Ted SURATT / Robinson GOURLEY
" The 4th State of Water " : Electromagnetic treatment
of H2O shifts hydrogen, to form " SG Gas " -- stable,
non-explosive, & compressible, withany applications for
health, agriculture, industry, &c.
The Differences Between Brown's Gas
and SG Gas
Water Ion Technologies causes fundamental molecular changes
in water that allow the creation of new or improved products with
properties and characteristics not ever seen before in today's
world. These products and services affect the most basic needs of
mankind toward better health, more efficient energy and a cleaner
environment. The core of Water Ion Technologies is the proprietary
process, owned by WIT International, L.L.C. or "WIT", for
generating the Fourth State of Water which is named SG Gas. The
resulting gas flame has a uniform blue color appearance without
yellow sparks indicative of water (H2O) vapor or red sparks
indicative of either H2 or O2 gas contamination that are evident
in other water-generated gases.
In our process of creating SG Gas, electrolysis does not take
place! Other gases developed by Rhodes and Brown are "dirty
cocktails" with mixtures of gases including H2 or O2 gases that
are generated from heat-producing electrolysis processes and can
It must be clear in our process of creating SG Gas, electrolysis
does not take place. "Electrolysis" is defined as a "method of
separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an
electric current through them." Electrolysis does not take place
and no splitting of the water molecular bonds to the basic
components of oxygen and hydrogen occurs, as is demonstrated by
the fact that no increase in hydrogen or oxygen gas can be
measured in the reaction zone during the production of SG Gas.
This is a key differentiator from the processes that have resulted
in other gases that were and are produced by electrolysis of
water. The gases produced by electrolysis exhibit far different
properties from that of SG Gas. Gases produced by electrolysis are
explosive, cannot be pressurized and are heat-producing gases on
ignition. Rather, our discovery involves a shift of one hydrogen
within a water molecule (H2O) to create a diatomic bond of two
hydrogens with the oxygen. The combination of the electric and
magnetic forces associated with our discovery, restructures the
water molecule and creates the resulting O--HH molecule such that
SG Gas can be pressurized and is not explosive upon ignition.
Our process for creating the more stable, safer SG Gas is neither
heat producing (no electrolysis) nor involves any splitting of
hydrogen and oxygen bonds from the water molecule that could
create an explosive situation.
Unique Properties of SG Gas Compared to Other Gases including
For more information of our proprietary Blue Technology please
Post Office Box 20563
Sarasota, FL 34276
Robinson B. Gourley, Jr. -- CEO
Ted Suratt -- Chief Science Officer
Our Discovery is the Fourth State of Water.
Our Mission is to Advance Knowledge of Our Discovery
Our Goal is to Work with Others on Global Solutions.
In Discovering the Fourth State of Water, Our Mission is to be
part of the global solution working with others to apply our
Discovery, to enhance the efficiency of energy alternatives
without any additional pollutant emissions, thereby meeting the
current challenges of financial, environmental and social
wellbeing and advancing our mutual energy independence and
Apparatus And Method For Making Flammable Gas
An electrolyzer includes a first electrode in the form of an inner
tank formed of a material capable of being magnetized and a second
electrode in the form of an outer tank formed of a material
capable of being magnetized. The inner tank is nested within the
outer tank. A spacer basket formed of a plastic material is
disposed between the inner tank and the outer tank. The inner tank
includes a positive terminal in electrical communication with a DC
power source and the outer tank includes a negative terminal in
electrical communication with the DC power source. A magnet for
magnetizing the outer tank has a field sufficient to affect the
inner tank. Electrolysis within the tank produces a flammable gas
having a first hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom and a second
hydrogen atom bonded to the first hydrogen atom.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 1. Field of the Invention
 This invention relates, generally, to the generation of gas
from electrolysis. More particularly, it relates to the generation
of a flammable gas having unusual properties and a heretofore
unknown molecular structure.
 2. Description of the Prior Art
 It has long been known that water can be separated into
hydrogen and oxygen with the use of an electrolyzer. However, the
cost of the process is greater than the benefits received.
 What is needed, then, is an improved electrolysis method
and apparatus that produces a novel flammable gas from an
electrolyte and water solution that provides benefits without the
prior art high cost of separation.
 However, in view of the prior art considered as a whole at
the time the present invention was made, it was not obvious to
those of ordinary skill in the pertinent art how the identified
needs could be fulfilled.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The long-standing but heretofore unfulfilled need for a
novel flammable gas and for an electrolyzer capable of generating
such novel gas is now provided in the form of a new, useful, and
 Because molecules such as hydrogen and oxygen have magnetic
qualities, they exist normally in a diatomic state O2 and H2. They
also have electronegative values that affect the strength of the
bond. In the case of a water molecule (H2O), this invention
discloses that introducing a current through an electrolyte
solution, preferably a potassium hydroxide solution, in the
presence of a magnetic field reconfigures the molecule into a
heretofore unknown gas referred to hereinafter as hydroxyhydrogen
or hydrogas. This heretofore unknown gas is a diatomic hydrogen
molecule that is single bonded to atomic oxygen.
 This is accomplished by spacing an anode and a cathode
about a quarter of an inch apart and introducing a DC voltage of
approximately 1.5 to 2.0 volts with current equal to approximately
one-quarter of an amp (0.25 amp) per square inch of cathode
surface area. This weakens the electronegative strength of the
oxygen atom and allows a hydrogen atom to dislodge and
magnetically bond to the other hydrogen atom that is strengthened
by the magnetic field.
 The resulting product is a flammable non-toxic gas that
implodes when lit, and is an oxidizer that liberates atomic
hydrogen when it bonds with another molecule.
 More particularly, the novel electrolyzer includes a first
electrode in the form of an inner tank having a first diameter
formed of a material capable of being magnetized and a second
electrode in the form of an outer tank having a second diameter
formed of a material capable of being magnetized. The second
diameter is greater than the first diameter and the inner tank is
nested within the outer tank.
 A cylindrical open space is created between the inner and
outer tanks by the difference in tank diameters. Drain holes are
formed in the sidewalls of the inner tank, near the bottom end
thereof, so that when the inner tank is filled water and an
electrolyte such as potassium hydroxide to form an electrolytic
fluid, the electrolytic liquid fluid flows through the drain holes
and is disposed in the open space between the inner tank and said
outer tank. The inner tank is also full of said electrolytic fluid
when said open space is full.
 A spacer basket formed of a plastic material is disposed in
the open space between the inner tank and the outer tank.
 The positive side of a DC power source is in electrical
communication with a positive terminal secured to the inner tank
and the negative side of the DC power source is in electrical
communication with a negative terminal secured to the outer tank.
The DC power source provides a voltage of about 1.5 to 2.0 volts
and a current of about 0.25 amps per square inch of cathode
 A magnet having a strength of about twenty (20) Gauss units
magnetizes the outer tank, and the strength of the magnetic field
of the magnet is sufficient to affect the inner tank.
 The outer tank has a gas outlet and a flammable gas is
generated by electrolysis within the electrolyzer and is collected
as it exits through said gas outlet. The flammable gas burns at a
temperature of about two hundred seventy degrees Fahrenheit
(270[deg.] F.) when ignited. The flammable gas has a first
hydrogen atom bonded with an oxygen atom and a second hydrogen
atom bonded with the first hydrogen atom.
 A purified, polarized water is made by passing the
flammable gas through distilled water.
 An important object of this invention is to provide a
method and apparatus for making the novel gas.
 These and other important objects, advantages, and features
of the invention will become clear as this description proceeds.
 The invention accordingly comprises the features of
construction, combination of elements, and arrangement of parts
that will be exemplified in the description set forth hereinafter
and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects
of the invention, reference should be made to the following
detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying
drawings, in which:
 FIG. 1 is a prior art diagram of a water molecule;
 FIG. 2 is a diagram of the novel molecule;
 FIG. 3 is a diagram of the novel electrolyzer;
 FIG. 4 is a is a diagram of the novel spacer basket;
 FIG. 5 is a diagram of the magnetized outer tank of
the novel electrolyzer.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
 The novel electrolyzer is surrounded by a magnetic field
that may be generated by an electromagnet or a permanent magnet.
Carefully controlled voltage and amperage reconfigures a water
molecule into a magnecule, referred to hereinafter as
 More particularly, a current is passed through a conductive
water solution. The current weakens the bonding strength of the
water and thus allows the magnetic force provided by the magnetic
field to reconfigure the water molecule into a highly polar
magnacule containing atomic oxygen bonded to a diatomic molecule
of hydrogen. The resulting product is a flammable gas. When lit by
an ignition source, the hydroxyhydrogen gas implodes and produces
a very low temperature flame of approximately two hundred seventy
degrees Fahrenheit (270[deg.] F.).
 The total heat energy is approximately equal to the power
required to create the gas.
 Due to its low temperature, the gas has limited utility as
a stand alone fuel. However, when the flame is applied to a
substrate such as iron, the flame temperature increases almost
immediately to the melting temperature of iron. The same phenomena
holds true for metals other than iron and substances other than
metals; the flame temperature rises quickly to the melting
temperature of the metal or other substance.
 The electronegative value of iron is lower than the
electronegative value of hydrogen. This causes the highly
energized hydroxyl molecule to attach itself to the iron and
release hydrogen. The released hydrogen bonds with atmospheric
oxygen and thereby creates large amounts of heat. This quality
makes the gas highly useful in the metal-cutting industry and
reduces the amount of hydrocarbons used and thus reduces the
amount of byproducts of hydrocarbons that are released into the
 Although the novel gas is not a fuel, when added to the air
intake of a combustion engine, the novel gas dramatically reduces
harmful exhaust emissions and increases fuel efficiency. This
reduces oil consumption. It is a safe, non-toxic oxidizer that
bonds easily with water.
 Referring now to FIG. 1, it will there be seen that a water
molecule is denoted 10 as a whole. As is well-known, it includes
two (2) hydrogen atoms, collectively denoted 12, and one (1)
oxygen atom, denoted 14.
 A hydroxyhydrogen magnecule 16 is disclosed in FIG. 2. It
also includes two (2) hydrogen atoms 12 and one (1) oxygen atom
14. However, a first hydrogen atom has been released from its bond
with oxygen atom 14 and has bonded with a second hydrogen atom as
 Conventional science maintains that hydrogen can have but
one (1) bond, as depicted in FIG. 1. It follows that the hydrogen
atom 12 in FIG. 2 that seems to have two (2) bonds (one with
oxygen atom 14 and one with another hydrogen atom) cannot exist in
nature. However, the properties and behavior of the novel gas may
be explained if the structure depicted in FIG. 2 is correct.
 Ionic and covalent bonding could better be described as
electrostatic and magnetic bonding, respectively. The Lewis dot
theory of bonding which is taught in all universities is flawed in
many ways. Lewis himself recognized that nitrogen, which can have
a valence of 3, 4, or 5, was an exception to the rule. Diatomic
molecules such as hydrogen are also exceptions. Based on the Lewis
dot theory, hydrogen can have only one bond. This contradicts
Gauss's Law which states that there are no monopoles in magnetism,
i.e., there are only dipoles. Water is proof that Gauss is correct
since it is well known that liquid water forms hydrogen bonds with
other water molecules in order to remain in a liquid solution.
Individual H2O molecules from evaporation or transpiration are a
gas. Based on the atomic weight of the molecule, water is a gas.
By applying a small amount of energy in an electrolyzer, we can
separate the water molecules into a gaseous form and with the
presence of a magnetic field re-establish the diatomic hydrogen
bond. The magnetic strength should be approximately twenty (20)
 The electrolyzer that causes this reconfiguration of a
water molecule is depicted in FIGS. 3-5. Electrolyzer 20 includes
inner tank 22 that serves as an electrode and magnetized outer
tank 24 that serves as an electrode. Spacer basket 26 is
positioned between said inner and outer tanks. The distance
between the inner and outer tanks controls the voltage and the
volume of gas output is determined by the amperage.
 Multiple drain holes, collectively denoted 28, are formed
in the cylindrical sidewalls 30 of inner tank 24, near imperforate
bottom wall 32 thereof. Drain holes 28 allow electrolyte in inner
tank 22 to flow into the open space between the inner and outer
 Inner tank 22 includes water and electrolyte fill spout 34
which is insulated from but sealed to outer tank 24 by spacer
 Positive terminal 36 is in electrical communication with
the positive side of a DC power source 21. Positive terminal 36 is
attached to inner tank 22 and insulated from outer tank 24.
 Gas outlet 38 is attached to outer tank 24. The open end
thereof may be attached to a filter, dryer, or storage tank,
depending upon the application.
 Negative terminal 40 is attached to outer tank 24 and the
negative side of said DC power source.
 Spacer basket 26 is made of a plastic or other material
suitable as an electrical insulator and sufficiently resistant to
withstand strong electrolytic solutions such as potassium
hydroxide. It has open flow through areas as depicted in FIG. 4.
 Inner tank 22 and outer tank 24 are made of material
capable of being magnetized.
 Outer tank 24 is magnetized by a permanent magnet or an
electromagnet with sufficient Gauss units to affect inner tank 22.
In a commercial embodiment, the strength of the magnetic field is
about twenty (20) Gauss units.
 The properties of the novel polarized gas are not limited
to increase in flame temperature property mentioned above.
Bubbling the novel polarized flammable gas through distilled water
results in bonding with many organic and inorganic substances and
rendering them harmless. Even distilled water, filtered water, and
reverse osmosis water still contain free radicals and traces of
bacteria. Lab tests have shown that the water produced by bubbling
the novel polarized gas through it is more conductive, non-toxic,
and bacteria free. Controlled studies on plants have shown that it
makes them healthier and faster-growing. Wounds heal faster on
mammals cleaned daily with the novel water. People who have
imbibed the water anecdotally recount the stopping of migraine
headaches, clearer vision, improved concentration, and other
improvements such as dissolving vitamins, minerals and nutrients
 Without regard to what is eaten or what kind of medicine,
vitamins, or supplements are taken, if the body does not
metabolize it, it doesn't provide any benefits. Metabolism is the
sum of all chemical changes that take place in the body. These
changes are responsible for maintaining health and providing
energy, but energy is also required to bring about these changes.
Since water is the liquid the body uses to dissolve and transport
foods, vitamins, nutrients, and medicines, it is essential to
energize this vital fluid in order for the body to function
properly and to heal itself.
 When water evaporates from the earth, it rises through a
powerful magnetic field that induces a charge. Lightning is the
discharge of this stored energy. As rain drops fall back to earth,
a small amount of energy is also induced which cleans the air,
neutralizes pollution, and has enough energy left over to make
lawns greener, healthier, and grow three (3) times faster than
they would grow with ordinary water. Even the slightest
polarization of water, as evidenced by rain, is extremely
beneficial in nature. In order to control the degree of
polarization, the polarized gas is made from water as disclosed
above and then bubbled through a quantity of distilled water as
 The novel gas produced by the novel electrolyzer thus
enables the production of a novel water having numerous
therapeutic effects. The novel gas has many other applications as
well, such as the enabling of more efficient combustion of fuels,
and so on, all of which are inherent and thus within the scope of
 It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, and
those made apparent from the foregoing description, are
efficiently attained. Since certain changes may be made in the
above construction without departing from the scope of the
invention, it is intended that all matters contained in the
foregoing description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall
be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
 It is also to be understood that the following claims are
intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the
invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the
invention that, as a matter of language, might be said to fall
Method for Making a Gas from an
Aqueous Fluid, Product of the Method, and Apparatus Therefor
 This invention relates to the generation of a purified
stable gas from an aqueous fluid, wherein said gas may be stored
under pressure and uses for the gas.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Electrolysis of water is known to produce hydrogen gas (H2)
at the cathode and oxygen gas (O2) at the anode. Due to the high
heat of the chambers, water vapor also resulted from this process.
If the hydrogen gas and oxygen gas were not effectively separated,
such methods resulted in an impure gaseous product that could not
be effectively compressed or stored under pressure for industrial
applications in a single container and was deemed explosive and
dangerous. Thus, it remained desirable to develop a method by
which a useful, stable, purified, compressible single gas could be
formed from water or an aqueous fluid.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic of a preferred
reaction chamber for the invention.
 FIGS. 2-3 illustrate the inventor's conception of
the nature of the gas as formed from the process disclosed
 FIG. 4 illustrates graphs showing the absorption of
Vitamin C by cells treated with SG Gas-infused Water and
control. FIG. 4A shows the effect on basolateral cells and FIG.
4B on apical cells.
 FIG. 5 illustrates properties of SG Gas-infused
 A method for generating a gas having desirable properties
is herein disclosed. In addition, methodology for purifying said
gas is disclosed. Applicants refer to this gas as “SG Gas.”
 Applicant hereby incorporates U.S. Ser. No. 11/738,476
filed on Apr. 21, 2007; U.S. Ser. No. 12/596,077 filed Mar. 17,
2010 by reference as if fully set forth herein.
 In a first step of the method, an aqueous fluid is provided
to a reaction zone. While varous aqueous fluids, such as distilled
water, tap water, or water taken from a river, stream, lake or the
like may be used to generate electrical current at satisfactory
levels, it is preferred to use an electrolyte solution for the
aqueous fluid of standardized composition so that the conditions
of the method can be better standardized for maximum yield of gas.
 The aqueous fluid is provided to a reaction zone which is
preferably closed off so to allow the reaction to occur under
pressure. An alkali salt is preferably used as an electrolyte
dissolved in distilled water. Preferred alkali salts are potassium
hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. The specific
gravity of the alkali salt in the solution is above 1.0. Most
preferably, potassium hydroxide is employed at a specific gravity
from at least above 1.0 up to about 1.2. If another electrolyte is
chosen other than potassium hydroxide a mole ratio must be
calculated for that substance so that the maximum mole ratio
represented by the specific gravity of 1.2 provided for potassium
hydroxide will not be exceeded. These specific gravity values are
as determined by a refractometer which provides readings that are
temperature compensated. Most preferably, the electrolyte employed
is potassium hydroxide (powder form) dissolved in distilled water
at a concentration sufficient to form a solution having up to 1.2
specific gravity. A suitable refractometer is the Westover Model
RHA-100, portable refractometer.
 Aqueous fluid is contained in a receptacle which can be
made out of a variety of materials including sheet steel,
stainless steel, CV-PVC and epoxy resin fiberglass. The apparatus
and internal devices need to be heat resistant and waterproof. The
reaction zone is comprised of said aqueous fluid.
 The aqueous fluid is placed in a reaction zone in the
method of the invention. Overall, the method employs creation of a
magnetic field in the aqueous fluid and periodic collapse of the
magnetic field under conditions which do not provoke electrolysis
of the aqueous fluid. Under these conditions, a single gas is
generated and collected. This gas has desirable properties and is
useful for applications.
 In a first step of the method, a magnetic field is applied
to the reaction zone. Preferably, the magnetic field is applied by
providing a source of electric power to said reaction zone. An
electric current in said reaction zone provides a magnetic field.
 In a preferred embodiment, two metallic end plates having
an inside surface and an outside surface, and having the capacity
to conduct an electrical current are used in the reaction zone in
opposing configuration. The inside of each end plate is partially
submerged in the electrolyte solution. The metallic plates are
preferably comprised of nickel alloy or stainless steel, but any
metal can be used as long as such metal has the capacity to
conduct an electric current and is preferably resistant to erosion
by alkali solutions. One of said metallic plates serves as a
cathode and the other as an anode. The cathode and anode should be
separated a sufficient distance so that a magnetic field forms
when current is applied to the reaction zone. The distance between
the plates must be greater than one inch (2.5 cm) in the method of
the invention and is preferably eight to sixteen inches apart.
This distance is independent of the volume of the aqueous fluid
employed or size of the reaction zone.
 There is a relationship between the concentration of
electrolyte solution and the amperage which will exist in the
aqueous fluid upon application of current thereto. The higher the
specific gravity, the greater the amperage will result. This will
also affect the strength of the magnetic field, and increase the
temperature of the solution. Electrolysis (used industrially to
produce hydrogen gas via the reaction 2H2O(l)?2H2(g)+O2(g)) which
is not desired in the method of the invention, could occur if the
current is too high. The current may be too high if the specific
gravity of the electrolyte exceeds the equivalent of 1.2 for
 In order for the magnetic field to be applied to the
reaction zone, a power source (e.g., 110 volts DC) is applied
respectively to the anode and to the cathode.
 An appropriate power source that may be used in the method
of the invention is 110 volt alternating current which has been
converted to direct current using a rectifying process (e.g., a
diode bridge device). Any standard power or voltage source may be
used as long as it is rectified to direct current. When an
electric current is applied to the reaction zone, a magnetic field
is created in the reaction zone, which periodically collapses and
causes the conversion of the water in the aqueous fluid into gas.
Cyclic pulsation will be present in current even after alternating
current is converted to direct current (for example a 60 cycle
pulsation from household current) unless a smoothing circuit has
been incorporated. This resulting cyclic pulsation is employable
in the invention to periodically collapse the magnetic field,
however using an auxiliary pulsing unit is preferably used in the
method of the invention so that better regulation of pulsing may
be employed. Any means for causing the electric current provided
to the reaction zone to pulse at a frequency of 15 to 20 kilohertz
decreases the wattage needed to create gas by approximately a
factor of 10. The amount of energy needed to generate one (1)
liter of gas is 0.0028 kilowatt-hour and with a pulsing device
associated with the reaction zone, the amount drops to 0.00028
kilowatt-hour or less to generate one (1) liter of gas.
 As the pulsing occurs, the stationary magnetic field
alternatively collapses and is reinstated. It has been found that
a reaction occurs in the electrolyte solution between the two end
plates upon collapse of the magnetic field, which results in a
release of a generated gas. Some of the same gas will be pulled
toward the individual plates and released as part of the generated
 In a pilot plant apparatus for determining optimal
conditions, a clear Plexiglas receptacle can be used for the
reaction zone, so that one can visibly monitor the reaction with
ultraviolet light and observe the generation of gas. This pilot
plant preferably provides adjustment means for the cathode and
anode so that they can be moved to optimize the reaction for a
given aqueous fluid composition and changes in pulsing duration
 Gas is generated not only at the electrodes but also
appears as bubbles in the body of water between the electrodes. It
has been found that use of minimal electric currents between two
electrodes results from the electrodes being spread a sufficient
distance apart of at least one inch (2.5 cm) and preferably eight
to sixteen inches apart, thereby creating the aforesaid magnetic
field enveloping the reaction chamber. A pure gas is produced in
the body of aqueous fluid between the electrodes, without the
production of a high levels of heat that would cause the water to
vaporize (212° F.). Rather, the reaction zone remains at a
temperature not exceeding 120° F. dependent on ambient
temperature. Normally, there is a 30° F. temperature rise above
ambient temperature assuming room temperature 90° F. The
collection chambers contain no increase in oxygen gas, no increase
in hydrogen gas, and no noticeable water vapor. Thus, costs are
lowered, production speed increases, and the resulting gas is
uniform in its properties. Also important, the resulting
homogeneous gas can be pumped into a stainless steel cylinder and
has been found to be stable and not explosive under pressures of
over 1000 lb.
 The important functionalities in the process are imposition
of a magnetic field on the aqueous fluid and the ability to
periodically collapse the magnetic field to generate the desired
gas, under conditions short of those that will induce
electrolysis. Other means which provide for these functionalities
can be used. For example, in an alternative embodiment, wires
could be inserted instead of plates in the reaction zone and when
current passes from one wire through the aqueous fluid to the
other wire, a magnetic field would be produced. In another
exemplary alternative, a wire coil outside the reaction zone could
be used to which a source of DC power can be supplied to create a
primary magnetic field in the reaction zone. A wire coil placed in
the middle of the solution can serve as a secondary magnetic field
and when powered in the opposite direction of the current flow in
pulses would collapse the primary field and create the necessary
reaction to form the gas. Such a coil would be similar in concept
to an automobile coil.
 When water is converted into gas, the natural conversion
from liquid to gas creates an increase in volume and thus an
increase in pressure within the reaction zone. While standard
atmospheric pressure is about 14.7 psi at sea level, the pressure
in the closed reaction zone is maintained between 30 and 100 psi
by using a check valve at the outlet of the reaction chamber to
control it, since maximum gas production occurs in this pressure
 Now referring to FIG. 1, a schematic of a reaction chamber
is illustrated. Cathode (1) and anode (2) are in opposing
configuration, preferably more than one inch apart and most
preferably eight to sixteen inches apart. In the process of the
invention, a current is passed through an aqueous fluid (3) and
the current flow through the electrolyte creates a magnetic field.
The electricity is pulsed, which collapses the magnetic field with
each pulse of electricity. This produces the gas at a very
efficient rate in the area of the solution between the electrodes,
as denoted by (4) in FIG. 1. The gas produced may be collected
from the reaction zone through gas outlet (5) and subjected to
further purification as taught herein.
 The generated gas is then preferably exposed to a second
magnetic field by providing a second reaction zone comprising of
rare earth magnets. The strength of the rare earth magnets should
be greater than fifty (50) Gauss units. Gas flows through a
chamber exposed to rare earth magnets for purification. Rare earth
magnets, dense metal magnets typically made from a composite of
neodymium, iron and boron with or without a nickel coating or
plating, are attached to the exterior of the chamber. Since SG Gas
is paramagnetic and water vapor is diamagnetic the magnetic
chamber strengthens the molecular bond of the gas and repels the
water vapor back into the solution.
 The purified SG Gas may be used immediately or compressed
and stored in a gas storage tank. Purified SG Gas may be allowed
to flow out of said second reaction zone directly to a torch
attachment, to a compressor for storage in a pressurized vessel,
or gas outflow valve for infusion into water or other substances.
 In a method for making a compressible, stable gas with
desirable properties, SG Gas is made according to the method of
the invention. SG Gas can then be safely compressed and stored. SG
Gas can be compressed above 1,000 psi. SG Gas also can be stored
in a pressurized vessel.
 In an exemplary procedure for compression, SG Gas is
discharged from the apparatus into a hose with a compressor
attached. We use a Whirlwind Compressor, Model 2200-2 HPE,
manufactured by High Pressure Eng. Co., Inc. A canister with
pressure gauges is used to fill the chamber with SG Gas, using a
hose to transport the SG Gas from the apparatus and compressor
into the canister. We use an empty oxygen tank that has been
vacuumed to remove any residual oxygen and water. The empty and
vacuumed oxygen tank with pressure valve has a manufacturer name
of White Martins, ABRE with dimensions of 23? diameter and 19?
height. SG Gas is placed under pressure in the compression chamber
up to and beyond 1,000 psi. for storage of SG Gas.
 SG Gas remains stable and under pressure for one month and
longer. To test its stability, wood chips were placed in a
stainless steel tank and the tank filled with SG Gas. The wood
chips absorbed SG Gas and additional SG Gas was used to refill the
chamber and maintain a 30 psi. Once the wood chips were saturated
with SG Gas, the tank was decompressed and pressure reduced to 0
psi. For a period of over 30 days, no pressure was generated
assuming that no out gassing of SG Gas occurred. The wood chips
displayed different burn properties after 60 days when compared to
that of the non-treated wood chips. The treated wood chips with
absorbed SG Gas burned more efficiently when compared to that of
non-treated wood chips thereby demonstrating the stability of the
SG Gas bond with the treated wood chips.
 Analytical Testing and Observations of SG Gas Under
Pressure Maximum Pressure: SG Gas imploded when pressures exceeded
1,600 psi. Safe Pressurization: SG Gas remains safe and stable at
pressures around 1,000 psi for over 30 days. SG Gas should remain
stable under pressure indefinitely, at least for a sufficient
period of time to allow said gas to be utilized at time 30-60 days
 The purified SG Gas was tested and exhibited properties of
a pure, homogeneous gas that was found to be compressible as
stated above, safe, also able to oxidize any non-oxidized
substrate its flame contacts and able to reduce any completely
oxidized substrate its flame contacts. The following
characteristics were observed.
 Ultra-violet Light Test: Exhibits a blue gray color
appearance compared to untreated distilled water which exhibits no
color, when exposed to an ultra-violet light, manufactured by
Zelco Industries Model 10015.
 Balloon: Is lighter than air and causes balloons
filled therewith to rise.
 Cooling: The Balloon Filled with Purified Gas:
Balloon remains inflated at or below -10° F.
 Ignition: The purified SG Gas produced according to
the above method was tested for ignition properties. The
temperature of the flame produced upon ignition was estimated to
be about 270° F. using an infrared temperature device (Raynger
ST2L infrared temperature device). The purified gas, when lit with
an ignition source such as a spark, causes an implosion. When
materials are exposed to the flame, which creates a chemical
reaction with the material, base metals will rapidly rise to melt
temperature points, releasing heat and converting the gas back
into water (H2O).
 Purified SG Gas was discharged from the reaction zone
through a hose with a torch attached. On the gas output of the
apparatus, a flash-back arrestor is recommended. The gas may be
exposed to an ignition source (e.g., spark or electrical arc) thus
combustion of the gas occurs. The heat of the resulting flame on
the subject torch has a temperature of approximately 270° F.
 When an air/propane torch is burning, a small amount of SG
Gas is introduced into the air mixing chamber of a lit propane
torch, a single uniform flame cone becomes visible demonstrating a
more efficient conversion of hydrocarbon and more heat from
combustion of hydrocarbon, meaning it has a use as a fuel
extender. One use is injection of SG Gas into an air intake of a
combustion engine thereby reducing harmful exhaust emissions and
increasing fuel efficiency. A by-product of this process is the
creation of water during the combustion cycle that generates
steam. The steam causes an increase in the torque generated by the
engine resulting in greater power output. Depending upon the type
of fuel, SG Gas extends fuel efficiency by a factor between 2 and
 When ignited purified gas contacts another substance,
melting occurs within a short period of time, usually less than
one minute. The results of some examples of substances exposed to
ignited purified SG Gas may be found in Table 1.
Effect of Ignited Purified Gas on Various Substances
Effect on Exposure to Ignited Purified SG Gas
(one minute or less).
Substance Melting Point
Stainless Steel 2,600° F. Melting.
Steel 1,330° F. Melting.
Copper 1,984° F. Melting.
Ceramic 10,000° and 12,000° F. Melting.
Tar Sands Sand converted to
glass and metals were separated out of
the sand matrix.
Concrete Creates a glassy
molten surface which can adhere to
metal when cooled.
Glass Melts. Flame and
true colors are achieved with
no carbon flakes or residue
embedded inside the glass.
 In lieu of melting a substrate, ignited purified gas may be
applied to a substrate with a view toward capturing the generated
heat as a useful product. The heat generated can be transferred to
a fluid such as air or water, thereby producing hot air or steam
that can then be used industrially, such as for example to drive a
turbine or piston-type engine for production of mechanical energy.
In a preferred method, the flame of the SG gas can be applied to a
substrate in conduit form having an inside surface and an outside
surface. A fluid such as air or water can flow thorough the
conduit adjacent the inside surface of the conduit. The flame of
the SG gas can be applied to the outside surface of the conduit
which causes the heat-generating reaction to occur. The heat is
then transferred to the fluid flowing through the conduit,
preventing melting of the surface but creating a useful heated
fluid that can be used in further applications. An exemplary
conduit is a metal tube or pipe, such as copper tubing. It has
been further determined that SG Gas can be infused into other
substances, rendering a useful product.
 Candles: SG Gas infused into melted paraffin wax and poured
into a mold with a wick will create candles that burn with lower
carbon emission as observed using a Pace 400 Four Gas Analyzer.
 Fluids: The gas had an affinity for water and other liquids
including fuels but bubbled from the liquids after reaching a
saturation point. One novel use of the gas is infusing it back
into water to create ionized or polarized water. The resulting
gas-infused water creates smaller water clusters that are believed
to permit faster cellular absorption and hydration.
 In an exemplary method for infusing SG Gas into water, SG
Gas is discharged from the reaction zone into a hose with a
ceramic diffuser attached. For treating large volumes of water, a
ceramic block diffuser may be used. The diffusers are used to
reduce the size of the SG Gas bubbles to improve efficiency of
water absorption. SG Gas may also be stored under pressure, then
infused into water.
 It is preferred to infuse water that has gone through a
distillation process prior to infusion of SG Gas into treated
water with less than 1 ppm TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). One may
use an absorption graph to determine time required for achieving
desired absorption of SG Gas into water. The typical rate of 30%
absorption is approximately one hour to treat 100 gallons of
water. A higher saturation of SG Gas up to 100% of total
absorption occurs with more infusion of SG Gas into water over
time. The actual time and percentage of absorption of SG Gas are
affected by the purity of water, volume of water, size of gas
bubbles, temperature and other factors.
 The resulting ionized or polarized water (“SG Gas-infused
Water”) clings longer to a magnet when compared to that of regular
water. Absorption over time or saturation graphs to monitor
changes in the water properties infused with SG Gas including
capacitance levels may be prepared. FIG. 7 shows a typical
absorption over time graph for infusion of SG Gas into water.
Subsequently, one may measure capacitance levels in the treated
water over a time period exceeding 30 days to demonstrate that the
gas in water is stable. Other measurement: Total Dissolved Solids
(TDS) dropped from a start of 0.33 ppm in untreated distilled
water to a finish of 0.17 ppm after infusion of SG Gas into
distilled water for a period of approximately 11 minutes. A Fluke
189 True RMS Multimeter was used to measure drop in capacitance
 Storage of SG Gas in Water: The resulting polarized water
with SG Gas treatment remains stable and can be stored for 2 years
or more. The actual maximum storage time has yet to be observed
but in theory, SG Gas should remain permanently stable in the
 Absorption: During infusion of SG Gas into purified water,
we used a Fluke 189 True RMS Multimeter to measure drop in
capacitance. The absorption over time graph is plotted to monitor
the drop in capacitance. The first capacitance drop during initial
infusion of SG Gas into a gallon of purified water occurs within
the first three minutes of infusion. After that time, the
capacitance gradually drops until the point of maximum saturation
of SG Gas is typically reached between eight and 20 minutes
depending on variables including initial purity of water, size of
gas bubbles, and volume of water to be treated. The resulting
treated or infused water is referred herein as “SG Gas-infused
 Other Parameters Monitored: During infusion of SG Gas into
purified water, a drop in TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)
concentration, conductivity and resistively can be measured. An
appropriate measuring device is a Control Company Traceable™
 pH Test: Lab tests show that distilled water had a pH of
6.8 and when infused with SG Gas had a pH change to 7.6.
 Ice Cubes: SG Gas remains in SG Gas-infused Water or
polarized water until freezing temperatures when the SG Gas forms
a gas bubble within the ice cube itself, sometimes producing on
the surface of the ice cubes, capillary tubes where the SG Gas
 Ultraviolet Light Exposure: SG Gas-infused Water was tested
for the effects of ultraviolet light exposure. A clear spray
bottle containing SG Gas-infused Water or polarized water placed
in the Florida sun for over two years remained clear in appearance
and without algae growth which had been observed in water not
infused with SG Gas under similar conditions.
 Magnets: A drop of SG Gas-infused Waterclings to the
surface of a magnet longer when compared to that of untreated
 Many uses have been found for SG Gas-infused Water. Table 2
lists some of these uses.
USES FOR SG GAS INFUSED WATER
Use / Advantages Provided Over Untreated Water
Drinking water for human and animal Efficient cellular
consumption and hydration removal of toxins.
Water for food and health supplement Pure form of water that
manufacturing, preparation, and product quality, shelf life,
cooking benefits, absorption, and taste.
Water for cleaning and enhancing Reduced need for
effectiveness of cleansers surfactants.
Water for plants and crops including Greater size of plants,
hydroponics, floral arrangements and plant quality, longer
turf (golf courses) and reduced scale buildup
including in hydroponic
Fertilizer solution for application on Higher yield and more
plants and crops growth.
Water for aquariums and fish farming Greater size of fish.
Water systems including long-term Less algae growth
water storage, municipal supplies and antibacterial
in-home treatment systems
Steam, air heating and air Less algae or mold growth for
conditioning systems cleaner air circulation systems.
Refrigeration systems Less mold accumulation.
Industrial scrubbers Less algae growth and scale
buildup to maintain scrubbing efficiency.
Industrial products and processes Reduce or eliminate need
including oil, gas and tar sand petroleum-based solvents.
Pharmaceutical and medicine Efficient carrier of medicines
manufacturing removal of by-products from medicines
and solvent carriers.
Skin treatment products Hydration of skin cells,
improved absorption of moisturizers, and reduction in
pigment changes due to sun damage.
Wound treatment products Faster healing and pain relief.
Respiratory relief used in humidifier Improved breathing
Eye relief products Relief for irritated eyes and
Dental care products Removal or inhibit plaque and
stains on teeth.
Cosmetics and beauty supplies in cosmetics. Less need for
chemical binders and more resistant to contamination buildup ;
improved hair growth. Water features including swimming pools,
spas, hot tubs, waterfalls, fountains, water amusement
parks. Cleaner water with less or no chlorine and chemical
 Use in Process of Tar Sands Extraction: Conventional water
with petroleum solvents used in the separation of tar from sand
was replaced with SG Gas-infused Water. SG Gas-infused Water was
heated (no petroleum solvent added) with a sample of tar sands in
a pan to approximately 160° F. Tar was observed separating from
the sand, providing a cleaner and more efficient process with less
by-products and emissions released from tar extraction.
 Use for Improved Cleaning: For laundry, one may add a
quantity (1/3 of a gallon in a standard washing machine tub of 12
gallons for medium load and 16 gallons for large load) of SG
Gas-infused Water to the soap cycle of a top loading washing
machine and the remaining water (approximately 2/3 of a gallon) is
added to the rinse cycle. The polarized characteristic and smaller
molecular size of SG Gas-infused Water enable the detergent and
water solution to more thoroughly penetrate the cloth fabric and
remove the dirt and grime. The addition of SG Gas-infused Water to
the rinse assists in completely removing the soap residue that may
contain residual dirt from the fabric. This process results in
cleaner and stain-free laundry with less body oil and bacteria
buildup. Laundry without these SG Gas-infused Water additives
display less brilliant whites and retain a pungent odor caused by
residual bacteria living in the fabric of the washed clothes.
 Reduced Use of Emulsifiers and Surfactants: One may dilute
cleaning solutions with SG Gas-infused Water for effective
cleaning of surfaces to remove grime, oil and grease and removal
of bacteria. SG Gas-infused Water is a natural disinfectant
without harsh chemical additives. Typically, one uses at least 1
part cleaning solution with 20 parts SG Gas-infused Water to
maintain cleaning properties.
 Transport, Delivery and Absorption of Nutrients: In
a controlled experiment, a standard drug metabolism test in vitro
was conducted over a period of 21 days. This comparative test was
performed on cell membrane permeability for Vitamin C solution
(L-ascorbic acid) using (1) Hank's Buffered Saline Solution (HBSS)
and (2) SG Gas-infused Water. Caco-2 cells were used and
permeability of the apical side (similar to intestine surface) and
basolateral side (similar to underneath intestinal surface) for
the separate solutions were determined. Vitamin C quantitiation
was conducted on HPLC (HP1100 equipped with PDA detector) and
Zorbax C18 reverse phase column (4.6×250 mm, 5 micro) at 30 C.
Test results demonstrated Vitamin C permeability of SG Gas-infused
Water was about 4 times higher than the control counterpart. (Hu,
2008 (unpublished communication).
 Plant Growth: In a controlled greenhouse setting,
four groups of ivy plants were watered using (1) 100% well water,
(2) mix of 1/3 mix SG Gas-infused Water and 2/3 well water, (3)
mix of 2/3 SG Gas-infused Water and 1/3 well water, and (4) 100%
SG Gas-infused Water. The ivy plants were harvested and dehydrated
to allow measurement of dry plant mass. The fourth group of 100%
SG Gas-infused Water had over 16 percent increase in mass when
compared to that the first group of well water. (Reiser, 2006
 Fish Growth: Two home aquariums were used to hold
two respective groups of goldfish. SG Gas was bubbled into one
aquarium and the second with air for a period of thirty days. It
was observed that the goldfish in the former aquarium aerated by
SG Gas grew at least 15 percent more and the aquarium tank
remained cleaner with less algae growth.
 Wound Treatment and Healing: The polarization of
the SG Gas-infused Water provides natural anti-bacterial and
non-toxic anti-infective properties that promote healing of
superficial and multi-layer wounds and a reduction in pain
perception. A fifty-year old woman burned herself by accidentally
spilling scalding-hot coffee onto her hand. Upon seeking medical
attention, a physician advised the patient that she may have to
undergo abridement or dead skin removal and possible skin graft
surgery. The patient washed the affected area with SG Gas-infused,
purified water and applied a medicinal ointment. The wound was
wrapped with a sterile gauze and the gauze was moistened to keep
the wound hydrated with SG Gas-infused Water. The patient reported
an immediate and on-going lessening of pain with the application
of SG Gas-infused Water. Over the period of ten days with
repeating these treatment steps involving changing of the
moistened sterile gauze on at least a daily basis, the site of the
wound developed new skin with minimal evidence of scaring.
 Upon cessation of the treatment regime when the upper skin
layer appeared to be healed, blisters appeared on the surface of
the skin. The treatment with SG Gas-infused Water was reinitiated
and the blisters healed as well as the remaining layers of skin.
The patient experienced healing and thereby avoided debridement of
dead skin, and skin grafts. Skin Treatment: Topical applications
twice a day on each side of a male volunteer's face in vicinity of
his eyes were made. Two types of topical solutions were prepared
with 1% magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), one using SG
Gas-infused Water and the other using tap water. After 21 days,
the volunteer observed on the side where SG Gas-infused Water
solution was applied, a slight reduction in the depth of fine
lines around the eye and a lighting of darker skin pigment when
compared to that of the other area where the tap water solution
was applied. (Puleo of Otima Specialty Chemical, 2008 (private
 Eye Relief: SG Gas-infused Water may be sprayed into
the eyes for immediate relief and lessening of redness that is
comparable to use of over-the-counter eye drops. This natural
treatment without any chemical additives, assists in hydrating
eyes and removing irritants such as dust and pollen.
 Dental Care: A 50:50 solution of commercial mouth
wash was mixed with SG Gas-infused Water and a capful of this
solution was used twice a day after brushing teeth. Less plaque
buildup and stains were noted by professional dental hygienists as
compared to previous observations six months earlier when this
solution had not been used.
Molecular Structure Based on Gas Properties
 It is believed by the inventors from observing the
properties of SG Gas that the process disclosed herein results in
a product not achieved by heretofore-reported processes for the
electrolysis of water into gas.
 Given the low energy reaction that created the gas and the
use of no catalysts, it is believed unlikely that any O—H bonds of
water could possibly be broken in the process used. It is known
that breaking O—H bonds requires two faradays per mole and the
process of the invention only employs 2.8 watt hours per liter,
which is about a maximum of 1.6 faradays per mole. Further, the SG
Gas resulting from the process disclosed herein is flammable but
the flame temperature of the gas is only about 270° F. (132.2°
C.), as compared to diatomic hydrogen gas which is highly
combustable and autoignites at 560° C. A hydrogen/oxygen torch
flame is reportedly 3200° C.=5792° F. However, the SG Gas flame
easily melts metals, which likely indicates that an oxygen is
active. The gas flame also reduces ceramics, which indicates that
the hydrogen is in an ionized state.
 SG Gas has an affinity for water and other liquids
including fuels but bubbles from the liquids after reaching a
saturation point. One use of the gas disclosed herein is infusing
it back into water to create ionized or polarized water.
 SG Gas is always a gas at room temperature while normal
water vapor requires energy to evaporate in great quantities. When
combusted, the gas always returns to liquid water. When placed in
a balloon, the gas initially floats the balloon but it seeps from
the balloon rather quickly indicating that the gas has a small
 One theory consistent with the properties heretofore
observed on SG Gas is that no bonds of H2O are broken when the
process of the invention is used, but that the combination of the
electric and magnetic forces restructure the water molecule.
Gauss' Law that states there are no monopoles in magnetism, only
dipoles. It is well known that liquid water forms hydrogen bonds
with other water molecules in order to remain in a liquid
 Applying Gauss' Law to hydrogen, it has polar properties
that opens up a new configuration, one in which a hydrogen can be
bound to another hydrogen and an oxygen. Upon exposure to an
electric current, the electronegative strength of the oxygen atom
is weakened, allowing a hydrogen atom to dislodge and magnetically
bond to the other hydrogen atom that is strengthened by the
magnetic field. Hence, the electric and magnetic forces made
possible a shift of a hydrogen from H—O—H to O—H—H creating a
diatomic hydrogen molecule that is single bonded to atomic oxygen.
As the exposed oxygen is a reactive site on the gas molecule an
appropriate name is “hydroxyhydrogen”. This structure predicts
that the oxygen is now active and can oxidize metals. It predicts
that in the unburned gaseous state, the increased negative charge
causes greater spacing among the gas molecules causing stability,
a lower boiling point, a lower freezing point, and a higher vapor
 The inventors have conceived of a new isomer of water—it
contains the same atoms, only in a different configuration and
thus exhibits different properties from normal water vapor. The
gas does not cluster to create liquid water at regular atmospheric
temperatures and pressures as does the molecules of normal water
vapor. The gas exists in a higher energy state, burns by itself at
a low temperature, and melts any substrates when exposed to the
gas flame. The gas flame has a uniform blue color appearance
without yellow sparks indicative of water (H2O) vapor or red
sparks indicative of either H2 or O2 gas contamination. Hence, we
call the resulting gas (SG Gas) an ionized gas or a plasma gas.
 Now referring to FIGS. 2-5, atoms shown are shown in their
polar orientation for better understanding N meaning North Pole
and S meaning South Pole. This dictates the orbital spin or
magnetic flux. FIG. 2 illustrates water prior to undergoing the
process of the invention. FIG. 3 illustrates the process and the
believed effect on the aqueous fluid used. FIG. 4 illustrates the
orientation of the molecule after the process which is consistent
with the observations. FIG. 5 illustrates the water clusters as
they would exist after the process of the invention.
 While the magnetic field orients the atoms within the water
molecule, the collapsing field induces a charge in the opposite
direction that dislodges the opposing hydrogen bond and allows it
to bond to the other hydrogen atom in the ortho position as
depicted in FIG. 5. Ortho-hydrogen is more reactive than
para-hydrogen and produces much more energy.
 This reaction changes water from a liquid cluster to an
ionized gas or plasma gas that will, when ignited, and the flame
applied to a solid substrate, melt nearly any substance. Further,
when the gas is infused into a water cluster it will bond to the
water molecules and create a much smaller cluster of a different
shape and properties allowing it to penetrate cells and hydrate
animals and plants at a substantially faster rate.
 It must be clear that due to the process used herein,
electrolysis does not take place. “Electrolysis” is defined as a
“method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by
passing an electric current through them.” Electrolysis does not
take place and no splitting of the water molecular bonds occurs,
as is demonstrated by the fact that no increase in hydrogen or
oxygen gas can be measured in the reaction zone. This is a key
differentiator from the processes that have resulted in a gas
being produced by electrolysis of water. The gases produced by
electrolysis exhibit far different properties from SG Gas. Gases
produced by electrolysis are explosive, cannot be pressurized and
are heat-producing gases on ignition.
 SG Gas is herein disclosed to be an ionized gas with the
potential to oxidize or reduce any substance. On a non:oxidized
substrate, such as steel, the active oxygen within the molecule
will chemically bond to the steel bringing it immediately to its
melting temperature and releasing hydrogen, which bonds with
atmospheric oxygen to produce heat. On an oxidized substrate, such
as ceramic, the hydrogen reduces the substrate by chemically
bonding with the oxygen present within the substrate, melting the
material and releasing atomic oxygen, which then bonds with the
material. This double reaction is responsible for producing much
more heat than an ordinary oxidation reduction reaction.
 These reactions are proven on rusty steel and concrete.
When ordinary gas, such as: methane, ethane, propane, butane, or
acetylene are applied to rusty steel popping and spitting of
material occurs due to the explosive reaction of the ferrous oxide
being separated from the non-oxidized metal due to different
expansion rates. With SG Gas, this does not occur, since oxidation
and reduction are occurring at the same time and the expansion
rates are equal. On concrete when heat from an ordinary gas is
applied, the portion the flame touches will expand and break loose
from the rest of the concrete with an explosive force and spit
pieces of hot concrete outward and leave holes in the concrete.
Again, this does not occur with SG Gas because it is
being reduced to a liquid form before the pressure of uneven
 Simply stated SG Gas is an ionized gas capable of oxidizing
or reducing almost any material without the adverse reactions
created by heat producing flames. Heat is the byproduct of
friction, in chemistry two atoms colliding together in a reaction
known as oxidation and reduction cause this friction. A gas,
referred to as a fuel, is usually a hydrocarbon that is easily
oxidized, however, the carbon is what is being oxidized and the
oxygen is being reduced meaning this is where friction occurs and
these are the items being heated. Heat given off by these
substances is refractive heat and the substances being heated are
absorbing heat or, better stated, are being bombarded by fast
moving hot gases. SG Gas may change the definition of melting
point due to the lack of heat producing flames.
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