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TURMERIC CULTIVATION








Related : 
http://www.rexresearch.com/curcumin/turmeric.htm
http://www.rexresearch.com/turmerone/Turmerone.html



Turmeric Farming or Curcuma Farming Info Guide for Beginners

Tips for Growing Turmeric

Sustainable Turmeric Initiative: An Innovative Method for Cultivation of Turmeric

Some YouTube Videos

F. Michaels : Turmeric Growing Information

Package of Practices for Cultivation of Turmeric

How To Grow Turmeric

Turmeric

Cultivation of Turmeric

Tumeric Cultivation

Production Technology of Turmeric

Boosting Spice Production under Coconut Gardens of Kerala : Maximizing Yield of Turmeric with Balanced Fertilization

C. Tholkappian : Economic Analysis of Organic and Convectional Turmeric Cultivation...

Dr Balwinder Kumar : Growth, yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as influenced by different planting method, plant density and planting material

Turmeric Organic Farming : Package of Practices

N. S Alahin, et al. : Degradation of Soil Properties under… Turmeric… Cultivation…

K. Ashraf:  Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma...

Cultivation of Turmeric

Turmeric -- Package of Practices

Golden Treasure of Ayurveda : Organic Cultivation of Turmeric

Turmeric

Video : Growing turmeric organically

S.S. Manhas, et al. : Effect of Different Planting Material, Planting Dates and Harvesting Dates on Economy of Turmeric Crop

IN2250MU2013  : Electronic Turmeric Processing

CN104396472 : Cultivation method for turmeric

CN103444392 : Ridge-bed interplanting symbiotic cultivation method of konjak and turmeric

CN103125312 : Turmeric greenhouse cultivation method

CN102755990 : Method of repairing heavy metal contaminated soil by utilizing turmeric

CN102113439 : High-yield cultivation technology of common turmeric


 






http://www.agrifarming.in/turmeric-farming

Turmeric Farming or Curcuma Farming Info Guide for Beginners

Mother rhizomes are used for planting and well developed healthy and disease free rhizomes are to be selected. Small pits are made with a hand hoe in the beds in rows with spacing of 25 cm x 30 cm and covered with soil or dry powdered cattle manure. The optimum spacing in furrows and ridges is between 45-60 cm between the rows and 25 cm between the plants. A seed rate of 2,500 kg of rhizomes is required for planting one hectare of turmeric.

Climatic Condition for Turmeric Farming :

Turmeric is a tropical herb and is grown in both tropics and subtropics. It will grow luxuriantly in shade if not too dense, but it produces larger and better rhizomes in the open ground exposed to the sun. Turmeric require humid climate.

Suitable Soil for Turmeric Farming :

Soils for Turmeric cultivation should be rich and friable. Soils with a little higher sand content (Loams and sandy loams) are well suited. It is grown in different types of soils from light black, sandy loam and red soils to clay loams. It grows on light black, ashy loam and red soils to stiff loams in irrigated and rain fed areas.

Land Preparation for Turmeric Farming :

In Turmeric Farming ,while preparing the land, minimum tillage operations may be adopted. Beds of 15 cm height,1 m width and of convenient length may be prepared giving at least 50 cm spacing between beds. In the case of the irrigated crop, ridges and furrows are prepared and the rhizomes are planted in shallow pits on the top of the ridges. Spacing generally adopted is 45-60 cm between the ridges and 15-20 cm between the plants. Solarisation of beds is beneficial in checking the multiplication of pests and diseases causing organisms. The polythene sheets used for soil solarisation should be kept away safely after the work is completed.

Plantation Time for Turmeric Farming :

Planting season varies with the area of cultivation and variety. Planting is done during May-June or July- August in different tracts. Turmeric can be rotated with crops such as Finger millet, Rice and Sugarcane. It is rarely cultivated in pure stand, but is usually grown mixed with crops like Castor, Maize , and Finger millet, Onions, Brinjal and Tomato .

Planting material in Turmeric Farming :

In Turmeric Farming, carefully preserved seed rhizomes free from pests and diseases which are collected from organically cultivated farms should be used for planting. However, to begin with seed material from high yielding local varieties may be used in the absence of organically produced seeds. For sowing, both the mother rhizomes and fingers are used. The fingers are cut into 4 - 5 cm long pieces, and the mother rhizomes are planted as such or split into two; each having at least one sound bud. The seed is sometimes sprouted under moist straw before sowing.

Irrigation or water supply for Turmeric Farming :

For turmeric number of irrigations will depend upon the soil and climatic conditions. Depending upon the soils and rainfall 15 to 25 irrigations are given in medium heavy soils and in case of light textured red soils 35-40 irrigations are needed.

Crop Rotation for Turmeric Farming :

Turmeric is grown in rotation with sugar cane, chilli, onion, garlic, elephant foot yam, vegetables, pulses, wheat , ragi and maize. It is cultivated as a subsidiary crop to ginger in some areas and in other areas with chilli and quick-growing vegetables.

Manures and Fertilization in Turmeric Farming :

Mostly for good crop and maximum output the farmers are using natural fertilizers, animal dungs, and avoid using chemicals or other harmful pesticides.Turmeric needs heavy manuring. Application of well rotten cow dung or compost from own farm @2-3 tonne /acre may be given as basal dose while planting rhizomes in the pits. In addition, application of neem cake @ 0.8 tonnes/ acre is also desirable.

Pests and Disease Control in Turmeric Farming :

If shoot borer incidence is noticed, such shoots may be cut open and larve picked out and destroyed. If necessary neem oil 0.5% may be sprayed at fortnightly intervals.

No major disease is noticed in turmeric. Leaf spot and leaf blotch can be controlled by restricted use of Bordeaux mixture 1%. Application of Trichoderma at the time of planting can check the incidence of rhizome rot.

Harvesting Turmeric :

Turmeric harvesting -- Usually harvesting extends from January to March-April. Early varieties mature in 7-8 months and medium varieties in 8-9 months. The crop is ready for harvesting when the leaves turn yellow and start drying up. At the time of maturity, leaves are cut close to the ground, the land is ploughed and rhizomes are gathered by hand-picking or the clumps are carefully lifted with a spade. The picked rhizomes are collected and cleaned. The mother and finger rhizomes are separated before curing. Harvesting is done by either manually or by mechanical.

Curing, Boiling & Drying of Turmeric Fingers :

Turmeric finger boiling Curing involves boiling of fresh rhizomes in water and drying in the sun. The objective of boiling is to destroy the viability of the fresh rhizomes and to obviate the raw odor, to reduce the drying time, to gelatinize the starch for hardening the rhizomes and give a more uniform colored product and an even distribution of color in the rhizome. In the traditional methods, the cleaned rhizomes are boiled in copper or galvanized iron or earthen vessels, with water just enough to soak them. Boiling process should be done over a slow fire until they softened. Boiling is stopped when froth comes out and white fumes appear giving out a typical odor when properly cooked, the rhizomes would be soft and yield when pressed between fingers. The boiling lasts for 45 to 60 minutes when the rhizomes are soft. Over cooking spoils the color of final product while under cooking renders the dried product brittle. Turmeric drying Turmeric drying The cooking of turmeric is to be done within two or three days after harvesting. The mother rhizomes and the fingers are generally cured separately.The cooked fingers are dried in the sun by spreading 5 to 7 cm thick layers on bamboo mat or drying floor. A thinner layer is not desirable, as the colour of the dried product may be adversely affected. It may take 10 to 15 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry. The yield of the dry product varies from 20 to 30 percent depending upon the variety and the location where the crop is grown.

Preservation of Turmeric seed :

Rhizomes for seed are generally heaped under the shade of trees or in well-ventilated sheds and covered with turmeric leaves. Sometimes, the heap is plastered over with earth mixed with cow dung. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with sawdust. The pits can be covered with wooden planks with one or two holes for aeration. 5.13

Yield of Turmeric :

Ready to Market Turmeric

The yield of pure crop varies from 8000 to 10000 kg per acre. Under exceptionally favourable conditions, viz. abundant manuring and copious irrigation it may be as high as 12000 kg per

http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/organic-herbs/growing-turmeric

Tips for Growing Turmeric

Turmeric

COMMON NAMES:

Commonly known as turmeric, turmeric aVnd curcumin.

LATIN NAME:

Curcumae Longae

HISTORY:

This root is highly revered in Ayurvedic medicine, as well as general South Asian cuisine. Native to Southern Asia, the name curcuma comes from the Arabic word "kurkum", or "saffron", and is an indication of its relationship to the vibrant orange color of both herbs. Since Biblical times, turmeric has been used to spice foods, make perfume and color clothing.

HERBAL PROPERTIES AND USES:

Turmeric has a vast variety of medicinal uses. In traditional medicine, it used to treat liver ailments, ulcers, parasitic infections, skin problems, bruises, joint pain and inflammation, sprains, strains, cold and flu symptoms, as well as a general digestive aid. Scientific research shows that turmeric aids in breaking down liver toxins, strengthens the functioning of the gallbladder, aids in lipid (fat) metabolizing, and stops blood clotting. In general, it is a good anti-inflammatory agent. What is more, recent studies show that turmeric may help prevent colon, breast, lung and other forms of cancers.

Turmeric Cultivation and Growing Methods

ANNUAL/PERRENIAL PLANT:

Perennial that re-shoots every spring.

PARTS USED:

Root

SOIL REQUIREMENTS:

Well drained, fertile soil

SUN REQUIREMENTS:

Turmeric prefers warm direct or indirect sun.

GROWING ZONES:

Turmeric is a tropical plant that does well when given abundant heat and moisture. This root will grow well in any region that has a temperate summer, and will die in the winter. USDA Zones 7b-10b

PLANTING TIME:

Unless you live in the tropics, where it can be planted anytime, plant in late spring. Fresh roots can be planted directly into soil.

POLLINATION:

The dried rhizome of turmeric can be used in subsequent plantings.

FLOWERING/SEEDING TIME:

Turmeric shoots appear in about two months from planting. The rhizomes can usually be harvested from seven to ten months after planting, when leaves and stems become dry.

HARVESTING:

When the plant has changed from abundant green to dry, dig up the entire plant, ensuring that you dig up the entire root (as this is the part that is used medicinally). Plan to harvest your turmeric root at the end of the summer growing season.

DRYING METHODS / YIELD:

Drying turmeric is a fairly complicated process. First you must boil the roots, then leave in the sun to dry, or use a dehydrator. The plant may also be used fresh and raw in a grated form.

PLANT YIELD:

Approximately 700 grams of fresh root yields per plant.

PRESERVATION / PACKAGING METHODS:

Store fresh roots in the refrigerator, as you would fresh ginger. Dried, the root can be made into a powder and stored in an airtight container.

ESSENTIAL OIL USE:

The essential oil is excellent for skin conditions, bruises, sprains, fungal infections, Athlete's foot and muscular aches.

PLANT CHEMICALS:

Turmeric's main active chemical component is a phenolic curcuminoid. It also contains immune boosting polysaccharides.

IS THIS AN EDIBLE PLANT:

Yes

CAUTIONS / CONTRAINDICATIONS:

No contraindications have been seen, but avoid if you are pregnant, as turmeric has been associated with stimulating menstruation and possibly, but rarely, inducing abortion.

DRUG INTERACTIONS:

Avoid taking turmeric when taking drugs related to diabetes (that lower blood sugar).

Clinical Research About Turmeric


Pharmacological actions of curcumin in liver diseases or damage.Rivera-Espinoza Y, Muriel P. Liver Int. 2009 Nov;29(10):1457-66. [PMID: 19811613]

Analysis of minor curcuminoids in Curcuma longa L. by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. Li W, Xiao H, Wang L, Liang X. Se Pu. 2009 May;27(3):264-9. Chinese. [PMID: 19803127]

Effect of phospholipid composition on characteristics of liposomes containing zedoary turmeric oil]. Chen J, Zhu K, Cheng NN, Wang WM, Bian Z, Lu TL, Mao CQ, Cai BC. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009 May;32(5):777-80. Chinese. [PMID: 19771852]

Stability of lipid constituents in radiation processed fenugreek seeds and turmeric: role of phenolic antioxidants. Chatterjee S, Variyar PS, Sharma A. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9226-33. [PMID: 19769367]

An Anticancer Effect of Curcumin Mediated by Down-regulating PRL-3 Expression on Highly Metastatic Melanoma Cells. Wang L, Shen Y, Song R, Sun Y, Xu J, Xu Q. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Sep 24. (doi:10.1124/mol.109.059105) [Epub ahead of print].

References

Lust, John, N.D. "The Herb Book", Bantam Books. 1979.

Turmeric. Review of Natural Products. Facts & Comparisons 4.0. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health; June 2009.

Steven D. Ehrlich, N.M.D., private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

Chan, E.W.C. et al. (2009). "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". Food Chemistry 113 (1): 166–172.

Foods That Help Fight Chronic Pain". AOL Health. Retrieved October 2009.



http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/othercrops/otherSCI/InTN_STI_Baskaran092712.pdf

Sustainable Turmeric Initiative:
An Innovative Method for Cultivation of Turmeric


WHY ARE FARMERS SWITCHING TO STI?
Turmeric cultivation is simplified in accordance with basic principles of SRI
Production of healthier seedlings
Maintenance and enhancement of the long-term fertility of the soil, and savings of water and electricity
Reduction in the seed material needed from turmeric rhizomes Improvement in the social and economical status of the farming community

CULTIVATION PRACTICES INVOLVED

Land preparation:

While preparing the nursery for turmeric production, at the same time we cultivate a green manure crop (Daincha) in the main field. While preparing the land, the usual tillage operation may be adopted. Farmyard manure (FYM), neem cake, basal fertilizers, and micronutrients are applied to the soil as recommended. Beds should be prepared – 15 cm in height and 120 cm in width, and a convenient length – with at least 30cm spacing between the beds. In the case of irrigated crops, ridges and furrows are prepared, and the seedlings are planted on the top of the bed. Spacing generally adopted is 40 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants, compared with 30 cm by 30 cm with standard methods.

Planting materials:

With this new methodology, we use sections of seed rhizomes weighing 20 to 35 grams each. For an acre, 180 kg of seed rhizomes are needed (usually there are 30 to 50 rhizomes per kg, with single rhizomes having a length of 7 to 9 cm, and a perimeter of 7 to 8 cm ). Single rhizomes are cut into 3 to 4 pieces, each having 2 rings with a bulged portion. In a single rhizome, 8 to 10 rings are seen. We need about 22,000 pieces per acre (55,000 per ha).

Seed Treatment:

Fungicide (any type) - 2 gms / one liter of water
Insecticide (any type) - 2 mls / one liter of water
Urea - 5 gms / one liter of water
The fungicide used is organic, so no inorganic fungicides are used.
The above materials are soaked in water for half an hour, after which they are kept for warming in air-tight gunny bags for eight days in a protected area. This should initiate the germination, which starts earlier in the bulged portions that protrude outward.

Pro-Tray Filling:

Farmers fill the trays in which seedlings are to be raised with coco-peat, vermi-compost, some Effective Microorganisms (EM) solution, Trichoderma viridae, Pseudomonas, and a mixer. Then the trays are filled with partially-germinated seed, and the remaining space in the pits is filled with the above mixer of coco peat. Then the trays are kept under a shade net for 40 to 45 days. The usual daily maintenance activities are taken to ensure proper growth.

Transplantation:

After 40 days, we plant the seedlings in the main field with the support of drip irrigation and fertigation. Spacing between rows for STI is 40 cm between rows, and 30 cm between plants, while conventional spacing is 30 cm by 30 cm, as noted above. We have to protect the crop properly and carefully from pests and diseases through organic and inorganic methods. The materials used are listed in the comparative cost accounting below.

YIELD:

From a well-maintained crop, we get nearly 25 quintals (dried weight) per acre. This is 12.5 tons per acre, which is 25% more than what is achieved with conventional production methods, 10.0 tons per acre.

WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS WITH SRI?

These practices were inspired by the experiences that Thambal farmers have had with using the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Turmeric is a very different plant from rice, but some of the basic ideas for SRI turn out to be relevant for turmeric even though it is a rhizome-based crop, and not a grain.

1. With STI, the planting material is reduced drastically, as with SRI -- by more than 80%.

2. Spacing between the plants is also reduced, although not as much as with SRI; the plant-to-plant distance for STI is one-third greater than in conventional turmeric cultivation.

3. Fertilization is not much different; but organic fertilization is increased with green manure (dhaincha) applied to the crop, and the materials used for crop protection are all organic.

4. With STI, irrigation applications are reduced by two-thirds, which is effective because of the plants' greater root growth and the better structure of the soil given its more organic management.

5. STI requires more careful management as with SRI, but costs are reduced and the results are very worthwhile.

COST COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL vs. STI

The main factor driving or limiting farmers' turmeric cultivation is their cost of cultivation. The crop generally requires more cost and more care than others. In the previous two years, farmers got more income because of higher price; but this year they face heavy losses because of lower prices. Still, STI reduces the loss for farmers as yield is more with 20% less cost. The significant improvement in farmers' net income from turmeric production with STI methods is seen below.






Some YouTube Videos :

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5dn0Eyp3QTc
Turmeric cultivation : How to grow Turmeric Crop Part-2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRhDXLkphW4
How to Plant and Grow Turmeric

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNgGrogSf98
Turmeric in bloom, and how to grow this spice.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpvV1F578DM
Growing Turmeric in Containers



https://www.greenharvest.com.au/Plants/Information/Turmeric.html

TURMERIC GROWING INFORMATION

by

Frances Michaels

BOTANICAL NAME: Curcuma domestica syn. Curcuma longa
COMMON NAMES:  turmeric; Indian saffron; ukon; nghe; wong-keong
FAMILY:  Zingiberaceae, the ginger family

PLANT DESCRIPTION

Turmeric is native to the monsoon forests of south east Asia. It is a perennial herb to 1m tall with underground rhizomes. It produces tall, very beautiful, white flower spikes, if clumps are left undisturbed for a year. The flower is so attractive that it is worth growing for this alone. It requires a well-drained soil, frost-free climate and 1000 to 2000mm of rain annually or supplementary irrigation. It thrives best on loamy or alluvial fertile soils and cannot stand waterlogging. Heavy shade will reduce the yield but light shade is beneficial.

USES

Ground turmeric comprises 25% of curry powder and is used to give it a yellow colour. The harvested rhizomes are boiled and sun-dried for 7-8 days but can be used fresh. It is also used as a yellow food dye, replacing tetrazine. Leaves wrapped around fish flavour it during cooking. In Indonesia, the young shoots and rhizome tips are eaten raw.

PLANTING DETAILS

Plant turmeric in September or October, into a warm soil. The rhizomes should be planted 5-7 cm deep. It is often planted on ridges, usually about 30-45 cm apart and with 15-30 cm between plants. The crop is planted by setts (small rhizomes) with one or two buds. Approximately 1,700 kg of setts are required to one hectare. Expected yield would be 13 to 35 tonnes/ha of fresh turmeric. In cooler areas of Australia turmeric can be grown in glasshouses. Like all herbaceous perennials clumps of turmeric need to be broken up and fresh pieces planted every 3 to 4 years.

HARVEST

Rhizomes are harvested 9 to 10 months after planting, the lower leaves turning yellow or stems drying and falling over are indications of maturity. It is possible for the home gardener to just dig carefully at the side of a clump and remove rhizomes as needed rather than harvesting the whole clump...



http://agriinfo.in/default.aspx?page=topic&superid=2&topicid=1376

Package of Practices for Cultivation of Turmeric

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa
Family: Zingiberaceae
Origin: South East Asian region (India)

Uses of Turmeric:

1. Used as a conditioner.

2. Useful as a dye wife varied uses in drug and cosmetic industries.

3. Used medicinally fof external application and consumed as a stimulant.

Area and Production:

India is the largest producer of turmeric with a annual production of 3.49 lakh tones (1991-92) and 4.35 lakh tones (96-97). The turmeric export-stands at 18.95 thousand, tones (92-93) and 25 M thousand tones (96-97). The major producing states are Tamil Nadu, A. P. and Orissa.

Soil:

1. Different kinds of soils such as sandy loam to clay loam or alluvial soils are suitable. Well-drained loamy soils are the best.

2. Soil should be rich in organic matter and uniform in texture.

3. Rich loamy soils having natural drainage and irrigation facilities are the best

4. Turmeric cannot withstand water stagnation or alkalinity.

Climate:

1. Tropical crop, requiring warm and humid climate.

2. Temperature range-246C to 28°C.

3. Growth ceases when, temperature falls below 20°C, and hence early-planted turmeric gives good yield.

4. Thrives well in localities with annual rainfall from 70 - 225 cm.

5. Can be grown at an altitude of 1200 m.

Cultivation of Turmeric:

I) Seed Material:
a. Seed Selection:

1. Seed of turmeric consists of rhizomes.

2. Both mother and finger rhizomes are used.

3. The fingers are cut into pieces, each 4-5 cm long with 1-2 buds. Mother rhizomes are planted as such or split into two, each having one sound bud.

4. Mother rhizomes are preferred since they give 50% more yields than the finger rhizome and also give good growth.

5. Large sized, plumy and healthy mother rhizomes at least 100 g in weight should be used.

b. Seed Rate:

1. Varies according to type of planting material, spacing and weight of rhizomes.

2. Mother rhizomes: 2000-2500 kg/ha.

3. Finger rhizomes: 1500-2000 kg/ha.

4. For Maharashtra: 2250 kg/ha.

5. As an intercrop in fruit garden: 400 - 500 kg/ha.

c. Seed Treatment:

Rhizomes are treated with 50 Lindane powder and Bavistine (2 g/1) by dipping for 15-20 minutes for prevention of diseases and rhizomes fly during early period.

II) Preparation of Land:

1. Starts immediately after harvest of previous crop or with/onset of early rains in plains. .

2. Land is ploughed 15-20 cm deep arid exposed to sun for one month. 2-3 crosswise harrowing are given.

3. Temporary ridges are opened to prevent soil erosion on slopy lands.

III) Systems of Planting:

1. Flat Beds: Used under rainfed conditions where soils are light. Flat beds 1 m in width and-of suitable length varying according to the slope of land are prepared.

2. Ridges and Furrows: Under irrigated-conditions where the land is leveled or plain and soils are heavy, planting is clone on ridges and furrows, opened at 75 cm distance and haying 3-3.5 m length. Broad ridges should having 90 -100 cm width and 3 - 6 m length depending on the slope.

Planting of Ginger:
a) Season of Planting: May to July depending on tract. In Maharashtra, second forth night of May is the best time of planting rhizomes.

Method of Planting:

i)  On Flat Beds: (25 x 2.5 cm) in each direction.

ii) On ridges and furrows: 40-60 x 25 cm. Rhizomes are planted at l/3rd height of ridge on broad ridge.

Manuring and Fertilization:

Turmeric is a heavy feeder crop. In Maharashtra, on the basis of experiments conducted at Turmeric Research Station, Digraj recommended fertilizer dose is; 25-31 ton FYM, 120 kg N, 50 kg P205 and 50 kg K20/ha.

Time of Application:


 
Intercropping:

Mixed crops like chilli, onion, brinjal and maize can be taken. In Maharashtra, it is recommended to grown French bean as an intercrop.

Aftercare:

a) Mulching:


1. Done when-planted on raised beds    

2. 2-3 mulching, are given   

3. 1st immediately after planting

4. 2nd and 3rd at an interval of 40 - 50 days.  

b) Earthing up:

1. To avoid exposure of developing underground rhizomes to sun due to soil erosion.

2. Done with light digging, 2 - 2.5 months after planting.

c) Weeding:

1. Pot is kept clean during first 4-6 weeks.

2. Depending on intensity of weeds, 5-6 weeding are given.

Irrigations:

1. First irrigation is given before planting.

2. Second is given just after planting.

3. Subsequent irrigations are given at 7-10 days interval depending on soil.

4. A total of 20-25 irrigations are given, during the life period of the crop.

Harvesting:

1. Starts from Feb. and continues till April.

2. Rhizomes are ready for harvest in 7-9 months after planting.

3. Longa type - 9 months, Amada type - 8 months and Aromatica type - 7 months.

4. State: Turmeric is harvested when leaves start yellowing and ultimately the stem dries down. The plants are-cut close to the ground.

5. The crop is irrigated lightly for easy digging.

6. Harvesting consists of digging of underground clumps of rhizomes with Pick axe or digging fork.

7. Fingers are separated from mother rhizomes.

Yield:

250-300 q/ha for fresh rhizomes. In Maharashtra the average yield is 225 g/ha. Cured Produce: 20-25 % of fresh rhizome by weight

Preservation of Seed:

Rhizomes for seed are heaped in the shade of trees or in well ventilated sheds and covered with turmeric leaves. Sometimes the heap is plastered over with earth mixed with cow dung.

Quality of Finger:

1. Should be free from chemichrome

2. Extraneous matter should be less than 2 %

Quality of Powder:

1. Chemichrome test should be negative

2. Total ash less than 9 %

3. Moisture less than 13 %

Turmeric Oil:

A volatile oil is obtained by steam distillation of ground turmeric after 8-10 hours. The oil is pale yellow to orange yellow in colour. The aroma of oil is due to tumerone and artumerous.

Turmeric oleoresin is obtained by solvent extraction method and is highly valued.



http://www.growthis.com/how-to-grow-turmeric/

How To Grow Turmeric

WHERE TO GROW

Turmeric does best in a hot, humid environment. In general, turmeric is only recommended for hardiness zones 9 and warmer if growing outdoors. However, it can be grown over summer outdoors in colder zones if dug up and brought inside over winter or grown in containers year round.

Plant turmeric somewhere where it will receive full sun or light shade. In areas with cooler summers, you should grow in full sun to have a better shot at a successful crop. In hotter areas, it will do well with a little afternoon shade.

Even when growing turmeric outdoors, you may want to consider growing it in a container that can be moved indoors once temperatures drop. Containers will also help to keep the soil warm and moist, essential to maintaining the plant to maturity. Choose a container that is at least 12 inches deep and equally as wide.

WHEN TO GROW

Turmeric takes 8-10 months to fully mature. It is dormant over winter, even in tropical climates. In general, turmeric plants do not do well when temperatures drop below 65° F. Plant in the early fall in zones 9-11. Plant in late spring (well after frost) in northern grow zones.

SOIL

Plant turmeric in rich, well-drained soil. It can grow in most any type of soil, but drainage will only help and thick, clay soils will make it more difficult to care for. Test the pH of the soil to make sure it is between 6.0 and 7.8.

PLANTING

Turmeric is grown from rhizomes (root cuttings) much like ginger, not from seed. In fact, turmeric does not propagate seeds. It can be a bit difficult to find sometimes. You can find turmeric root at Indian stores, specialty nurseries or online. Whole Foods usually carries it. Only plant healthy, firm rhizomes and avoid any that appear to be rotting or diseased.

Plant small rhizomes or pieces with at least 1 or 2 buds (facing up) about 2 inches deep. Water and keep the soil moist but not soaking wet until they sprout. Transplant if necessary once the plants are at least 2 inches tall. Keep them spaced about 16 inches apart. Thin if necessary to give them plenty of room to breath and flourish.

WATERING & CARE

Turmeric needs to be watered frequently. Keep in mind, it is normally a tropical plant. Frequent misting with a spray bottle can help, particularly when growing indoors. Keep the soil moist, particularly in hot, dry climates. Water less frequently in cooler climates and try to keep the soil from ever getting soggy.

Turmeric will benefit from bi-monthly feedings of a good organic fertilizer or compost tea.

HARVESTING

Harvest turmeric root 8-10 months after planting. While the leaves and stems are edible, most people harvest turmeric only for its roots. Most herbs can be harvested throughout the growing season, but turmeric root is best if harvested all at once when mature. Dig up the rhizomes and save a few pieces to plant for the following season. When planting in the spring in cooler climates, you can harvest before the first frost of the fall but will not yield much ginger. Best to bring the plants indoors for the winter and harvest in early spring.

OVERWINTER DORMANCY

Tumeric is dormant over winter. In warmer climates, the roots can be left in the ground and will survive and sprout new flowers in the spring. In colder climates, you need to transplant to containers and/or move your turmeric indoors. If you live in an area with mild winters where freezing ground is only of small concern, you may be able to mulch over your turmeric for the winter to protect them until the spring.
In general, only growers in zones 7b-11 should leave turmeric outside over winter. The roots will survive as long as they don’t freeze.

TIPS & ADVICE

Use gloves when peeling turmeric root as they may stain your hands yellow.

Boil turmeric for 45 minutes, peel and dry for about a week. Then grind into the fine yellow powder used in curries and other spices.

Store roots in a cool, dark place until use.

Aphids and mites by be attracted to turmeric, but most insects in the U.S. are not interested in the plant. Spray them off with a hose.



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Turmeric

Curcuma domestica

Family Zingiberaceae

History

Turmeric has been used in India for more than 5000 years now. Initially it was cultivated as a dye as its’ vivid yellow colour works brilliantly as a colouring agent. Then its highly developed uses were came to know and people started using it for cosmetic and beautification purposes and eventually as a medicine.  Later it was became popular as a spice. Originating in India turmeric had reached China by 700 A.D, East Africa by 800 A.D and West Africa by 1200 A.D. Then it had begun to become popular all through the world. It is known that the Arab traders had carried turmeric with them to Europe in the 13th centaury.

Products and Uses

Turmeric is available in the market as in a whole dried form or in a powdered form. It is also used as an ingredient in preparation of curry mixtures. Oils and oleoresins are extracted from turmeric which is mainly used as coloring and flavoring agent in the food industry.  

Turmeric is mainly used as a flavoring and coloring agent in the food industry. It is also used as a coloring in textiles and preparation of specific paints. In Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine turmeric is a common ingredient. In India turmeric is largely used as a disinfectant in day today life and in religious ceremonies.

Major Growing Areas

Turmeric is grown in wet and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka as a mono crop and an inter crop under coconut.  Major growing districts are Kurunagala, Gampaha, Kalutara, Kandy and Matale districts.

Varieties

Though there are number of locally grown varieties they are not specially identified. There are imported varieties namely, Gunter, Puna and Madurasi Majal. and they have been mixed with local varieties.
Soils and Climatic needs

Soil

Many soil types are suitable. However well drained sandy loam soils rich with organic matter are the most suitable soil type. Ill drained rocky or clay type soils are not suitable.

Climate

Altitude: up to 1500 MSL

Rain fall: For the successful growth annual rain fall should be 1500mm or high. However turmeric can be grown in the dry zone under irrigation.

Temperature: 20 ºC – 35º C    

p.H – 5.5 – 6.5

Shade: Medium shade is most suitable. High shade declines the yield. Can grow successfully as an inter crop with coconut and banana.

Season: Main season- March April

Minor season - October-November - Crop establishment

Planting material:

There are two types of rhizomes as mother rhizomes and finger rhizomes. Matured finger rhizomes are the most suitable planting material. Piece of rhizome should be 40-50g in weight and be with 1-2 buds.

Planting material should be disease free and selected from a high yielding cultivation. Before planting, rhizomes should be immersed in a fungicide for about 5 minutes to avoid fungal growth during planting.

Planting material requirement is 2500kg/ha.

Field Planting

Turmeric is planted in raised beds or ridges. Field should be ploughed up to 35-40cm in depth and tilling soil is done. Beds are 1m in width and length is vary with the space available. However when inter cropped with coconut width and length can be changed according to the available space. Height of the bed is about 15cm and drains, with 50cm in depth, should be prepared in between beds.

Spacing – between rows – 30cm
between plants – 25cm
03 rows per bed
Planting depth - 5-7.5cm  
Planting should be done after the rain. If no adequate moisture beds should be irrigated.

Mulching

To protect moisture and to keep weeds under arrest mulching should be done immediately after planting. Straw, coir dust, dry leaves or coconut leaves are most suitable mulching material.

Fertilizer application

To add adequate Ca and Mg dolomite is mixed with the soil immediately after ploughing at the rate of 1-2 mt. /ha. To get a higher yield saw dust ash also added to the soil at the rate of 3-4kg/sq, meter of the bed during land preparation period.

Fertilizer recommendation



Fertilizer is applied after weeding and should be mixed with the soil. After that beds should be mulched. Fertilizer is applied with rain or should be irrigated after fertilizer application.     
In addition glyricidia leaves can be added as an organic fertilizer and thereby can cut down the need of chemical fertilizer and to protect the soil moisture.

Weeding

Weeding has to be done after one month of planting. The second weeding is done after three months of planting and the beds should be mulched again to protect the moisture. Cleaning drains and earthling up also done with the weeding.

Crop Protection


Diseases

Leaf scorching

Caused by a fungus. Yellow patches appears first and then spread to the whole leaf.  At the serious stage leaves look scorched. Agronomic practices and cultural methods are used as protection measures and if the problem is serious Macozeb-2 is sprayed.

Other diseases in turmeric are Leaf blotch, leaf rot and Rhizome rot.

Pests

Stem borer

Stem borer is the major pest attacks to turmeric cultivation. Adult moth lays eggs in leaf sheaths and caterpillar enters to the pseudo stem and damages the internal tissues of the plant. Initially plants become yellow then turn into brown and die. Dead heart symptom is the clear evidence to identify the presence of stem borer. Damaged plant parts have to be destroyed to control the spread and if the condition is serious recommended insecticide has to be sprayed.    

Leaf rolling caterpillars and scale insects are other minor pest attacks.

Harvesting

Harvesting is done after 8-10 months of planting. If planted in March-April Season turmeric is ready to be harvested by December – January. During that time plants become yellow in colour and start leaves drying. Harvesting is done with care not to damage rhizomes and attached soil clusters should be removed with a wooden stick.

Processing

Mother and finger rhizomes should be separated, washed thoroughly and remove all stem parts. They should be left for about a day for wilting. Mother rhizomes should be cut into pieces. Rhizomes should be boiled well in a closed pot filled with ¾ of water. When boiled properly rhizomes become tender. Instead of water steam boiling can also be applied. Pressure cookers can also be used to boil a few kilo grams of turmeric. Boiled rhizomes should be left in-door for about a day and then put for sun drying. Drying in first three days is limited to 3-4 hours and after that continues drying is must. Whole drying process requires 10-15 days. When dried properly, metallic sound can be heard. Dried rhizomes are rubbed on a rough surface to become them to bright yellow in color.    
 
Standard quality specifications

Moisture 9%

Curcumin     5-6%

Extraneous matter (to physical weight)     0.5%

Essential oil     3-5%
 
Medicinal and Chemical Properties

Main chemical compound in turmeric is curcumin. Curcumin content vary from 2-6% depending on the species.



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Cultivation of Turmeric

Climate and soil

Turmeric can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500 m above sea level, at a temperature range of 20-35oC with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm or more, under rain fed or irrigated conditions. Though it can be grown on different types of soils, it thrives best in well-drained sandy or clay loam soils with a pH range of 4.5-7.5 with good organic status.

Varieties

A number of cultivars are available in the country and are known mostly by the name of locality where they are cultivated. Some of the popular cultivars are Duggirala, Tekurpeta,Sugandham, Amalapuram, Erode local, Alleppey, Moovattupuzha, and Lakadong. The improved varieties of turmeric are- Suvarna, Suguna, Sudarsana, Prabha, Prathibha, Krishna, Sugandham, Roma, Suroma, Ranga, Rasmi, Rajendra, Sonia, Alleppey, Supreme, Kedaram.

Cultivation

Preparation of land

The land is prepared with the receipt of early monsoon showers.The soil is brought to a fine tilth by giving about four deep ploughing. Hydrated lime @ 500 kg/ha has to be applied for laterite soils and thoroughly ploughed. Immediately with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, beds of 1.0 m width, 15 cm height and of convenient length are prepared with spacing of 50 cm between beds. Planting is also done by forming ridges and furrows.

Seed material

Whole or split mother and finger rhizomes are used for planting and well developed healthy and disease free rhizomes are to be selected. Small pits are made with a hand hoe on the beds with a
spacing of 25 cm x 30 cm. Pits are filled with well decomposed cattle manure or compost, seed rhizomes are placed over it then covered with soil. The optimum spacing in furrows and ridges is
45-60 cm between the rows and 25 cm between the plants. A seed rate of 2,500 kg of rhizomes is required for planting one hectare of turmeric.

Manuring and fertilizer application

Farmyard manure (FYM) or compost @ 30-40 t/ha is applied by broadcasting and ploughed at the time of preparation of land or as basal dressing by spreading over the beds or in to the pits at
the time of planting. Zinc @ 5 kg/ha may also be applied at the time of planting and organic manures like oil cakes can also be applied @ 2 t/ha. In such case, the dosage of FYM can be reduced. Integrated application of compost (@ 2.5 t/ha) combined with FYM, biofertilizer (Azospirillum) and half recommended dose of NPK is also recommended.Fertilizers @ 60 kg N, 50 kg P2O5 and 120 kg K2O per hectare are to be applied in split doses as given below.

Table 2. Fertilizer schedule for turmeric (per ha)

Schedule N                   P2O5             K2O          Compost/cow dung
Basal application           -                    50 kg             -                30-40 tonnes
After 45 days               30 kg             -                     60 kg         -
After 90 days               30 kg             -                    60 kg          -

Mulching

The crop is to be mulched immediately after planting with green leaves @ 12-15 t/ha. Mulching may be repeated @ 7.5 t/ha at 45 and 90 days after planting after weeding, application of
fertilizers and earthing up.

Weeding and irrigation

Weeding has to be done thrice at 60, 90 and 120 days after planting depending upon weed intensity. In the case of irrigated crop, depending upon the weather and soil conditions, about 15
to 23 irrigation's are to be given in clayey soils and 40 irrigation's in sandy loams.

Mixed cropping

Turmeric can be grown as an inter crop with with chillies, colocasia, onion, brinjal and cereals like maize, ragi, etc.

Plant protection

Diseases

Leaf blotch-

Leaf blotch is caused by Taphrina maculans and appears as small,oval, rectangular or irregular brown spots on either side of the leaves which soon become dirty yellow or dark brown. The leaves also turn yellow. In severe cases the plants present a scorched appearance and the rhizome yield is reduced. The disease can be controlled by spraying mancozeb in the pr0portion of 3gm per litre of water or combination of Carbendazim and Mancozeb in the ratio of 3gm in 1 litre of water .

Leaf spot
-

Leaf spot is caused by Colletotrichum capsici and appears as brown spots of various sizes on the upper surface of the young leaves. The spots are irregular in shape and white or grey in the centre. Later, two or more spots may coalesce and form an irregular patch covering almost the whole leaf. The affected leaves eventually dry up. The rhizomes do not develop well. The disease can be controlled by spraying zineb at the rate of 3gm per litre of water or Copper Oxy Chloride in the ratio of 3.5gm per litre of water.

Rhizome rot
-

The disease is caused by Pythium graminicolum or P.aphanidermatum. The collar region of the pseudostem becomes soft and water soaked, resulting in collapse of the plant and decay of rhizomes. Treating the seed rhizomes with mancozeb 50gms in 15 litres of water for 30 minutes prior to storage and at the time of sowing prevents the disease. When the disease is noticed in the field, the beds should be drenched with combination of carbendazim and mancozeb in the proportion of 3 gm per litre of water.

Nematode pests
-

Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) are the two important nematodes causing damage to turmeric. Wherever nematode problems are common, use only healthy, nematode free planting material. Increasing the organic content of the soil also checks the multiplication of nematodes. Pochonia chlamydosporia can be applied to the beds at the time of sowing @20 g/bed (at 106 Cu/g) for management of nematode problems.

Insect pests

Shoot borer-

The shoot borer is the most serious pest of turmeric. The larvae bore into pseudo stems and feed on internal tissues. The presence of a bore-hole on the pseudo stem through which frass is extruded and the withered central shoot is a characteristic symptom of pest infestation. The adult is a medium sized moth with a wingspan of about 20 mm; the wings are orange yellow with minute black spots. Fully-grown larvae are light brown with sparse hairs. Spraying malathion at the rate of 2.5ml per litre of water or Dichlorovos at the rate of 2 ml per litre of water at 21 day intervals during July to October is effective in controlling the pest infestation. The spraying has to be initiated when the first symptom of pest attack is seen on the inner most leaf.

Rhizome scale
-

The rhizome scale infests rhizomes in the field(at later stages of the crop) and in storage. Adult (female) scales are circular (about 1mm diameter) and light brown to grey and appear as encrustations on the rhizomes. They feed on sap and when the rhizomes are severely infested, they become shrivelled and desiccated affecting its germination. Treat seed material with quinalphos by dissolving 7.5ml in 10 litres of water (for 20-30 minutes) before storage and also before sowing in case the infestation persists. Discard and do not store severely infested rhizomes.

Organic Production

Conversion plan

For certified organic production, at least 18 months the crop should be under organic management i e only the second crop of turmeric can be sold as organic. The conversion period may be relaxed if the organic farm is being established on a land where chemicals were not previously used, provided sufficient proof of history of the area is available. It is desirable that organic method of production is followed in the entire farm; but in the case of large extent of area, the transition can be done in a phased manner for which a conversion plan has to be prepared.As a mixed crop it can also be grown or rotated with green manure/legumes crops or trap crops enabling effective nutrient built up and pest or disease control. When grown in a mixed cultivation system, it is essential that all the crops in the field are also subjected to organic methods of production.

In order to avoid contamination of organically cultivated plots from neighboring non-organic farms, a suitable buffer zone with definite border is to be maintained. Crop grown on this isolation belt cannot be treated as organic. In sloppy lands adequate precaution should be taken to avoid the entry of run off water and chemical drift from the neighboring farms. Proper soil and water conservation measures by making conservation pits in the inter spaces of beds across the slope have to be followed to minimize the erosion and runoff. Water stagnation has to be
avoided in the low lying fields by taking deep trenches for drainage.

Management practices

For organic production, traditional varieties adapted to the local soil and climatic conditions that are resistant or tolerant to diseases, pests and nematode infection should be used. All crop residues and farm wastes like green lop pings, crop residues, grasses, cow dung slurry, poultry droppings etc. available on the farm can be recycled through composting, including vermicomposting so that soil fertility is maintained at high level. No synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides or fungicides are allowed under organic system. Farmyard manure may be applied @ 40 t/ha along with vermi compost @ 5-10 t/ha and mulching with green leaves @ 12-15 t ha-1 at 45 days intervals. Based on soil test, application of lime/dolomite, rock phosphate and wood ash has to be done to get required quantity of phosphorus and potassium supplementation. When the deficient conditions of trace elements become yield limiting, restricted use of mineral/chemical sources of micro nutrients by soil application or foliar spray are allowed as per the limits of standard setting or certifying organizations.Further, supplementation of oil cakes like neem cake (2 t/ha), compost(5 t/ha) and suitable microbial cultures of Azospirillum and phosphate solubilizing bacteria will improve the fertility and yield.

Use of biopesticides, biocontrol agents, cultural and phytosanitary measures for the management of insect pests and diseases forms the main strategy under organic system. Spraying Neemgold in the ratio of 50 ml in 15 litres of water or neem oil 50ml in15 litres during July-October (at 21 day intervals) is effective against the shoot borer.

Selection of healthy rhizomes, soil solarization and incorporation of Trichoderma, seed treatment and soil application of biocontrol agents like Trichoderma or Pseudomonas multiplied in suitable carrier media such as coir pith compost, well rotten cow dung or quality neem cake may be done at the time of sowing and at regular intervals to keep the rhizome rot disease in check.To control other foliar diseases spraying of copper oxy chloride 3 gm in 1 litre of water. Application of quality neem cake mentioned earlier along with the bioagents Pochonia chlamydosporia will be useful to check the nematode population.

Harvesting

Depending upon the variety, the crop becomes ready for harvest in 7-9 months after planting during January-March. Early varieties mature in 7-8 months, medium varieties in 8-9 months and late varieties after 9 months. The land is ploughed and the rhizomes are gathered by hand picking or the clumps are carefully lifted with a spade. The harvested rhizomes are cleared of mud and other extraneous matter adhering to them.

Processing

Curing

Fresh turmeric is cured for obtaining dry turmeric. The fingers are separated from mother rhizomes. Mother rhizomes are usually kept as seed material. Curing involves boiling of fresh rhizomesin water and drying in the sun.In the traditional method of curing, the cleaned rhizomes are boiled in water just enough to immerse them. Boiling is stopped when froth comes out and white fumes appear giving out a typical odour. The boiling should last for 45-60 minutes when the rhizomes turn soft. The stage at which boiling is stopped largely influences the colour and aroma of the final product. Over cooking spoils the colour of the final product while under-cooking renders the dried product brittle.

In the improved scientific method of curing, the cleaned fingers (approximately 50 kg) are taken in a perforated trough of 0.9 m x 0.5 m x 0.4 m size made of GI or MS sheet with extended parallel handle. The perforated trough containing the fingers is then immersed in a pan; 100 litres of water is poured into the trough so as to immerse the turmeric fingers. The whole mass is boiled till the fingers become soft. The cooked fingers are taken out of the pan by lif ting the trough and draining the water into the pan. The water used for boiling turmeric rhizomes can be used for curing fresh samples. The processing of turmeric is to be done 2 or 3days after harvesting. If there is delay in processing, the rhizomes should be stored under shade or covered with sawdust or coir dust.

Drying

The cooked fingers are dried in the sun by spreading them in5-7 cm thick layers on bamboo mats or drying floor. A thinner layer is not desirable, as the colour of the dried product may be adversely affected. During night time, the rhizomes should be heaped or covered with material which provides aeration. It may take 10-15 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry.

Artificial drying, using cross-flow hot air at a maximum temperature of 60 degree centigrade also gives a satisfactory product. In the case of sliced turmeric, artificial drying has clear advantages in giving a brighter coloured product than sun drying which tends to undergo surface bleaching. The yield of the dry product varies from 10-30% depending upon the variety and the location where the crop is grown.

Polishing

Dried turmeric has a poor appearance and a rough dull outer surface with scales and root bits. The appearance is improved by smoothening and polishing the outer surface by manual or mechanical rubbing.Manual polishing consists of rubbing the dried turmeric fingers on a hard surface. The improved method is by using a hand operated barrel or drum mounted on a central axis, the sides of which are made of expanded metal mesh. When the drum filled with turmeric is rotated, polishing is effected by abrasion of the surface against the mesh as well as by mutual rubbing against each other as they roll inside the drum. Turmeric is also polished in power operated drums. The yield of polished turmeric from the raw material varies from 15-25%.

Colouring

The colour of the processed turmeric influences the price of the produce.For an attractive product, turmeric powder (mixed with little water) may be sprinkled during the last phase of polishing.

Preservation of seed rhizomes

Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally stored by heaping in well ventilated rooms and covered with turmeric leaves. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with saw dust, sand along with leaves of Strychnos nuxvomica (kanjiram). The pits are to be covered with wooden planks with one or two openings for aeration. The rhizomes are to be dipped in quinalphos 7.5ml in 10 litres of water solution for 15 minutes if scale infestations are observed and in mancozeb 35gm in 10 litres of water to avoid storage losses due to fungi...



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Tumeric Cultivation

5.7 Planting

At the time of planting 25 g powdered neem cake mix well with soil is applied in each pit taken at a spacing of 20-25 cm within and between rows. Seed rhizomes may be put in shallow pits and covered with well rotten cattle manure or compost mixed with Trichoderma (10 gm compost inoculated with Tricoderma). A seed rate of 1000 kg rhizomes is required for planting one acre of land. As an intercrop in a fruit-garden seed rate may be as low as 125 - 200 kg per acre. Turmeric can be planted during April-July with the receipt of pre monsoon showers.

5.8 Cultural practices

Mulching the beds with green leaves is an important practice beneficial to this crop when planting is done on raised beds. This helps to enhance germination of seed rhizomes, prevents wash off of soil due to heavy rains, adds organic matter to the soil and conserves moisture during the dry period. Care may be taken to include a mix of leguminous crops with leaves rich in nitrogen content, phosphorus content like Acalypha weed and potassium content like Calotropis as mulch. The first mulching is to be done at the time of planting with green leaves @ 4-5 tonnes per acre. It is to be repeated again @ 2 tonnes / acre at 50th day after planting. Cow dung slurry may be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability. Weeding may be carried out depending on the intensity of weed growth. Such materials may be used for mulching. Proper drainage channels are to be provided in the inter rows to drain off stagnant water.

5.9 Manuring

Turmeric needs heavy manuring. Application of well rotten cow dung or compost from own farm @2-3 tonne /acre may be given as basal dose while planting rhizomes in the pits. In addition, application of neem cake @ 0.8 tonnes/ acre is also desirable.

5.10 Plant protection

The underlying approach for pest and disease management under organic production is based on a range of preventive and other management strategies to minimize the incidence of pests and diseases. Regular field surveillance, adoption of phyto sanitary measures combined with understanding the life cycles of both pest and its predators will allow decisions to be made

regarding the need to intervene for managing the pest population.

5.10.1 Pests

If shoot borer incidence is noticed, such shoots may be cut open and larve picked out and destroyed. If necessary neem oil 0.5% may be sprayed at fortnightly intervals.

5.10.2 Diseases

No major disease is noticed in turmeric. Leaf spot and leaf blotch can be controlled by restricted use of Bordeaux mixture 1%. Application of Trichoderma at the time of planting can check the incidence of rhizome rot.

5.11 Harvesting and curing

The crop has to be harvested at the right maturity and is ready for harvesting in about 7 to 9 months after sowing depending upon the variety. The aromatic types mature in about 7 months, the intermediate types in about 8 months and the late types in about 9 months.

Usually the land is ploughed and the rhizomes are gathered by hand picking or the clumps are carefully lifted with a spade. Harvested rhizomes are cleaned of mud and other extraneous matter adhering to them. The average yield per acre is 8 -10 tonnes of green turmeric.

Fingers are separated from mother rhizomes. Mother rhizomes are usually kept as seed material. The green turmeric is cured for obtaining dry turmeric. Curing involves boiling of rhizomes in fresh water and drying it in the sun. No chemical should be used for processing. The cleaned rhizomes are boiled in copper or galvanized iron or earthen vessels, with water just enough to soak them. Boil till the fingers/mother rhizomes become soft. The cooked turmeric is taken out of the pan by lifting the troughs and draining the water into the pan itself. The same hot water in the pan can be used for boiling the next lot of raw turmeric which is already filled in the troughs. Alternatively, rhizomes may also be cooked using baskets with perforated bottom and sides. The mother rhizomes and the fingers are cured separately. The cooking of turmeric is to be done within 2-3 days after harvest.

The cooked fingers/mother rhizomes are spread on bamboo mats or cement floor under the sun for drying. The rhizomes are spread in 5-7 cm thick layers for desirable colour of the dried product. During night time the material should be heaped or covered. It may take 10-15 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry. Artificial drying using cross-flow hot air at a maximum temperature of 60°C is also found to give a satisfactory product. In the case of sliced turmeric, artificial drying has a clear advantage giving brighter coloured product than sun drying which

tends to suffer from surface bleaching. The recovery of dry product varies from 20-25% depending upon the variety and the location where the crop is grown. Dried turmeric has a poor appearance and rough dull colour outside the surface with scales and root bits. Smoothening and polishing the outer surface by manual or mechanical rubbing improves the appearance.

Manual polishing consists of rubbing the dried turmeric fingers on a hard surface. The improved method is by using hand-operated barrel or drum mounted on a central axis, the sides of which are made of expanded metal mesh. When the drum filled with turmeric is rotated, polishing is effected by abrasion of the surface against the mesh as well as by mutual rubbing against each other as they roll inside the drum. The turmeric is also polished in power-operated drums. The colour of the turmeric always attracts the buyers. In order to impart attractive yellow colour, turmeric suspension in water is added to the polishing drum in the last 10 minutes. When the rhizomes are uniformly coated with suspension they may be dried in the sun.

5.12 Preservation of seed

Rhizomes for seed are generally heaped under the shade of trees or in well-ventilated sheds and covered with turmeric leaves. Sometimes, the heap is plastered over with earth mixed with cow dung. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with sawdust. The pits can be covered with wooden planks with one or two holes for aeration.

5.13 Yield

The yield of pure crop varies from 8000 to 10000 kg per acre. Under exceptionally favourable conditions, viz. abundant manuring and copious irrigation it may be as high as 12000 kg per acre...



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Production Technology of Turmeric

Turmeric (Curcuma longa), the ancient and sacred spice of India is a major rhizomatous spice produced and exported from India. Turmeric is used as condiment, dye, drug and cosmetic in addition to its use in religious ceremonies. India is the leading producer, consumer and exporter of turmeric in the world.

Climate and Soil

Turmeric can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500m above MSL, at temperature range of 20-30°C with a rainfall of 1500 mm or more per annum, or under irrigated conditions. It is grown on different types of soils from light black, ashy loam and red soils clay loam's. However, it thrives the best in a well-drained sandy or clayey loam.

Varieties

A number of varieties are available in the country and are known mostly by name of locality where they are cultivated. Popular varieties are Duggirala, Sugandham, etc., Among the clonal selections Suguna, Sudarshana and Suvama yielding 25-35 tonnes/hectare and IISR prabha with a curcumin content of 6.52 are important.

Preparation of land

The land is prepared with the receipt of early monsoon in May. The soil is brought to a fine filth by giving about four deep ploughings. Weeds, stubbles, roots etc. are removed. Immediately with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, beds of 1-1.5 m width, 15 cm height and of convenient length are prepared with spacing of 50 cm between beds. Planting is also done by forming ridges and furrows.

Planting

Turmeric can be planted during April-May with the receipt of premonsoon showers.

Seed materials

Whole or split mother rhizomes are used for planting. Well developed healthy and disease free rhizomes are to be selected. Rhizomes are treated with 0.3% Dithane M-45 and 0.5% Malathion for 30 minutes before sowing. Small pits are made with a hand hoe in the beds in rows with a spacing of 25 cm x 30 cm and covered with soil or dry powdered cattle manure. The optimum spacing in furrows and ridges is 45-60 cm between rows and 25 cm between plants. A seed rate of 2,500 Kg of rhizomes is required for planting one hectare.

Manuring

Cattle manure or compost at the rate of 40 tonnes per hectare is applied by broadcasting and ploughing at the time of preparation of land or as basal dressing by spreading over the beds to cover the seed pits after planting. Fertilizers at the rate of 30 Kg N, 30 Kg P205 and 60 Kg K20 per hectare are to be applied in three splits . In areas low in major nutrient status fertilizer rate to be applied is @ 60 kg N, 50 kg P205 and 120 kg K20. The beds are to be earthed up, after each top dressing with the fertilizers

Mulching

The crop is to be mulched immediately after planting with green leaves at the rate of 12-15 tonnes per hectare. It may be repeated for a second time after 50 days with the same quantity of green leaves after weeding and application of fertilizers.

After Cultivation and growing as intercrop

Weeding may be done thrice at 60, 120 and 150 days after planting depending upon weed intensity. Turmeric can be raised as a mixed crop with chillies, colocasia, onion, brinjal and cereals like maize, ragi etc.

In the case of irrigated crop, depending upon the weather and the soil conditions, about 15 to 20 irrigations, are to be given in clayey soils and 40 irrigations in sandy loams.

Plant Protection

Insect Pests

Shoot borer (Conogethes putictiferalis)

The shoot borer is the most important pest of turmeric. The larvae bore into the pseudostems and feed on the growing shoot resulting in yellowing and drying of the infested shoots. The presence of bore hole on the pseudostem through which the frass is extruded and the withered central shoot are the symptoms of pest infestation. Adults are small moths with orange wings with minute black spots. Fully grown larvae are light brown.

Control : Spraying of malathion 0.l% or monocrotophos 0.05% or Dipel(0.3%) (Bacillus thuringiensis product) during July-October at 21 day intervals is effective against the pest.

Leaf roller (Udaspes folus)

The larvae of the leaf roller cut and fold the leaves and remain within and feed on them. Adults are medium sized butter flies with brownish black wings with large white spots. Fully grown larvae are dark green.

Control
: Spraying with carbaryl 0.1% may be undertaken in case the infestation is severe.

Rhizome scale (Aspidiella bartii)

The rhizomes scales infest rhizome in the field and in storage. They feed on the plant sap and in the field in severe cases of infestation, the plants wither and dry. In storage the pest infestation results in shriveling of buds and rhizomes and may also affect the sprouting of rhizomes. The adult female scales are minute, circular and light brown to grey and appear as encrustations on the rhizomes.

Control
: The pest can be controlled by discarding severely infested rhizomes and by dipping the seed rhizomes in quinalphos 0.075% twice prior to storage and sowing.

Diseases

Leaf blotch

The disease is caused by Tapbrina maculans. The disease appears as small, oval, rectangular or irregular brown spots on either side of the leaves, they soon become dirty yellow or dark brown. The leaves also turn yellow. The yield goes down considerably. in severe cases the plants present a scorched up appearance. The disease can be controlled by spraying the plants with 0.2% Dithane M-45.

Leaf spot (Colletotriclium capsici)

The symptoms appear as brown spots of different sizes on the upper surface of the young leaves. The spots are oval, whitish or greyish in centre, Later two or more spots may coalesce and form an irregular patch covering almost the whole leaf. The affected leaves eventually dry up. The rhizomes do not develop well. The disease can be controlled by spraying the plants with 0.3% Zineb or 1% Bordeaux mixture.

Rhizome rot:

The disease is caused by Pythium graminicolum starting from the margins, the leaves get dried up. Collar region of the pseudostems becomes soft and water soaked, and the plant collapses. Dip the rhizomes in 0.3% Dithane M-45 solution for 30 minutes prior to storage and at the time of sowing prevents the disease. When the disease is noticed in the field, the beds should be drenched with 0.3% Dithane M-45 or 0.3% cheshunt compound.

Harvesting:

Depending upon the variety, the crop becomes ready for harvest in seven to nine months, Usually it extends from January-March. Early varieties mature in 7-8 months, medium varieties in 8-9 months and late varieties after 9 months.

Usually the land is ploughed and the rhizomes are gathered by hand picking or the clumps are carefully lifted with a spade. Harvested rhizomes are cleaned of mud and other extraneous matter adhering to them. The average yield per hectare comes to 20-25 tonnes of green turmeric.

Processing:

Curing:

Fingers are separated from mother rhizomes. Mother rhizomes are usually kept as seed material. The fresh turmeric is cured for obtaining dry turmeric. Curing involves boiling of fresh rhizomes in water and drying in the sun.

The traditional method of curing:

The cleaned rhizomes are boiled in copper or galvanized iron or earthen vessels, with water just enough to soak them. Boiling is stopped when froth comes out and white fumes appear jigging out a typical odor.

The boiling lasts for 45-60 minutes when the rhizomes are soft. The stage at which boiling is stopped largely influences the colour and and aroma of the final product. Over cooking spoils the colour of the final product while undercooking renders the dried product brittle.

The improved scientific method of curing turmeric :

The cleaned fingers/mother rhizomes are taken in perforated trough made of G1 or MS sheet with extended parallel handle. (A medium type trough of size 0.90 x 0.40 in can hold about 50 kg of raw turmeric).

The perforated trough containing the raw turmeric are then immersed in a pan with water which can hold 3-4 toughs at the same time. Boil it till the fingers/mother rhizomes become soft. The cooked turmeric is taken out of the pan by lifting the trough and draining the water into pan itself. The same hot water in the pan can be used for boiling next set of raw turmeric, which are already filled in troughs. The cooking of turmeric is to be done within 2-3 days after harvest.

The rhizomes may also be placed in baskets with perforated bottom and sides, and then dipped in covered tanks when the quantity is large or may be put directly into the vessels when the quantity is small. The mother rhizomes and the fingers are generally cured separately.

Drying :

The cooked fingers are dried in the sun by spreading in 5-7 cm thick layers on bamboo mats or drying floor. A thinner layer is not desirable, as the colour of the dried product may be adversely affected. During night time, the material should be heaped or covered. It may take 1015 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry. Artificial drying, using cross-flow hot air at a maximum temperature of 60'C is also found to give a satisfactory product. In the case of sliced turmeric, artificial drying had clear advantages in giving brighter coloured product than sun drying which tends to suffer surface bleaching. The yield of the dry product varies from 20-30% depending upon the variety and the location where the crop is grown.

Polishing:

Dried turmeric has a poor appearance and rough dull colour outside the surface with scales and root bits. The appearance is improved by smoothening and polishing the outer surface by manual or mechanical rubbing.

Manual polishing consists of rubbing the dried turmeric fingers on a hard surface or trampling them under feet wrapped in gunny bags. The improved method is by using hand operated barrel or drum mounted on a central axis, the sides of which are made of expanded metal mesh. When the drum filled with turmeric is rotated, polishing is effected by abrasion of the surface against the mesh as well as by mutual rubbing against each other as they roll inside the drum. The turmeric is also polished in power-operated drums, The yield of polished turmeric from the raw material varies 12-25 per cent.

Colouring:

The colour of the turmeric always attracts the buyers. In order to impart attractive yellow colour, turmeric suspension in water is added to the polishing drum in the last 10 minutes. When the rhizomes are uniformly coated with suspension, they may be dried in the sun.

Preservation of seed rhizomes:

Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally stored after heaping under shade of tree or in well ventilated shade and covered with turmeric leaves. Some times the heap is plastered with earth mixed cow dung. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with sawdust. The pits can be covered with wooden planks with one or two holes for aeration.

Regards

Surya Narmada


Horticulture/ Agriculture Arbitration Consultant, Chennai, India.

suryanarmada@gmail.com



http://www.ipni.net/publication/bci.nsf/0/AB7E6E85B9CE7D4385257BBA006CDBCE/$FILE/Better%20Crops%20International%202000-2%20p10.pdf

Boosting Spice Production under Coconut Gardens of Kerala:
Maximizing Yield of Turmeric with Balanced Fertilization

Results

Averaged over two years, graded N rates applied with 120 kg K2O/ha raised turmeric yields from 16.2 to 19.8 t/ha (Table 1). Similarly, incremental rates of K applied along with 90 kg N/ha increased fresh rhizome yields from 16.5 to 19.3 t/ha. Sufficient soil P prevented a significant response to P application. Application of 120-120-2-10 kg N-K2O-B-Zn/ha resulted in the highest average rhizome yield of 19.8 t/ha over two years. These rates could be considered necessary for a maximum economic yield (MEY). This MEY recommendation produced a 25 percent higher yield com- pared to the current state fertilizer recommendation.



http://www.ibmrdjournal.com/index.php/ibmrd/article/view/47377
DOI: 10.17697/ibmrd/2013/v2i1/47377

Economic Analysis of Organic and Convectional Turmeric Cultivation of Erode District in Tamil Nadu

C. Tholkappian, P. B. Rukmani Devi


Department of Economics, Periyar University, Salem, India

Abstract


The economics analysis of organic and conventional turmeric cultivation have been examined and the under organic farming has been assessed with respect to important sustainability indicators such as conservation of soil, water, power and farmers economic well-being and livelihood security. The study is based on primary data for 2010-11 collected from 30 organic farming and 30 conventional sample households from the Erode district of Tamil Nadu. The organic farming sample households have been found younger and more educated having larger landholdings and better resources. The organic farming is labour intensive, but its cost of cultivation is lower due to saving on chemical fertilizers, irrigation, seeds and agrochemicals. The yield on organic farmer has been reported lower but it is more than compensated by the price premium received and yield and profit stability observed on the organic farming. In addition, the organic farming has been found superior in terms of economic well being and livelihood security of the farmer.


   
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257757668_Growth_yield_and_quality_of_turmeric_Curcuma_longa_L_as_influenced_by_different_planting_method_plant_density_and_planting_material

Growth, yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as influenced by different planting method, plant density and planting material

Dr Balwinder Kumar /   B S Gill

Abstract

A study was carried out at Ludhiana (Punjab) to evaluate the effect of planting method, plant density and planting material on growth, yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa). The experiment consisted of two planting methods (flat and ridge), three plant densities (1,66,667; 1,11,111 and 83,333 plants ha-1) and three types of planting material (mother, primary and secondary rhizomes). Fresh rhizome yield of 164.8 and 160.3 q ha-1 (pooled data) was produced in flat and ridge method of planting but the differences were non-significant. Closer plant spacing or higher plant density produced highest fresh, dry and processed turmeric yield and it decreased with decrease in plant density; whereas, number and weight of rhizomes increased with decrease in plant density. Use of mother rhizome as planting material resulted in better emergence (86.6% and 83.1%), taller plants (49.6 and 50.0 cm) with more number of leaves and leaf area index (4.4 and 3.8), more tillers plant-1 (2.7 and 3.1), higher number (17.09 and 23.89) and weight (136.96 and 227.66 g) of total rhizomes plant-1 as compared to use of primary and secondary fingers as planting material during 2003-04 and 2004-05, respectively. Planting of mother rhizomes produced highest fresh (207.7 q ha-1), dry (46.0 q ha-1) and processed (44.1 q ha-1) turmeric yield and it decreased significantly with decrease in seed size. Curcumin content did not change due to different planting methods, plant densities and planting materials.



http://www.celkau.in/Crops/Spices/Turmeric/organic_farming.aspx

Turmeric Organic Farming
Package of Practices

Maintenance of buffer zone

In order to cultivate turmeric organically a buffer zone of 25 to 50 feet shall be maintained if the nighbouting farms are non-organic. The produce from this zone shall not be treated as organic. Turmeric being an annual crop, the conversion period required will be two years, Turmeric can be cultivated organically as an intercrop with other crops provided organic methods of cultivation is followed for all the companion crops.

Sources of planting material

Carefully preserved seed rhizomes free from pests and diseases which are collected from organically cultivated farms should be used for planting. However, to begin with seed material from high yielding local varieties may be used in the absence of organically produced seeds. A seed rate of 2500 kg rhizomes is required for planting one hectare.

Preparation of land and planting

While preparing the land, minimum tillage operations may be adopted. Beds of 15 cm height, 1 m width and of convenient length may be prepared giving at least 50 cm spacing between beds. Solarisation of such beds is beneficial in checking the multiplication of pests and diseases causing organisms. The polythene sheets used for soil solarisation should be kept away safely after the work is completed.

At the time of planting apply 25 g powdered neem cake and mix well with the soil in each pit taken at a spacing of 20-25 cm within and between rows. Seed rhizomes may be put in shallow pits and covered with well rotten cattle manure or compost mixed with Trichoderma (10 g compost inoculated with Trichoderma). Turmeric can be planted during April-May with the receipt of pre monsoon showers.

Cultural practices

Mulching the turmeric beds with green leaves is an essential operation to enhance germination of seed rhizomes and to prevent washing off of soil due to heavy rain. This also helps to add organic matter to the soil and conserve moisture during the later part of the cropping season. Judicious mix of leguminous leaves with high nitrogen content and leaves rich in phosphorous like acalypha weed and leaves rich in potassium like calatropis can be used according to availability. The first mulching is to be done at the time of planting with green leaves @ 10-12 tonnes per ha. It is to be repeated again @ 5 tonnes/ha at 50th day after planting. Cow dung slurry may be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability. Weeding may be carried out depending on the intensity of weed growth. Such materials may be used for mulching. Proper drainage channels are to be provided in the inter-rows to drain off stagnant water.

Manuring

Application of well rotten cow dung or own compost from own form @ 5-6 t/ha may be made as a basal dose while planting rhizomes in the pits. In addition, application of neem cake @ 2 tonnes/ ha is also desirable.

Plant protection

Pests

Regular field surveillance and adoption of phytosanitary measures are required for pest management. If shoot borer incidence is noticed, such shoots may be cut open and pick out larvae and destroy them. Spray neem oil 0.5% at fortnightly intervals if necessary.

Diseases

No major disease is noticed in the crop. Leaf spot and leaf blotch can be controlled by restricted use of Bordeaux mixture 1%. Application of Trichoderma at the time of planting can check the incidence of rhizome rot.

Harvesting and post harvest operations

Turmeric is to be harvested at correct maturity. Depending upon the variety, the crop becomes ready for harvest in 7-9 months, medium varieties in 8-9 months and late varieties after 9 months.

Usually the land is ploughed and the rhizomes are gathered by hand picking or the clumps are carefully lifted with a spade. Harvested rhizomes are cleaned of mud and other extraneous matter adhering to them. The average yield per hectare comes to 20-25 tonnes of green turmeric.

Fingers are separated from mother rhizomes. Mother rhizomes are usually kept as seed material. The fresh turmeric is cured for obtaining dry turmeric. Curing involves boiling of rhizomes in fresh water and the drying in the sun.

No chemical should be used for processing. The cleaned rhizomes are boiled in copper or galvanized iron or earthen vessels, with water just enough to soak them. Boil till the fingers/mother rhizomes become soft. The cooked turmeric is taken out of the pan by lifting the thoughs and draining the water into pan itself. The same hot water in the pan can be used for boiling next set of raw turmeric which is already filled in troughs. The cooking of turmeric is to be done within 2-3 days after harvest.

Rhizomes may also be cooked using baskets with perforated bottom and sides. The mother rhizomes and the fingers are cured separately.

The cooked fingers/mother rhizomes are dried in the sun by spreading in 5-7 cm thick layers on bamboo mats or cement floor. A thinner layer is not desirable as the colour of the dried product may be adversely affected. During night time, the material should be heaped or covered. It may take 10-15 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry. Artificial drying using cross-flow hot air at a maximum temperature of 60°C is also found to give satisfactory product. In the case of sliced turmeric, artificial drying has clear advantages in giving brighter coloured product than sun drying which tends to suffer due to surface bleaching. The recovery of dry product varies from 20-30% depending upon the variety and the location where the crop is grown.

Dried turmeric has a poor appearance and rough dull colour outside the surface with scales and root bits. Smoothening and polishing the outer surface by manual or mechanical rubbing improve the appearance.

Manual polishing consists of rubbing the dried turmeric fingers on a hard surface. The improved method is by using hand-operated barrel or drum mounted on a central axis, the sides of which are made of expanded metal mesh. When the drum filled with turmeric is rotated, polishing is effected by abrasion of the surface against the mesh as well as by mutual rubbing against each other as they roll inside the drum. The turmeric is also polished in power-operated drums. The yield of polished turmeric from the raw material varies 15-25%.

The colour of the turmeric always attracts the buyers. In order to impart attractive yellow colour, turmeric suspension in water is added to the polishing drum in the last 10 minutes. When the rhizomes are uniformly coated with suspension they may be dried in the sun.

Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally stored after heaping under shade of tree or in well ventilated shade and covered with turmeric leaves. Sometimes the heap is plastered with earth mixed with cow dung. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with sawdust. The pits can be covered with wooden planks with one or two holes for aeration.



http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJAR/article/viewFile/15897/11274
Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 38(2): 363-371, June 2013

Degradation of Soil Properties under Ginger, Turmeric, &c...

N. S. Alahin, et al.

Abstract  

An experiment was conducted in Hill Agricultural Research Station (HARS),  Khagrachari during 2011-2012 to estimate the soil loss and changes in soil properties under indigenous cultivation methods of ginger, turmeric, aroid, and jhum rice in hill slopes. The use of indigenous cultivation methods for growing different crops has created negative impact on soil productivity in hill slope. Among the four crops, the annually highest soil loss (22.68 t/ha) occurred by ginger cultivation which was statistically similar with turmeric (16.52 t/ha) followed by aroid (12.02 t/ha) and lowest soil loss (7.92 t/ha) occurred by jhum rice cultivation. There were no significant changes in soil physical properties like soil texture, bulk density, soil moisture content, field capacity. Organic matter and all the nutrients were higher in eroded soil than the post-harvested  soil. A considerable amount of organic matter along with macro and  micronutrients has been depleted through traditional method of crop cultivation.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25838167
J Chromatogr Sci. 2015 Sep;53(8):1346-52.
doi: 10.1093/chromsci/bmv023.
Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa Linn. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS: An Application in Turmeric Cultivation.

Ashraf K, Mujeeb, M, Ahmad A, Ahmad N, Amir M.

Abstract

Cucuma longa Linn. (Fam-Zingiberaceae) is a valued medicinal plant contains curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) as major bioactive constituents. Previously reported analytical methods for analysis of curcuminoids were found to suffer from low resolution, lower sensitivity and longer analytical times. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective high-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of curcuminoids with an aim to reduce analysis time and enhance efficiency. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed large variation (1.408-5.027% w/w) of curcuminoids among different samples with respect to their occurrence of metabolite and their concentration. The results showed that Erode (south province) contains highest quantity of curcuminoids and concluded to be the superior varieties. The results obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for cultivating this medicinal plant.



 http://megapib.nic.in/ppturmeric_cult.htm

Cultivation of Turmeric

Package of Practice for Turmeric

Integrated Plant Protection | Post Harvest Information

TURMERIC (Curcuma domestica L) one of the major spice crops of India as well as North Eastern hill region belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is used as spice, dye, cosmetic and in religious ceremony. The crop is mainly grown in Jhum fields (Shifting cultivation) without using inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides etc. The soil, climate and other ecological factors favour the growth and development of turmeric and there is a tremendous scope to increase the production and productivity of turmeric in this region. The total area of the turmeric in NEH region is 13.66 thousands ha with total production of 84.06 thousand tonnes with productivity level of 61. 9 q/ha against the national productivity of 39.12 q/ha. A brief agro-technique for increasing yield of the crop is given below:

Climatic and Soil:

Turmeric prefers warm humid climate with average rainfall of 1500 mm and temperature of 20-30 °C. Well-drained, friable sandy loam soil (up to 15-20 cm depth) rich in organic matter is preferred.

Planting time:

The time for plating is March to April in this region.

Seed rate:

About 18-20 quintals of healthy disease free rhizomes are sufficient for one hectare land.

Method of planting:

Turmeric rhizomes are planted in the furrows by dibbling at a spacing of 30 x 30cm. After dibbling the rhizomes are covered with the loose soil from the ridge. The rhizomes should be treated with the 0.3 per cent Agallol or Dithane M-45 solution for 30 minutes and then dried in the shade before planting.

Varieties suitable for NEH Region ~



Manure and Fertilizer:

The highest yield was obtained by applying the farmyard manure @ 25t/ha followed by the application of 120 kg/ha nitrogen, 60 kg/ha phosphorous and 90 kg/ha potash in the form of Urea, DAP and MOP respectively. Whole amount of the phosphorous and potassium is applied as basal and half nitrogen (60 kg) is applied at the time of first earthing up (45 days after sowing) and the remaining amount of nitrogen at second earthing up (90 days after sowing).

Mulching and Shade:

Turmeric requires 2-3 mulching, first immediately after planting to preserve moisture and ensure better germination, while second 40-50 days after sowing check soil erosion, weeds and enhance number of tillers during rhizome initiation. Third mulching is beneficial when rainy season is over to conserve moisture during rhizome development.

Weeding:

It is very important to keep the weeds under control and to maintain desirable soil conditions for the normal growth of crop. The first weeding may be done in June followed by subsequent hoeing and earthing from July to September at forth nightly intervals.

Harvesting:

The crop is ready for harvesting in about 8-9 months after sowing in the North Eastern region depending upon variety, fertility status of soil and moisture availability. The crop planted during March-April becomes ready for harvest by the middle of December at mid hill altitude of Meghalaya. At the time of maturity dry leaves are cut close to the ground.

Storage:

The rhizomes should be dried in shade for 4 to 6 days after removing the dirt and leaves, Rhizome should be treated with Dithane M-45 (3g/litre of water) for 30 minutes before storage. They are put in underground pits, locally known as kattir. The dry grasses/paddy straws should be spread at the bottom of each pit before the rhizomes are placed for storage. The pit should be covered with dry grasses and sealed by plastering with mud to protect the rhizomes against the heat of the sun and to prevent entry of water in pits. The pit is opened in January or February for sorting out the diseased and rotten rhizomes and healthy rhizomes are used for further planting.

Major Diseases~

Leaf spot: It is an important disease of turmeric. Elliptic to oblong, 4-5 cm long, 1-3 cm wide spots are found on leaves. Later on spots become yellow with greyish-white centre.
Control: Foliar of Mancozeb (2.5 g/l) during June-September at 15 days interval is found effective.

Rhizome rot: Water soaked lesion are found at the base of pseudostem.
Control: Treat the seed rhizome with Rhidomil (2.5 g/l) for 40 minutes.

Major Insects~

Thrips: The nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves due to which plants turn yellow and sometimes dry up. Rhizomes formed from the infested plants become smaller in size.
Control: Spraying of Rogor or Monocrotophos (2.5 ml/l) is found effective to control the insect.

Scale:  The grey shell scales damage the crop by sucking the sap from rhizomes and stems and deteriorate the quality of rhizomes.
Control: Spraying of 0.05% Quinalphos or Monocrotophos is found effective to control the insect.



http://14.139.158.118/docs/Frepub/pamphlet/pamphlet10%20turmeric.pdf

TURMERIC -- Package of Practices



http://www.khichdionline.com/golden-treasure-of-ayurveda-organic-cultivation-of-turmeric/

Golden Treasure of Ayurveda : Organic Cultivation of Turmeric

Cultivation of turmeric is economically profitable because of its varied uses & easy cultivation features as already described in Golden Treasure of Ayurveda : “Turmeric” .

Turmeric cultivation favours by alluvial soil & temperate climate, both features are predominantly available in India. Following are the basic steps for organic cultivation of Turmeric (Organic Farming)
 
Turmeric Rhizome

Soil:


Grows well in loamy or alluvial soil with good drainage system. Loose and friable soil helps. Gravy, clayey and stony , acidic, alkaline, soils are not suitable pH- 5.5.-6.5. Water logging conditions harm the plant

Climate:

Hot climate with proper moisture conditions for good growth of rhizome 1000-1200 m altitude preferable. Partial to full sun light is beneficial Temperature upto 40 degree

Land Preparation:

Deep tilth and heavy manuring Ploughing 2-3 times upto the depth of 30 cm. After ploughing 12-15 tonne/acre of cattle manure should be mixed well in the field Seedbeds of 20 m length and 3 m wide are made in the field and distance b/w the seedbeds should be kept about 20 cm for proper growth

Propagation of Turmeric


Propogation:

Done through fingers of corm. Appropriate period for plantation- April end (India) Small pieces of finger corm having one or two buds are planted at a depth of 5-6 cm in the soil. Weight of each finger- 40g. Plant to plant distance- 20 cm and b/w rows- 30 cm. Irrigation should be done immediately for proper settling of fingers

Manuring/ Bio-fertilizers:

Phosphorus and potas affect the yield and growth of plants. So, 10 kg/acre of each should be well mixed in the field at the time of planting and after that 2 quintal/acre of vermicompost should be spread when the field has been irrigated immediately after plantation.

Irrigation:

Field should be kept well moist for settlement of fingers. April- June- frequent irrigation needed

Weeding:

First- after one month of plantation. Periodical as per the requirement

Plant Protection:

To protect infestation with fungus, the finger corms should be kept dipped in a solution of 200 litre water and 10 litre cow urine for 20 minutes before plantation.

Disease:

Leaf Spot


Caused by Cercospora curcuma, 40 kg of neem cake per acre can be applied as a based dose to cure the disease.

Harvesting:


After 9-10 months after lower leaves turn pale yellow. Leaves- collected for commercial oil Rhizomes- through hand picks

Harvesting of Turmeric

Post- harvesting: Small finger like rhizome pieces should be separated and kept aside as stock for raising the next crop. Kept in heaps in shady areas, properly covered with C.longa leaves and some soil, air passage holes should be made in these heaps Cleaned and dried in shade for 1 week until hardening takes place. Hard rhizome pieces are biled for 1-2hrs in 100L of water containing 100g of sodium bicarbonate. 50 g of sodium bisulphate and hydrochloric acid is also added. When rhizomes get softened, boiling should be stopped and these are dried in the field for 10-15 days.

Polishing- After drying, it is polished. 2kg of lime, 30 g sodium bisulphate, 30 ml HCl, 50 g alum and 150 ml castor oil are added to 100 g of C. longa.



http://agri.and.nic.in/farmpractices.htm

Turmeric

Andaman and Nicobar Islands being situated in the tropical rainfall belt, agriculture operations in these Islands are carried out under rainfed conditions. Irrigation facilities being limited, paddy cultivation has its own limitations. Proper utilization of land available with the farmers with the value added crop is needed for the improvement of the economy of the farmers.  

Turmeric being a value added crop may be cultivated by the farmers on commercial basis. Presently crop is cultivated in a very limited area i. e. 38 ha. with a production of 79.00 MT (approx.)

Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) the sacred spice is used as condiment, dye, drug and cosmetic in addition to its use in religious ceremonies. It is an erect, perennial herb grown as an annual crop.

CLIMATE AND SOIL:  

Turmeric prefers a warm, humid climate with a rainfall of 1500 mm and temperature of 200 -30 0 C. It thrives well up to 1200 mm above mean sea level. Well-drained sandy or clayey loam or red loamy soils having acidic to slightly alkaline soil is ideal for its cultivation. It does not stand water logging.

VARIETY:  

A number of varieties are available in the locality where they are cultivated. GL-Duram III and CLS 22 are found suitable in these Islands.

PROPAGATION:  

Whole or split mother rhizome or finger rhizomes are used for  planting . Seed @ 2500 kg/ha .is optimum. Each planting unit consists of bits of 20-25 gm each. The seed rhizomes are treated with Dithane M–45 75 WP (3 gm/lit of water) and malathion 50 EC (4 ml/lit of water) for 30 minutes for storage as well as during the planting time. It is either planted on raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length with 15 cm height or on ridges and furrows. The spacing is kept 30 cm x 15 cm in beds and 40– 60 cm x 25 cm (on ridges or in furrows).. Repeated cropping in the same area should be avoided.  

MANURING:   

The basal dose of FYM @ 40 tonnes per ha may be incorporated at the time of land preparation. The general dose of fertilizers should be (60:50:120 kg NPK per ha.)  130 kg urea, 270 kg rock phosphate and 200 kg murate of potash per ha. The entire dose of MOP and half of rock phosphate is applied as basal dose. Half of urea is given 45 days after planting & the other half with the remaining dose of rock phosphate is given 3 months after planting. The beds should be earthed up after each fertilizer application. Application of neem cake @ 2 tonnes per ha. at the time of planting helps in reducing the incidence of rhizome rot disease and increasing the yield.

MULCHING:  

The crop is mulched immediately after planting with green leaves @ 12000 – 15, 000 kg per ha. It may be repeated for a second time after 50 days with the same quantity of green leaves.

AFTER CARE:  

First earthing up should be given after 50 days. It cannot withstand prolonged water logging and also does not tolerate heavy shade.

INTER CROPPING:  

Turmeric comes up well under sparse shade also. It can be grown as an intercrop in coconut gardens like ginger or as mixed crop with red gram, chilli, colocasia, vegetables and maize.

IRRIGATION:  

Turmeric can be grown either as a rainfed crop or an irrigated crop. In case of irrigated crop, depending on weather and soil condition, 15 –40 irrigations may be necessary at  7– 10 days intervals .    

INSECT PEST :   

Shoot Borer :  The shoot borer is the most important pest of turmeric . The larvae bore into the pseudostem and feed on the growing shoot resulting in yellowing and drying of the infested shoots. The presence of bore hole on the pseudostem through which the frass is extruded and the withered central shoots are the symptoms of pest infestation.  

Spraying with malathion 50 EC (2 ml/lit of water) or monocrotophos 36 EC (1.5 ml/lit of water) during July – October at 21 day interval is effective against the pest.

DISEASES:

Leaf Blotch:   It is a fungal disease. The disease appears as small oval rectangular brown spots on either side of the leaves.

They soon become dirty yellow or dark brown. The leaves also turn yellow. The yield goes down considerably. For control spray foliage with Dithane M-45 75 WP (3 gm/lit of water)

For controlling leaf spot give foliage sprays 5-6 times at 15 days interval during June-September with Dithane M-45 75 WP (2.5  gm/lit of water) or hinosan 50 EC (2 ml/lit of water).  

HARVESTING:  

Turmeric takes 7-9 months for harvesting, drying up of the aerial portion indicates  maturity.  On an average a yield of 25 – 30 tonnes/ha of fresh rhizomes may be obtained.

POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY

The harvested rhizomes are washed well to remove adhering soil. The fingers are separated and cooked in boiling water for 1 hour under slight alkaline condition (100 g of sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate in 100 litres of water) and sun dried on bamboo. Turmeric is boiled usually in copper/ galvanized iron or earthen vessels. It takes 40–60 minute of boiling to reach the correct stage (soft).  

The cleaned fingers (50 kg) are taken in a perforated trough of convenient size made of GI with extended parallel handle. The alkaline solution is poured into a pan so as to immerse the fingers. It is boiled till they become soft. Mother and finger rhizomes are generally cured separately.

The dry recovery varies from 15-30 % depending on variety, location and cultural practices. The dried turmeric is subjected to polishing either manually or by rubbing it on concrete flooring or mechanically in power operated drums. Turmeric powder is added to the drum to enhance the colour of the rhizome. Cured turmeric is screened as finger , round and split.

PRESERVATION OF SEED RHIZOMES:

Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally stored by heaping under shade of the tree or in well ventilated shade and covered with turmeric leaves. Some times the heap is plastered with earth mixed cow dung. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with sawdust. The pits can be covered with wooden planks with one or two holes for aeration.



http://www.digitalgreen.org/video/?id=1874

Video : Growing turmeric organically



http://www.agrophysics.in/Published/2009/7-SS-Manhas.pdf

Effect of Different Planting Material, Planting Dates and Harvesting Dates on Economy of Turmeric Crop

S.S. MANHAS, et al.

Introduction

Turmeric (
Curcuma longa L.), an herbaceous plant belongs to family Zingiberaceae is largely used as spice or condiment. It is extensively used as stimulant, blood purifier, tonic as a carminative and remedy against the skin diseases, pain and anthelmintic (Srimal, 1997). India is a major producer, consumer and exporter of turmeric but major part of its produce is consumed with in the country and export accounts for nearly 5.9 per cent of total production. During 2007-08, the turmeric export from India was 49,250 tons valued at Rs 15,700 lakhs contributing 11 per cent of total spices export (Selvan, 2009). Plants originating from the primary rhizome (average weight 19 g) had a greater leaf area and total plant dry weight than the plants originating from secondary rhizome having average weight of 9 g (Maia  et al.,  1995). The date of planting has a great impact on growth...
 


PATENTS

CN104396472
 Cultivation method for turmeric

The invention discloses a cultivation method for turmeric. The method comprises the following steps: (1) germination acceleration and sowing; (2) soil preparation and sowing; (3) field management; and (4) timely harvesting. According to the cultivation method for turmeric in the invention, turmeric seed tubers are subjected to sterilization and seed dressing according to local environmental climate and soil environment of Shucheng, so bacterium resistance and disease resistance of turmeric plants are effectively improved, the seed tubers are protected and growth intensity of the turmeric plants is enhanced; and an added soil conditioner can effectively improve soil quality, enhances adaptivity of the turmeric plants to soil and guarantees sound and quick growth of the turmeric plants.

The present invention discloses a method for cultivation of turmeric, comprising the following steps: (1) germination sowing (2) tillage planting (3) field management (4) timely harvest, turmeric cultivation method of the present invention, there is local Shucheng environmental climate and soil environment, turmeric seed dressing block bactericidal and treatment, not only can effectively improve the plant's antimicrobial resistance, can also protect the seed pieces, increase the intensity of plant growth, adding soil conditioner can effectively improve soil quality, improve plant adaptability to soil and ensure its healthy and rapid growth.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates generally to the field of planting, cultivation and more particularly to a method of turmeric. 

Background technique

Turmeric do gas Po Yu, pass through the pain. Indications abdominal pain, shoulder and arm arthralgia, unbearable heartache, blood postpartum pain, sore ringworm novo, irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, bruises. Yellow food dye can be extracted; contains curcumin can be used for analysis of chemical reagents, hi warm and humid climate, sunny, rainfall environment, fear of cold frost, fear of drought water. 

SUMMARY

Object of the present invention is to provide a method for cultivation of turmeric.  The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:

A method for cultivation of turmeric, comprising the steps of:

(1) sowing germination: Before ginger species come down to earth to be breaking ginger, retaining only requires a short strong buds on each of ginger, seed pieces 70-80 grams is appropriate to the kind of block is placed antimicrobial solution soak 1 for 2 minutes, the solution is inhibitory by the following parts by weight of the composition of the raw material: 1-2 sulfate, sodium lauroyl sarcosinate 2-3, dIDECYL bromide 6-10, diazinon 0.2-0.4, 2-3 citronella oil, deionized water 1000; double decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide was added to the deionized water, followed by adding citronella oil, copper sulfate, diazinon stir lauroyl sarcosine, stir, that was the bacteriostatic agent; after removing drain, mix dressing and nutritive soil, the amount per kilogram of seed nutrition soil as nourishment soil 60-100g, said that by the following parts by weight of raw materials consisting of: 1-2 hazelnut oil, tea seed powder 6-10, 100-120 peat soil, linalool 0.5-1, 4-10 conch shell powder, potassium sorbate 2-4 , sodium ascorbate 0.8-1, each of the above raw material mixture, stir flour, to obtain the nutrient soil;

(2) tillage planting: Choose the topsoil deep, flat, convenient irrigation and drainage, soil structure suitable land, Qiancha non-solanaceous crops, Mushi before sowing 30-40 kg soil amendments, soil amelioration said agent by the following parts by weight of the raw material composition: blast furnace slag 200-320, tripentaerythritol 2-3, 1-2 lactate, dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 1-2, glucanase 3-4, 3-4 distillers dried grains, Taomi 30-40, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 4-6, rice husk powder 20-24; blast furnace slag into a concentration of 5-10% sodium hydroxide solution soak 1-2 hours, remove drying, have to deal with the material, dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride was added to the rice water, adding glucanase Stir, distillers dried grains, 50-60 ° C under Seal Insulation 30-40 minutes, add rice husk powder, and stir until the water dry material mixed with the above process and baked at 90-100 ° C for 1-2 minutes, at the material mixed with the remaining materials after cooling, milling, that was the said soil conditioner; sowing, the Ginger vertical insert the mud, ginger bud all up;

(3) field management: To ensure students emergence must be irrigated planting bottom water, usually until the emergence of about 70 percent, began pouring the first water, the need to keep the soil moist, to prevent the soil surface compaction, the early seedling stage In pouring small water is appropriate, while the soil after watering see when wet, shallow hoeing, cultivation soil moisture, late seedlings, watering frequency should be increased, keep the soil relative humidity 60-70%, in the strong growth period, the soil should be kept 70-85% relative humidity, when the ginger seedlings with 5-6 leaves in the morning and evening irrigation drought, so keep the 2-3 cm deep trench water; more than ginger ginger blast occurred by the end of July, Available streptomycin 45 g / acre or watered performed 1000 times spraying;

(4) The county than were harvested in early November, before the advent of frost were to prevent frost damage. 
Advantage of the present invention are:

Turmeric cultivation method of the present invention, there Shucheng local environmental climate and soil environment, turmeric seed dressing block disinfection and treatment, not only can effectively improve plant antimicrobial resistance, can also protect seed pieces, improve plant the strength of growth, the added soil amendments can effectively improve soil quality, improve plant adaptability to soil and ensure its healthy and rapid growth. 

Detailed description


Example 1


A method for cultivation of turmeric, comprising the steps of:

(1) sowing germination: Before ginger species come down to earth to be breaking ginger, retaining only requires a short strong buds on each of ginger, seed pieces 80 grams is appropriate, the seed block is placed antibacterial liquid soak for 2 minutes, antibacterial said liquid raw material by the following parts by weight of the composition: 1 copper sulfate, sodium lauroyl sarcosinate 3, dIDECYL bromide 10, diazinon 0.4, 3 citronella oil, deionized water 1000; the dIDECYL bromide was added to the deionized water, followed by adding citronella oil, copper sulfate, diazinon, sodium lauroyl sarcosinate stir, stir, that was the said bacteriostatic agent; after removing drain, mix dressing and nutritive soil, the amount per kilogram of seed nutrition soil is 100g, the nutritive soil is composed of the following parts by weight of raw material composition: 1 hazelnut oil, tea seed powder 10, 120 peat soil, linalool 0.5, conch shell powder 10, 2 potassium sorbate, sodium ascorbate 0.8, each of the above raw material mixture, stir flour, to obtain the nutrient soil;

(2) tillage planting: Choose the topsoil deep, flat, convenient irrigation and drainage, soil structure suitable land, Qiancha before non-solanaceous crops, planting Mushi 40 kg soil amendments, soil conditioners is said parts by weight of the raw materials by the following composition: blast furnace slag 320, tripentaerythritol 3, 2 lactate, dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 1, 3-glucanase, distillers dried grains 4, 40 Taomi , potassium dihydrogen phosphate 4, rice husk powder 24; blast furnace slag into a concentration of 10% sodium hydroxide solution soak 2 hours, remove the drying, the material was processed, the dodecyl dimethyl benzyl chloride ammonium hydroxide is added to the rice water, adding glucanase Stir, distillers dried grains, 60 ° C under seal was kept for 40 minutes, add rice husk powder, and stir until the water dry, mixed with the processing of materials, 100 ° C baking 2 minutes, place the material is mixed with the remaining materials after cooling, milling, that was a soil conditioner; sowing, the Ginger vertical insert the mud, ginger bud all up;

(3) field management: To ensure students emergence must be irrigated planting bottom water, usually until the emergence of about 70 percent, began pouring the first water, the need to keep the soil moist, to prevent the soil surface compaction, the early seedling stage In pouring small water is appropriate, while the soil after watering see when wet, shallow hoeing, cultivation soil moisture, late seedlings, watering frequency should be increased, keep the soil relative humidity of 70%, and in the strong growth period, should be maintained soil relative humidity of 85%, when the ginger seedlings with 6 leaves in the morning and evening irrigation drought, so keep the 2-3 cm deep trench water; more than ginger ginger blast occurred by the end of July, the available streptomycin 45 g / acre or watered performed 1000 times spraying;

(4) more than the county were harvested in early November, before the advent of frost were to prevent frost damage.

Proven, the present invention is a method of cultivation per mu yield of turmeric annually than conventionally grown turmeric average annual per mu yield more than 2.5-5%.  



CN103444392
Ridge-bed interplanting symbiotic cultivation method of konjak and turmeric


The invention relates to a ridge-bed interplanting symbiotic cultivation method of konjak and turmeric, and belongs to the technical field of agriculture cultivation. The method comprises the following steps of reasonably selecting a plot; leveling the plot and making beds; disinfecting soil and seed konjak; selecting seed konjak; seeding in an interplanting manner; scientifically fertilizing; building an A-frame; controlling diseases, pests and weeds; safely overwintering; harvesting at the optimum time. The harvesting period is two years. Through the reasonable inerplanting cultivation of konjak and turmeric, and the plot leveling in the north-south direction, the twining wines of the turmeric are effectively utilized to block strong sunlight so as to create a cool and low-light suitable environment for the konjak, so that the good growth of interplanted crops is ensured. The land resources can be effectively utilized, the income of interplanting production is increased, the mutual benefit and win-win effect are achieved, and the object that one plot has dual purposes and two harvests is achieved.

The present invention relates to a konjac with turmeric Ridge car interplanted symbiotic cultivation method, belongs to the field of agricultural cultivation techniques. Comprising the steps of a reasonable option, the entire band for the car, soil and seed disinfection taro, taro species selection, seeding between sets, scientific fertilization, build word "person" rack, insect pest control, safety and fitness of the winter harvest, etc. technical measures, a 2-year harvest cycle. By konjac and turmeric cultivation intercropping, north-south direction for the band, the effective use of turmeric winding vines to block strong sunlight, as konjac create cool, low light suitable environment to ensure the growth of crops in good purpose. Effective use of land resources, increase revenue between sets of production, to achieve mutual benefit and win-win, to achieve a dual-use, one to two income.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a konjac with turmeric Ridge car interplanted symbiotic cultivation method, belongs to the field of agricultural cultivation techniques.

Background technique

Konjac unique physical and chemical properties, with a wide range of applications and development value of its wide use, development potential and good market prospects, is called a sunrise industry in the new century. Turmeric, the scientific name Dioscorea yam, also known as attempting root for yam yam species, herbaceous twining vine, endemic to China, its wild resources are mainly distributed in the Qinling Mountains, Daba Mountain region, the pharmaceutical industry called "Medicinal gold "In recent years, rapid development, a large cultivated area.

Konjac origin of tropical and subtropical forest understory plant, avoid glare, long-term in their houses scattered planting for shade-tolerant crops, with the crop among other crops, with strong inter capacity characteristics. Turmeric belongs to hi light of the climbers, its ability to cling to Joe this strong, turmeric cultivated, needed bamboo sticks, twigs erection Punta frame to meet aboveground vine growing, because the artificial scaffolding in favor of air and light, enhance foliage photosynthesis, promote metabolism, and help reduce the incidence of disease and harm, promote production. Production practice use turmeric winding vines to block strong sunlight, the erection of konjac Punta frame to create a cool, low light suitable environment to achieve coexistence, to ensure the growth of crops in good purpose.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In order to make full use of three-dimensional space position, crop rotation systems and sun needs time difference, to achieve ecological development, reduce the occurrence of disease, ensure konjac yield goal, to achieve a dual purpose one place two received, the present invention proposes konjac and turmeric Ridge car interplanting symbiotic cultivation methods.

To this end, the technical aspect of the present invention are: Konjac interplanted with turmeric Ridge car symbiotic cultivation method, comprising the steps of:

(1). Lot: Option soil deep, loose soil, lighter texture, rich in organic matter, higher ground, permeability loam and sandy loam, altitude 400-1000 meters area;

(2). Ridge made with: take the car ridge planting mode, press ridge width 70-80cm, ridge height 30-35cm, 20-25cm wide ditch specifications from the car as a band;

(3). Disinfection: from the car as before acre spread with lime 35-50kg, Dexon 0.75-1kg, furosemide Nandan 2-3kg, soil fumigation; kinds of taro in the sun for 2-3 days before planting;

(4). Taro species selection: Choose bud konjac nest is small, flat mouth, buds robust, disease-free without injury, smooth surface, medium size bulbs as the kinds of taro, taro seed weight 30-200g; turmeric to choose more fibrous roots with there are 2-3 bud, fresh and free from disease, no annual rhizome rot;

(5). Intercropping planting: planting date election in mid-March to early March planting, take drilling mode, the surface of each compartment opening two deep trench 20cm of sowing, planting row and konjac line turmeric, spaced 40-45cm, spacing 20- 25cm, per acre planting konjac 2500-3000 strains, turmeric 3500-3000 strains;

(6). Scientific fertilization: heavy base fertilizer, decomposition of organic fertilizer use per acre 1000-1500kg, adding potassium sulfate compound fertilizer applied 75-100kg; seedling topdressing urea 3-5kg, growing and then potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliar spray Shi;

(7). Build a "person" frame: within a half months after the emergence of turmeric, turmeric seedlings in a tree next to insert or bamboo sticks as a scaffold technology to meet the growing vine shoot, 1.5-1.7 meters high scaffold, every 3--4 bunch of roots, the upper bundled lashing, erection into a "people" shaped bottle rack;

(8). Insect pest control: Pre-emergence weed in 1-2 days after sowing, with "Wo Nice" or "Dole" and other herbicide spraying and seeding with Ditch. Preemergence weed seedlings are not exposed to the front, with "Roundup Ready" or "Roundup" herbicide spraying and other car surface; growing weed emergence after the turmeric, konjac are emerging in time, use the "cover grass can "selective herbicide spraying evenly. Pest mainly focusing on prevention, early July to late August, with 10 million units streptomycin watered 30kg or armor Feng 1500 times spraying spraying plants, agents used interchangeably, about 10 days time ; found diseased plants, plants with soil dug up immediately, be buried or burned, and sprinkle with lime compaction, prevent the spread of germs;

(9). Safe winter: natural fall after postemergence wither, then do not harvest, combined with clear ditch weed, the trench soil culture to the car surface, thick soil while planting green manure or leguminous crops in the face of the car;

(10). Suitable period of harvest: The following year, konjac natural pour seedlings 7-10 days, choose sunny digging taro; konjac income after digging, 500g more taro tubers can be sold as a commodity, 400g and below the small corms taro taro species as whip.

The konjac interplanted with turmeric Ridge car symbiotic cultivation method, in step (2) of the ridge as a belt, according to the ridge north-south direction for the band, easy turmeric winding vines to block the strong sunlight of konjac.

The konjac and turmeric Ridge car interplanted symbiotic cultivation method, in step (5) of the sets of sowing, taking drilling mode, the first car on the left side line of konjac planting the right species of turmeric row, second car on the left side to be planted turmeric line, the right kind of konjac row, left to right, and so on, so that the two compartments face turmeric "planting row" became neighbors, easy to build a "human" character frame.

The konjac and turmeric Ridge car interplanted symbiotic cultivation method, in step (6) scientific fertilization, when the seedling stage dressing in the middle of the car side (between konjac and turmeric) 10-15cm deep open ditch fertilization fertilization.

The konjac interplanted with turmeric Ridge car symbiotic cultivation methods, to build "human" character frame in said step (7), the two faces of the car turmeric "planting row" for the neighbors, so that the "human" character frame structures on both sides Ditch the car between.

The konjac interplanted with turmeric Ridge car symbiotic cultivation method, in step (8) of the insect pest control, pre-emergence weed control in March, following the completion of 1-2 days in mid-sowing, preemergence herbicide in early April to 4 mid conduct, growing weed in late May to early June (turmeric has been the emergence, when konjac just unearthed) were.

The konjac and turmeric Ridge car interplanted ecological cultivation method, in step (10) suitable period of harvest, when the spring planting refers not accept dig, pour postemergence nature, just do Qing ditch weed management, the trench soil car culture to the surface, and the surface of the car or legume green manure seeding, to ensure the safety of winter; the second year and then in the middle of the car surface open ditch fertilization fertilizing, weeding and other management the previous year, while the autumn together with digging income and turmeric konjac, a two-year harvest cycle.

Beneficial effects: The present invention konjac intercropping with turmeric cultivation of vines wrapped around the effective use of turmeric to block strong sunlight, as konjac create a cool, low light suitable environment to ensure the growth of crops in good purpose. Full use of three-dimensional space position, crop stubble and sun needs time difference, to achieve ecological development, reduce the occurrence of disease, ensure konjac yield goal, to achieve a dual purpose one place two harvest, increasing the production of sets of income, achieve win and achieve sustainable development.

Detailed description

Here are an example to further illustrate the present invention, but the present invention is not limited to these examples.

Example 1:

Konjac and turmeric Ridge car interplanted symbiotic cultivation method, the steps of:

(1). Lot Selection: Select an area 650 meters above sea level, the higher terrain, loose soil, sandy loam texture and lighter;

(2). Ridge made with: the introduction of the car ridge planting mode, press the ridge north-south direction, ridge width 70cm, ridge height 30cm, 20cm wide ditch specifications from the car as a band;

(3). Disinfection: from the car as before acre spread with lime 35kg, Dexon 0.75kg, furosemide Nandan 2kg; kinds of taro in the sun for 2-3 days before planting;

(4). Taro species selection: Amorphophallus select bud nest is small, flat mouth, buds robust, disease-free without injury, smooth surface, medium size bulbs as a seed taro, taro species specifications for 70g; turmeric election fibrous roots, with 2- 3 bud, fresh and free from disease, no annual rhizome rot;

(5). Intercropping planting: planting date election in early March sowing, the surface of each compartment opening two deep trench 20cm of sowing, planting row and konjac line turmeric, spacing 45cm, spacing 20-25cm, konjac 2700 per acre planted, turmeric 3100;

(6). Scientific fertilization: heavy base fertilizer, decomposition of organic fertilizer use per acre 1000kg, adding potassium sulfate compound fertilizer applied 75kg; seedling topdressing urea 5kg, the growing season in mid-July and then potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliar spray;

(7). Build a "person" rack: within a half after the emergence turmeric, turmeric seedlings in a tree next to plug skills or bamboo sticks as a scaffold, 1.5 meters high scaffold, every four bouquet, the upper tying, the erection of a "people" shaped bottle rack , built on the frame between Ditch hatchback;

(8). Insect pest control: Pre-emergence weeding after planting with "Wo Nice" sowing with herbicide spraying and Ditch; April 3, in the turmeric seedlings not exposed to before, with the absorption of the inner "Roundup Ready" herbicide spraying hand side, carry out pre-emergence herbicide; May 27, after the emergence of turmeric, when konjac are emerging, with "Gallant" selective herbicide evenly spraying the car surface weeding; early July to August in late, 1000 million units of streptomycin or watered 30kg a Feng Ji Tuobu 1500 times spraying spraying plants, agents used interchangeably, about 10 days time; found diseased plants, plants with soil dug up immediately, be buried or burned, and sprinkle with lime compaction, prevent the spread of germs;

(9). Safe winter: natural pour postemergence then do not accept dig, November 5 in conjunction clear ditch weed, the trench soil culture to the car surface, thick soil while planting green manure or leguminous crops in the face of the car;

(10). Suitable period of harvest: middle of next year and then in the face of the car (between konjac and turmeric) open trench 10cm deep fertilization, and application of potassium sulfate compound fertilizer 100kg, weeding and other management the previous year; the second year of konjac natural pour seedlings after 7 days (10 21 February), choose sunny digging taro; income dig, sell more merchandise taro 500g 8700kg, 400g and below the small corms taro whip 315kg, as the kinds of taro; another harvest turmeric 1100kg.

Innovations and advantages of the present invention are: First, konjac and turmeric Ridge car interplanted symbiotic planting, make full use of three-dimensional space position, crop rotation systems and sun needs time difference, the north-south direction for the band, between sets of three-dimensional height konjac and turmeric, turmeric is konjac create shade environment, to ecological development, reduce the occurrence of disease, ensure konjac yield goal, to achieve a dual purpose, to a two income (konjac and turmeric). Second hand interplanting cultivation for two years, in favor of increasing the number of Amorphophallus species of taro, choose the specifications 30-200g, medium size bulbs as the kinds of taro, taro average annual commodity production and cultivation of a harvest year difference is not big, but a two-year harvest cycle of production, the second year of each konjac corms can grow 2-3 small bulbs, can increase the number of species of taro more than 6,000, more than 500 pounds; third is to improve the content of saponin, through practice and integrated accounting, turmeric cultivation 2 - 3 years, its saponin-containing high yield and harvest the best economic benefits.



CN103125312
Turmeric greenhouse cultivation method

The invention discloses a turmeric greenhouse cultivation method, relates to greenhouse cultivation of a plant and belongs to the technical field of agriculture. The turmeric greenhouse cultivation method is characterized in that a hotbed suitable for the growth of turmeric is built, a shed frame is built, thin films are covered on the shed frame and a heating supply system is connected; then selected turmeric seeds after the process of sterilization are vertically planted on a heat dissipation layer, and nutrient soil is covered on the upper portion; and temperature is regulated according to different growing periods after the turmeric seeds are planted, management of watering and the like are conducted until the turmeric is harvested, and thus the purpose of turmeric greenhouse cultivation is achieved. The turmeric greenhouse cultivation method has the advantages that the humidity of the soil in the greenhouse is controlled effectively, normal growth of the turmeric in the greenhouse is ensured, occurrence of malignant disease is avoided, a traditional way that the turmeric are cultivated through relying on weathers is ridded, the turmeric greenhouse cultivation is achieved, commodity value and the input-output ratio are high, and large area popularization can be achieved.

The present invention discloses a method of turmeric greenhouse greenhouse cultivation, involving a plant greenhouse cultivation, belongs to the technical field of agriculture. Wherein: the construction suitable for long hotbed, according to conventional setting up scaffolding, cover the thin film heating system is turned on; then choose a good turmeric species after disinfection sterilization, heat implanted in the layer above the stand the upper cover nutritive soil after planting adjust the temperature, until the water management of growth depending on the harvest, so as to achieve the purpose of the present invention. Its beneficial effects in that: effective control of greenhouse soil moisture; ensure normal turmeric grown in the greenhouse, to avoid malignant diseases, get rid of the turmeric grown dependent on traditional methods to achieve the turmeric greenhouses greenhouse cultivation, the value of goods produced and put into a large area ratio and other purposes.
One kind of turmeric greenhouse greenhouse cultivation methods

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a greenhouse cultivation of a plant, belonging to the technical field of agriculture, in particular a Species turmeric greenhouse greenhouse cultivation methods.

Background technique

Turmeric is a perennial herb of the genus Mino turmeric, root development, clumps, branched oval Or cylindrical, flowering in August, contains a variety of chemical components, has good medicinal value and economic prospects. Cultivated or wild in the plains, mountain grass or bushes.

Turmeric contains curcumin and volatile by the oil; volatile oil containing ginger flavonoids, ginger oil, phellandrene, 1,8 Eucalyptus Vasopressin, sabinene, borneol (Borneol), dehydroepiandrosterone turmerone; also contains arabinose, fructose, glucose Sugar, fatty oil, starch, oxalate and the like. Modern medicine that turmeric extracts and curcumin are very good The anti-tumor effect, and the role of curcumin better. Jianghuang Sheng long feared during low temperature, but also afraid of high temperature, High humidity, especially in the latter part of the growth of the roots of the environment once high temperatures, high humidity or soil compaction hypoxia, Lesions also occur; this vicious disease event becomes difficult to control. It is also during the cold season compared with turmeric Difficult using traditional technology planted greenhouse reason.

SUMMARY

Plastic greenhouse cultivation methods of the present invention to provide a turmeric according long desired environment, In particular environmental conditions underlying soil, use a can adjust the temperature according to the different growth especially turmeric Do the temperature of the soil, while at the same effective control of soil moisture and breathable like planting, cultivation methods, Turmeric to ensure normal growth in a greenhouse, to avoid malignant diseases, in order to change dependent on the cultivation of ginger Traditional methods to scientific and reliably ginger greenhouse greenhouse cultivation, and low cost, high efficiency and Can large scale purposes.

To achieve the above object, a method of plastic greenhouse cultivation of turmeric to the present invention, wherein In: the construction of suitable Jianghuang Sheng long a hotbed routinely setting up scaffolding, cover the thin film heating system is turned on; Then choose a good turmeric species after disinfection sterilization, stand planted in the heat dissipation layer above the upper nutrient soil cover, After adjusting the temperature of the planting, watering and other management depending on the growing season until harvest, in order to achieve the present invention purpose.

A turmeric greenhouse greenhouse cultivation methods of the present invention, which steps are as follows:

First, at the seminary about 0.5m deep below the surface provided with a drainage layer of soil and then cover 5cm equidistant Laying heating pipes as circulation from heating layer; then cover 8 ~ 12cm soil layer as the heat pipe; Heat dissipation layer above were ginger planting and overburden; around the body from the bed to the drainage layer above the bed is also provided A thermal insulation layer;

Second, the scaffolding on the bed, cover the membrane, thereby greenhouse built body.

A plastic greenhouse cultivation methods turmeric present invention, the beneficial effects that: effective control Made greenhouse soil moisture; use of boiler heating cycle, both for the control and regulation of the bed temperature, but also has l Warmer than the electric hotbed fast, and heating costs are far lower than the electric greenhouse; therefore, the present invention has both effective Controlling greenhouse soil moisture, but can effectively regulate its temperature varies turmeric different growth stages, to ensure that turmeric Normally grown in the greenhouse, to avoid malignant diseases, from the traditional method of cultivation of turmeric by day, Realized turmeric plastic greenhouse cultivation, and input-output ratio value of the goods and large scale purposes.

Detailed description

The following examples are set forth in detail the present invention.

Example 1

First, at the seminary about 0.5m deep below the surface provided with a drainage layer of soil and then cover 5cm isometric The laying of water pipes from the heating cycle as a heating layer; then cover the soil in the water as the heat sink layer 12cm; heat More layers are ginger planting and covering layer; in bed drainage layer around the body from above to bed is also provided a guarantee Stratosphere;

Second, the scaffolding on the bed, cover the membrane, thereby completed the main greenhouse; boiler, circulating water tank Intake and circulating pump disposed within the body of the boiler room outside the greenhouse, greenhouse heating and water circulation and Boiler hot water outlet is turned on and connected to its outlet in the circulating water storage tank, circulating pump into and out of the head Respectively connected to the circulating water tank and boiler feed water chamber to form the heating system;

Third, choose seed turmeric, diced sterilized by soaking, dry it, and then stand up buds planted in the bed Cooling the upper layer, ginger species covering the upper nutrient soil, cover thickness of 15mm;

Fourth, after planting seed, start heating boilers; when the bed temperature was raised to the required value, to heat insulation, security Enter temperature heating water temperature is 65 ° C; and in the subsequent growth process according to budding period, and birth control bud stage Long ago, during late growing period required daytime temperature, control the supply of heat; the heating is stopped and the night, To ensure that the DIF also meet their growth requirements;

Fifth, the budding period, that is, after each of turmeric plant species to send up to two buds, the temperature control of the bed planting layer System within 25 ° C ~ 28 ° C range; thereafter it will control the temperature dropped buds of 20 ° C; when the seedlings into the raw turmeric Long pre-turn temperature was raised to 25 ° C, in order to promote the growth of turmeric seedlings to grow only at an advanced stage, and then The temperature was lowered to about 22 ° C until the harvest; in wet and dry conditions throughout the growing season according to soil, irrigation water twice.



CN102755990
Method of repairing heavy metal contaminated soil by utilizing turmeric


The invention relates to a plant repairing technology of heavy metal contaminated soil, in particular to a method of repairing the copper, zinc, arsenic contaminated soil by utilizing dioscorea zingiberensis. The method comprises the following steps of: directly planting the dioscorea zingiberensis in the copper, zinc, arsenic compositely contaminated soil and performing conventional cultivation. The dioscorea zingiberensis can normally grow in the contaminated soil, has no obvious poisoning symptoms and does not affect the root tuber saponin content in the dioscorea zingiberensis; the root system of the dioscorea zingiberensis is developed, the biomass is large, and a large amount of various heavy metals can be absorbed and accumulated; and particularly, the contents of heavy metals Zn and Cd in fibrous roots are obviously higher than a soil background value to achieve the level of super enrichment. The method has the advantages of simple cultivation, low management cost, capability of benefiting from one-time planting for many years, extremely high medicinal value and capabilities of preventing the heavy metals from reentering a food chain and gaining certain economic income during contamination treatment.

DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to heavy metal contaminated soil phytoremediation, the use of turmeric in particular to a method for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils, resolve existing plant heavy metal contaminated soil remediation plants exist in small, slow growth, low biomass, absorption and accumulation less the total amount of heavy metals, only a single patient and heavy metal accumulation ability, does not have a good economic, practical application of the combined effect of little problems. The method is direct planting turmeric heavy metals contamination in the soil for regular cultivation. Turmeric in contaminated soil can grow normally, no obvious symptoms of poisoning, does not affect the turmeric root saponin content; and its root system, large biomass, can absorb large amounts of heavy metals accumulate; in particular heavy metals Zn, Cd in fibrous roots in the soil was significantly higher than the background value, reaching the level of super-rich. Cultivation using this method is relatively simple, low management fees, once planted can benefit for many years, has high medicinal value, but also to avoid heavy metal re-enter the food chain, can get some income while pollution control.

A use of turmeric heavy metals from contaminated soil method

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to plant environmental pollution remediation technology, in particular to a use of turmeric heavy metals from contaminated soils method.

Background technique

Soil is essential humanity, an important part of the survival of one of the natural resources, but also the ecological environment. along with Industrial development, urban pollution and increasing agricultural production continues to progress, along with the heavy metal compounds on foreign soil The pollution is worsening (Pambrun V, Marquot A, Racault. Characterization of the toxic effects of cadmium and3.5-dichlorophenol on nitrifying activity and mortality in biologically activated sludge systems-effect of low temperature [J]. Environ Science Pollution Resource.2008, 15: 592-599), soil heavy metal pollution has become a serious global environmental problems. Heavy metal contamination can lead to soil Degradation, lower crop yield and quality of (Luo Yongming, Teng should. Pollution of soil degradation status and countermeasures [J]. earth Soil, 2006,38 (5): 505-508), and with the rain and sediment into surface water and groundwater through runoff and leaching, building. Into water pollution (Mulligan C.N., Yong R.N., Gibbs B.F .. Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soils and ground water: an evaluation [J]. Engineering Geology.2001,60: 193-207. ); Heavy metals in the soil migrate transformation is absorbed by plants or microorganisms, thereby threatening the food chain Human life and health (Alloway B J.Heavy metals in soil [M]. London: Blackie Academic & professional, 1995: 1-65).. Further heavy metal contamination in the soil system with low migration process, retention period Long and non-microbial or chemical degradation characteristics (Kirpichtchikova T.A., Manceau A., Spadini L., et al. Speciation and solubility of heavy metals in contaminated soil using X-ray microfluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, chemical extraction, and thermodynamic modeling [J].

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.2006,70 (9):. 2163-2190). Thus, heavy metals contaminated soil to plants, animals, microorganisms And the ecological environment has brought great damage to human health constitutes a potential threat (McLaughlin M.J., Zarcinas B.A., Stevens D.P., et al.Soil testing for heavy metals [J]. Communications in Soil Science and PlantAnalysis.2000,31 (11-14):. 1661-1700).

Heavy metals from contaminated soil, restore the original function of the soil, it has been a difficult and hot research topics of international (Caecieatore DA, Mcneil MA.Principles of soil bioremediation [J]. Biocycle.1995,36 (10): 61-64; Caplan JA.The worldwide biommediatlon industry: prospects forproits [J]. Trends Biotechnd.1993,11: 320-323).. More classic heavy metal pollution control methods are engineering measures, through the new soil, soil replacement Mechanical and physical principles dig or heat treatment, electrochemical method other physical and chemical principles, to reduce the heavy metal content in soil (Probstein RF, Hick RE.Removal of contaminants from soils by electric fields [J]. Science.1993, 260: 498-503). Chemical properties of heavy metals can be taken based on a number of improvement measures, such as adding a modifier, a curing agent, suppression Reducing agents such as water-soluble heavy metals in soil, and the effectiveness of mobility, heavy metal fixation in the soil, in order to reduce its Harm the ecological environment (Charles M.Wilk, Raghu Arora. Cement-based solidification / stabilization of lead-contaminated soil at a utah highway construction site [J]. Remediation.1995,5 (3):. 103-110). These two types of methods tend to invest in expensive, required complex equipment, difficult to apply to large-scale contamination of soil improvement, most only It is the presence of heavy metals morphological changes, temporary relief of heavy metals harmful and often leads to destruction of soil structure, biological activity Fertility decline and degradation, it is difficult to restore the original state of the soil, etc., and may cause secondary pollution damage to the environment, the processing efficiency Low (Wangxiang Jian, Zheng Yufeng, He holly. Heavy metal contaminated soil remediation technology Situation and Prospect [J]. Environmental Protection Science .2004, 30 (122): 48-49). After years of exploration, Brooks (Brooks RR, Lee J, Reeves RD, et al.Detection of nickeliferous rocks by analysis of herbarium specimens of indicator plants [J]. Journal of Geochemical Exploration.1977,7: 49-57. ) In 1977, first proposed the concept of Hyperaccumulators, the plant is Hyperaccumulators Concentration of heavy metals accumulated strain body 100 times higher than the average plant plants. To the 1980s, US scientists Chaney (Chaney RL.Plant uptake of inorganic waste. In: Parr J E, Marsh PB, Kla JM (eds) Land treatment of hazardolls wastes [M]. Noyes Data, Park Ridge, III.1983,50-76. ) Proposed to use plant Repair envisaged heavy metal contaminated soil. He proposed using Hyperaccumulators heavy metals from contaminated soil, harvested when mature plant After the soil can be taken away in a large number of heavy metals, heavy metals and further purified as industrial raw materials, to the restoration of soil contamination And turning waste into treasure dual purpose (Chaney R L, Angle J S, Broadhurst C L, et al.Improved understanding of hyperaccumulation yields commercial phytoextraction and phytomining technologies [J]. Journal of Environmental Quality.2007,36: 1429-1243).. Because phytoremediation has the advantage of cheap and clean, but also And have a good ecological effects of economic development value, phytoremediation has become a hot research scholars of today, and the hair Show quickly become one of the 21st century green environmental remediation technology.

In phytoremediation, the hyperaccumulator traditional sense often plant small, slow growth, low biomass, or The proportion of those who absorb heavy metals is not large enough to stem transportation (Wang KR.Tolerance of cultivated plants to Cadmium and their utilization in polluted farmland soils [J]. Acta Biotechnol.2002,22: 189-198. ; Brown SL, Chancy RL, Angle JS, et a1. Zinc and cadmium uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens and Silene cucubalis in relation to soil metals and soil pH [J]. Environ. Qua1.1994,23: 1151-1157. ); These plants It was mostly wild plants, ecological climatic conditions has strict requirements, strong regional (Zhou Zhenmin, Zhu Yanyun. Soil heavily Advances in technology is causing pollution biomass phytoremediation [J]. Irrigation and Drainage .2009,28 (6): 26-27. ); And most of them itself It does not have a good economic disadvantage, and thus the combined effect of little practical use. In recent years, people began to tend to search Ability to accumulate general but strong resistance, biological and repair effect of a good amount of plants, such as ryegrass and alfalfa. But these Accumulation of heavy metals in plants may be to feed, fertilizer and other forms to enter or re-enter the food chain and endanger human health. therefore, In practice, phytoremediation, look for strong resistance, biological capacity, short growth cycle, the total heavy metal uptake and accumulation, And avoid heavy metals and re-enter the food chain over the plant, such as used paper, textile, pharmaceutical and other plants, is A better technical ideas.

SUMMARY

Object of the present invention to provide a use of turmeric heavy metals from contaminated soil ways to solve the existing heavy metal contamination Soil remediation plant small plants in existence, slow growth, low biomass, absorb less of the total accumulation of heavy metals, only Single patient and heavy metal accumulation ability, does not have a good economic, practical application integrated with little effect other issues.

To achieve the above purpose, the technical aspect of the present invention is used as follows:

Turmeric cultivation in heavy metals contamination of soils, through its natural growth process of the accumulation of heavy metals absorption capacity Thereby removing excess heavy metals in soil.

The cultivation of turmeric heavy metals contamination in soil is a kind of super heavy metal tolerance of plants, the roots of heavy Metal has superior enrichment capability.

The turmeric for field planting in the field of heavy metals contamination area, choose deep soil loose adaptation of land, often performed Arable land regulations will stem turmeric species live in the contaminated soil, according to conventional fertilizer, when carried turmeric height reaches 30cm scaffolding, Regular farmland weeding, pest management and other fields.

Planted in the soil of heavy metals contamination in turmeric, the roots absorb large amounts of heavy metals from the soil, with the plant Growth, root biomass was increased, the total amount of its heavy metal accumulation increases. When the plant is mature, shoot Sub-withered, you can carry out excavation of turmeric root, and then plant new species of turmeric stems, repeated operation, can effectively reduce soil Content of heavy metals, thereby remediation of contaminated soil.

The turmeric heavy metals contamination in the soil can grow normally, no obvious toxic symptoms, yield about 8000-10000 Plants around its roots mature after excavation, the measured moisture content of 70% 100g of fresh ginger root can be extracted saponin about 0.7g.

The present invention turmeric, also known as Dioscorea yam, perennial herb, endemic to China, mainly in the country's Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Henan and other places. The test showed that turmeric root has a variety of heavy metals Strong tolerance and enrichment capabilities. Take full advantage of the present invention, the enrichment of heavy metals in turmeric feature, which was planted in heavy metal Composite polluted areas, uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, turmeric mature after its underground part by dredging to extract soil Heavy metals, so the purpose of contaminated soil to reduce heavy metal contents.

The beneficial effects of the present invention are:

The inventors experimentally found that turmeric roots of heavy metal enrichment significant characteristics, can complex heavy metal Combined contaminated soil grow normally. The present invention is the use of turmeric for heavy metal tolerance and enrichment of this feature, it directly Planted in areas of heavy metals contamination by mature turmeric roots were dredging and processing, in order to achieve remediation of heavy metal complex Contaminated soils combined purpose. Due to the strong adaptability to soil turmeric, vigorous growth, root system, strong drought resistance, growth Broader, cultivation is relatively simple, low management fees, once planted can benefit for many years, its high economic, medicinal value, widely For the pharmaceutical industry and civilian, and economic manner while avoiding the use of heavy metals to re-enter the food chain. Accordingly, the present invention Heavy metals contamination of soil phytoremediation technology to develop new varieties of plant resources, the use of heavy metals in contaminated soil Sik generate economic benefits, in terms of ecology point of view, or will have important practical significance from an economic perspective.

Brief Description

Figure 1 of the present invention example early flowering turmeric Heavy Metal Content analysis diagram Cu, Zn, Pb I.

Figure 2 is a schematic diagram example early flowering turmeric content analysis of heavy metals in two.
3 is an example of heavy metals mature turmeric Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As content analysis chart.

Detailed description

Below in conjunction with the specific embodiments of the present invention is described in further detail do. But this should not be understood that the present invention the above subject The scope is limited to the following examples columns.

1 mine contaminated soil remediation test examples

Hunan Chenzhou Mining test site by heavy metal pollution of farmland, the farmland soil heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As composite contaminated soil (soil heavy metals in the background values ​​in Table 1).

Table 1 heavy metals in soil background values ​​Unit: mg / kg

Specific approach is: the turmeric seed sown directly in the stem of heavy metals contamination in soil, regular fertilization, when Huang Ginger conduct scaffolding height reaches 30cm, regularly farmland weeding, pest management and other fields.

In the process of growing turmeric, turmeric plant samples collected early flowering and maturity in both periods. Taken back plants like turmeric Products, first with tap water the soil thoroughly clean the surface of the plant, the various parts of the plants (divided turmeric root, fibrous roots, Vine and leaf) separated. Then deionized water washed three times each part of the plant, drain water into the bag and put it into Oven: fixing first 2 hours at 105 ° C, and then transferred to 60 ° C under dry for 48 hours. Baked good with plants like dry powder mill After crushing, were weighed 0.4998 --- 0.5000g sample powder was put into 50ml of dry digestion tube was added 5.0ml of concentrated nitric acid, Digestion was allowed to stand overnight and then the tube into a microwave digestion system to accelerate the reaction. Digestion procedure: 15min rose 55 Celsius Degree, maintained at this temperature for 15min, then warmed to 75 ° C and kept 20min, warmed to 90 ° C again, in The temperature was maintained at 30min, until digestion system to cool to room temperature, with ultrapure water volume to 50ml, and filtered into a clean The PE plastic bottles, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer sample Cu, Zn, Pb, atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer Meter measurement sample of As.

Test results are as follows:

Figure 1, 2 visible, early flowering turmeric accumulation of heavy metals content in FIG Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As the highest portion Bit is a fibrous roots, where Zn, Cd, As accumulation of fibrous content was 266.801mg / kg, 6.58mg / kg, 43.386mg / kg, compared with other parts of the content is particularly significant, in other parts of the content of the times or even 10 times. different In this period of heavy metal accumulation in the case of turmeric showed: Cu: fibrous root> leaf> vine> taproot, Zn: fibrous root> main root> leaf> vine, Pb: fibrous root> leaf> main root> vine, Cd: fibrous root> leaf> main root = vine, As: fibrous root> leaf> main root> vine. Turmeric early flowering is not finished Full mature, the roots will shift part of the heavy metal part to the ground at the same time accumulation of heavy metals, so the performance of the aerial parts Rattan, heavy metal content varies little in the leaves and taproots, and some heavy metal content is even higher than the taproot.

Mature content turmeric root and fibrous roots only partially be explained. Figure 3 shows, maturity turmeric fibrous roots And the content of heavy metals in the main root than early flowering appeared significantly increased, indicating that turmeric its roots in the growth process continues Absorb the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, to the enrichment of heavy metals have a strong ability. In the five heavy metals, Cd, Zn in the subject Roots were significantly higher than background values ​​in soil, respectively 39.1mg / kg and 399.87mg / kg, especially in fibrous roots Cd concentration in soil Cd is 5 times background values, and this is further illustrated turmeric for soil Cd and Zn super-rich ability. Based on the above results show that turmeric in a variety of heavy metals in the soil have a strong ability to absorb enrichment, having applied Compound heavy metal contaminated soil remediation potential.



CN102640651
Turmeric seed ginger optimized-selection and planting method


The invention provides a turmeric seed ginger optimized-selection and planting method. The method comprises the following steps: digging first generation turmeric seed ginger, storing the seed ginger at a light-shading, dry, ventilating position at 5-30 DEG C for 30-50 days, and turning over turmeric growing land; selecting the first generation seed ginger after storage to perform intertillage weeding, medium-term top dressing, irrigation, dewatering and insect control, and digging turmeric from the first ten-day period of January next year to the ten-day period of February when the stem leaves of the turmeric wither and tuberous roots grow fully; selecting plants which have strong rhizome and are in clumps, and after removing tender ginger and radix curcumae, enabling the plants which have strong rhizome, are in clumps and are high in yield to serve as optimized seed ginger. By controlling seed ginger harvesting time and seed ginger quality, detoxicating seed ginger and optimizing seed ginger cultivation and the like, the turmeric cultivation and optimized selection of the seed ginger are combined, not only is the yield of the turmeric increased, but also the high-quality seed ginger is obtained in plantation, and degeneration of the turmeric in the process of reserving seeds for planting is avoided.
   
DESCRIPTION

The present invention provides a kind of ginger and turmeric cultivation preferred method comprises the following steps: the first generation of seed dredging election turmeric ginger, ginger species placed in a dark, dry, dark, ventilated, temperature is 5 ~ 30 ° C at Storage 30 ~ 50d storage, tillage planting turmeric plot; first-generation seed weeding select storage after the mid-fertilizer, irrigation and drainage, pest control, 1 year early to early February, and turmeric leaf wilt, When roots grow full, excavation turmeric; select rhizome stout, from plants to the after removal of ginger and turmeric, rhizome thick, clumps, high yield plants as a preferred species of ginger; ginger species through harvest time and seed quality ginger control, virus-free seed ginger, ginger species cultivated in areas such as optimization, the turmeric cultivation and ginger species preferred combination, not only to improve the yield of turmeric and planted at the same time to obtain a high-quality species of ginger, turmeric avoided in seed the process of degradation.

One kind of turmeric and ginger species preferred planting method

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a Chinese herbal cultivation techniques, and more specifically relates to a preferred turmeric ginger species and planting methods.

BACKGROUND

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) As Zingiberaceae (Zingiber ~ aceae) turmeric (Curcuma Linnaeus) plant, turmeric is a perennial herb, about 1m tall plants, native to tropical and subtropical regions, between 200 ~ 800m above sea level hilly mountain meadows or bushes. Curcuma genus versatile, low production, market demand, product demand, in addition to turmeric and Guangxi have cultivated Curcuma outside, turmeric is sporadic cultivation. Turmeric has anti-cancer, anti-aging effects, but also one of the main gynecological medicine and food seasoning, used widely in the world. Development and production of drugs and the use of turmeric food seasoning is a new industry, in promoting the expansion of domestic and turmeric product markets, while demand for raw materials is also increasing, to some extent stimulated the turmeric planting. Thus, the yield of turmeric directly affect market supply and demand to products and the healthy development of turmeric industry.

In recent years, turmeric decline in quality, resilience becoming weaker. Yields low and unstable. Kind of degradation. The main cause: is on long-term use of turmeric production of asexual reproduction. Susceptible to adverse ecological environment, in particular the virus and high temperature; the second is to increase people's income. Sided pursuit of turmeric production, a large number of blind application of fertilizer, causing soil compaction, pollution, eutrophication, reducing the quality turmeric; Third seed good law is not complete; four selected seed and improper storage methods; causing serious hybrid varieties .

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

To solve the above problems, the present invention provides a kind of ginger and turmeric cultivation preferred method comprises the following steps:

1) In the beginning of the year from January to early February, turmeric leaf wilt, root growth when full, excavation turmeric; grade selected plants, after removal of ginger and turmeric, ginger rhizome as a first-generation seed;

2) The first generation seed ginger placed in a dark, dry, dark, ventilated, temperature is 5 ~ 30 ° C at the store 30 ~ 50d;

3) land tillage, winter weathering, ground leveling Zuoqi give turmeric cultivation plots;

4) the end of the year in mid-March, the first generation of ginger species selected not germinate after storage, no mechanical damage, no spots and bug spots, free from quarantine pests roots, planted in turmeric cultivation plots, when planting seed ginger buds facing up, and the bottom soil adhesion;

5) year from June to October, weeding, medium fertilizer, irrigation and drainage, pest control, once in July earth;

6) 1 early next year to early February, and turmeric leaf wilt, root growth when full, excavation turmeric; select rhizome stout, from plants to remove after ginger and turmeric, rhizome thick, clumps, high yield Preferred plant species ginger.

Said step 1) the classification chosen for the turmeric plant seedlings long, thick, heavy three indexes k class center cluster analysis to select advantages plants.

Said step 2) the first generation seed ginger before storage in daylight Fanshai 1 ~ 2h, light intensity of 3000 ~ 8000LX.

Said step 3) of the ground leveling before ridging per acre composting manure 2000 ~ 3000kg, P2O5 content of 16% of the phosphate fertilizer 15 ~ 35kg, K2O content of 51% potash 5 ~ 12kg, urea 20 ~ 30kg.

Said step 5) Interim dressing for the administration in mid-May to promote Miaofei late June to early July seedlings fertilizer application in early August to early January next year administration of strong ginger fertilizer;

Among them, promote Miaofei of 900 ~ 1200kg and a mixture of composting manure applied per acre of urea 20 ~ 30kg, diluted with water before application to three times the volume; seedlings manure composting manure is applied per acre 800 ~ 1000kg, urea 20 ~ 30kg mixture containing K2O51% 4 ~ 7kg of potash, diluted with water before application to five times the volume; Zhuang Jiang fertilizer applied per acre composting poultry droppings dry mixture of 200 ~ 300kg and potash containing K2O51% of the 6 ~ 10kg.

The beneficial effect of the present invention are: to optimize the present invention, the cultivation of turmeric and ginger species preferably through a combination of ginger species harvest time and seed quality control ginger, ginger species detoxification kinds of ginger cultivation, etc., not only to improve the turmeric production and planting, while access to high-quality seed ginger, turmeric is avoided in the process of seed deterioration.

Brief Description

Compare different from FIG yield grade ginger species.

Detailed description

Example 1 kind of influence grading turmeric ginger yield and quality of implementation

From the main producing areas in Sichuan Qianwei, Muchuan County and other parts of turmeric turmeric ginger species collected 30 samples, sample number and place of origin are shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1 experimental material turmeric ginger species
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From every origin turmeric seedlings in 40 randomly selected to measure their long, thick, heavy three indicators to give 1200 sets of data, the use of mathematical methods of cluster analysis classification. This study used mathematical method is rapid sample cluster analysis of grading, classification method for rapid implementation of K-means clustering command sample, using Euclidean distance formula to determine the distance between the different levels, the smaller the distance the greater the degree of similarity.

Turmeric seedlings in long, thick, heavy three indexes k class center cluster analysis, combined with actual production and operational, initially developed turmeric seed quality classification standard as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Preliminary turmeric seed quality grading standards
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Established pursuant to the results of three graded seed treatments were grade Ⅰ seed ginger, ginger species level Ⅱ, stage Ⅲ ginger species, three repetitions, a total of nine quarters, randomized block arrangement. Spacing of 40cm × 40cm, each cell 39. Agronomic practices and field management and implementation of the same manner as described in Example 2.

Different levels and kinds of herbs turmeric ginger yield as shown in the drawings, ginger yield and yield are female ginger 1 Ⅰ maximum level, Ⅲ minimum level, indicating turmeric seedlings planted grade turmeric can effectively improve yield, seed yield is stout high. The results showed that nurture healthy seedlings, and planted in front of a hierarchical classification standards are basic measures to improve the yield of turmeric.

Take different levels of turmeric herbs, Pharmacopeia method for the determination of the mass fraction of curcumin, turmeric contains curcumin results Ⅰ grade 1.17%, grade Ⅱ, Ⅲ grade herbs curcumin content was 1.111 percent and 0.955 percent, the results showed that nurture healthy seedlings, and before planting a hierarchical classification standards is to improve the quality of basic measures turmeric.

2 in mid-dressing cases of turmeric yield and quality of implementation

Select facilitate irrigation and drainage, deep soil, tillage layer about 25 cm deep, fertile, loose soil top, bottom more solid and better penetration of light loam Lot 2; as the experimental group and control group. Winter plowing machinery or livestock about 25 cm of soil before seed once again rake so broken loose soil, ground leveling Zuoqi. Border height 25 cm, width 120㎝.

Choose from harvested commodities young ginger root strong stems for the species; select plump, big, dense buds and did not germinate, no mechanical damage, no spots and bug spots, no quarantine pest species ginger seeding. In early March of that year, on the whole a good Qimian by spacing 40㎝ × 40㎝ open hole, hole depth of about 15 cm. 667 per 50 kg superphosphate as basal, dug the hole in the bottom side of the fertilizer is placed, cover with fine soil, planting the other side of a species of ginger, ginger mother about 5 cm from the fertilizer around. Place the ginger species, note buds up, the soil in close contact with the bottom, and then covered with fine soil 3 to 4 cm. Seed quantity of 225 to 300 kg per mu.

When the height of about 10 cm when a weeding, weeding Be careful to avoid hurting the turmeric seedlings. After watching the growth of weeds and the degree of compaction of multiple weeding. After July, the basic plant closure line, when the weed is not easy to breed, can no longer weeding. Cultivator Yi Qian, prevent root injury.

Irrigation and drainage. Jianghuang Sheng long general to keep the soil moist, especially in the July to September period of vigorous growth of water demand, such as dry weather, the soil should be dried promptly in the morning or evening for irrigation or watering. Rainy season should pay attention to clear the drains, and remove water in field. After the October general no irrigation.

Turmeric root rot occurred in June and July or December to January. Prevention is mainly rainy season Note strengthen field drainage management, maintaining underground no water; timely burning of diseased plants, and disinfection with lime powder; 50% incidence of poured tuzet WP 1000 times. Turmeric is the major pest cutworms, grubs in the seedling stage bite fibrous plants, resulting in production. Control methods for every 667 with 25% trichlorfon powder 2kg, fine soil mixed with 15kg, sprinkle on the plants around, combined cultivator, so toxic soil is mixed into the soil; or every 667 with 90% crystal trichlorfon and saute 100g 5kg of food grains pie made baits, booby traps scattered in the field; manual capture larvae or early morning.

Mid-dressing for the experimental group administered promote Miaofei mid May, late June to early July seedlings fertilizer application in early August to early January next year administration of strong ginger fat; wherein promote Miaofei per acre farm composting facilities a mixture of fat and 900 ~ 1200kg of urea 20 ~ 30kg, diluted with water before application to three times the volume; seedlings manure composting manure is applied per acre 800 ~ 1000kg, urea 20 ~ 30kg and contains 51% K2O content of potash 4 ~ 7kg of mixture, diluted with water before applying to five times the volume; Zhuang Jiang composting poultry manure is applied per acre dry stool 200 ~ 300kg K2O content of the mixture containing 51% of potash 6 ~ 10kg.

Turmeric seedling in the control group in early May to early August, the rhizome (ginger) formed in late August of the l0月底, ginger filling stage to next month in mid-October 1. Ginger gradual increase with the growth process of production, up to the maximum until the end of December. Be combined with each cultivator fertilizer, livestock manure fertilizer to mainly, but also compost, cake, fertilizer, etc., each chasing livestock manure per acre 15000 ~ 22500 kg, administered fertilizer per acre or 2250 ~ 3000kg.

1 to February next year, when the plant stems and leaves gradually wither, roots can be harvested has been substantial growth, should be harvested from a plot to dig deep groove edge 25 ~ 30cm, the plant turmeric rhizomes and tubers are dug op amp. Weigh the experimental and control groups of fresh ginger Lot weight, volatile oil content and total content of curcumin, which, in the experimental group turmeric per mu fresh goods 1650kg, dried volatile oil content of 8.7%, dry goods curcumin content of 4.46 percent of the total . Each group mu turmeric fresh goods 1410kg, dried volatile oil content of 8.8%, dry goods total curcumin content 3.12%.

Example 3 Effect of planting density on yield and quality of implementation of turmeric

Select facilitate irrigation and drainage, deep soil, tillage layer about 25 cm deep, fertile, loose soil top, bottom more solid and better penetration of light loam as experimental as the experimental plots of land four. Winter plowing machinery or livestock about 25 cm of soil before seed once again rake so broken loose soil, ground leveling Zuoqi. Plot 25 cm high, were arbitrarily set in four experimental plots Ⅰ, experimental plots Ⅱ, Ⅲ experimental plots and experimental plots Ⅵ four density levels, as shown in Table 3.
 
Table density three kinds of ginger species strains
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Each experimental plot selection from the harvested commodity ginger root strong stems tender for the species; select full, a big, dense buds and did not germinate, no mechanical damage, no spots and bug spots, no quarantine pest species Jiang seeding. In early March of that year, on the whole a good spacing Qimian table open hole, the hole about 15 cm deep. 667 superphosphate per 50 kg as a base fertilizer, dug the hole in the side of the bottom of fertilizer placement, the back cover of fine soil, the other side of planting a seed ginger, ginger mother about 5 cm from the fertilizer around. Place the ginger species, attention buds facing up, in close contact with the soil at the bottom, then cover with fine soil 3 to 4 cm.

When the height of about 10 cm when a weeding, weeding Be careful to avoid hurting the turmeric seedlings. After watching the growth of weeds and the degree of compaction of multiple weeding. After July, the basic plant closure line, when the weed is not easy to breed, can no longer weeding. Cultivator Yi Qian, prevent root injury.

Irrigation and drainage. Jianghuang Sheng long general to keep the soil moist, especially in the July to September period of vigorous growth of water demand, such as dry weather, the soil should be dried promptly in the morning or evening for irrigation or watering. Rainy season should pay attention to clear the drains, and remove water in field. After the October general no irrigation.

Turmeric root rot occurred in June and July or December to January. The main control measures for the rainy season attention to strengthening the management of field drainage, underground holding no water; promptly burned diseased plants and disinfected with lime powder; 50% incidence of poured tuzet WP 1000 times. Turmeric is the main pest cutworms, grubs in the seedling stage bite fibrous plants, resulting in production. Control methods for each 667 square meters with 25% trichlorfon powder 2kg, fine soil mixed with 15kg, spread around the plants in combination cultivator so toxic soil is mixed into the soil; or every 667 with 90% crystal trichlorfon 100g and saute 5kg food grain bread made bait, booby traps scattered in the field; manual capture larvae or early morning.

In mid-May to mid-dressing administered promote Miaofei late June to early July seedlings fertilizer application in early August to early January next year administration of strong ginger fat; wherein Miaofei to promote composting manure applied per acre 900 ~ 1200kg and a mixture of urea 20 ~ 30kg, diluted in water prior to administration of 3 times the volume; seedling fertilizer as 800 ~ 1000kg, a mixture of urea 20 ~ 30kg per acre composting manure and fertilizer containing K2O51% of 4 ~ 7kg of diluted with water before application to five times the volume; Zhuang Jiang fertilizer applied per acre composting poultry droppings dry mixture of 200 ~ 300kg and potash containing K2O51% of the 6 ~ 10kg.

1 to February next year, when the plant stems and leaves gradually wither, roots can be harvested has been substantial growth, should be harvested from a plot to dig deep groove edge 25 ~ 30cm, the plant turmeric rhizomes and tubers are dug op amp. Weigh each experimental group produced ginger turmeric yield and seed yield, according to grading criteria will be graded ginger species, such as the experimental results shown in Table 4,5,6.

Ginger species number ratio levels Table 4 densities produced
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Ginger species levels weight ratio Table 5 densities produced
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Turmeric and ginger species Yield Table 6 produced various densities
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Data analysis, turmeric ginger yield and seed yield with density of encryption and growth, the highest yield Ⅵ experimental plots, but Ⅲ grade seed ginger ones, namely ginger species is small, the overall quality is less than the experimental plots Ⅰ, experimental plots Ⅱ and experimental plots Ⅲ. A comprehensive analysis of both yield and seed quality ginger turmeric to give the experimental plots Ⅲ deal is best.

4 cases of earth measures affect the yield and quality of implementation of turmeric

Select facilitate irrigation and drainage, deep soil, tillage layer about 25 cm deep, fertile, loose soil top, bottom more solid and better penetration of light loam Lot 2; as the experimental group and control group. Winter plowing machinery or livestock about 25 cm of soil before seed once again rake so broken loose soil, ground leveling Zuoqi. Border height 25 cm, width 120㎝.

Select from the harvested commodity ginger root strong stems tender for the species; select full, a big, dense buds and did not germinate, no mechanical damage, no spots and bug spots, no quarantine pest species ginger seeding. In early March of that year, on the whole a good Qimian by spacing 40㎝ × 40㎝ open hole, about 15 cm deep hole. 667 superphosphate per 50 kg as a base fertilizer, dug the hole in the side of the bottom of fertilizer placement, the back cover of fine soil, the other side of planting a seed ginger, ginger mother about 5 cm from the fertilizer around. Place the ginger species, attention buds facing up, in close contact with the soil at the bottom, then cover with fine soil 3 to 4 cm. Seed quantity is 225 to 300 kg per mu.

When the height of about 10 cm when a weeding, weeding Be careful to avoid hurting the turmeric seedlings. After watching the growth of weeds and the degree of compaction of multiple weeding. After July, the basic plant closure line, when the weed is not easy to breed, can no longer weeding. Cultivator Yi Qian, prevent root injury. The experimental group in July of turmeric seed were once earth, it is in the root of the turmeric plant a small barrier mound, about 10cm. Control group was not earth.

Irrigation and drainage. Jianghuang Sheng long general to keep the soil moist, especially in the July to September period of vigorous growth of water demand, such as dry weather, the soil should be dried promptly in the morning or evening for irrigation or watering. Rainy season should pay attention to clear the drains, and remove water in field. After the October general no irrigation.

Turmeric root rot occurred in June and July or December to January. The main control measures for the rainy season attention to strengthening the management of field drainage, underground holding no water; promptly burned diseased plants and disinfected with lime powder; 50% incidence of poured tuzet WP 1000 times. Turmeric is the main pest cutworms, grubs in the seedling stage bite fibrous plants, resulting in production. Control methods for each 667 square meters with 25% trichlorfon powder 2kg, fine soil mixed with 15kg, spread around the plants in combination cultivator so toxic soil is mixed into the soil; or every 667 with 90% crystal trichlorfon 100g and saute 5kg food grain bread made bait, booby traps scattered in the field; manual capture larvae or early morning.

In mid-May to promote Miaofei administration in late June to early July seedlings fertilizer application in early August to early January next year administration of strong ginger fat; wherein Miaofei to promote composting manure applied per acre and 900 ~ 1200kg a mixture of urea 20 ~ 30kg, diluted with water before application to three times the volume; seedling fertilizer as 800 ~ 1000kg, urea 20 ~ 30kg per acre composting manure mixture containing K2O51% 4 ~ 7kg of potash, before application diluted with water to 5 times the volume; Zhuang Jiang fertilizer applied per acre composting poultry droppings dry mixture of 200 ~ 300kg and potash containing K2O51% of the 6 ~ 10kg.

1 to February next year, when the plant stems and leaves gradually wither, roots can be harvested has been substantial growth, should be harvested from a plot to dig deep groove edge 25 ~ 30cm, the plant turmeric rhizomes and tubers are dug op amp. Weigh the experimental and control groups of fresh ginger and ginger species Lot weight, the test group ginger species yield 553 kg / mu, while the control group ginger species yield 450 kg / mu. By the middle class and the test group Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ kinds of ginger up 70%, while the control group by the middle class Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ ginger species is 63%, therefore, long-term Jianghuang Sheng earth is necessary.

Example 5 kinds of dried ginger Storage on the preferred species of ginger

Year in early January to early February, when the excavation turmeric leaf wilt, root has grown substantial time. When excavation, first cut off the stems and leaves on the ground, then dig the whole plant. The wedge of turmeric plants, erupted after breaking ginger, turmeric cut with scissors, remove the fibrous roots and dirt on the main roots, namely ginger species, the species of ginger and ginger were stored. The kinds of ginger were randomly divided into two groups, one experimental group, a group as a control group, the experimental group ginger species in the sun before storing Fanshai 1 ~ 2h, the light intensity of 3000 ~ 8000LX; storage pile indoor dry and ventilated place, dry , light, ventilation, temperature is 5 ~ 30 ° C at the store dried 30 ~ 50d; turning 1-2 times during storage, avoid germination; the control group first ted in a dry place for three days, the turmeric skin dry after water , burglary storage. Selected sand or sediment large sand, sand and humidity to dry clutch can become a group but oozing appropriate. First at the bottom covered with 40cm thick, wet sand, and then a layer of 20cm thick kinds of ginger, ginger species in another 10cm thick layer of wet sand, holes and a layer of ginger species; such a pile of 1 ~ 1.2m high, Each interval of 20 ~ 30d turning once. Elected rotting in the process of turning, the incidence of seed ginger.

After storage 45d statistical experimental and control groups ginger species loss rate ginger species found in the experimental group intact was 100% in the control group ginger species in good condition 93.4%.

The experimental group and control group ginger species for cultivation, planting methods, and implement the same manner as in Example 2 planting experimental group, when the July study botany status of the two groups, the experimental results shown in Table 7.
 
Table 7 different types of storage methods ginger turmeric state influence on the study of botany
[Image]

Study six kinds of ginger preferred method of Example

Year in early January to early February, when the excavation turmeric leaf wilt, root growth has been substantial time. When the excavation, the first cut off the stems and leaves on the ground, then dig the whole plant. The wedge of turmeric plants, erupted after breaking ginger, turmeric cut with scissors, remove the fibrous roots and clay on the main roots, that is kind of ginger, ginger and ginger seed will be stored separately. The ginger species were randomly divided into two groups, one experimental group, a group as a control group, the experimental group ginger species in the sun before storing Fanshai 1 ~ 2h, light intensity of 3000 ~ 8000LX; stacking storage in dry indoor ventilation, drying , light, ventilation, temperature is 5 ~ 30 ° C at the store dried 30 ~ 50d; obtain a first-generation seed ginger. In early March of that year, on the whole a good Qimian by spacing 40㎝ × 40㎝ open hole, hole depth of about 15 cm. 667 per 50 kg superphosphate as basal, dug the hole in the bottom side of the fertilizer is placed, cover with fine soil, planting the other side of the first generation of a species of ginger, ginger mother about 5 cm from the fertilizer around . Place the ginger species, note buds up, the soil in close contact with the bottom, and then covered with fine soil 3 to 4 cm. Seed quantity of 225 to 300 kg per mu.

In mid-May of that year composting manure applied per acre 900 ~ 1200kg and a mixture of urea 20 ~ 30kg, diluted with water prior to administration to 3 times the volume; late June to early July composting manure applied per acre 800 ~ 1000kg, urea 20 ~ 30kg and mixtures containing K2O51% 4 ~ 7kg of potash, diluted with water before applying to five times the volume; in early August to early January next year maturity poultry per acre dry stool 200 ~ 300kg of fertilizer containing K2O51% 6 ~ mixture of 10kg.

When the height of about 10 cm when a weeding, weeding Be careful to avoid hurting the turmeric seedlings. After watching the growth of weeds and the degree of compaction of multiple weeding. After July, the basic plant closure line, when the weed is not easy to breed, can no longer weeding. Cultivator Yi Qian, prevent root injury.
Irrigation and drainage. Jianghuang Sheng long general to keep the soil moist, especially in the July to September period of vigorous growth of water demand, such as dry weather, the soil should be dried promptly in the morning or evening for irrigation or watering. Rainy season should pay attention to clear the drains, and remove water in field. After the October general no irrigation.

Turmeric root rot occurred in June and July or December to January. The main control measures for the rainy season attention to strengthening the management of field drainage, underground holding no water; promptly burned diseased plants and disinfected with lime powder; 50% incidence of poured tuzet WP 1000 times. Turmeric is the main pest cutworms, grubs in the seedling stage bite fibrous plants, resulting in production. Control methods for each 667 square meters with 25% trichlorfon powder 2kg, fine soil mixed with 15kg, spread around the plants in combination cultivator so toxic soil is mixed into the soil; or every 667 with 90% crystal trichlorfon 100g and saute 5kg food grain bread made bait, booby traps scattered in the field; manual capture larvae or early morning.
1 to February next year, when turmeric leaf wilt, root growth has been substantial time to excavation. When excavation, first cut off the stems and leaves on the ground, then dig the whole plant. The wedge of turmeric plants, breaking erupted ginger, turmeric cut with scissors, remove the fibrous roots and dirt on the main roots, namely ginger species, the species of ginger and ginger were stored. Select rhizome stout, clumps, high yield species of ginger plants seed; get preferred species of ginger.

The preferred species of ginger and turmeric roots as using a commercially available two kinds of ginger are planted in the same climatic conditions, land plots, planting methods and the above-mentioned preferred species of ginger planting the same way. Weigh the preferred species and commercial species of ginger group ginger group plots the weight of fresh ginger. Statistics found that turmeric preferred species of ginger group ginger group representing commercial seed production increased by 27.5% compared with commercially preferred species of ginger ginger species resistance, disease resistance and better.



CN102113439
High-yield cultivation technology of common turmeric


The invention discloses a high-yield cultivation technology of common turmeric, the technologies including seeding, fertilization, drainage, harvesting and the like are adopted by understanding the features of the common turmeric, the yield of the common turmeric is high, the quality is good, the economic benefits are increased, and the market demand is satisfied.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a cultivation techniques, and more particularly warm turmeric yield cultivation techniques.

Background technique

Common Turmeric is a strain of the two parts of Chinese herbal medicinal plant, with a high pharmaceutical value, roots contain volatile oil, which contains sesquiterpene alcohol and sesquiterpenes compounds have anti-cancer active ingredient. If planting is slightly wrong would reduce productivity, poor quality, resulting in reduced economic benefits, can not meet the market demand.

SUMMARY

To solve the above problems, the present invention provides a temperature turmeric yield cultivation techniques, through the warm turmeric characteristic understanding, using planting, fertilization, drainage, harvesting technology, making the temperature turmeric high yield, good quality and increase the economic benefits to meet the Market demand.

The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions: one warm turmeric yield cultivation technology, which includes planting, fertilization, drainage, harvesting, specifically the following steps:

(1) seeding, planting the first lunar month, when the temperature is above 13 ° C, the temperature turmeric root seedlings to germinate ground-breaking;

(2) fertilization, pre-promote seedling topdressing fertilizer, medium phosphorus, potassium-based, not late topdressing fertilizer;

(3) Drainage, drainage time, to maintain temperature and humidity of the soil;

(4) Harvesting, one week before the beginning of winter when the water content is low, with high doses, should be timely harvest.

The positive effect of the present invention is: by understanding the characteristics of common turmeric, using seeding, fertilization, drainage, harvesting technology, making temperature turmeric high yield, good quality and increase the economic benefits to meet the market demand.

Detailed description

Below in conjunction with embodiments of the present invention will be described in further detail:

Temperature and turmeric yield cultivation technology, which includes planting, fertilization, drainage, harvesting, specifically the following steps:

(1) seeding, warm temperature, drought, waterlogging bogey, fear of frost, growth period of 240 days, planting the first lunar month, the lunar year can be harvested in mid-October, when the temperature at 13 ° C or more, turmeric root seed germination temperature can break ground, timely planting can improve the yield and pharmaceutical quality, late planting shorten the growing season, it will reduce the yield and quality;

(2) fertilization, during the growth of both water and nutrients to promote some of their own growth and development, but also to grow fibrous roots absorb water and soil nutrient to use solar energy to build carbohydrates in leaves, stems from the transport itself to grow turmeric root nutrition, the nutrition delivered to the turmeric root, therefore, must be cultivated under conditions sufficient decomposition of organic fertilizer mainly basal, pre-promote seedling topdressing nitrogen, medium phosphorus, potassium-based promotion of growth, late Since root has taken shape, nutrition root from the plow layer of topsoil is shallow, not topdressing fertilizer, fertilizer dissolved under anhydrous conditions, high concentrations can harm fibrous roots, withered seedlings appear, effective nutritional turmeric root rotten;

(3) Drainage, long-term soil waterlogged soil gap lack of oxygen, temperature turmeric under anoxic conditions anaerobic respiration, internal root will produce large amounts of alcohol, causing the death of rotten roots, so to timely drainage, keeping temperature and humidity soil;

(4) Harvesting, one week before the beginning of winter when the water content is low, with high doses, should be timely harvest, early harvest yield and quality, late harvest encounter frost can cause damage, affecting the yield and quality.

Through the temperature characteristic of turmeric understanding of the present invention, the use of seeding, fertilization, drainage, harvesting technology, making temperature turmeric high yield, good quality and increase the economic benefits.




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