful earnings back from the federal criminals -

Your Tax  Dollars @ Work :

Doreen Hendrickson Sentenced to 18 Months in Prison for Upholding the First Amendment in Court

Editor's Note: Doreen has just been sentenced to 18 months prison.

Doreen Hendrickson, wife of Pete Hendrickson, author of Cracking the Code- The Fascinating Truth About Taxation In America will soon have a court hearing set for sentencing by Eastern District of Michigan federal judge Victoria Roberts on a contempt of court charge. Sentencing had originally been set for November 20, 2014, was then changed to Dec. 10, and now will take place in early 2015.

This is a case of retaliation against Doreen’s husband for his book, which clearly defines the difference between taxable income and earnings that are not taxable under the IRS Code. Though numerous attempts have been made to discredit and suppress the book, especially through deliberate misrepresentation of its contents by government officials, nothing actually revealed in the book has ever been disputed.

Not being able to dispute the veracity of the book, and having been forced to return billions of improperly-collected tax dollars to hundreds of thousands of readers over the eleven years Cracking the Code... has been in print, the full weight and force of the IRS and the United States Justice Department have been leveled against the wife of the author. It might be noted here that even organized crime has a code of honor that they will do no harm to the wives and children of their adversaries.

Officially, Doreen is being punished for resisting orders written by a DOJ attorney and issued by a federal judge commanding her to replace her previous sworn statements in a legal dispute over whether or not she owed federal income taxes with sworn statements dictated by the government. The coerced statements would declare that she believes herself liable for the disputed amounts.

Although a government official signing such statements himself would serve as a claim to the money, none has been willing to do so. The total dollar figure involved in the case that would either remain with Mrs. Hendrickson or transfer to the United States is less than $1000.

This is not a Tax Case!

This case involves government orders that Doreen declare, under penalty of perjury, something she believes to be untrue. The contempt charge is for refusing to obey the order. This is a blatant disregard of her First Amendment right to free speech. Can the government, even through a judge, order anyone to say something not believed to be true and then cite her for contempt for refusing to obey the order? The government says yes, but the First Amendment says no!

The federal prosecutors-- specialists flown in from Washington-- even had the audacity to ask (and were granted) that the jury be barred from considering the “unlawfulness or unconstitutionality” of the orders.

The jury was lied to by the DOJ prosecutors, while Doreen was prevented from completing her opening and closing arguments. Over and over again, throughout the trial, the US attorneys kept saying Doreen was only being ordered to "say what was correct". Their Closing Argument was little more than pounding on the podium and shouting that Doreen was told what was correct by the judge, and so how could the jury imagine that she could honestly believe otherwise?!

The First and Fifth Amendment rights of all Americans are on the chopping block in the prosecution of Doreen Hendrickson, and the precedent it sets. What might YOU be ordered to say for the government's convenience?

For a detailed summary of the ordeal of Doreen Hendrickson visit:

Suck my political correctness, ya craven faggot !

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