See also : Stephen
AUGUSTIN : Water Cone
Tree T Pee
P. O. Box 2023
Arcadia, FL 34265
Tree T Pee
Tree T Pee was created by Johnny Georges an Arcadia, Florida
entrepreneur and inventor. Georges has spent his whole life around
citrus growers and he knows the industry well. His passion is to
help the industry and to provide a water conservation solution.
A Tree T Pee serves several objectives. The cone-shaped tree
guard, made of recycled plastic is positioned at the base of young
trees. The product which has been on the market since 1986 has
been getting considerable notice now that the need to conserve
water is so critical. U of Fl. research shows that it helps
conserve water, reduce fuel and fertilizer costs and helps
increase growth by promoting root growth.
“Instead of using 10,000 gallons of water per tree per year
without the Tree T Pee, with it we are now using only 800 gallons
per tree per year and watering more efficiently,” said Georges ."
With this kind of power available to the grower, especially a
grower/manager of large acreage, it can translate into dramatic
direct and indirect savings as well as maximize production."
In addition to using Tree T Pee’s in the citrus industry, the
peach, olive, pecan and jatropha growers are now using them as
well. The Tree T Pee is now being introduced to many other grower
Another major benefit of the Tree T Pee is the potential help in
the area of frost protection. During the January 14, 2010 freeze
in Florida, temperatures dropped to 19 degrees in some areas. The
trees with the Tree T Pee had 40+ degree temperatures at their
base with steam from the 72-degree water engulfing the canopy of
the young trees. The Growers that had the Tree T Pees during this
freeze were very thankful they had them, as it helped protect
their huge investment. Proven Results!
The water savings are so significant that several Water Management
Districts have expressed an interest in partnering with growers in
a cost-sharing program, now that this product has proven that it
can literally save “trillions of gallons” of water.
Additionally, University of Florida researchers are studying the
product as well noting its conservation benefits.
Georges owns the patent, the mold and the trademark. Tree T Pees
are made from recycled plastic and have a useful life of
approximately 20 years.
Increased growth rates with Tree T Pee
Tree T Pee’s are beneficial to both the grower and the environment
in many ways. By encompassing the water and liquid fertilizer
directly to where it is needed, the grower will save money across
the board in water usage, fuel, fertilizer, and herbicide costs.
The Tree T Pee promotes deep root growth and is a natural sprout
inhibitor. By directing the water and fertilizer directly to the
tree roots, the grower will likely realize up to a 30% increase in
the growth of new trees. The Tree T Pee offers the best in frost
protection and critter control on the market today. Over 5,000
acres of Tree T Pees have been installed with phenomenal results.
Smarter irrigation starts at the roots.
Tree T Pee conserves water
On a 1750-acre citrus grove in southwest Florida, there are over
250,000 Tree T Pees in place. At 145 trees per acre using a blue
micro jet at 10.5 gph per tree, an average watering time of 6
hours would use 15.8 million gallons of water. With the Tree T
Pee, the average watering time was cut down to only one hour using
only 2.6 million gallons of water. This represents a savings of
13.2 million gallons of water per watering.
By encasing the 72 degree water within the Tree T Pee, the mist
from the micro jet rising out of the top engulfs the canopy of the
young citrus tree. There are growers that swear this is the best
frost protection they have ever used. Proven results in many
Tree protection and water saving
A water-saving device includes a frusto-conical housing having a
wide lower end that overlies a ground surface. A lip is integrally
formed at the upper end, extending radially inwardly. A vertical
cut is formed in the housing with a flange adjoining each edge of
the cut. The flanges are spaced apart to admit a tree trunk into
the hollow interior of the housing and are attachable to one
another to enclose a tree trunk. A first pair of apertures is
formed in the lip. A conduit has a first end in fluid
communication with a row hose and extends upwardly from the row
hose, through a first aperture, and downwardly through the second
aperture. A water emitter is in fluid communication with a second
end of the conduit and is positioned within the hollow interior of
the housing below the lip and above the ground surface.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates to devices that protect trees from
inclement weather conditions and also save water. More
particularly, it relates to an improved apparatus that is
adjustable to accommodate trees of varying sizes and which also
eliminates parts that were required by prior art tree protecting
and water saving devices.
2. Brief Description of the Related Art
U.S. Pat. No. 4,642,938 to Georges discloses a commercially
successful device that protects young citrus trees and other
plants against the extremes of weather, particularly freezing
temperatures and high wind conditions. A condition known as the
"super cooling effect" occurs when high velocity winds at low
temperatures, combined with a low dew point, causes moisture to
evaporate at a very high rate; it is a serious threat to many
plants, particularly young citrus trees. The patented device
provides protection from the super cooling effect.
The patented device also has great utility as a water-saving
device. Since it surrounds a tree at its base and provides a
housing for a water emitter within its hollow interior, it reduces
water consumption from about 26,000 gallons of water per year per
tree to about nine hundred (900) gallons per year per tree.
There are two (2) limitations to the patented structure. First, it
cannot be expanded to accommodate trees as they grow. Second, it
requires that a water emitter/atomizer placed inside the housing
either be attached to a stake that is mounted directly to a row
hose or to a stake that is connected to a row hose through a
An improved system would include an expandable housing and would
eliminate the need for a stake that holds the water
However, in view of the art considered as a whole at the time the
present invention was made, it was not obvious to those of
ordinary skill in the field of this invention that the identified
improvements were needed nor was it known how to provide such
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The long-standing but heretofore unfulfilled need for an improved
tree-protecting and water-saving device is now met by a new,
useful, and nonobvious invention. The present disclosure relates
to a plant protection system that provides environmental
protection. More particularly, the present invention relates to a
protection system for plants that uses a housing and an individual
source of heat within the housing to protect against environmental
extremes such as cold weather by shielding against the elements.
The present invention provides environmental regulation of the
immediate surrounding area of a plant or multiple plants with
individual housings which enables the use of outside sources of
energy to provide plant protection and watering as required. The
present system also provides a protected control area for chemical
application and shields the plant from outside sources of damage.
The novel structure includes a housing which may be removable
seasonally or left in place so long as it is of service to the
plant. Various housing designs and constructions that use the
principles of the basic concept as disclosed herein are within the
scope of the present invention.
In a first embodiment of the invention, the housing is in the form
of a truncated cone. Such a configuration is representative of a
style of housing with specific characteristics which fulfill the
requirements of the basic principles of the invention. However, it
is intended that other forms of housing may be employed, of any
design or shape which gives the specified results. Thus the
housing may be a unit of any design which houses one or more
plants and modifies the environmental conditions surrounding the
plant so as to aid growth and husbandry practices while protecting
vital parts of the plant from environmental and foreign damage by
enabling the application of heat to protect the plant from
damaging cold, preventing chill factors from creating super cold
temperatures in the control area, retaining maximum heat from
applied energy, shielding against damaging outside forces,
creating no adverse conditions for plant growth, providing
permanent and seasonal protection, providing a protected control
area for application of agricultural chemicals, and creating a
shielded central area for the plant or plants enclosed by the
More particularly, the novel plant-protecting and water-saving
device includes a frusto-conical housing having a wide lower end
adapted to overlie a ground surface and a narrow upper end. A base
flange is integrally formed with the lower end of the housing and
the base flange extends radially outwardly from the lower end. The
base flange is adapted to be covered with earth to hold the
housing against movement in high wind conditions.
A lip is integrally formed at the upper end of the housing and
extends radially inwardly from the upper end. A first vertical cut
is formed in the housing and extends through the lip and through
the base flange.
A first pair of connection flanges includes a first connection
flange formed integrally with each edge of the first vertical cut.
The first connection flanges are spaced apart from one another to
admit a tree trunk into the hollow interior of the housing and the
connection flanges are releasably attachable to one another to
enclose a tree trunk in the hollow interior.
A first pair of small, conduit-receiving apertures is formed in
the lip in circumferentially spaced apart relation to one another.
Multiple pairs of such small apertures may be formed in the lip
A second pair of larger apertures is formed in the housing,
slightly above the base flange, in circumferentially spaced apart
relation to one another and in offset relation to a diameter of
the housing. The second pair of apertures accommodates a row hose
that enters into a hollow interior of the housing and exits the
hollow interior through first and second apertures of the second
pair of larger apertures, respectively.
A conduit has a first end adapted for fluid communication with the
row hose, and follows a path of travel that extends upwardly from
the row hose, extending upwardly through a first aperture of the
first pair of apertures and downwardly through a second aperture
of the first pair of apertures.
A water atomizer and emitter is in fluid communication with a
second end of the conduit. The second end of the conduit and the
water emitter and atomizer are positioned within the hollow
interior of the housing in vertically spaced relation below the
lip and above the ground surface.
In a second embodiment, a second vertical cut is formed in the
housing and extends through the lip and through the base flange. A
second pair of connection flanges includes second connection
flanges formed integrally with each edge of the second vertical
cut. The second pair of connection flanges are spaced apart from
one another to admit a tree trunk into the hollow interior of the
housing and the second pair of connection flanges are releasably
attachable to one another to enclose a tree trunk in the hollow
interior when the first pair of connection flanges are releasably
secured to one another.
The second vertical cut is diametrically opposed to the first
vertical cut so that the housing includes two separate halves of
equal size and shape.
In a third embodiment, a second and a third vertical cut are
formed in the housing and extend through the lip and through the
base flange. A third pair of connection flanges includes third
connection flanges formed integrally with each edge of the third
vertical cut and the second and third pair of connection flanges
are spaced apart from one another to admit a tree trunk into the
hollow interior of the housing.
The second and third pairs of connection flanges are respectively
releasably attachable to one another to enclose a tree trunk in
the hollow interior when the first pair of connection flanges are
releasably secured to one another. The first, second, and third
vertical cuts are equidistantly and circumferentially spaced apart
from one another so that the housing includes three separate parts
of equal size and shape.
In a fourth embodiment, a second, a third, and a fourth vertical
cut are formed in the housing, said second, third, and fourth
vertical cuts extending through the lip and through the base
flange. A fourth pair of connection flanges includes fourth
connection flanges formed integrally with each edge of the fourth
vertical cut, said first, second, third and fourth pairs of
connection flanges being equidistantly and circumferentially
spaced apart from one another to admit a tree trunk into the
hollow interior of the housing so that the housing includes four
separate parts of equal size and shape.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
For a fuller understanding of the invention, reference should be
made to the following detailed description, taken in connection
with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view depicting the novel device in use;
FIG. 2 is a first perspective view depicting the flanges of the
base in spaced apart relation to one another;
FIG. 3 is a second perspective view of the embodiment of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along line 4-4 in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5A is an exploded perspective view of a second embodiment;
FIG. 5B is an assembled perspective view of the second
FIG. 6A is an exploded perspective view of a third embodiment;
FIG. 6B is an assembled perspective view of the third
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
The novel structure is denoted as a whole in FIG. 1 by the
reference numeral 10.
Plant protection apparatus 10 includes a generally frusto-conical
housing 12 having horizontally extending base 14 formed about its
lower peripheral edge. Its upper rim 16 extends radially inwardly
and has a downwardly concave configuration.
Base flange 14 is covered with dirt, clay, or the like in order to
anchor device 10 against displacement by winds after the device
has been positioned in protective relation to a tree.
Housing 12 may be constructed of a light-in-weight but durable
material such as high density polyethylene. The preferred
thickness is about sixty millimeters (60 mm) but that dimension is
In a first embodiment, as best depicted in FIG. 2, housing 12 has
a single vertically-extending cut 18 formed therein to admit a
tree into the hollow interior of housing 12.
First flange 20 is formed integrally with a first edge of cut 18
and second flange 22 is formed integrally with a second edge of
cut 18. Multiple apertures 20a are formed in flange 20 along its
extent in equidistantly spaced elation to one another and multiple
apertures 22a are formed in flange 22 along its extent in
equidistantly spaced relation to one another. A plurality of
releasable fasteners, not depicted to avoid cluttering the
drawings, extend through said apertures to facilitate joining
opposing flanges 20, 22 in abutting relation to one another, as
depicted in FIG. 1, to capture a tree trunk in the hollow interior
of housing 12, said tree trunk of course admitted into said hollow
interior prior to joining said abutting flanges to one another.
A plurality of vertically extending, generally rectangular shaped
ridges or protrusions 24 are formed in the walls of housing 12, in
equidistantly and circumferentially spaced apart relation to one
another, to increase the structural integrity of housing 12.
The novel structure provides an environmental control which uses
heat from well water. The use of water from another source such as
a lake or stream and the use of other sources of heat is within
the scope of this invention.
In a preferred embodiment, housing 12 has an interior diameter at
its lower end of about twenty three inches (23''), an interior
diameter at upper end 16 of about eight inches (8''), and a
vertical height of about fourteen inches (14'').
As best understood in connection with FIG. 4, warm water is
sprayed into the hollow interior of housing 12 by water atomizer
and spray emitter 32 which is mounted within the hollow interior
of housing 12 in a novel way. Novel conduit 26 is connected in
fluid communication with row hose 28 that enters into housing 12
through opening 28a and which exits housing 12 through opening
28b, said openings being formed in housing 12 just above base
flange 14. Row hose 28 carries water from a remote water source
such as an irrigation system and extends through openings 28a, 28b
that are formed in housing 12.
More particularly, conduit 26 has a first end in fluid
communication with row hose 28. Conduit 26 extends upwardly as
depicted in FIG. 4 from said row hose 28 and extends sequentially
first through first opening 30a formed in upper rim 16 of housing
12 and then downwardly through second opening 30b. A suitable
water atomizer and emitter 32 is secured to the second, free end
of conduit 26 in the hollow interior of housing 12 at a
preselected distance below rim 16.
Novel apertures 30a, 30b thus enable mounting of emitter 32 in the
hollow interior of housing 12 without the need of the prior art
stake. This reduces the cost of the installation on a per tree
basis, thus saving a large sum for those growers who own numerous
Instead of freely extending conduit 26 from row hose 28 to first
aperture 30a as depicted in FIG. 4, conduit 26 could instead
extend through a tunnel formed in an interior surface of housing
The second embodiment of FIGS. 5A and 5B differs from the first
embodiment in that two vertical cuts are formed in housing or base
12 and the circumference of rim 16 and base flange 14 is increased
to a larger circumference than the rim and base flange of the
first embodiment. This enables protection and watering of trees
that have grown too large to fit into the relatively small housing
or base of the first embodiment.
The third embodiment of FIGS. 6A and 6B differs from the first
embodiment in that three vertical cuts are formed in housing or
base 12 and the circumference of rim 16 and base flange 14 is
increased to a larger circumference than the rim and base flange
of the second embodiment. This enables protection and watering of
trees that have grown too large to fit into the housing of the
All embodiments of housing 12 provide a wide area its bottom to
disperse the heat from the warm water that is atomized by the
emitter. The heat is concentrated as the warm fog or water vapor
rises up the sides of frusto-conical housing 12 to smaller
diameter upper rim 16. Upper lip or rim 16 then directs the heated
water vapor downwardly to provide an additional warming effect
within housing 12.
A shrub-head sprayer nozzle or a jet spray nozzle or a fog head
may be employed, using a one hundred eighty degree (180[deg.]) or
three hundred degree (300[deg.]) spray pattern. The spray pattern
is selected to avoid applying water directly to a tree trunk but
all spray patterns are within the scope of this invention. It is
also within the scope of the invention to employ a plurality of
emitters within the interior of housing 12 but a single emitter 32
Water is supplied by a pump to the interior of housing 12 at a
rate of about five to thirty gallons per hour (5-30 gal/hr), at a
pressure of approximately ten to twenty five pounds per square
inch (10-25 psi), in keeping with conventional low volume spray
The plant protection system of the present invention retains
maximum heat from applied water, maintains optimum emitter jet
position, shields against wind, protects the tree trunk and buds
from animal damage, insures maximum benefits from applied water,
permits use of approved herbicides and acts as a herbicide
diffuser, reduces trunk sprouting and weed growth, increases
growth rate with ideal conditions, prevents trunk damage due to
sweating, and eliminates trunk damage from super cooling.
The frusto-conical cone shape of housing 12 is ideally suited for
stacking in groups in a citrus grove or other area in which the
novel system is to be employed.
The advantages set forth above, and those made apparent from the
foregoing description, are efficiently attained. Since certain
changes may be made in the above construction without departing
from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matters
contained in the foregoing description or shown in the
accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not
in a limiting sense.
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CULTIVATING A TREE
An apparatus and method cultivate trees by preventing freezing and
frost damage and inhibiting root stalk sprouts. The apparatus is a
frustoconical cover that rests on the ground to cover the root
ball of the tree. The stalk and leaves are extended from a hole in
the frustum. Water such as mist is injectable within the cover to
prevent cold and frost damage.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 1. Field of the Invention
 The invention relates to apparatuses and methods for
cultivating trees, in particular, grafted fruit trees.
 2. Description of the Related Art
 To combine the qualities of different trees, portions of
different trees can be grafted together. In the case of fruit
trees, especially orange trees, orange stalks can be grafted to
native stalks. Native stalks are more disease resistant than
stalks that provide the best fruit. However, native stalks produce
sour juicy fruit. To produce the best combination, the lower stalk
of a native tree including the root ball is grafted to the upper
stalk of a fruit bearing tree. Typically, the graft is made on the
stalk about twenty centimeters (20 cm) above the ground.
 When trees are pruned significantly, the tree may produce
auxins. Auxins trigger growth in the tree. In this way, when a
root ball is pruned (i.e. for grafting), auxins are produced.
Auxins can cause sprouts to sprout from the stalk connected to the
root ball (i.e. native, sour-producing stock). The sprouts are
based on the root ball stock, which does not bear fruit, and rob
nutrients from the fruit tree stalk. Sprouts can even outgrow and
strangle the grafted stalk. Accordingly, a need exists to inhibit
the growth of sprouts from the root ball of grafted trees.
 FIG. 6 shows grafted tree 100. The tree 100 includes a root
ball 101. A stalk 102 is grafted to the root stalk 101 along the
graft 103. Sprouts 104 extend upward from the root stalk 102.
Leaves 106 sprout from the top of the stalk 105.
 Another problem with fruit-tree cultivation is freezing and
frosts. When the ambient temperature falls below the freezing
point or the frost point, the leaves and fruits of the tree can
become damaged. Irrigation systems can be used to water the trees
during such times. The heat provided by watering is quickly
dissipated from the trees, especially on windy nights. The cold
air blowing on the wet tree can freeze the water on the tree. Ice
formation can damage and defoliate a tree. Defoliated trees can
take one to two months before they become productive again.
 Natural grasses surrounding trees can strangle the trees.
Natural grasses grow quickly and can be several feet high. The
natural grasses can be taller than the young trees. Herbicides are
used to inhibit wild grasses. However, the herbicide must be hand
sprayed, which is very labor intensive. Mechanical spraying
methods do not work because they result in the cultivated tree
being sprayed. The herbicides can kill the cultivated tree. The
herbicides may be toxic to people as well. Therefore, the
herbicides should not contact the tree including the root ball.
 The prior art falls into two categories. The first are
flower pots. Flower pots are vessels that hold a plant and
surrounding soil. Flower vessels do not define airspaces between
the wall of the vessel and the plant and do not work to inhibit
unwanted sprouts stemming from the root ball. The second category
of prior art is transparent vessels that are terrariums. The
terrariums do not inhibit the growth of root ball sprouts within
 U.S. Pat. No. 726,766 discloses a, "Flower Pot." A conical
flower-pot increases in diameter from top to bottom, the conical
wall of which is made in halves provided on the joints with a
plurality of inwardly-inclined tongues and grooves for engaging
each other and preventing any dislocation of said halves, the one
of said halves being made in One Piece with the bottom. The
conical wall is provided with a plurality of ventilating and
evaporating holes placed more or less vertically.
 U.S. Pat. No. 1,534,508 discloses an, "Apparatus for
Testing Soil or Seed." This patent teaches a container in which
soil may be placed and seed grown under conditions such that the
soil in the container is exposed only to a minimum degree to the
effect of the external atmosphere, while at the same time
conditions for growth of seed in the container during a test are
 U.S. Pat. No. 2,550,602 is titled, "Potted Plant
Container." The patent shows a container that is shaped like an
inverted hollow cone having its larger portion at the bottom. This
bottom portion is closed by a bottom surface and is formed with a
central upwardly projecting nipple. The container is adapted to
rest in a lower bowl portion. The bowl has a larger circumference
than the bottom portion of the container.
 U.S. Pat. No. 3,785,088 is titled, "Nursery Pot." The
nursery pot has a first series of vertically and circumferentially
spaced, relatively large openings in the side wall of the pot, and
a second series of openings at the juncture of the side wall and
the bottom of the pot. Both series of openings permit drainage of
excess moisture from and entry of ambient air into the pot to
promote root growth, with the second series of openings being
bounded by inwardly directed flanges for the purpose of directing
root growth in the vicinity of the second series of openings
inwardly toward the center of the pot rather than outwardly
through the bottom openings.
 U.S. Pat. No. 3,991,516 is titled, "Separating Flower Pot."
The segmented container for potted plants and shrubs of the type
define an inverted conical shape or spherical zone segment which
provides greater volume of earth at the base of the container than
at the top to encourage greater and healthier root growth. The
container assembly has a base and two or more separable upper
segments which are removeable to enable plant withdrawal with
minimal damage to the root system or foliage. When assembled, the
container provides a leak proof, structurally functioning
container capable of rapid assembly and disassembly.
 U.S. Pat. No. 5,398,443 is titled, "Windowed Shelter For
Plants." The shelter protects young plants and has a shell (10)
made from a translucent resin material. Windows (28) are formed
through a peripheral wall (16) on one side of the shell (10) for
controlling the admission of light and air into the shelter. A
hood (30) made from a transparent film of resin material covers
the windows (28) to conserve heat and moisture within the shelter.
The young plants are acclimated to their surroundings by
progressively removing the hood (30) from the windows (28).
 U.S. Pat. No. 6,038,810 is titled, "Plant Enclosure For
Outdoor Use." The plant enclosure for outdoor use has a hollow
body with open upper and lower ends and ventilation and drainage
openings. In order to permit a desired amount of water to be
conserved within the base of the enclosure, the openings are
positioned such that a portion of the body may be buried in the
soil, with the openings spaced above the soil surface. The base of
the body has plant root openings, positioned to be buried beneath
the soil surface. These openings are sized to permit plant roots
to grow laterally outwardly close to the soil surface, beyond the
perimeter of the enclosure. A lid is engageable to the upper rim
of the body. The lid has a recessed portion on its upper surface
to capture rain or sprinkler water. Apertures within the lid
permit the captured water to drain into the enclosure. Preferably,
the body and lid are clear or translucent to create a greenhouse
effect during daylight hours.
 U.S. Pat. No. 6,357,180 is titled, "Push-Pull Root
Air-Pruning Tray and Container Systems." The systems entail a
plant/seedling/cutting/plug growing tray and container system that
includes a tray with a plurality of individual plant cells and
container with each cell and container having an open top and
bottom and a detachable screen bottom, and that allows plant
removal either from the open bottom of the tray/container or open
top of the tray/container. As plant roots emerge through an
open-bottom tray or container supported above ground, the roots
shrivel due to contacting dry air and temporarily suspend their
growth. This bare-root growth phenomenon is known as air pruning.
Proper application of root air-pruning process in conjunction with
the use of properly shaped tray-cells and containers (small at the
top and gradually getting larger at the bottom) significantly
increases plant production, improves crop quality and promotes
mechanization. Air pruning alone without the right tray and
container will not provide these benefits. The system, which
utilizes computer optimization techniques to determine the proper
inner sidewall angle of tray-cells and containers, also allows
air-pruned plants to be manually or automatically removed from the
open tops of tray-cells and containers. Alternatively, in one
embodiment, the plant container consists of more than one piece of
sidewalls which can be put together to form a plant container. In
addition, the detachable screen is provided with a series of
projecting legs designed for self-supporting so as to detachably
secure the screen into the plant tray and container structure to
facilitate root air pruning.
 Japanese Publication JP2002191234A is titled, "Culturing
Container." The culturing container provides a culturing container
capable of activating growing state of a plant and simplifies
operation for harvesting potatoes, root vegetables, etc., reducing
load of transportation, assembly and removal operation when using
as a member for planting device installed at high position. To do
this, the culturing container 10 is obtained by forming a film 12
made of a synthetic resin into a downwardly widened bag body
having an opening 13 at the upper end and having the bottom 14 at
the lower end. Because an inner diameter (r) of the opening 13 in
expansion is smaller than minimum inner diameter R of the bottom
14, when culture soil 16 is packed, the culturing container 10
becomes nearly circular truncated cone-like shape and culture of
plants can be carried out on a culture soil part exposed to the
 Japanese Patent Application No. JP2003116358A is titled,
"Cultivation Container Made From Ceramics And Method For Producing
The Same." The container provides a cultivation container made
from a ceramic capable of inhibiting the occurrence of root rot,
because the adjustment of water content in the cultivation
container is extremely good, having a high dealing capacity with
an atmospheric temperature change so as to be able to prevent the
temperature of the cultivation container from elevating
extraordinarily; excellent in water permeability and air
ventilating property, not especially being required to form a
water-discharging port and capable of prohibiting the invasion of
noxious insects, and a method for producing the same container.
This cultivation container 1 has a bottom wall part 2 and a side
wall part 3, which is provided by forming multiple fine holes 4
through which the inside of the container communicates with
outside on the bottom wall part 2 or the side wall part 4 and
constituting so that water or air can pass through the fine holes
4. Therefore, the container is excellent in water permeability and
air ventilating property and also not especially required to form
the water-discharging port on the bottom wall part since many fine
holes act as the discharging ports, and can prohibits the invasion
of the noxious insects.
 Japanese Patent Publication No. JP2003310062A is titled,
"Planting Vessel." The vessel provides a planting vessel effective
for preventing the spill of the content in distribution and the
damage of an ornamental plant planted in the vessel. A particle
layer 36 composed of a number of mutually bonded particles 22 is
placed to close a second opening 20 of the planting vessel 10.
Horticultural soil 38 for the growth of the root 30 of the
ornamental plant 16 is held in the vessel without spillage by
using the vessel 10 directing the 2nd opening 20 downward. The
particle layer 36 contains interconnected pores 26 to keep high
air permeability and draining property. The vessel is provided
with a 1st opening 18 for planting the plant 16, and the spillage
of the soil 38 from the opening 18 is prevented by selecting the
opening size as small as possible to a level not to cause the
adverse effect on the growth of the ornamental plant 16.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 It is accordingly an object of the invention to provide an
apparatus and a method of using the apparatus that overcomes the
above-mentioned disadvantages of the heretofore-known devices and
methods of this general type.
 An object of the invention is to provide an apparatus and
method that inhibit sprouts from a root stalk.
 A further object of the invention is to provide an
apparatus and a method that mitigates loss of heat provided by
 A further object of the invention is to provide an
apparatus and a method that allow mechanical herbicide spraying
around trees of a herbicide that should not contact the tree.
 In accordance with the objects of the invention, an
apparatus is provided for protecting a sprouted tree with a root
ball and a stalk and for inhibiting root stalk sprouts. The
apparatus includes an opaque frustoconical cover. The cover has a
base and a frustum with a hole formed in the frustum. The base is
wider than the root ball and the hole is wider than the stalk. The
cover defines an airspace in which water can be injected, sprayed,
or misted. The injected water warms and irrigates the tree
contained within the container.
 The base of the cover can include outwardly extended member
such as an annular rim, a flange, or lateral member. The outwardly
extended member can be buried with soil to hold the cover on the
ground. The soil should provide enough weight to hold the cover
over the tree during wind. The soil should hold the cover on tree
when sprouts press upward, against the cover from within the
 In accordance with the objects of the invention, a water
supply can be inserted within the cover. The water supply is
typically an irrigation system. A mist generating outlet such a
micro system can be attached to the water supply pipe within the
cover to generate a mist. Micro system is a term of art and
includes means for generating a mist such as micro jets and micro
drips. An additional or separate water pipe for irrigation can be
inserted within the cover for irrigating the tree. The pipe
connected to the mist-generating outlet can be used to irrigate
the tree as well as to generate mist within the cover.
 In accordance with the objects of the invention, a
ventilation passage can be provided on or formed by the cover. The
ventilation passage allows air to be exchanged through the cover
but prevents light from entering the cover. The ventilation
passage prevents fungi from growing within the cover. The
ventilation passage can have a tortuous passage (i.e. not a direct
line) to allow air to enter but to prevent light from entering the
 In accordance with a further object of the invention, a
seam can be formed in the wall of the cover reaching from the base
to the frustum. The seam allows the cover to be removed without
pulling the cover over the tree. The stalk of the tree can be slid
through the seam.
 The cover can be made of flexible, resilient polymer
material, like a plastic garbage can. The cover can be made by
 In accordance with the objects of the invention, a method
of cultivating a sprouted tree with a root ball, a stalk sprouting
from the root ball, and a leaf sprouting from the stalk is
encompassed within the invention. The first step of the method is
enclosing at least a portion of the stalk with an opaque cover
while exposing the leaf. The opaque cover has a base contacting
ground above the root ball. The opaque cover encircles the root
ball to keep it warm, to discourage sprouts from the root ball,
and to protect the root ball from outside contaminates such as
herbicides. The next step of the method is maintaining airspace
between the opaque cover, the stalk, and the ground.
 In accordance with the objects of the invention, the method
includes injecting water into the airspace to warm the tree.
Water, in particular water mist, can be injected within the cover
to prevent the tree from freezing. The cover decreases the amount
of water necessary because the cover prevents evaporation. In
addition, the cover acts and enclosed airspace act as an
insulating layer. The timing of the injection can be based on the
temperature outside cover. For example, once the outside
temperature reaches a specific temperature, such as the freezing
point, water can be injected into the cover. Alternatively, the
temperature within the cover can be used as the threshold below
which water is injected into the cover.
 In an experiment where covered and uncovered trees were
misted with an ambient temperature below freezing (0[deg.] C.),
temperatures within the cover of the apparatus were measured to be
three to four degrees Celsius warmer than uncovered trees. This
difference is critical in climates like central and northern
Florida that have minimum annual temperatures of minus three
degrees centigrade (-3[deg.] C.).
 In accordance with the objects of the invention, solid
fertilizer can be added within the cover. The solid fertilizer can
release nutrients to the soil over time.
 A herbicide can be sprayed around the opaque cover. In
particular, the herbicide can be applied with mechanical means, as
contrasted to applying by hand. Herbicide is used to eliminate
wild grasses from growing taller than the tree. The wild glasses
surrounding the tree will "strangle" the tree. The herbicides may
kill the tree itself or make the tree toxic. The cover prevents
the herbicide from reaching the root ball and contaminating the
 Other features which are considered as characteristic for
the invention are set forth in the appended claims.
 Although the invention is illustrated and described herein
as embodied in an apparatus and method for cultivating a sprouted
tree, it is nevertheless not intended to be limited to the details
shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be
made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention
and within the scope and range of equivalents of the claims.
 The construction and method of operation of the invention,
however, together with additional objects and advantages thereof
will be best understood from the following description of specific
embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING
 FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic front side view of a cover
according to the invention.
 FIG. 2 is a left side view of the cover.
 FIG. 3 is a top side view of the cover.
 FIG. 4 is a bottom side view of the cover.
 FIG. 5 is a top left perspective view of the cover.
 FIG. 6 is a left side sectional view of the cover
shown with the tree, watering system, and surrounding
environment taken along line VI-VI in FIG. 3.
 FIG. 7 is a right side view of the cover shown
 FIG. 8 is a bottom side section view taken along
line VIII-VIII in FIG. 7.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 Referring now to the figures of the drawing in detail and
first, particularly, to FIGS. 1-5 thereof, there is seen an
apparatus 1 for protecting a sprouted tree 100. The apparatus 1
includes an opaque frustoconical cover 2. The frustoconical cover
2 has a base 3 and a frustum 4. A wall 11 extends between the base
3 and the frustum 4. A hole 5 is formed in the frustum 4 through
which the leaves 106 of the tree 100 can be exposed.
 The cover 2 is made of opaque material such as a flexible
resilient polymer. The cover 2 is opaque to light and liquid. By
blocking light, the growth of weeds and sprouts, especially from
the root stalk 102, is deterred beneath the cover 2. By being
impervious to liquids, herbicides can be mechanically sprayed to
the surrounding environment and prevented from reaching the root
ball underlying the cover 2. The cover 2 is manufactured by
molding. Holes 10 and seams 7 can be formed or cut into the cover
2 as desired.
 The base 3 of the cover 2 is wider (or at least as wide as)
than the underlying root ball 101. By being wider than the root
ball 101, herbicides are prevented from reaching the root ball
101. In addition, sprouts from the root ball 101 are caught within
the cover 2.
 The cover 2 has a height that covers at least fifty percent
(>=50%) of the height of the stalk 105 when the cover 2 is
being attached; the percentage will decrease as the tree 100
grows. More preferably, the height of the cover 2 is such that it
covers sixty to sixty-five percent (60-65%) of the height of the
stalk 105 at the time of attaching the cover 2. The height of the
cover 2 should not be so high as to cover leaves 106 at the top of
the stalk 105. By remaining uncovered, the leaves 106 are able to
receive sunlight to sustain the tree 100 when the cover 2 is
installed. In the case of orange trees, the height of the cover is
approximately sixty centimeters (60 cm).
 A hole 5 is formed in the frustum 4. The width of the hole
5 should be wider than a width of the stalk 105. By being wider
than the stalk 105, the hole 5 allows the stalk 105 to grow. The
hole 5 should not be so wide as to allow enough sunlight to reach
the ground 200 that weeds and sprouts 104 can thrive.
 An annular rim 6 extending from and encircles the base 3.
The rim 6 can be buried with sand or soil 201. By burying the rim
6 with soil 201, the cover 2 is held against the ground 200.
 A seam 7 runs vertically in the cover 2 from the base 3 to
the frustum 4. Because the cover 2 is made of a flexible resilient
material, the cover 2 can be spread along the seam 7 to allow the
cover 2 to be installed or removed from the tree 100 by sliding
the stalk 105 through the seam 7. With the seam 7, the cover 2
does not need to be pulled over the leaves 106 to be removed. The
seam 7 has a flange 8 attached along each side of the seam 7
reaching from said base 3 to said frustum 4. A fastener 9 such as
a staple or zip connector connects the flanges 8.
 FIG. 6 shows the apparatus 1 connected to a means for
watering the tree 100. The means for watering the tree includes a
pipe 30. The pipe 30 runs through the cover 2 and enters and exits
at holes 10 in the cover 2. The pipe 30 is soft, puncturable
polypropylene. A microsystem 20 is staked within the cover 2. A
lead 31 is inserted in the pipe 30. The lead is connected to the
micro jet 22. The micro spray jet 22 forms a water mist when water
is supplied thereto. The micro spray jet 22 can be used to
irrigate the tree 100. The micro spray jet 22 sprays water to warm
the tree 100 when temperatures fall below a temperature set by the
farmer. Possible temperatures for activating the micro spray jet
22 are the freezing point (i.e. zero degrees centigrade) or the
frost point. Spraying water within the cover 2 tends to warm the
tree 100. Holding the water within the cover 200 increases the
warming effect and decreases dissipation of the heat from the
water compared to spraying without the cover 2. The invention
contemplates that other known systems for watering can be used
instead of or in addition to pipe 30 and micro spray jet 22.
 In the preferred embodiment, the tree 100 being protected
is an orange tree. Orange trees are usually grown in temperate
areas, for example, Florida, United States. Ground water in
Florida maintains a constant temperature around twenty-two degrees
Celsius (22[deg.] C.). Significant warming is provided to prevent
freezing and frost damage by spraying the trees with ground water.
 FIGS. 7-8 show an embodiment including air passages formed
in the cover. Air passages can be formed in the cover 2. Air
passages allow fresh air to enter the cover. While heat can be
lost through air vents, the loss is outweighed by preventing
fungus growth. A tortured (i.e. non-linear air passage) can be
provided by overlapping an inner panel 41 with a raised panel 42.
The tortured passages 40 allow air to enter but prevent sunlight
from reaching the interior of the cover 6.
 FIG. 6 shows a preferred embodiment of the apparatus 1 in
use. The tree 100 is formed by grafting a native root ball 101 to
an orange tree stalk 105. The stalk 105 is sprouting leaves 106 at
the top of the stalk 105. The root ball 101 is planted in the
ground 200. Once the tree 100 has been planted, the cover 2 is
installed. The cover 2 is installed by lowering the cover 2 over
the tree 100. As the opaque cover 2 is lowered, the leaves 106 are
pulled through the hole 5 in the frustum 4. The base 3 is rested
on the ground 200. The cover 2 is not filled in with soil; an
airspace 202 is maintained within the cover 2, between the cover
2, stalk 105, and the ground 200. To secure the cover 2 to the
ground 200, soil 201 is added to cover the rim 6.
 When installed, the opaque cover 2 prevents sunlight from
reaching the ground 200 within the cover 2. If sprouts 104 grow
from the root stalk 102, the lack of light, prevents the sprouts
104 from flourishing. As a result, the sprouts 104 will wither and
the amount of nutrients stolen from the tree 100 are minimized.
 Once installed and secured, the cover 2 is also used to
warm the tree 100. When the temperature outside the cover 2 falls
below a user-selected temperature such as the frost point or the
freezing part, water is injected within the cover. Injected water
warms the tree 100 and the airspace 202 within the cover 2. For
warming purposes, the water is preferably injected as a mist. The
mist is produced by flowing water through the micro spray jet 22.
The cover 2 holds the warm mist within the airspace 202 and holds
the heat within the cover and prevents dissipation of the heat. In
addition, the cover 2 creates an insulative airspace 202 between
the outside air and the tree 100.
 Solid fertilizer 203 such as time-released fertilizer can
be placed on the ground 200 beneath the cover 2. Because the
amount of moisture within the cover 2 is controlled through by
controlling the irrigation, the time for adding additional
fertilizer can be more accurately estimated.
 Once the cover 2 is installed, herbicide can be
mechanically sprayed on the ground 200 outside the cover 2. The
cover 2 prevents the herbicide from reaching the root ball 101.
The herbicide is used to kill the grass 204 that can grow taller
than the tree 100 and strangle the tree 100.
 Once the tree 100 has grown to a sufficient height that it
can survive without protection from the cover 2, the cover 2 is
removed. To remove the cover 2, the fasteners 9 are cut or
otherwise removed. The seam 7 is spread. Next, the stalk 105 is
passed through the open seam 7. The cover 2 can be recycled and
used a different plant.
 While various descriptions of the present invention are
described above, it should be understood that the various features
can be used singly or in any combination thereof. Therefore, this
invention is not to be limited to only the specifically preferred
embodiments depicted herein. Further, it should be understood that
variations and modifications within the spirit and scope of the
invention may occur to those skilled in the art to which the
invention pertains. Accordingly, all expedient modifications
readily attainable by one versed in the art from the disclosure
set forth herein that are within the scope and spirit of the
present invention are to be included as further embodiments of the
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