Anatolij VACHAEV, et
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PRODUCING CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
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Inventor(s): VACHAEV ANATOLIJ V [RU]; IVANOV
NIKOLAJ I [RU]; IVANOV ALEKSEJ N [RU]; PAVLOVA GALINA A [RU] +
The present invention relates to the field of chemistry and can be
used for the production of chemical elements: metals, non-metals,
their alloys, heavy water and hydrogen from natural minerals
(ores), ash, slag, dust and other wastes, including metal.
A method is known for obtaining elements by converting the
atomic-molecular structure of radioactive elements (for example,
uranium, plutonium, etc.) by the chain reaction of decay of heavy
nuclei (see Sec. Petrosyants A.M. Atomic energy in science and
industry. M. Atomizdat, 1984. 448 p.). In the implementation of
this method, either a spontaneous release of energy (an atomic
explosion) or a slowdown of the chain reaction process results in
a controlled release of energy with the formation of an extensive
gamut of elements and their isotopes. New elements are mainly
radioactive, the useful use of which in modern technology is not
advisable, and protection from their radioactive exposure is
labor-intensive and expensive.
The main disadvantages that hinder the widespread industrial use
of this method are: the complexity of controlling the rate of the
chain reaction of the decay of heavy nuclei; high risk of
radioactive contamination of the environment; the limited range of
the resulting elements, mostly radioactive.
The chain reaction of the decay of heavy nuclei is carried out in
a nuclear reactor, the principal scheme of which consists of:
chain reaction rate retarders, regulation and emergency protection
rods, a neutron reflector, a channel for the coolant flow, and
containers for the source material of nuclear fuel (see Fig.
Rymkevich P.A. Course of Physics. Ed. 2 nd, revised. and
additional. Training. manual for pedagogical institutes. M. Higher
School, 1975. 464 p. from. 442).
The main disadvantage of nuclear reactors is the large volume and
mass of moderators.
There are known attempts to obtain new elements by transformation
of the atomic-molecular structure of matter by treatment of
lithium deuteride with a powerful laser source of radiation by an
electric pulse device based on the principle of superconductivity,
i.e. infinitely large conductivity at temperatures several degrees
higher than absolute zero; 273 K (see Fig. Superconducting
solenoids: trans. from the English / Ed. Alekseevsky N.E. M. Mir,
1965, 384 p.). This method made it possible to obtain
super-powerful magnetic fields and to focus the electric charge in
the medium of the material being converted. However, the power
generated and, consequently, the pressure and temperature were
insufficient to ensure a stable process of transformation of the
atomic-molecular structure of matter. Receiving items is not
stable, many return to their original state.
For the prototype of the method, a known method for obtaining new
elements by converting the atomic-molecular structure of matter
(lithium deuteride) by controlled thermonuclear fusion is adopted.
By this method, as a result of the interaction of the laser beam
with the nuclei of lithium deuteride atoms, a reaction of helium
synthesis occurs, under the influence of the emerging shock wave,
high pressure and temperature (40.100) x 106 K, new elements
(isotopes) are produced and a huge amount of energy is released
(see Fig. K.Goffman. Is it possible to make gold. trans. with him.
L. Chemistry, 1987 232 pp. ) The disadvantages of this method are:
low efficiency, due to the juvenility of the process of getting
the laser beam into the nucleus of the atom and the discontinuity
(periodicity) of the process; the danger of radioactive exposure
to the environment due to the formation of radioactive particles
(isotopes) and radiation during the transformation of substances;
resource scarcity and limited diversity (only isotope 63Li) of the
For the prototype of the device, a device for obtaining new
elements from a starting material (lithium deuteride) controlled
by thermonuclear synthesis, which contains means for forming the
atomic-molecular structure of the starting material, whose main
components is the laser and the process body (see Fig. K.Goffman.
Is it possible to make gold: per. with him. L. Chemistry, 1987 232
pp. ) The disadvantage of this device is: the need for cumbersome
and material-intensive protection from radiation contamination and
irradiation; the need for powerful lasers and energy sources for
Similar drawbacks have another method and device "Tokamak".
Thus, methods and devices that lack the disadvantages that prevent
the wide and cost-effective production of new elements, preferably
in a wide range and from a wide range of the starting material, do
not currently exist.
The proposed method of obtaining elements, this problem is solved
due to the following advantages: high efficiency (up to 90%),
achieved due to the continuity of the process, lack of juvenile
physical effects; absence of harmful emissions into the
environment, including radioactive and chemical; the productivity
of the starting substance, practically unlimited by any
conditions, which makes it possible to use as waste material
production wastes, including chemically harmful and radioactive
ones; those. In parallel, the task of eliminating all types of
industrial and domestic waste, for example, urban effluents, is
being solved by transforming them into useful materials, i.e., the
problem of protecting the Earth from the side activities of a
person is being solved; a wide range of received elements, as a
result of the conducted experiments, fifteen elements are
obtained; a similar effect is the cooling of the internal walls of
the device by the source material for the implementation of the
method, which makes it possible not to make a special cooling
The proposed device provides the possibility of implementing the
proposed method and, accordingly, the solution of the task set
before the method, with the constructive simplicity of the device,
which does not require cumbersome and complex devices to protect
against radioactive emissions (due to the absence of the latter
and to slow the process).
The problem posed before the method is solved as follows.
Unlike all known methods of obtaining elements by the
transformation of the atomic-molecular structure of the starting
material, not the deuterium, etc., as the latter in the claimed
method and ordinary water in all its possible forms: from
chemically pure distilled, to industrial, agricultural and
domestic wastewater, without and with any dispersed inclusions
The generation of high-temperature plasma in the flow of water
with and without additives (below the initial substance) is
accomplished by a pulsed electric discharge in the narrowing of
the working cavity in the zone of maximum intensity of the
magnetic field induced and self-amplifying as a result of
self-amplification of the electric current between the electrodes
of the claimed device.
This combination of actions for obtaining high-temperature plasma
and obtaining new elements from the initial substance does not
occur and does not occur in any of the known methods and devices
for obtaining new elements by the transformation of the
atomic-molecular structure of the starting materials.
The process of stabilizing the existence of the high-temperature
plasma generated by the claimed method in the inventive device is
performed by the constant presence of an additional electric
current in the working cavity in the flow of the high-temperature
plasma formed, which is not used in any of the known methods and
devices for obtaining new elements from the starting material.
The additional current is directed from one extended section of
the high-temperature plasma flow through the constriction to the
other, which is also new both in plasma technology and in the
methods for obtaining new elements from any starting material.
The claimed device makes it possible to carry out phase
transformations of the initial substance (water and the additives
contained in it) of the fifth and sixth kind, i.e. according to
the well-known figurative expression of Acad. VO Ginzburg (see his
book. About physics and astrophysics, M. Nauka, 1985, p. 94) to
"rip" orbital electrons from all the atoms of the initial
substance and, thereby, to create conditions for the partial
self-decay of the nuclei and the creation of new elements from the
nuclei formed, and without disturbing the paired proton-neutron
bonds and, therefore, without the formation of known elementary
particles and without radioactive radiation.
This is the fundamental difference between the claimed method and
the device for obtaining new elements from all known nuclear and
Long-term tests in laboratory conditions have established the
density of the electric current of a pulsed discharge and the
additional current that stabilize the strength of the magnetic
field and its magnitude along the high-temperature plasma flux
from the minimum value in the expanded part of the working cavity,
to the maximum in its narrowing, characteristic for obtaining and
stabilizing high-temperature plasma.
When the set parameters and described actions are fulfilled, at
least fifteen new elements, which were absent in the initial
substance, are obtained from at least twelve kinds of the initial
substance, including various industrial and domestic wastewater.
The process of obtaining new elements by the claimed method is
continuous, stable in management, not energy-intensive, and there
are no harmful emissions and waste, including radioactive ones.
The data of the multi-year tests are given in Tables 4-9.
As a particular case of the method, a high-temperature (below-hot)
plasma is formed in the water stream with dispersed additives of
various (mineral, organic, etc.) substances.
The fractional and chemical composition of dispersed additives,
the degree of its dissolution in water, i.e. the formation of a
homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture, as well as the mass ratio of
the starting material, water and gas, do not affect the production
As a partial case of the method, the narrowing of the hot plasma
flow is formed in the form of a hyperboloid of revolution, which
ensures a stable production of the maximum number of elements due
to stability, without dissipating the hot plasma flow of the
resulting shape. On the basis of the fact that the features of the
particular embodiment of the method are directed to the
development of an unknown set of independent features of the
method, a conclusion about their obscurity follows.
The task assigned to the device for implementing the method for
obtaining elements is solved as follows. In the apparatus for
producing elements comprising means for converting the
atomic-molecular structure of the starting material, the following
transformations are carried out according to the invention.
At least one module of the means for converting the
atomic-molecular structure of the starting material is a means of
generating a hot plasma, the use of which is not known to produce
new elements in the art.
The means for forming a hot plasma is made in the form of a
magnet, outside which there is an element for concentrating the
intensity of the magnetic field, and in the region of which: a
dielectric guide for hot plasma with a working cavity in the shape
of the body of rotation with a smooth constriction in the zone of
the element of concentration of the magnetic field strength;
current in the form of electrodes, which can be located in the
narrowing of the working cavity, and means for stabilizing the
flow of hot plasma in the form of electrodes with through holes s,
one of which is communicated with the working chamber of the
guide, and the other is directed oppositely to the other side of
the constriction along the working cavity. Such a combination of
parts, their mutual location and interconnection in plasma
technology, as well as for the production of new elements, are not
known and ensure the stability of availability, the size of the
constriction and the shape of the smooth transition to it from the
extended sections of the hot plasma flow, and also prevent the
reverse transformation into initial substance of unstable derived
The number of modules of the hot plasma generating means in some
cases slightly increases the number of elements obtained due to
additional processing of the obtained unstable new elements. The
concrete execution of the element of concentration of the magnetic
field strength to obtain new elements is not essential. The fact
of obtaining new elements has the presence, with an arbitrary line
of smoothness, of narrowing the working surface of the guide.
Particular cases of execution of the device with its development.
The working cavity of the guide is made in the form of a
hyperboloid of revolution, while the resulting form (streamer) of
the hot plasma flow is more stable for a time than in other cases,
and new elements are obtained stably in the largest possible
amount, almost without fluctuations in its values.
The electrodes of the pulsed current source are arranged to
approach each other at the narrowing point by a distance of from
0.05 to 0.1 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the
guide, at which the stability of the constriction value is
increased. As a result, we obtain the maximum possible assortment
of new elements with a stable maximum number of them.
At least one of the electrodes of the pulsed current source is
made with a pointed end with a smooth approach to the end at an
angle of 4-45o, which leads to a decrease in the destruction of
the electrode by 2-3 times in comparison with the electrode with a
flat end or pointed at a different angle.
The electrodes of the source of the pulsed current are oriented on
both sides of the working cavity of the guide opposite to each
other, which provides the maximum force of their discharge. the
electrodes do not interfere with each other, and an electrical
insulating spacer is not required between them.
Through holes of the electrodes are located at a distance from
each other, ranging from 1 to 2 of the maximum diameter of the
working cavity of the guide, which helps stabilize the streamer of
the hot plasma flow, reduces the probability of its dispersion. As
a result, a sufficiently large number of new elements is obtained
in the maximum volume reached during testing.
Counter ends of electrodes with through holes are made conical
with a mirror direction. As a result, the electric current is
concentrated, its effect is enhanced. The direction is specular,
the symmetry of the cones is not essential.
The apparatus comprises a feed system, a delivery system for the
resulting elements, and a processing system, the source material
system being connected to a through-hole of the electrode that is
communicated with the working guide, and a system for delivering
the resulting elements with a through-hole of another electrode
and through the through- which is associated with the feed system.
The processing system contains a system of classification,
compaction, heat recovery.
Based on the fact that the independent features of the device are
not known for the production of new elements, it follows that
there is no use for obtaining new elements and signs of their
partial execution with their development.
When the distance between the electrodes of the pulse current
source is less than 0.05 of the maximum diameter of the working
cavity of the guide, a number of elements are produced in a
When the distance between the electrodes of the pulse current
source is greater than 0.1 times the maximum diameter of the
working cavity of the guide, a number of elements are produced in
a smaller amount.
When the distance between the through holes of the electrodes is
less than 1 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the
guide, a number of elements are produced in a smaller amount.
When the distance between the through holes of the electrodes is
more than 2 times the maximum diameter of the working cavity of
the guide, a number of elements are produced in a smaller amount.
If the angle of the smooth transition to the end of the electrode
of the pulse current source is less than 4o, the resistance of the
electrode decreases because it crumbles.
If the angle of the smooth transition to the end of the electrode
of the pulse current source is greater than 45 °, a number of
elements are produced in a smaller amount.
On the basis that the features of the method for obtaining
elements are not known both in their collections and for obtaining
new elements from any starting materials, with a high efficiency
up to 90% (in the prototype up to 0.01%), in the absence of
harmful emissions chemical and radioactive), with the
arbitrariness of the original substance and a wide range of
elements obtained, it follows that they are in accordance with the
"inventive step" criterion.
Based on the fact that the features of the device for carrying out
the method for producing the elements are not known both in their
collections and for the production of new elements from any
starting materials, in the simplicity of the construction, which
does not require its complications to protect against emissions or
to slow the process, their compliance with the criterion of
An example of a particular embodiment of the method for producing
Elements are obtained as a result of transformation of the
atomic-molecular structure from practically any starting
materials, from simple and complex substances and from their
mixtures. As an example, some of the initial substances with which
the positive results were tested were given: Chelyabinsk coal,
fire-resistant dust, open-hearth furnace slag, blast furnace slag,
Kachkanarskaya ore, blast furnace and open hearth shops, cement
plant effluent, sewage sludge, city sewage, sand quartz, phenol
C6H5OH, benzene, 95% C6H6 (see tables 4-9). The process of
transformation of the atomic-molecular structure is carried out as
follows. From the starting material, a hot plasma stream is formed
with one or more constrictions between the widened sections with a
smooth transition. In the successors following the first
constriction, the elements that turned out to be unstable in the
first constriction are transformed. The formation of the hot
plasma flow is carried out in the usual manner, i.e. The starting
material is passed through a magnetic field, treated with an
The narrowing of the flow of hot plasma is achieved as follows. A
magnetic field is created with a variable along the magnetic field
strength. The nature of the change in the strength of the magnetic
field on the fact of obtaining elements is not affected. In the
zone of maximum intensity, a pulsed discharge of electric current
is created, and in this zone a narrowing of the flow of hot plasma
with a smooth transition from opposing extended sections is
formed. Stabilize the presence, magnitude of this narrowing and
the shape of the line of transition to it from the extended
sections, and also prevent the reverse transformation into the
starting material of unstable derived elements by the constant
presence in the zone during the whole process of transformation of
the atomic-molecular structure of the additional electric current.
An additional electric current is directed from one extended
section of the hot plasma stream to the other, i. E. along the
stream of hot plasma. The electromagnetic field contributes to the
additional current to perform the function of stabilizing the
As a result of this treatment, the simple substances that make up
the initial substance are transformed into other simple substances
(elements) with a different serial number of Mendeleyev's periodic
system of elements. For example, after a single treatment of the
initial substances with which the tests were carried out, lithium,
coal, boron, silicon, chromium, magnesium, calcium, ferric,
manganese, niobium, vanadium, strontium, zinc, titanium, copper,
which in the starting materials was not before the treatment in
this way (see Table. 4-9). The dash in the tables means that these
elements were not determined (due to the test conditions). The
data in the tables are given under the condition of a single
treatment of the starting material in one module of the means for
converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting
material. The range of values of the obtained number of elements
takes into account their variations due to different test
conditions: the shape of the high-temperature plasma flow (in the
form of a cone, hyperboloid of rotation), the distance between the
electrodes, and the combination of electrode ends (flat and / or
At the same time, no harmful (dangerous) substances are formed,
including chemical and radioactive substances. The
high-temperature plasma obtained in this way is retained in a
magnetic field, the strength of which is determined by the
stabilization current. The temperature of the high-temperature
plasma remains practically constant at that, and therefore the
process of obtaining the elements also remains stable.
With the termination of submission to the installation of the
original substance, the process of its transformation ceases.
Renewing the supply of the starting material to the installation
requires a repetition of the start-up operations in the described
Particular cases of the implementation of the method.
The starting material is prepared in the form of a dispersed
substance (crushed, crushed, etc.), for example, to dust, sand,
water, steam or humidified gas fractions, forming a solution
(homogeneous mixture) or dispersed system (heterogeneous mixture)
. Water, gas and the starting material are not preheated. The mass
ratio of the initial substance to water and gas in the experiments
was varied: 1: 4, 1: 5, 1: 9, 1:40, respectively. It does not
affect the result of obtaining elements. Water and gas in this
case serve to cool the hottest part of the device in which the
method is performed (create a plasma), inside it, forming a
cooling film. This makes it possible not to create special cooling
systems for the walls of the working cavity of the guide,
electrodes and other mounting parts, sealing and other equipment
of the device, since the heat released in the process is fully
accumulated by the flow of water or gas in which the starting
material is distributed.
The narrowing of the flow of hot plasma is created in the shape of
the hyperboloid of revolution by means of the device for its
implementation. At the same time, the hot plasma flow does not
dissipate, maintains its shape stability, and as a result, a
stable maximum number of elements is obtained from the values
obtained during the tests.
A specific example of an apparatus for implementing a method for
The device for obtaining elements contains a means for converting
the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material. The
module of this means is a means for generating a hot plasma, which
comprises a housing 1 (Figure 1), a magnet 2. Outside the ends 3
of the magnet 2 there is an element 4 of concentration of the
magnetic field strength. For example, the magnet 2 is made in the
form of a solenoid with a maximum concentration of turns 4 in the
middle of the magnet 2, which decreases toward its opposite ends
3. The nature of the decrease in the concentration of the turns,
i.e., the intensity of the magnetic current, does not affect the
production of the elements. In the zone of magnet 2, there are: a)
a dielectric guide 5 for the flow of hot plasma; b) the source of
the pulse current 6 in the form of a pair of electrodes 7, 8
(Figures 1, 2) which are connected to the means for supplying an
electric current 9, for example in the form of a well-known pulse
electric generator; c) means for stabilizing the flow of hot
plasma 10 in the form of a pair of electrodes 11, 12 with through
holes 13, 14, which is connected to a power supply system, for
example, with a common city electric network.
The dielectric guide 5 is made of a refractory material, for
example made of ceramic, and has a working cavity 15 which is
formed in the shape of a body of revolution with a smoothly
decreasing cross-section up to a constriction 16, for example in
the shape of a cone. With respect to the magnet 2, the
constriction 16 is located in the region of its magnetic field
concentration element 4, for example, in the plane of
concentrating the coils of the solenoid. The constriction 16 can
be formed in the middle portion of the working cavity of the guide
5 (as shown in FIG. 3). Then the magnet 2 is isolated from the hot
plasma flow by the guide 5 itself. The constriction 16 may also be
located at the end of the guide 5 (as depicted in FIG.1)
In this case, the open part of the magnet 2 is isolated from the
hot plasma flow by the dielectric sleeve 17 of the refractory
material. The through hole 13 of one electrode 11 is communicated
with the working cavity 15 of the guide 5. The free end of this
through-hole 13 is communicated with the working cavity 15.
Another electrode 12 with a through hole 14 is located on the
other side of the neck 16 along the working cavity of the guide
such that its through-hole 14 is disposed counter-versa, for
example coaxially, through-hole 13 communicating with the working
cavity 15 of the guide 5. The other pair of electrodes 7, 8 is
arranged to be located directly at the constriction site 16 of the
working cavity 15 of the guide 5. For this purpose, through
channels 18 for introducing electrodes 7, 8 directly into the
working cavity in the place of constriction 16 can be made in the
magnet 2 for them to approach and distance from each other. The
electrodes 7, 8 of the pulsed current source can be provided with
a supply and return mechanism (not shown in the drawings).
Particular cases of execution of the device with its development.
The working cavity 15 of the guide 5 is made in the form of a
hyperboloid of revolution, i.e., symmetrical (Fig.3)
In this case, the working cavity 15 is communicated by its two
opposite ends 19 with through holes 13, 14 of the electrodes 11,
The electrodes 7, 8 of the pulse current source 6 are adapted to
approach each other at the narrowing point 16 by a distance (H) of
from 0.05 to 0.1 of the maximum diameter (D) of the working cavity
15 of the guide 5. For example, D = 24 mm, then H is from H = 24 ·
0.05 = 1.2 mm to H = 24 · 0.1 = 2.4 mm. Specific examples of test
results are given in Tables 1, 4, 5, 6. The tests were carried out
at a value of the angle? a smooth descent to the ends of the
electrodes 7, 8 of the source of the pulsed current 6 equal to 30
(the average recommended value) and at a distance (L) between the
apertures 13, 14 of the electrodes 11, 12 from each other equal to
0.9 of the diameter (D) of the working cavity 15 of guide 5 (value
less than recommended).
At least one of the electrodes 7, 8 (FIG. 2) of the source of the
pulse current 6 is made with a pointed end with a smooth
transition to the end 20 at an angle a of 4 to 45 °. The form of a
smooth stroke is arbitrary in the form of a cone 21, a pyramid, of
an irregular shape. Effectively, both electrodes 7, 8 are peaked.
Specific examples of test results are given in Tables 2, 5, and 7.
The tests were carried out at a value of the distance between the
electrodes 7, 8 of the pulse current source 6 (H) equal to 0.04 of
the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 (a
value less than the recommended value) and at a distance between
the apertures 13, 14 of the electrodes 11, 12 from each other the
other (L) constituting 0.9 of the diameter of the working cavity
15 of the guide 5 (the value is less than the recommended one),
i.e. the test conditions were chosen to be unfavorable.
The electrodes of the pulse current source 6 are oriented to both
sides of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 against the ends 20
(Fig.2) and 20, 22 (Fig.1) to each other. This eliminates the need
to install an electrically insulating spacer between the
electrodes 7, 8 in the case of their parallel arrangement and
concentrates the electrical discharge at the constriction 16.
The through holes 13, 14 of the electrodes 11, 12 are located at a
distance (L) from each other, which is from 1 to 2 of the maximum
diameter (D) of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5. For example,
D = 24 mm, then L is equal to L = 24 x 1 = 24 mm to L = 24 x 2 =
48 mm. Specific examples are given in Tables 3, 5, 8, 9. The tests
were carried out under the condition of a distance between the
electrodes 7, 8 of the source of the pulse current 6 (H) equal to
0.04 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide
5 (a value less than the recommended one) and at a value of the
smooth exit angle to the ends of the electrodes 7, current 6,
equal to 30 (the average recommended value).
Counter-ends 23, as shown in FIG. 1, 2, electrodes 11, 12 with
through holes 13, 14 are made conical (symmetrical or
asymmetrical) and with a mirror direction, i.e. opposite each
other with smaller diameters.
The device comprises a feed system 24, a dispensing system 25 for
the resulting elements, and a treatment system 26, the feedstock
supply system 24 being connected to a through-hole 13 of the
electrode 11 which is communicated with the working space 15 of
the guide 5, and the output system 25 of the resulting elements
with a through hole 14 of the other electrode 12 and through a
processing system 26 with a through-hole 13 of the electrode 11
that is connected to the source supply system 24. In this case, a
chain of a closed cycle is formed. The circuit of the closed cycle
is provided with pumps 27 for feeding the starting material. Type
of communication common pipeline, conveyor, etc. (not shown in the
The dispensing system 25 can be in the form of a well-known
conveyor, pipeline, or the like. The feed system 24 of the
starting material can be made from a well-known hopper, a tank, or
the like. with conveyor, pipeline, etc.
The treatment system 26 comprises a classification system, for
example, in density, in size in the form of well-known hydraulic
classifiers, and the like (not shown in the drawings), a
compacting system, for example, drying, settling, pressing, and
the like. in the form of well-known drying ovens, slop tanks,
presses (not shown in the drawings), a heat recovery system, for
example, well-known heat exchangers (not shown in the drawings).
The device for obtaining the elements can have several modules of
the means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the
starting material. Then the modules are arranged in series in a
line and coaxially arranged with the working cavities 15 of the
guides 5, as shown in FIG. 3, a chain of a closed cycle form
through holes of the outer electrodes.
The operation of the device for obtaining elements with one module
of the means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the
starting material is carried out as follows.
Fill the working cavity 15 (Figures 1, 3) with the starting
substance (dry or distributed in water or in gas), not preheating
it beforehand. Check the tightness of the device. The current
stabilization system is turned on by applying a current to magnet
2 with a magnetic field strength element 4, for example, a
solenoid. An electric current is supplied, for example, from a
common city electrical network to a means for stabilizing the flow
of hot plasma, i. E. to the electrodes 11, 12 with through-holes
13, 14. As a result, the constriction 16 of the working cavity 15
of the guide 5 is located at the location of the maximum
concentration of the magnetic field strength. The source of the
pulsed current 6 is then turned on by supplying current to the
electrodes 7, 8 of the pulsed current source, pulling them closer
together, moving along the channels of the magnet 2 to the center
of the constriction 16 in the working cavity 15 until the
discharge of the electric current discharge occurs. A hot plasma
flow is created with a narrowing between the extended sections
(streamer). After that, the electrodes 7, 8 are removed from the
working cavity 15 of the guide 5, the received streamer is
preserved, and the starting substance, passing through the state
of the streamer, is transformed, and other elements leave the
working cavity of the guide 5 than in the starting material with
another sequence number of the periodic system Mendeleyev elements
(see tables 4-9).
If the source material is distributed in water or in a gas, water
and gas create a cooled film on the walls of the device,
protecting it from overheating and rapid failure. In the case of
the distribution of the starting material in water, a known
process, for example filtration, is carried out, isolating new
elements from the water.
If the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 is made in the form of a
hyperboloid of revolution, then the hot plasma stream is formed in
the form of a hyperboloid of revolution, and its streamer is more
stable for a time than in other cases, and the new elements are
obtained stably in the largest possible amount, values.
If the electrodes 7, 8 of the pulsed current source 6 are adapted
to approach each other at the narrowing point 16 by a distance (H)
of from 0.05 to 0.1 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity
15 of the guide 5, the stability of the size and shape of the
constriction 16 flow of hot plasma. As a result, the maximum
achieved number of new elements with a stably maximum number of
them is obtained (see tables 1, 4). As can be seen from Tables 4,
5, when the distance (H) between the electrodes of the pulse
current source, which is less than (0.04) from the maximum
diameter of the working cavity of the guide, is less than the 0.05
proposed, for example, lithium Li) is obtained: from the coal of
Chelyabinsk 0.1% of the total amount of the starting substance,
instead of 0.16-0.18%, as in the proposed interval, from the slag
of the open-hearth furnace, the blast furnace slag, the
Kachkanarskaya ore, the blast furnace and open-hearth furnace
sludge, sinks of a calibration plant, art. Cove urban 0% instead
of the number of elements obtained as in the proposed value; Boron
(B) is obtained from Coal of Chelyabinsk 0.1% instead of 2.4-2.8%,
as with the proposed value, 0% of boron is obtained from the
remaining species in the table of original substances instead of 1
3.4% obtained at the proposed value.
As can be seen from Tables 4 and 6, when the distance between the
electrodes of the source of the pulse current, which is greater
than (0.2) from the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the
guide, is less than the proposed 0.1, a number of elements are
obtained in smaller amounts, for example carbon (C) : 25-27%
instead of 29.8-30.1% of the slug of blast furnace and open hearth
furnaces instead of 29.8-30.1% as for the proposed value, boron
(B): from Chelyabinsk coal 1.8-2.4% instead of 2.4-2.8% as with
the proposed value, from refractory dust 0.3% instead of 1-1.3% as
with the proposed value, etc.
If the electrode 7 of the pulse current source 6 is made with a
pointed end with a smooth transition to the end 20 at an angle α
of 4 to 45 °, it is less destroyed (the resistance is increased by
2-3 times), in comparison with the electrode with a flat end or
pointed at a different angle see tables 2, 5, 7). At a value of
the angle a, less than 4o, the electrodes are destroyed more
violently, their resistance is reduced by 2-3 times. If the value
of the angle a is greater than 45 °, some elements, for example,
lithium (Li), boron (B), vanadium (V) are not obtained, while at
the proposed value in a certain amount they are obtained (see
Tables 2, 7) .
If the electrodes 7, 8 of the source of the pulsed current 6 are
oriented to each other on both sides of the working cavity 15 of
the guide 5 opposite to the ends 20 (Fig.3) and 20, 22 (Fig.1),
then the discharge strength is maximum, the electrodes 7, 8 are
not affect each other and do not require an electrically
insulating gasket between them.
The arrangement of the electrodes 11, 12 with through holes at a
distance (L) from each other, which is 1 to 2 times the maximum
diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5, helps stabilize
the streamer of the hot plasma flow, reduces the probability of
its dispersion. As a result, a sufficiently large number of new
elements is obtained in the maximum achieved volume (see tables 3,
8, 5, 9). As can be seen from Tables 3, 8, 5, when electrodes 11,
12 are positioned with through holes at a distance (L) from each
other, which is less than the proposed one, i. 0.9 instead of 1
from the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5,
some elements are obtained in smaller amounts, for example, zinc
(Zn) from Chelyabinsk coal 1-2% instead of 4.3-4.4% as at the
proposed value, from the effluents of cement plant 0% instead of
0.1% as for the proposed value, etc. As can be seen from Tables 3,
8, 9, when electrodes 11, 12 are placed with through holes at a
distance (L) from each other, which is more than the proposed one,
i. 2.1 instead of 2 from the maximum diameter of the working
cavity 15 of the guide 5, some elements are produced in smaller
amounts, for example lithium (Li) from the coal of Chelyabinsk
0,1% instead of 0,3% as at the proposed value, from the effluents
of the cement plant 0% instead of 0.1% as for the proposed value,
If the ends of the electrodes 11, 12 with through holes 13, 14 are
tapered with a mirror direction, the electric current is
concentrated, its effect is enhanced.
With several modules of the means for converting the
atomic-molecular structure of the starting material, a similar
process occurs in all modules. If unstable atoms of new elements
are formed in the first module, they are not allocated as new
elements, but in subsequent modules complete their transformation
completely. The number of received elements is insignificant, but
If the device is provided with dispensing systems 25 of the
elements to be obtained, treatments 26 and feedstock feeds 24
forming a chain of closed cycle, the processed raw material leaves
the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 and enters the dispensing
system, for example a conveyor, which feeds them to the processing
system . In the treatment system 26, filtration is carried out by
sedimentation of the obtained elements, if necessary classified,
for example, by size, compacted, etc. The heat released is
utilized by any of the known methods (taken off by a well-known
system of heat exchangers, etc.). Unreacted feedstock residues are
fed (with or without pump 27) to the feedstock feed system 26 and
then to the through-hole 13 of the rework electrode 11. The
residues of the unreacted starting material can be mixed with a
fresh portion of the starting material.
During the tests, the chemical composition of water and gas was
determined in the case of feeding a dispersed starting material
distributed in water or in a gas. The water after treatment in all
experiments in terms of its chemical composition basically
corresponds to the requirements of the maximum permissible
concentration for industrial water (for a single treatment) and
fire-drinking (after repeated treatment). The main difference from
the latter is the stable content of heavy water in the amount of
0.17-0.20% which is harmless. The gases released at the output of
the electromagnetic converter depend on the chemical composition
of the components of the additives to the water. For example, in
the processing of hydrocarbon components (coal, phenol, benzene),
as well as effluents and sludges, water vapor (up to 40%),
hydrogen (up to 30%) and C1-C8 gas hydrate with the presence of
helium He (up to 4%) in the absence or low content of nitrogen and
oxygen. When treating a dispersed starting material distributed in
water or in a gas, the content of water vapor increases, there are
no hydrocarbon gas hydrates and accordingly the content of the
remaining components decreases.
January 29, 2015
[ Excerpt ]
This is the article from the Russian source where ( among other
things) discussed an plasma unit that was developed in the 90s.
In particular (Google translate, edited by me) it says:
“No less interesting story happened with Anatoly Vachaev.
Experimenter from God, he conducted research plasma steam and
accidentally got a big powder output, which included elements that
almost the entire periodic table. After six years of research it
became possible to create the plasma unit, which gave a stable
plasma torch – plasmoid by passing distilled water through which a
solution or a slurry large amounts of metal powders.”
1997, Magnitogorsk, a follower of Vachaev, Galina Pavlova defended
her thesis on “Development of the foundations of technology of
metals from the plasma state water-mineral systems.”
At first, the examination commission rejected the idea as soon as
they heard that metals can be produced from distilled water, but
Pavlova demonstrated a working unit that turned turned water to
metal powder; she was awarded a doctorate.
So, it is possible, and was done. Another question is: How much
metal ( in our case gold) can be produced and how much energy it
Short Abstracts of 17th Conference on Cold Nuclear
Transmutation of Chemical Elements and Ball Lightning in Sochi,
Russia, Sept. 26 to October 3rd, 2010
NEW ATOMIC (NOT NUCLEAR AND NOT CHEMICAL)
MECHANISM OF THE SMALL ENERGETICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF ATOMS
Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and
Within the framework of electrodynamics and dynamics of not point
particles, constructed only on the basis of the fundamental laws
of conservation, is shown, that observable in A.V. Vachaev's
experiments intensive so call small energetical the transformation
of chemical elements is atomic (but not nuclear and not chemical)
process with characteristic size of received energy ~30 eV on atom
(instead of ~10 MeV as in nuclear reactions). In this process are
formed "eltons", that is the clods of superdense quantum plasma
consisting of an electronic cloud with a charge -Ze and several or
many usual atomic nucleuses with a total charge Ze (or ~Ze).
Density of an electrical charge in elton (as against usual atom)
is negative in its central part and is positive on periphery.
Eltons are stable or (more probable) long exist system with
unusual properties. It's minimal size about atom, and maximal down
to macroscopic. The eltons can be formed in the electrical
discharge of water or any usual atoms and molecules. Traces with
surprising properties, observable in different experiences,
"strange" radiation, small aperture, created by a fireball at its
passage in glass and metal plates, - all this, apparently, traces
METHOD OF WASTE GASSES UTILIZATION
Inventor: VACHAEV ANATOLIJ // IVANOV NIKOLAJ I
FIELD: cleaning of effluent gases of industrial furnaces, mainly,
in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of gases with electric
current of two kinds in the presence of magnetic field. One kind
of current has density of 20 to 100 A/sq.mm. The other kind of
current is supplied by pulses with density from 40 to 1000
kA/sq.mm in place of magnetic field intensity from 40 to 300 Wb.
To provide for the method continuity, prior to treatment, effluent
gases are branched into several flows to which wet steam is
introduced. Treatment is carried out in circumference manner.
Useful elements are also recovered from steam.
EFFECT: provision of recovery from effluent gases of useful
elements such as copper, aluminium and others, and cleaning
efficiency of above 99 %.
 The invention relates to ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy
and can be used for the purification of exhaust gases of
industrial furnaces mainly ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, ie
electric steel furnaces, converters, t. e. as well as systems of
elimination by incineration of toxic, explosive or other
 There are many ways to clean (disposal) of waste gases. For
example, the process gas outlet of the converter on o.d. USSR N
631538; IPC C 21 C 5/38 to avoid contact with the carbon monoxide
into the atmosphere, ie, for gas purification from carbon monoxide
"gas sucked through the bed of iron ore batch heated to 400
1100oC, converter gas is passed, comprising 1-20% carbon monoxide,
are used as raw materials containing hematite 182-428 kg / t steel
in the partial afterburning of the gases discharged 17.1 and 7.3
kg / t of steel with flue gas discharge without afterburning. "
 A disadvantage of this method is that only excludes the
carbon monoxide emissions, emissions problem exception of iron
oxides and other harmful contaminants not assigned. In this way
influences of melting technology, that limits its possible and
introduces industrial disadvantages.
 Known method of removal of the converter gas AS USSR N
1242527; IPC C 21 C 5/38, in which the flue gases is collected and
afterburning in flue disposing of carbon monoxide is cooled and
purified combustion gases, and to increase the degree of
utilization of the energy converter gas "afterburning converter
produce heated gas, compressed air in the continuous feed zone
ionizing burning pulverized additive and subsequent exposure to an
electromagnetic field ionized stream of combustion products to
generate electric current, which is extracted from the combustion
product stream of ionized by means of a closed electric circuit to
the load and is used for the process.
"This method solves the problem of increasing the degree of side
effects, but not the task of cleaning gas from the other
impurities except carbon oxides, and increasing the degree of
 For the prototype, the method for recycling (cleaning) flue
gas using electrostatic precipitators, which is as follows.
Flue gases are passed through a system consisting of earthed
collecting electrodes, a current density of 0.001 A / mm2, and
placed at some distance (interelectrode gap) of discharge
electrodes to which an electric current is supplied rectified high
voltage with a negative sign.
At sufficiently high voltage applied to the interelectrode gap,
the surface of the discharge electrode is intense impact
ionization of gases, accompanied by the appearance of the corona
Gas ions of different polarity by the action of the electric field
strength to move heteronymic electrodes, whereby the electrode gap
in an electric current.
Ash particles, located in the flue gases due to their adsorption
on surface become electrically charged ions under the influence of
the electric field strength to move the electrodes are deposited
mainly on the collecting electrodes, in a smaller amount at the
The electrodes are periodically cleaned.
The method is carried out at a certain electric field intensity,
called critical, which, for example, air at atmospheric pressure
and a temperature of 20oC is about 0.15 kV / cm (Szabo VV Oran
environmental TPP and NPP: Proc. For technical . Energoatomizdat
M., 1992, 240 pp., Ill. p.52. ) The disadvantage of this method is
that the exhaust gases are purified mainly from the solids (dust),
but not present in them from harmful gases, such as carbon
monoxide, nitrogen oxide purification does not occur, and that the
degree of purification is not more than 92 99 %, which does not
exclude the ingress of harmful impurities in the atmosphere.
In this case, the useful side effect does not arise.
 Thus, a huge pot of inventions does not contain a method
for its implementation, which would allow to clean the exhaust
gases of furnaces, converters, etc. units from any species of
impurities to such an extent to completely eliminate them from
entering the atmosphere.
This applies in particular to sets of ferrous and nonferrous
metallurgy mainly to the converter, which in spite of the more
than 150-year period of their use is still
not working and created quite a reliable method for purifying
High dust converter gases, especially periodicity (cyclical)
release them during the production process, the volatility of the
chemical sostava- all combine to complicate the task of recycling
 Furthermore, great difficulties for the operation of
existing devices and creating breaks the periodicity of receipt of
exhaust gases caused by or process, such as the manufacture of the
converter, and organizational factors.
Naturally, in the absence of exhaust gases or reduction of harmful
components to the limit of allowable concentration of any device
utilization, especially heat power shifts from the normal state to
the stop mode, which creates tension in the structural elements,
often in excess of the permissible.
 The present invention solves the problem of flue gas
cleaning ovens of all kinds of impurities with a purity of over
99%, ie with virtually no contact with the exhaust gases into the
A side effect is the formation of new elements, such as lithium,
beryllium, boron, etc. useful for the national economy, and the
ability to work non-stop recycling process at the time when the
input waste gases.
 The problem is solved by a method for recycling treatment
of waste gas according to the invention an electric current
density of the latter is fed from 20 to 100 A / mm2 in the
presence of the magnetic field pulses and a density of from 40 to
1000 kA / mm2 at the place of the magnetic field intensity of 40
to 300 wb . The magnetic field strength elsewhere electric current
is not essential.
 Cleaning effect of all kinds of impurities and with purity
greater than 99% is achieved due to the combination modes of the
magnetic field and electric current generating the thermodynamic
conditions under which the gas molecules and the solids (metal
oxides et al.), And constituent atoms of the fragments to fall
atoms that interact with each other and with the shards of metal
atoms to form stable under these conditions, the new structures of
useful elements (metals).
 As a special case of execution before the treatment of
exhaust gases form a portion of the flow, branching into several
streams, where the wet steam is introduced.
This allows for the temporary cessation of receipt of the waste
gases continue the process of recycling round the branches of the
stream. When the exhaust gases completely disappear, will be
processed by steam.
Thus, it is kept constant electric and thermal conditions than
excluded destroying equipment heat power fluctuations. The
proposed operation conditions determined empirically in the
laboratory and tested in industrial conditions on the converters.
 When the electric current density of less than 20 kA / mm2
purification rate drops sharply to 60% When the electric current
density of more than 100 kA / mm2 stops the growth of the degree
of purification, energy costs are not equivalent results.
 When the magnetic field strength less than 40 Wb
purification rate drops sharply to 50% at the magnetic field
strength of more than 300 Wb stops the growth of the degree of
purification, energy costs are not equivalent results.
 When the density of the electric current supplied to pulses
less than 40 kA / mm2 purification rate drops sharply to 65% When
the density of the electric current supplied pulses 1000 kA / mm2,
growth stops purity, i.e. Energy costs not equivalent results.
 On the grounds that the proposed method due to an unknown
combination of features provides recycling waste gas purification
from all impurities with a degree above 99% which is not reached
in the technique effect and side effect separation of useful
chemical elements must conclude that the proposed method with the
patentability " inventive step ".
 The proposed method corresponds to the condition of
patentability of "industrial applicability", as evidenced by the
following example of a specific use way of recycling the waste
gases of the converter.
 The figure shows a section of the exhaust gas branch
 The exhaust gases from the working space of the converter
is fed by a normal line of electrically processing chamber exhaust
In the chamber the exhaust gases in the presence of the magnetic
field electric current is treated.
Electric current is supplied to two types: using one pair of
electrodes from the density 20 to 100 A / mm2, which is maintained
constant during the entire recycling process and using another
pair of electrodes pulses density of 40 to 1000 kA / mm2, and in
place of the magnetic field from 40 to 300 Wb. Elsewhere electric
current magnetic field can be arbitrary, for example, to reduce
energy consumption 20, 30 Wb. The magnetic field source may
advantageously be in the form of an electromagnet (to ensure a
sufficiently high strength) with variable or constant magnetic
field, such as a solenoid with a known constant or variable number
Electric current may be constant or variable.
When a pulse of electrical current arcing occurs, which is
maintained supply another pulse of electric current, as necessary,
i.e. while reducing its intensity combustion as determined in the
usual manner, for example by reducing the conductivity of the
During arc created thermodynamic conditions in which there is the
Molecules and atoms of gases and solids, which are made up of
exhaust gases (oxides of metals and others.), Proved to be
unstable under these conditions shall be distributed to the
fragments of atoms that interact with each other (non-metallic
fragments of atoms with non-metals and metals with metals and
non-metals in peremezhku metals) forming the most stable in the
thermodynamic conditions of the structure elements that were
metals and nonmetals such as silicon (Si), carbon (C), aluminum
(Al), manganese (Mn), etc.
Thus, the components of the exhaust gases, both harmful and
harmless disappear and converted into useful elements such as
silicon (Si), carbon (C), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), etc.
which have the form of a powdered solid.
The degree of utilization (purifying) exhaust gas is judged to
reduce the volume of waste gases and increase the volume of the
The degree of utilization, as shown by the test is 100% i.e. 99.5
You can completely eliminate the waste gases and obtain from them
If the utilization rate is below 100% is possible, without
changing the mode parameters, process exhaust gases several times
(2 3), which in the industry is advantageously carried out in the
chambers sequentially set at an arbitrary distance in a continuous
 Example circuit formation of new substances, etc.
 The resulting solid powder poured into bunkers and fed to
further processing: sorting, drying, compaction in bars, etc.
 As a special case of the method of disposal of land to form
1-branched flue gas stream into multiple streams that carry
conventional techniques, ie, via pipework.
In branching flow of exhaust gases fed wet steam in an arbitrary
At intervals of receipt of exhaust gases, which is particularly
characteristic of converter units, together with the exhaust gas
is processed wet steam circulating round at the branching portion,
whereby the recycling process continues and remains constant heat
power mode, which eliminates the cyclical stress on the equipment
(on the pipeline, electrodes, magnet chamber wall 2, in which the
electrodes and the magnet are installed, and the like) and hence
eliminates damage caused by them.
To increase the pressure of exhaust gases at the site of
branching, in the event of termination of their arrival, the
source of income, such as pipeline posts workspace converter,
cover the locking element 3, for example bolt.
Water vapor can be fed continuously or immediately upon
termination of receipt of exhaust gases to their next earnings.
Water vapor as well as from flue gases produced are useful as new
 The exhaust gases before they are processed can be cooled
by mixing it with water and gas at an arbitrary concentration (for
cooling the walls of the pipe and t. N.).
In this case, the solid elements is obtained as a slurry of water
or gas, which is washed off by gravity, entering the hopper.
Drying the slurry in a conventional manner, for example by
precipitation in a vacuum filter.
 Examples of specific numerical values ??to the modes of
their rationales are given in the table.
 As can be seen from the table, under the recommended way to
modes of electric current and magnetic field the degree of
purification of exhaust gases as high as possible: 99.5 to 100% at
this new and useful metals are obtained (see. Runs 1 12).
When the electric current density of 19 kA and 39 / mm2, i.e. and
less than the recommended 20 to 40 kA / mm2, and magnetic field
intensity 39 Wb, i.e. less than the recommended 40 Wb, the degree
of purification is sharply reduced to 50 - 65% also decreases the
quantity of the useful metals (see. Bonus 13 - 15).
When the electric current density of 101 and 1001 kA / mm2, i.e.
more than recommended, and the magnetic field 301 Wb, ie more
recommended, stops the growth of the degree of purification,
energy costs are unnecessary and are not equivalent results (see.
16 18 experiments).
The growth of the number of received useful elements stops.
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