rexresearch.com



Ted SURATT / Robinson GOURLEY

SG Gas




" The 4th State of Water " : Electromagnetic treatment of H2O shifts hydrogen, to form " SG Gas " -- stable, non-explosive, & compressible, withany applications for health, agriculture, industry, &c.










http://notbrownsgas.com/

The Differences Between Brown's Gas and SG Gas

Water Ion Technologies causes fundamental molecular changes in water that allow the creation of new or improved products with properties and characteristics not ever seen before in today's world. These products and services affect the most basic needs of mankind toward better health, more efficient energy and a cleaner environment. The core of Water Ion Technologies is the proprietary process, owned by WIT International, L.L.C. or "WIT", for generating the Fourth State of Water which is named SG Gas. The resulting gas flame has a uniform blue color appearance without yellow sparks indicative of water (H2O) vapor or red sparks indicative of either H2 or O2 gas contamination that are evident in other water-generated gases.

In our process of creating SG Gas, electrolysis does not take place! Other gases developed by Rhodes and Brown are "dirty cocktails" with mixtures of gases including H2 or O2 gases that are generated from heat-producing electrolysis processes and can be explosive.

It must be clear in our process of creating SG Gas, electrolysis does not take place. "Electrolysis" is defined as a "method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them." Electrolysis does not take place and no splitting of the water molecular bonds to the basic components of oxygen and hydrogen occurs, as is demonstrated by the fact that no increase in hydrogen or oxygen gas can be measured in the reaction zone during the production of SG Gas. This is a key differentiator from the processes that have resulted in other gases that were and are produced by electrolysis of water. The gases produced by electrolysis exhibit far different properties from that of SG Gas. Gases produced by electrolysis are explosive, cannot be pressurized and are heat-producing gases on ignition. Rather, our discovery involves a shift of one hydrogen within a water molecule (H2O) to create a diatomic bond of two hydrogens with the oxygen. The combination of the electric and magnetic forces associated with our discovery, restructures the water molecule and creates the resulting O--HH molecule such that SG Gas can be pressurized and is not explosive upon ignition.

Our process for creating the more stable, safer SG Gas is neither heat producing (no electrolysis) nor involves any splitting of hydrogen and oxygen bonds from the water molecule that could create an explosive situation.

Unique Properties of SG Gas Compared to Other Gases including Browns Gas

For more information of our proprietary Blue Technology please visit: Wateriontechnologies.com



http://wateriontechnologies.com
WIT International
Post Office Box 20563
Sarasota, FL 34276
(888) 936-2782

Robinson B. Gourley, Jr. -- CEO
Ted Suratt -- Chief Science Officer

SG Gas

Our Discovery is the Fourth State of Water.
Our Mission is to Advance Knowledge of Our Discovery
Our Goal is to Work with Others on Global Solutions.

In Discovering the Fourth State of Water, Our Mission is to be part of the global solution working with others to apply our Discovery, to enhance the efficiency of energy alternatives without any additional pollutant emissions, thereby meeting the current challenges of financial, environmental and social wellbeing and advancing our mutual energy independence and security.



US2008257719
Apparatus And Method For Making Flammable Gas


An electrolyzer includes a first electrode in the form of an inner tank formed of a material capable of being magnetized and a second electrode in the form of an outer tank formed of a material capable of being magnetized. The inner tank is nested within the outer tank. A spacer basket formed of a plastic material is disposed between the inner tank and the outer tank. The inner tank includes a positive terminal in electrical communication with a DC power source and the outer tank includes a negative terminal in electrical communication with the DC power source. A magnet for magnetizing the outer tank has a field sufficient to affect the inner tank. Electrolysis within the tank produces a flammable gas having a first hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom and a second hydrogen atom bonded to the first hydrogen atom.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] This invention relates, generally, to the generation of gas from electrolysis. More particularly, it relates to the generation of a flammable gas having unusual properties and a heretofore unknown molecular structure.

[0003] 2. Description of the Prior Art

[0004] It has long been known that water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen with the use of an electrolyzer. However, the cost of the process is greater than the benefits received.

[0005] What is needed, then, is an improved electrolysis method and apparatus that produces a novel flammable gas from an electrolyte and water solution that provides benefits without the prior art high cost of separation.

[0006] However, in view of the prior art considered as a whole at the time the present invention was made, it was not obvious to those of ordinary skill in the pertinent art how the identified needs could be fulfilled.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] The long-standing but heretofore unfulfilled need for a novel flammable gas and for an electrolyzer capable of generating such novel gas is now provided in the form of a new, useful, and nonobvious invention.

[0008] Because molecules such as hydrogen and oxygen have magnetic qualities, they exist normally in a diatomic state O2 and H2. They also have electronegative values that affect the strength of the bond. In the case of a water molecule (H2O), this invention discloses that introducing a current through an electrolyte solution, preferably a potassium hydroxide solution, in the presence of a magnetic field reconfigures the molecule into a heretofore unknown gas referred to hereinafter as hydroxyhydrogen or hydrogas. This heretofore unknown gas is a diatomic hydrogen molecule that is single bonded to atomic oxygen.

[0009] This is accomplished by spacing an anode and a cathode about a quarter of an inch apart and introducing a DC voltage of approximately 1.5 to 2.0 volts with current equal to approximately one-quarter of an amp (0.25 amp) per square inch of cathode surface area. This weakens the electronegative strength of the oxygen atom and allows a hydrogen atom to dislodge and magnetically bond to the other hydrogen atom that is strengthened by the magnetic field.

[0010] The resulting product is a flammable non-toxic gas that implodes when lit, and is an oxidizer that liberates atomic hydrogen when it bonds with another molecule.

[0011] More particularly, the novel electrolyzer includes a first electrode in the form of an inner tank having a first diameter formed of a material capable of being magnetized and a second electrode in the form of an outer tank having a second diameter formed of a material capable of being magnetized. The second diameter is greater than the first diameter and the inner tank is nested within the outer tank.

[0012] A cylindrical open space is created between the inner and outer tanks by the difference in tank diameters. Drain holes are formed in the sidewalls of the inner tank, near the bottom end thereof, so that when the inner tank is filled water and an electrolyte such as potassium hydroxide to form an electrolytic fluid, the electrolytic liquid fluid flows through the drain holes and is disposed in the open space between the inner tank and said outer tank. The inner tank is also full of said electrolytic fluid when said open space is full.

[0013] A spacer basket formed of a plastic material is disposed in the open space between the inner tank and the outer tank.

[0014] The positive side of a DC power source is in electrical communication with a positive terminal secured to the inner tank and the negative side of the DC power source is in electrical communication with a negative terminal secured to the outer tank. The DC power source provides a voltage of about 1.5 to 2.0 volts and a current of about 0.25 amps per square inch of cathode surface area.

[0015] A magnet having a strength of about twenty (20) Gauss units magnetizes the outer tank, and the strength of the magnetic field of the magnet is sufficient to affect the inner tank.

[0016] The outer tank has a gas outlet and a flammable gas is generated by electrolysis within the electrolyzer and is collected as it exits through said gas outlet. The flammable gas burns at a temperature of about two hundred seventy degrees Fahrenheit (270[deg.] F.) when ignited. The flammable gas has a first hydrogen atom bonded with an oxygen atom and a second hydrogen atom bonded with the first hydrogen atom.

[0017] A purified, polarized water is made by passing the flammable gas through distilled water.

[0018] An important object of this invention is to provide a method and apparatus for making the novel gas.

[0019] These and other important objects, advantages, and features of the invention will become clear as this description proceeds.

[0020] The invention accordingly comprises the features of construction, combination of elements, and arrangement of parts that will be exemplified in the description set forth hereinafter and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0021] For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be made to the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0022] FIG. 1 is a prior art diagram of a water molecule;

[0023] FIG. 2 is a diagram of the novel molecule;

[0024] FIG. 3 is a diagram of the novel electrolyzer;

[0025] FIG. 4 is a is a diagram of the novel spacer basket; and

[0026] FIG. 5 is a diagram of the magnetized outer tank of the novel electrolyzer.



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

[0027] The novel electrolyzer is surrounded by a magnetic field that may be generated by an electromagnet or a permanent magnet. Carefully controlled voltage and amperage reconfigures a water molecule into a magnecule, referred to hereinafter as hydroxyhydrogen.

[0028] More particularly, a current is passed through a conductive water solution. The current weakens the bonding strength of the water and thus allows the magnetic force provided by the magnetic field to reconfigure the water molecule into a highly polar magnacule containing atomic oxygen bonded to a diatomic molecule of hydrogen. The resulting product is a flammable gas. When lit by an ignition source, the hydroxyhydrogen gas implodes and produces a very low temperature flame of approximately two hundred seventy degrees Fahrenheit (270[deg.] F.).

[0029] The total heat energy is approximately equal to the power required to create the gas.

[0030] Due to its low temperature, the gas has limited utility as a stand alone fuel. However, when the flame is applied to a substrate such as iron, the flame temperature increases almost immediately to the melting temperature of iron. The same phenomena holds true for metals other than iron and substances other than metals; the flame temperature rises quickly to the melting temperature of the metal or other substance.

[0031] The electronegative value of iron is lower than the electronegative value of hydrogen. This causes the highly energized hydroxyl molecule to attach itself to the iron and release hydrogen. The released hydrogen bonds with atmospheric oxygen and thereby creates large amounts of heat. This quality makes the gas highly useful in the metal-cutting industry and reduces the amount of hydrocarbons used and thus reduces the amount of byproducts of hydrocarbons that are released into the atmosphere.

[0032] Although the novel gas is not a fuel, when added to the air intake of a combustion engine, the novel gas dramatically reduces harmful exhaust emissions and increases fuel efficiency. This reduces oil consumption. It is a safe, non-toxic oxidizer that bonds easily with water.

[0033] Referring now to FIG. 1, it will there be seen that a water molecule is denoted 10 as a whole. As is well-known, it includes two (2) hydrogen atoms, collectively denoted 12, and one (1) oxygen atom, denoted 14.

[0034] A hydroxyhydrogen magnecule 16 is disclosed in FIG. 2. It also includes two (2) hydrogen atoms 12 and one (1) oxygen atom 14. However, a first hydrogen atom has been released from its bond with oxygen atom 14 and has bonded with a second hydrogen atom as depicted.

[0035] Conventional science maintains that hydrogen can have but one (1) bond, as depicted in FIG. 1. It follows that the hydrogen atom 12 in FIG. 2 that seems to have two (2) bonds (one with oxygen atom 14 and one with another hydrogen atom) cannot exist in nature. However, the properties and behavior of the novel gas may be explained if the structure depicted in FIG. 2 is correct.

[0036] Ionic and covalent bonding could better be described as electrostatic and magnetic bonding, respectively. The Lewis dot theory of bonding which is taught in all universities is flawed in many ways. Lewis himself recognized that nitrogen, which can have a valence of 3, 4, or 5, was an exception to the rule. Diatomic molecules such as hydrogen are also exceptions. Based on the Lewis dot theory, hydrogen can have only one bond. This contradicts Gauss's Law which states that there are no monopoles in magnetism, i.e., there are only dipoles. Water is proof that Gauss is correct since it is well known that liquid water forms hydrogen bonds with other water molecules in order to remain in a liquid solution. Individual H2O molecules from evaporation or transpiration are a gas. Based on the atomic weight of the molecule, water is a gas. By applying a small amount of energy in an electrolyzer, we can separate the water molecules into a gaseous form and with the presence of a magnetic field re-establish the diatomic hydrogen bond. The magnetic strength should be approximately twenty (20) Gauss units.

[0037] The electrolyzer that causes this reconfiguration of a water molecule is depicted in FIGS. 3-5. Electrolyzer 20 includes inner tank 22 that serves as an electrode and magnetized outer tank 24 that serves as an electrode. Spacer basket 26 is positioned between said inner and outer tanks. The distance between the inner and outer tanks controls the voltage and the volume of gas output is determined by the amperage.

[0038] Multiple drain holes, collectively denoted 28, are formed in the cylindrical sidewalls 30 of inner tank 24, near imperforate bottom wall 32 thereof. Drain holes 28 allow electrolyte in inner tank 22 to flow into the open space between the inner and outer tanks.

[0039] Inner tank 22 includes water and electrolyte fill spout 34 which is insulated from but sealed to outer tank 24 by spacer basket 26.

[0040] Positive terminal 36 is in electrical communication with the positive side of a DC power source 21. Positive terminal 36 is attached to inner tank 22 and insulated from outer tank 24.

[0041] Gas outlet 38 is attached to outer tank 24. The open end thereof may be attached to a filter, dryer, or storage tank, depending upon the application.

[0042] Negative terminal 40 is attached to outer tank 24 and the negative side of said DC power source.

[0043] Spacer basket 26 is made of a plastic or other material suitable as an electrical insulator and sufficiently resistant to withstand strong electrolytic solutions such as potassium hydroxide. It has open flow through areas as depicted in FIG. 4.

[0044] Inner tank 22 and outer tank 24 are made of material capable of being magnetized.

[0045] Outer tank 24 is magnetized by a permanent magnet or an electromagnet with sufficient Gauss units to affect inner tank 22. In a commercial embodiment, the strength of the magnetic field is about twenty (20) Gauss units.

[0046] The properties of the novel polarized gas are not limited to increase in flame temperature property mentioned above. Bubbling the novel polarized flammable gas through distilled water results in bonding with many organic and inorganic substances and rendering them harmless. Even distilled water, filtered water, and reverse osmosis water still contain free radicals and traces of bacteria. Lab tests have shown that the water produced by bubbling the novel polarized gas through it is more conductive, non-toxic, and bacteria free. Controlled studies on plants have shown that it makes them healthier and faster-growing. Wounds heal faster on mammals cleaned daily with the novel water. People who have imbibed the water anecdotally recount the stopping of migraine headaches, clearer vision, improved concentration, and other improvements such as dissolving vitamins, minerals and nutrients faster.

[0047] Without regard to what is eaten or what kind of medicine, vitamins, or supplements are taken, if the body does not metabolize it, it doesn't provide any benefits. Metabolism is the sum of all chemical changes that take place in the body. These changes are responsible for maintaining health and providing energy, but energy is also required to bring about these changes. Since water is the liquid the body uses to dissolve and transport foods, vitamins, nutrients, and medicines, it is essential to energize this vital fluid in order for the body to function properly and to heal itself.

[0048] When water evaporates from the earth, it rises through a powerful magnetic field that induces a charge. Lightning is the discharge of this stored energy. As rain drops fall back to earth, a small amount of energy is also induced which cleans the air, neutralizes pollution, and has enough energy left over to make lawns greener, healthier, and grow three (3) times faster than they would grow with ordinary water. Even the slightest polarization of water, as evidenced by rain, is extremely beneficial in nature. In order to control the degree of polarization, the polarized gas is made from water as disclosed above and then bubbled through a quantity of distilled water as aforesaid.

[0049] The novel gas produced by the novel electrolyzer thus enables the production of a novel water having numerous therapeutic effects. The novel gas has many other applications as well, such as the enabling of more efficient combustion of fuels, and so on, all of which are inherent and thus within the scope of this invention.

[0050] It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, and those made apparent from the foregoing description, are efficiently attained. Since certain changes may be made in the above construction without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matters contained in the foregoing description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

[0051] It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention that, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.



Method for Making a Gas from an Aqueous Fluid, Product of the Method, and Apparatus Therefor
US2010209360
US2013323322


TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003] This invention relates to the generation of a purified stable gas from an aqueous fluid, wherein said gas may be stored under pressure and uses for the gas.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0004] Electrolysis of water is known to produce hydrogen gas (H2) at the cathode and oxygen gas (O2) at the anode. Due to the high heat of the chambers, water vapor also resulted from this process. If the hydrogen gas and oxygen gas were not effectively separated, such methods resulted in an impure gaseous product that could not be effectively compressed or stored under pressure for industrial applications in a single container and was deemed explosive and dangerous. Thus, it remained desirable to develop a method by which a useful, stable, purified, compressible single gas could be formed from water or an aqueous fluid.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0005] FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic of a preferred reaction chamber for the invention.

[0006] FIGS. 2-3 illustrate the inventor's conception of the nature of the gas as formed from the process disclosed herein.

[0007] FIG. 4 illustrates graphs showing the absorption of Vitamin C by cells treated with SG Gas-infused Water and control. FIG. 4A shows the effect on basolateral cells and FIG. 4B on apical cells.

[0008] FIG. 5 illustrates properties of SG Gas-infused Water.



DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0009] A method for generating a gas having desirable properties is herein disclosed. In addition, methodology for purifying said gas is disclosed. Applicants refer to this gas as “SG Gas.”

[0010] Applicant hereby incorporates U.S. Ser. No. 11/738,476 filed on Apr. 21, 2007; U.S. Ser. No. 12/596,077 filed Mar. 17, 2010 by reference as if fully set forth herein.

[0011] In a first step of the method, an aqueous fluid is provided to a reaction zone. While varous aqueous fluids, such as distilled water, tap water, or water taken from a river, stream, lake or the like may be used to generate electrical current at satisfactory levels, it is preferred to use an electrolyte solution for the aqueous fluid of standardized composition so that the conditions of the method can be better standardized for maximum yield of gas.

[0012] The aqueous fluid is provided to a reaction zone which is preferably closed off so to allow the reaction to occur under pressure. An alkali salt is preferably used as an electrolyte dissolved in distilled water. Preferred alkali salts are potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. The specific gravity of the alkali salt in the solution is above 1.0. Most preferably, potassium hydroxide is employed at a specific gravity from at least above 1.0 up to about 1.2. If another electrolyte is chosen other than potassium hydroxide a mole ratio must be calculated for that substance so that the maximum mole ratio represented by the specific gravity of 1.2 provided for potassium hydroxide will not be exceeded. These specific gravity values are as determined by a refractometer which provides readings that are temperature compensated. Most preferably, the electrolyte employed is potassium hydroxide (powder form) dissolved in distilled water at a concentration sufficient to form a solution having up to 1.2 specific gravity. A suitable refractometer is the Westover Model RHA-100, portable refractometer.

[0013] Aqueous fluid is contained in a receptacle which can be made out of a variety of materials including sheet steel, stainless steel, CV-PVC and epoxy resin fiberglass. The apparatus and internal devices need to be heat resistant and waterproof. The reaction zone is comprised of said aqueous fluid.

[0014] The aqueous fluid is placed in a reaction zone in the method of the invention. Overall, the method employs creation of a magnetic field in the aqueous fluid and periodic collapse of the magnetic field under conditions which do not provoke electrolysis of the aqueous fluid. Under these conditions, a single gas is generated and collected. This gas has desirable properties and is useful for applications.

[0015] In a first step of the method, a magnetic field is applied to the reaction zone. Preferably, the magnetic field is applied by providing a source of electric power to said reaction zone. An electric current in said reaction zone provides a magnetic field.

[0016] In a preferred embodiment, two metallic end plates having an inside surface and an outside surface, and having the capacity to conduct an electrical current are used in the reaction zone in opposing configuration. The inside of each end plate is partially submerged in the electrolyte solution. The metallic plates are preferably comprised of nickel alloy or stainless steel, but any metal can be used as long as such metal has the capacity to conduct an electric current and is preferably resistant to erosion by alkali solutions. One of said metallic plates serves as a cathode and the other as an anode. The cathode and anode should be separated a sufficient distance so that a magnetic field forms when current is applied to the reaction zone. The distance between the plates must be greater than one inch (2.5 cm) in the method of the invention and is preferably eight to sixteen inches apart. This distance is independent of the volume of the aqueous fluid employed or size of the reaction zone.

[0017] There is a relationship between the concentration of electrolyte solution and the amperage which will exist in the aqueous fluid upon application of current thereto. The higher the specific gravity, the greater the amperage will result. This will also affect the strength of the magnetic field, and increase the temperature of the solution. Electrolysis (used industrially to produce hydrogen gas via the reaction 2H2O(l)?2H2(g)+O2(g)) which is not desired in the method of the invention, could occur if the current is too high. The current may be too high if the specific gravity of the electrolyte exceeds the equivalent of 1.2 for potassium hydroxide.

[0018] In order for the magnetic field to be applied to the reaction zone, a power source (e.g., 110 volts DC) is applied respectively to the anode and to the cathode.

[0019] An appropriate power source that may be used in the method of the invention is 110 volt alternating current which has been converted to direct current using a rectifying process (e.g., a diode bridge device). Any standard power or voltage source may be used as long as it is rectified to direct current. When an electric current is applied to the reaction zone, a magnetic field is created in the reaction zone, which periodically collapses and causes the conversion of the water in the aqueous fluid into gas. Cyclic pulsation will be present in current even after alternating current is converted to direct current (for example a 60 cycle pulsation from household current) unless a smoothing circuit has been incorporated. This resulting cyclic pulsation is employable in the invention to periodically collapse the magnetic field, however using an auxiliary pulsing unit is preferably used in the method of the invention so that better regulation of pulsing may be employed. Any means for causing the electric current provided to the reaction zone to pulse at a frequency of 15 to 20 kilohertz decreases the wattage needed to create gas by approximately a factor of 10. The amount of energy needed to generate one (1) liter of gas is 0.0028 kilowatt-hour and with a pulsing device associated with the reaction zone, the amount drops to 0.00028 kilowatt-hour or less to generate one (1) liter of gas.

[0020] As the pulsing occurs, the stationary magnetic field alternatively collapses and is reinstated. It has been found that a reaction occurs in the electrolyte solution between the two end plates upon collapse of the magnetic field, which results in a release of a generated gas. Some of the same gas will be pulled toward the individual plates and released as part of the generated gas.

[0021] In a pilot plant apparatus for determining optimal conditions, a clear Plexiglas receptacle can be used for the reaction zone, so that one can visibly monitor the reaction with ultraviolet light and observe the generation of gas. This pilot plant preferably provides adjustment means for the cathode and anode so that they can be moved to optimize the reaction for a given aqueous fluid composition and changes in pulsing duration and frequency.

[0022] Gas is generated not only at the electrodes but also appears as bubbles in the body of water between the electrodes. It has been found that use of minimal electric currents between two electrodes results from the electrodes being spread a sufficient distance apart of at least one inch (2.5 cm) and preferably eight to sixteen inches apart, thereby creating the aforesaid magnetic field enveloping the reaction chamber. A pure gas is produced in the body of aqueous fluid between the electrodes, without the production of a high levels of heat that would cause the water to vaporize (212° F.). Rather, the reaction zone remains at a temperature not exceeding 120° F. dependent on ambient temperature. Normally, there is a 30° F. temperature rise above ambient temperature assuming room temperature 90° F. The collection chambers contain no increase in oxygen gas, no increase in hydrogen gas, and no noticeable water vapor. Thus, costs are lowered, production speed increases, and the resulting gas is uniform in its properties. Also important, the resulting homogeneous gas can be pumped into a stainless steel cylinder and has been found to be stable and not explosive under pressures of over 1000 lb.

[0023] The important functionalities in the process are imposition of a magnetic field on the aqueous fluid and the ability to periodically collapse the magnetic field to generate the desired gas, under conditions short of those that will induce electrolysis. Other means which provide for these functionalities can be used. For example, in an alternative embodiment, wires could be inserted instead of plates in the reaction zone and when current passes from one wire through the aqueous fluid to the other wire, a magnetic field would be produced. In another exemplary alternative, a wire coil outside the reaction zone could be used to which a source of DC power can be supplied to create a primary magnetic field in the reaction zone. A wire coil placed in the middle of the solution can serve as a secondary magnetic field and when powered in the opposite direction of the current flow in pulses would collapse the primary field and create the necessary reaction to form the gas. Such a coil would be similar in concept to an automobile coil.

[0024] When water is converted into gas, the natural conversion from liquid to gas creates an increase in volume and thus an increase in pressure within the reaction zone. While standard atmospheric pressure is about 14.7 psi at sea level, the pressure in the closed reaction zone is maintained between 30 and 100 psi by using a check valve at the outlet of the reaction chamber to control it, since maximum gas production occurs in this pressure range.

[0025] Now referring to FIG. 1, a schematic of a reaction chamber is illustrated. Cathode (1) and anode (2) are in opposing configuration, preferably more than one inch apart and most preferably eight to sixteen inches apart. In the process of the invention, a current is passed through an aqueous fluid (3) and the current flow through the electrolyte creates a magnetic field. The electricity is pulsed, which collapses the magnetic field with each pulse of electricity. This produces the gas at a very efficient rate in the area of the solution between the electrodes, as denoted by (4) in FIG. 1. The gas produced may be collected from the reaction zone through gas outlet (5) and subjected to further purification as taught herein.

[0026] The generated gas is then preferably exposed to a second magnetic field by providing a second reaction zone comprising of rare earth magnets. The strength of the rare earth magnets should be greater than fifty (50) Gauss units. Gas flows through a chamber exposed to rare earth magnets for purification. Rare earth magnets, dense metal magnets typically made from a composite of neodymium, iron and boron with or without a nickel coating or plating, are attached to the exterior of the chamber. Since SG Gas is paramagnetic and water vapor is diamagnetic the magnetic chamber strengthens the molecular bond of the gas and repels the water vapor back into the solution.

[0027] The purified SG Gas may be used immediately or compressed and stored in a gas storage tank. Purified SG Gas may be allowed to flow out of said second reaction zone directly to a torch attachment, to a compressor for storage in a pressurized vessel, or gas outflow valve for infusion into water or other substances.

[0028] In a method for making a compressible, stable gas with desirable properties, SG Gas is made according to the method of the invention. SG Gas can then be safely compressed and stored. SG Gas can be compressed above 1,000 psi. SG Gas also can be stored in a pressurized vessel.

[0029] In an exemplary procedure for compression, SG Gas is discharged from the apparatus into a hose with a compressor attached. We use a Whirlwind Compressor, Model 2200-2 HPE, manufactured by High Pressure Eng. Co., Inc. A canister with pressure gauges is used to fill the chamber with SG Gas, using a hose to transport the SG Gas from the apparatus and compressor into the canister. We use an empty oxygen tank that has been vacuumed to remove any residual oxygen and water. The empty and vacuumed oxygen tank with pressure valve has a manufacturer name of White Martins, ABRE with dimensions of 23? diameter and 19? height. SG Gas is placed under pressure in the compression chamber up to and beyond 1,000 psi. for storage of SG Gas.

[0030] SG Gas remains stable and under pressure for one month and longer. To test its stability, wood chips were placed in a stainless steel tank and the tank filled with SG Gas. The wood chips absorbed SG Gas and additional SG Gas was used to refill the chamber and maintain a 30 psi. Once the wood chips were saturated with SG Gas, the tank was decompressed and pressure reduced to 0 psi. For a period of over 30 days, no pressure was generated assuming that no out gassing of SG Gas occurred. The wood chips displayed different burn properties after 60 days when compared to that of the non-treated wood chips. The treated wood chips with absorbed SG Gas burned more efficiently when compared to that of non-treated wood chips thereby demonstrating the stability of the SG Gas bond with the treated wood chips.

[0031] Analytical Testing and Observations of SG Gas Under Pressure Maximum Pressure: SG Gas imploded when pressures exceeded 1,600 psi. Safe Pressurization: SG Gas remains safe and stable at pressures around 1,000 psi for over 30 days. SG Gas should remain stable under pressure indefinitely, at least for a sufficient period of time to allow said gas to be utilized at time 30-60 days after generation.

[0032] The purified SG Gas was tested and exhibited properties of a pure, homogeneous gas that was found to be compressible as stated above, safe, also able to oxidize any non-oxidized substrate its flame contacts and able to reduce any completely oxidized substrate its flame contacts. The following characteristics were observed.

[0033] Ultra-violet Light Test: Exhibits a blue gray color appearance compared to untreated distilled water which exhibits no color, when exposed to an ultra-violet light, manufactured by Zelco Industries Model 10015.

[0034] Balloon: Is lighter than air and causes balloons filled therewith to rise.

[0035] Cooling: The Balloon Filled with Purified Gas: Balloon remains inflated at or below -10° F.

[0036] Ignition: The purified SG Gas produced according to the above method was tested for ignition properties. The temperature of the flame produced upon ignition was estimated to be about 270° F. using an infrared temperature device (Raynger ST2L infrared temperature device). The purified gas, when lit with an ignition source such as a spark, causes an implosion. When materials are exposed to the flame, which creates a chemical reaction with the material, base metals will rapidly rise to melt temperature points, releasing heat and converting the gas back into water (H2O).

[0037] Purified SG Gas was discharged from the reaction zone through a hose with a torch attached. On the gas output of the apparatus, a flash-back arrestor is recommended. The gas may be exposed to an ignition source (e.g., spark or electrical arc) thus combustion of the gas occurs. The heat of the resulting flame on the subject torch has a temperature of approximately 270° F.

[0038] When an air/propane torch is burning, a small amount of SG Gas is introduced into the air mixing chamber of a lit propane torch, a single uniform flame cone becomes visible demonstrating a more efficient conversion of hydrocarbon and more heat from combustion of hydrocarbon, meaning it has a use as a fuel extender. One use is injection of SG Gas into an air intake of a combustion engine thereby reducing harmful exhaust emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. A by-product of this process is the creation of water during the combustion cycle that generates steam. The steam causes an increase in the torque generated by the engine resulting in greater power output. Depending upon the type of fuel, SG Gas extends fuel efficiency by a factor between 2 and 10.

[0039] When ignited purified gas contacts another substance, melting occurs within a short period of time, usually less than one minute. The results of some examples of substances exposed to ignited purified SG Gas may be found in Table 1.

[0000]

TABLE 1
Effect of Ignited Purified Gas on Various Substances
    Effect on Exposure to Ignited Purified SG Gas (one minute or  less).
Substance  Melting Point
Stainless Steel  2,600° F.  Melting.
Steel  1,330° F.  Melting.
Copper  1,984° F.  Melting.
Ceramic  10,000° and 12,000° F.  Melting.
Tar Sands    Sand converted to    glass and metals were   separated out of the    sand matrix.
Concrete    Creates a glassy    molten surface which    can adhere to metal    when cooled.
Glass    Melts. Flame and
    true colors are    achieved with no    carbon flakes or    residue embedded    inside the glass.

[0040] In lieu of melting a substrate, ignited purified gas may be applied to a substrate with a view toward capturing the generated heat as a useful product. The heat generated can be transferred to a fluid such as air or water, thereby producing hot air or steam that can then be used industrially, such as for example to drive a turbine or piston-type engine for production of mechanical energy. In a preferred method, the flame of the SG gas can be applied to a substrate in conduit form having an inside surface and an outside surface. A fluid such as air or water can flow thorough the conduit adjacent the inside surface of the conduit. The flame of the SG gas can be applied to the outside surface of the conduit which causes the heat-generating reaction to occur. The heat is then transferred to the fluid flowing through the conduit, preventing melting of the surface but creating a useful heated fluid that can be used in further applications. An exemplary conduit is a metal tube or pipe, such as copper tubing. It has been further determined that SG Gas can be infused into other substances, rendering a useful product.

[0041] Candles: SG Gas infused into melted paraffin wax and poured into a mold with a wick will create candles that burn with lower carbon emission as observed using a Pace 400 Four Gas Analyzer.

[0042] Fluids: The gas had an affinity for water and other liquids including fuels but bubbled from the liquids after reaching a saturation point. One novel use of the gas is infusing it back into water to create ionized or polarized water. The resulting gas-infused water creates smaller water clusters that are believed to permit faster cellular absorption and hydration.

[0043] In an exemplary method for infusing SG Gas into water, SG Gas is discharged from the reaction zone into a hose with a ceramic diffuser attached. For treating large volumes of water, a ceramic block diffuser may be used. The diffusers are used to reduce the size of the SG Gas bubbles to improve efficiency of water absorption. SG Gas may also be stored under pressure, then infused into water.

[0044] It is preferred to infuse water that has gone through a distillation process prior to infusion of SG Gas into treated water with less than 1 ppm TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). One may use an absorption graph to determine time required for achieving desired absorption of SG Gas into water. The typical rate of 30% absorption is approximately one hour to treat 100 gallons of water. A higher saturation of SG Gas up to 100% of total absorption occurs with more infusion of SG Gas into water over time. The actual time and percentage of absorption of SG Gas are affected by the purity of water, volume of water, size of gas bubbles, temperature and other factors.

[0045] The resulting ionized or polarized water (“SG Gas-infused Water”) clings longer to a magnet when compared to that of regular water. Absorption over time or saturation graphs to monitor changes in the water properties infused with SG Gas including capacitance levels may be prepared. FIG. 7 shows a typical absorption over time graph for infusion of SG Gas into water. Subsequently, one may measure capacitance levels in the treated water over a time period exceeding 30 days to demonstrate that the gas in water is stable. Other measurement: Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) dropped from a start of 0.33 ppm in untreated distilled water to a finish of 0.17 ppm after infusion of SG Gas into distilled water for a period of approximately 11 minutes. A Fluke 189 True RMS Multimeter was used to measure drop in capacitance

[0046] Storage of SG Gas in Water: The resulting polarized water with SG Gas treatment remains stable and can be stored for 2 years or more. The actual maximum storage time has yet to be observed but in theory, SG Gas should remain permanently stable in the water.

[0047] Absorption: During infusion of SG Gas into purified water, we used a Fluke 189 True RMS Multimeter to measure drop in capacitance. The absorption over time graph is plotted to monitor the drop in capacitance. The first capacitance drop during initial infusion of SG Gas into a gallon of purified water occurs within the first three minutes of infusion. After that time, the capacitance gradually drops until the point of maximum saturation of SG Gas is typically reached between eight and 20 minutes depending on variables including initial purity of water, size of gas bubbles, and volume of water to be treated. The resulting treated or infused water is referred herein as “SG Gas-infused Water” herein.

[0048] Other Parameters Monitored: During infusion of SG Gas into purified water, a drop in TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) concentration, conductivity and resistively can be measured. An appropriate measuring device is a Control Company Traceable™ #4063CC meter.

[0049] pH Test: Lab tests show that distilled water had a pH of 6.8 and when infused with SG Gas had a pH change to 7.6.

[0050] Ice Cubes: SG Gas remains in SG Gas-infused Water or polarized water until freezing temperatures when the SG Gas forms a gas bubble within the ice cube itself, sometimes producing on the surface of the ice cubes, capillary tubes where the SG Gas escapes.

[0051] Ultraviolet Light Exposure: SG Gas-infused Water was tested for the effects of ultraviolet light exposure. A clear spray bottle containing SG Gas-infused Water or polarized water placed in the Florida sun for over two years remained clear in appearance and without algae growth which had been observed in water not infused with SG Gas under similar conditions.

[0052] Magnets: A drop of SG Gas-infused Waterclings to the surface of a magnet longer when compared to that of untreated water.

[0053] Many uses have been found for SG Gas-infused Water. Table 2 lists some of these uses.

[0000]

TABLE 2
USES FOR SG GAS INFUSED WATER
Use  / Advantages Provided Over Untreated Water

Drinking water for human and animal  Efficient cellular absorption and
consumption and hydration  removal of toxins.
Water for food and health supplement  Pure form of water that improves
manufacturing, preparation, and  product quality, shelf life, nutrient
cooking  benefits, absorption, and taste.
Water for cleaning and enhancing  Reduced need for emulsifiers and
effectiveness of cleansers  surfactants.
Water for plants and crops including  Greater size of plants, improved
hydroponics, floral arrangements and  plant quality, longer viability,
turf (golf courses)  and reduced scale buildup
  including in hydroponic
  water containers.
Fertilizer solution for application on  Higher yield and more vigorous
plants and crops  growth.
Water for aquariums and fish farming  Greater size of fish.
Water systems including long-term  Less algae growth resulting from
water storage, municipal supplies and  antibacterial properties.
in-home treatment systems
Steam, air heating and air  Less algae or mold growth for
conditioning systems  cleaner air circulation systems.
Refrigeration systems  Less mold accumulation.
Industrial scrubbers  Less algae growth and scale
  buildup to maintain scrubbing  efficiency.
Industrial products and processes  Reduce or eliminate need to use
including oil, gas and tar sand  petroleum-based solvents. extraction
Pharmaceutical and medicine  Efficient carrier of medicines and
manufacturing  removal of by-products from  medicines and solvent carriers.
Skin treatment products  Hydration of skin cells, improved  absorption of moisturizers, and  reduction in pigment changes  due to sun damage.
Wound treatment products  Faster healing and pain relief.
Respiratory relief used in humidifier  Improved breathing with less
systems  snoring.
Eye relief products  Relief for irritated eyes and  hydration.
Dental care products  Removal or inhibit plaque and  stains on teeth.
Cosmetics and beauty supplies in cosmetics. Less need for chemical binders and more resistant to contamination buildup ; improved hair growth. Water features including swimming pools, spas, hot tubs, waterfalls,  fountains, water amusement parks. Cleaner water with less or no chlorine and chemical additives.

[0054] Use in Process of Tar Sands Extraction: Conventional water with petroleum solvents used in the separation of tar from sand was replaced with SG Gas-infused Water. SG Gas-infused Water was heated (no petroleum solvent added) with a sample of tar sands in a pan to approximately 160° F. Tar was observed separating from the sand, providing a cleaner and more efficient process with less by-products and emissions released from tar extraction.

[0055] Use for Improved Cleaning: For laundry, one may add a quantity (1/3 of a gallon in a standard washing machine tub of 12 gallons for medium load and 16 gallons for large load) of SG Gas-infused Water to the soap cycle of a top loading washing machine and the remaining water (approximately 2/3 of a gallon) is added to the rinse cycle. The polarized characteristic and smaller molecular size of SG Gas-infused Water enable the detergent and water solution to more thoroughly penetrate the cloth fabric and remove the dirt and grime. The addition of SG Gas-infused Water to the rinse assists in completely removing the soap residue that may contain residual dirt from the fabric. This process results in cleaner and stain-free laundry with less body oil and bacteria buildup. Laundry without these SG Gas-infused Water additives display less brilliant whites and retain a pungent odor caused by residual bacteria living in the fabric of the washed clothes.

[0056] Reduced Use of Emulsifiers and Surfactants: One may dilute cleaning solutions with SG Gas-infused Water for effective cleaning of surfaces to remove grime, oil and grease and removal of bacteria. SG Gas-infused Water is a natural disinfectant without harsh chemical additives. Typically, one uses at least 1 part cleaning solution with 20 parts SG Gas-infused Water to maintain cleaning properties.

Biological Properties

[0057] Transport, Delivery and Absorption of Nutrients: In a controlled experiment, a standard drug metabolism test in vitro was conducted over a period of 21 days. This comparative test was performed on cell membrane permeability for Vitamin C solution (L-ascorbic acid) using (1) Hank's Buffered Saline Solution (HBSS) and (2) SG Gas-infused Water. Caco-2 cells were used and permeability of the apical side (similar to intestine surface) and basolateral side (similar to underneath intestinal surface) for the separate solutions were determined. Vitamin C quantitiation was conducted on HPLC (HP1100 equipped with PDA detector) and Zorbax C18 reverse phase column (4.6×250 mm, 5 micro) at 30 C. Test results demonstrated Vitamin C permeability of SG Gas-infused Water was about 4 times higher than the control counterpart. (Hu, 2008 (unpublished communication).

[0058] Plant Growth: In a controlled greenhouse setting, four groups of ivy plants were watered using (1) 100% well water, (2) mix of 1/3 mix SG Gas-infused Water and 2/3 well water, (3) mix of 2/3 SG Gas-infused Water and 1/3 well water, and (4) 100% SG Gas-infused Water. The ivy plants were harvested and dehydrated to allow measurement of dry plant mass. The fourth group of 100% SG Gas-infused Water had over 16 percent increase in mass when compared to that the first group of well water. (Reiser, 2006 (private communication).

[0059] Fish Growth: Two home aquariums were used to hold two respective groups of goldfish. SG Gas was bubbled into one aquarium and the second with air for a period of thirty days. It was observed that the goldfish in the former aquarium aerated by SG Gas grew at least 15 percent more and the aquarium tank remained cleaner with less algae growth.

[0060] Wound Treatment and Healing: The polarization of the SG Gas-infused Water provides natural anti-bacterial and non-toxic anti-infective properties that promote healing of superficial and multi-layer wounds and a reduction in pain perception. A fifty-year old woman burned herself by accidentally spilling scalding-hot coffee onto her hand. Upon seeking medical attention, a physician advised the patient that she may have to undergo abridement or dead skin removal and possible skin graft surgery. The patient washed the affected area with SG Gas-infused, purified water and applied a medicinal ointment. The wound was wrapped with a sterile gauze and the gauze was moistened to keep the wound hydrated with SG Gas-infused Water. The patient reported an immediate and on-going lessening of pain with the application of SG Gas-infused Water. Over the period of ten days with repeating these treatment steps involving changing of the moistened sterile gauze on at least a daily basis, the site of the wound developed new skin with minimal evidence of scaring.

[0061] Upon cessation of the treatment regime when the upper skin layer appeared to be healed, blisters appeared on the surface of the skin. The treatment with SG Gas-infused Water was reinitiated and the blisters healed as well as the remaining layers of skin. The patient experienced healing and thereby avoided debridement of dead skin, and skin grafts. Skin Treatment: Topical applications twice a day on each side of a male volunteer's face in vicinity of his eyes were made. Two types of topical solutions were prepared with 1% magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), one using SG Gas-infused Water and the other using tap water. After 21 days, the volunteer observed on the side where SG Gas-infused Water solution was applied, a slight reduction in the depth of fine lines around the eye and a lighting of darker skin pigment when compared to that of the other area where the tap water solution was applied. (Puleo of Otima Specialty Chemical, 2008 (private communication).

[0062] Eye Relief: SG Gas-infused Water may be sprayed into the eyes for immediate relief and lessening of redness that is comparable to use of over-the-counter eye drops. This natural treatment without any chemical additives, assists in hydrating eyes and removing irritants such as dust and pollen.

[0063] Dental Care: A 50:50 solution of commercial mouth wash was mixed with SG Gas-infused Water and a capful of this solution was used twice a day after brushing teeth. Less plaque buildup and stains were noted by professional dental hygienists as compared to previous observations six months earlier when this solution had not been used.

Molecular Structure Based on Gas Properties

[0064] It is believed by the inventors from observing the properties of SG Gas that the process disclosed herein results in a product not achieved by heretofore-reported processes for the electrolysis of water into gas.

[0065] Given the low energy reaction that created the gas and the use of no catalysts, it is believed unlikely that any O—H bonds of water could possibly be broken in the process used. It is known that breaking O—H bonds requires two faradays per mole and the process of the invention only employs 2.8 watt hours per liter, which is about a maximum of 1.6 faradays per mole. Further, the SG Gas resulting from the process disclosed herein is flammable but the flame temperature of the gas is only about 270° F. (132.2° C.), as compared to diatomic hydrogen gas which is highly combustable and autoignites at 560° C. A hydrogen/oxygen torch flame is reportedly 3200° C.=5792° F. However, the SG Gas flame easily melts metals, which likely indicates that an oxygen is active. The gas flame also reduces ceramics, which indicates that the hydrogen is in an ionized state.

[0066] SG Gas has an affinity for water and other liquids including fuels but bubbles from the liquids after reaching a saturation point. One use of the gas disclosed herein is infusing it back into water to create ionized or polarized water.

[0067] SG Gas is always a gas at room temperature while normal water vapor requires energy to evaporate in great quantities. When combusted, the gas always returns to liquid water. When placed in a balloon, the gas initially floats the balloon but it seeps from the balloon rather quickly indicating that the gas has a small molecular structure.

[0068] One theory consistent with the properties heretofore observed on SG Gas is that no bonds of H2O are broken when the process of the invention is used, but that the combination of the electric and magnetic forces restructure the water molecule. Gauss' Law that states there are no monopoles in magnetism, only dipoles. It is well known that liquid water forms hydrogen bonds with other water molecules in order to remain in a liquid solution.

[0069] Applying Gauss' Law to hydrogen, it has polar properties that opens up a new configuration, one in which a hydrogen can be bound to another hydrogen and an oxygen. Upon exposure to an electric current, the electronegative strength of the oxygen atom is weakened, allowing a hydrogen atom to dislodge and magnetically bond to the other hydrogen atom that is strengthened by the magnetic field. Hence, the electric and magnetic forces made possible a shift of a hydrogen from H—O—H to O—H—H creating a diatomic hydrogen molecule that is single bonded to atomic oxygen. As the exposed oxygen is a reactive site on the gas molecule an appropriate name is “hydroxyhydrogen”. This structure predicts that the oxygen is now active and can oxidize metals. It predicts that in the unburned gaseous state, the increased negative charge causes greater spacing among the gas molecules causing stability, a lower boiling point, a lower freezing point, and a higher vapor pressure.

[0070] The inventors have conceived of a new isomer of water—it contains the same atoms, only in a different configuration and thus exhibits different properties from normal water vapor. The gas does not cluster to create liquid water at regular atmospheric temperatures and pressures as does the molecules of normal water vapor. The gas exists in a higher energy state, burns by itself at a low temperature, and melts any substrates when exposed to the gas flame. The gas flame has a uniform blue color appearance without yellow sparks indicative of water (H2O) vapor or red sparks indicative of either H2 or O2 gas contamination. Hence, we call the resulting gas (SG Gas) an ionized gas or a plasma gas.

[0071] Now referring to FIGS. 2-5, atoms shown are shown in their polar orientation for better understanding N meaning North Pole and S meaning South Pole. This dictates the orbital spin or magnetic flux. FIG. 2 illustrates water prior to undergoing the process of the invention. FIG. 3 illustrates the process and the believed effect on the aqueous fluid used. FIG. 4 illustrates the orientation of the molecule after the process which is consistent with the observations. FIG. 5 illustrates the water clusters as they would exist after the process of the invention.

[0072] While the magnetic field orients the atoms within the water molecule, the collapsing field induces a charge in the opposite direction that dislodges the opposing hydrogen bond and allows it to bond to the other hydrogen atom in the ortho position as depicted in FIG. 5. Ortho-hydrogen is more reactive than para-hydrogen and produces much more energy.

[0073] This reaction changes water from a liquid cluster to an ionized gas or plasma gas that will, when ignited, and the flame applied to a solid substrate, melt nearly any substance. Further, when the gas is infused into a water cluster it will bond to the water molecules and create a much smaller cluster of a different shape and properties allowing it to penetrate cells and hydrate animals and plants at a substantially faster rate.

[0074] It must be clear that due to the process used herein, electrolysis does not take place. “Electrolysis” is defined as a “method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them.” Electrolysis does not take place and no splitting of the water molecular bonds occurs, as is demonstrated by the fact that no increase in hydrogen or oxygen gas can be measured in the reaction zone. This is a key differentiator from the processes that have resulted in a gas being produced by electrolysis of water. The gases produced by electrolysis exhibit far different properties from SG Gas. Gases produced by electrolysis are explosive, cannot be pressurized and are heat-producing gases on ignition.

[0075] SG Gas is herein disclosed to be an ionized gas with the potential to oxidize or reduce any substance. On a non:oxidized substrate, such as steel, the active oxygen within the molecule will chemically bond to the steel bringing it immediately to its melting temperature and releasing hydrogen, which bonds with atmospheric oxygen to produce heat. On an oxidized substrate, such as ceramic, the hydrogen reduces the substrate by chemically bonding with the oxygen present within the substrate, melting the material and releasing atomic oxygen, which then bonds with the material. This double reaction is responsible for producing much more heat than an ordinary oxidation reduction reaction.

[0076] These reactions are proven on rusty steel and concrete. When ordinary gas, such as: methane, ethane, propane, butane, or acetylene are applied to rusty steel popping and spitting of material occurs due to the explosive reaction of the ferrous oxide being separated from the non-oxidized metal due to different expansion rates. With SG Gas, this does not occur, since oxidation and reduction are occurring at the same time and the expansion rates are equal. On concrete when heat from an ordinary gas is applied, the portion the flame touches will expand and break loose from the rest of the concrete with an explosive force and spit pieces of hot concrete outward and leave holes in the concrete. Again, this does not occur with SG Gas   because it is being reduced to a liquid form before the pressure of uneven expansion occurs.

[0077] Simply stated SG Gas is an ionized gas capable of oxidizing or reducing almost any material without the adverse reactions created by heat producing flames. Heat is the byproduct of friction, in chemistry two atoms colliding together in a reaction known as oxidation and reduction cause this friction. A gas, referred to as a fuel, is usually a hydrocarbon that is easily oxidized, however, the carbon is what is being oxidized and the oxygen is being reduced meaning this is where friction occurs and these are the items being heated. Heat given off by these substances is refractive heat and the substances being heated are absorbing heat or, better stated, are being bombarded by fast moving hot gases. SG Gas may change the definition of melting point due to the lack of heat producing flames.




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