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Anatolij VACHAEV, et al.

Plasma-Water-Metal Production








Addendum 9-2018
RU2096846
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PRODUCING CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
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Inventor(s):     VACHAEV ANATOLIJ V [RU]; IVANOV NIKOLAJ I [RU]; IVANOV ALEKSEJ N [RU]; PAVLOVA GALINA A [RU] +

The present invention relates to the field of chemistry and can be used for the production of chemical elements: metals, non-metals, their alloys, heavy water and hydrogen from natural minerals (ores), ash, slag, dust and other wastes, including metal.

A method is known for obtaining elements by converting the atomic-molecular structure of radioactive elements (for example, uranium, plutonium, etc.) by the chain reaction of decay of heavy nuclei (see Sec. Petrosyants A.M. Atomic energy in science and industry. M. Atomizdat, 1984. 448 p.). In the implementation of this method, either a spontaneous release of energy (an atomic explosion) or a slowdown of the chain reaction process results in a controlled release of energy with the formation of an extensive gamut of elements and their isotopes. New elements are mainly radioactive, the useful use of which in modern technology is not advisable, and protection from their radioactive exposure is labor-intensive and expensive.

The main disadvantages that hinder the widespread industrial use of this method are: the complexity of controlling the rate of the chain reaction of the decay of heavy nuclei; high risk of radioactive contamination of the environment; the limited range of the resulting elements, mostly radioactive.

The chain reaction of the decay of heavy nuclei is carried out in a nuclear reactor, the principal scheme of which consists of: chain reaction rate retarders, regulation and emergency protection rods, a neutron reflector, a channel for the coolant flow, and containers for the source material of nuclear fuel (see Fig. Rymkevich P.A. Course of Physics. Ed. 2 nd, revised. and additional. Training. manual for pedagogical institutes. M. Higher School, 1975. 464 p. from. 442).

The main disadvantage of nuclear reactors is the large volume and mass of moderators.

There are known attempts to obtain new elements by transformation of the atomic-molecular structure of matter by treatment of lithium deuteride with a powerful laser source of radiation by an electric pulse device based on the principle of superconductivity, i.e. infinitely large conductivity at temperatures several degrees higher than absolute zero; 273 K (see Fig. Superconducting solenoids: trans. from the English / Ed. Alekseevsky N.E. M. Mir, 1965, 384 p.). This method made it possible to obtain super-powerful magnetic fields and to focus the electric charge in the medium of the material being converted. However, the power generated and, consequently, the pressure and temperature were insufficient to ensure a stable process of transformation of the atomic-molecular structure of matter. Receiving items is not stable, many return to their original state.

For the prototype of the method, a known method for obtaining new elements by converting the atomic-molecular structure of matter (lithium deuteride) by controlled thermonuclear fusion is adopted. By this method, as a result of the interaction of the laser beam with the nuclei of lithium deuteride atoms, a reaction of helium synthesis occurs, under the influence of the emerging shock wave, high pressure and temperature (40.100) x 106 K, new elements (isotopes) are produced and a huge amount of energy is released (see Fig. K.Goffman. Is it possible to make gold. trans. with him. L. Chemistry, 1987 232 pp. ) The disadvantages of this method are: low efficiency, due to the juvenility of the process of getting the laser beam into the nucleus of the atom and the discontinuity (periodicity) of the process; the danger of radioactive exposure to the environment due to the formation of radioactive particles (isotopes) and radiation during the transformation of substances; resource scarcity and limited diversity (only isotope 63Li) of the starting material.

For the prototype of the device, a device for obtaining new elements from a starting material (lithium deuteride) controlled by thermonuclear synthesis, which contains means for forming the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material, whose main components is the laser and the process body (see Fig. K.Goffman. Is it possible to make gold: per. with him. L. Chemistry, 1987 232 pp. ) The disadvantage of this device is: the need for cumbersome and material-intensive protection from radiation contamination and irradiation; the need for powerful lasers and energy sources for charging them.

Similar drawbacks have another method and device "Tokamak".

Thus, methods and devices that lack the disadvantages that prevent the wide and cost-effective production of new elements, preferably in a wide range and from a wide range of the starting material, do not currently exist.

The proposed method of obtaining elements, this problem is solved due to the following advantages: high efficiency (up to 90%), achieved due to the continuity of the process, lack of juvenile physical effects; absence of harmful emissions into the environment, including radioactive and chemical; the productivity of the starting substance, practically unlimited by any conditions, which makes it possible to use as waste material production wastes, including chemically harmful and radioactive ones; those. In parallel, the task of eliminating all types of industrial and domestic waste, for example, urban effluents, is being solved by transforming them into useful materials, i.e., the problem of protecting the Earth from the side activities of a person is being solved; a wide range of received elements, as a result of the conducted experiments, fifteen elements are obtained; a similar effect is the cooling of the internal walls of the device by the source material for the implementation of the method, which makes it possible not to make a special cooling system.

The proposed device provides the possibility of implementing the proposed method and, accordingly, the solution of the task set before the method, with the constructive simplicity of the device, which does not require cumbersome and complex devices to protect against radioactive emissions (due to the absence of the latter and to slow the process).

The problem posed before the method is solved as follows.

Unlike all known methods of obtaining elements by the transformation of the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material, not the deuterium, etc., as the latter in the claimed method and ordinary water in all its possible forms: from chemically pure distilled, to industrial, agricultural and domestic wastewater, without and with any dispersed inclusions (additives).

The generation of high-temperature plasma in the flow of water with and without additives (below the initial substance) is accomplished by a pulsed electric discharge in the narrowing of the working cavity in the zone of maximum intensity of the magnetic field induced and self-amplifying as a result of self-amplification of the electric current between the electrodes of the claimed device.

This combination of actions for obtaining high-temperature plasma and obtaining new elements from the initial substance does not occur and does not occur in any of the known methods and devices for obtaining new elements by the transformation of the atomic-molecular structure of the starting materials.

The process of stabilizing the existence of the high-temperature plasma generated by the claimed method in the inventive device is performed by the constant presence of an additional electric current in the working cavity in the flow of the high-temperature plasma formed, which is not used in any of the known methods and devices for obtaining new elements from the starting material.

The additional current is directed from one extended section of the high-temperature plasma flow through the constriction to the other, which is also new both in plasma technology and in the methods for obtaining new elements from any starting material.

The claimed device makes it possible to carry out phase transformations of the initial substance (water and the additives contained in it) of the fifth and sixth kind, i.e. according to the well-known figurative expression of Acad. VO Ginzburg (see his book. About physics and astrophysics, M. Nauka, 1985, p. 94) to "rip" orbital electrons from all the atoms of the initial substance and, thereby, to create conditions for the partial self-decay of the nuclei and the creation of new elements from the nuclei formed, and without disturbing the paired proton-neutron bonds and, therefore, without the formation of known elementary particles and without radioactive radiation.

This is the fundamental difference between the claimed method and the device for obtaining new elements from all known nuclear and thermonuclear.

Long-term tests in laboratory conditions have established the density of the electric current of a pulsed discharge and the additional current that stabilize the strength of the magnetic field and its magnitude along the high-temperature plasma flux from the minimum value in the expanded part of the working cavity, to the maximum in its narrowing, characteristic for obtaining and stabilizing high-temperature plasma.
When the set parameters and described actions are fulfilled, at least fifteen new elements, which were absent in the initial substance, are obtained from at least twelve kinds of the initial substance, including various industrial and domestic wastewater.

The process of obtaining new elements by the claimed method is continuous, stable in management, not energy-intensive, and there are no harmful emissions and waste, including radioactive ones.

The data of the multi-year tests are given in Tables 4-9.

As a particular case of the method, a high-temperature (below-hot) plasma is formed in the water stream with dispersed additives of various (mineral, organic, etc.) substances.

The fractional and chemical composition of dispersed additives, the degree of its dissolution in water, i.e. the formation of a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture, as well as the mass ratio of the starting material, water and gas, do not affect the production of elements.

As a partial case of the method, the narrowing of the hot plasma flow is formed in the form of a hyperboloid of revolution, which ensures a stable production of the maximum number of elements due to stability, without dissipating the hot plasma flow of the resulting shape. On the basis of the fact that the features of the particular embodiment of the method are directed to the development of an unknown set of independent features of the method, a conclusion about their obscurity follows.

The task assigned to the device for implementing the method for obtaining elements is solved as follows. In the apparatus for producing elements comprising means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material, the following transformations are carried out according to the invention.

At least one module of the means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material is a means of generating a hot plasma, the use of which is not known to produce new elements in the art.
The means for forming a hot plasma is made in the form of a magnet, outside which there is an element for concentrating the intensity of the magnetic field, and in the region of which: a dielectric guide for hot plasma with a working cavity in the shape of the body of rotation with a smooth constriction in the zone of the element of concentration of the magnetic field strength; current in the form of electrodes, which can be located in the narrowing of the working cavity, and means for stabilizing the flow of hot plasma in the form of electrodes with through holes s, one of which is communicated with the working chamber of the guide, and the other is directed oppositely to the other side of the constriction along the working cavity. Such a combination of parts, their mutual location and interconnection in plasma technology, as well as for the production of new elements, are not known and ensure the stability of availability, the size of the constriction and the shape of the smooth transition to it from the extended sections of the hot plasma flow, and also prevent the reverse transformation into initial substance of unstable derived elements.

The number of modules of the hot plasma generating means in some cases slightly increases the number of elements obtained due to additional processing of the obtained unstable new elements. The concrete execution of the element of concentration of the magnetic field strength to obtain new elements is not essential. The fact of obtaining new elements has the presence, with an arbitrary line of smoothness, of narrowing the working surface of the guide.

Particular cases of execution of the device with its development.

The working cavity of the guide is made in the form of a hyperboloid of revolution, while the resulting form (streamer) of the hot plasma flow is more stable for a time than in other cases, and new elements are obtained stably in the largest possible amount, almost without fluctuations in its values.

The electrodes of the pulsed current source are arranged to approach each other at the narrowing point by a distance of from 0.05 to 0.1 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, at which the stability of the constriction value is increased. As a result, we obtain the maximum possible assortment of new elements with a stable maximum number of them.

At least one of the electrodes of the pulsed current source is made with a pointed end with a smooth approach to the end at an angle of 4-45o, which leads to a decrease in the destruction of the electrode by 2-3 times in comparison with the electrode with a flat end or pointed at a different angle.

The electrodes of the source of the pulsed current are oriented on both sides of the working cavity of the guide opposite to each other, which provides the maximum force of their discharge. the electrodes do not interfere with each other, and an electrical insulating spacer is not required between them.

Through holes of the electrodes are located at a distance from each other, ranging from 1 to 2 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, which helps stabilize the streamer of the hot plasma flow, reduces the probability of its dispersion. As a result, a sufficiently large number of new elements is obtained in the maximum volume reached during testing.

Counter ends of electrodes with through holes are made conical with a mirror direction. As a result, the electric current is concentrated, its effect is enhanced. The direction is specular, the symmetry of the cones is not essential.

The apparatus comprises a feed system, a delivery system for the resulting elements, and a processing system, the source material system being connected to a through-hole of the electrode that is communicated with the working guide, and a system for delivering the resulting elements with a through-hole of another electrode and through the through- which is associated with the feed system.

The processing system contains a system of classification, compaction, heat recovery.

Based on the fact that the independent features of the device are not known for the production of new elements, it follows that there is no use for obtaining new elements and signs of their partial execution with their development.

When the distance between the electrodes of the pulse current source is less than 0.05 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, a number of elements are produced in a smaller amount.

When the distance between the electrodes of the pulse current source is greater than 0.1 times the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, a number of elements are produced in a smaller amount.

When the distance between the through holes of the electrodes is less than 1 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, a number of elements are produced in a smaller amount.

When the distance between the through holes of the electrodes is more than 2 times the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, a number of elements are produced in a smaller amount.

If the angle of the smooth transition to the end of the electrode of the pulse current source is less than 4o, the resistance of the electrode decreases because it crumbles.

If the angle of the smooth transition to the end of the electrode of the pulse current source is greater than 45 °, a number of elements are produced in a smaller amount.

On the basis that the features of the method for obtaining elements are not known both in their collections and for obtaining new elements from any starting materials, with a high efficiency up to 90% (in the prototype up to 0.01%), in the absence of harmful emissions chemical and radioactive), with the arbitrariness of the original substance and a wide range of elements obtained, it follows that they are in accordance with the "inventive step" criterion.

Based on the fact that the features of the device for carrying out the method for producing the elements are not known both in their collections and for the production of new elements from any starting materials, in the simplicity of the construction, which does not require its complications to protect against emissions or to slow the process, their compliance with the criterion of "inventive level".
An example of a particular embodiment of the method for producing elements.

Elements are obtained as a result of transformation of the atomic-molecular structure from practically any starting materials, from simple and complex substances and from their mixtures. As an example, some of the initial substances with which the positive results were tested were given: Chelyabinsk coal, fire-resistant dust, open-hearth furnace slag, blast furnace slag, Kachkanarskaya ore, blast furnace and open hearth shops, cement plant effluent, sewage sludge, city sewage, sand quartz, phenol C6H5OH, benzene, 95% C6H6 (see tables 4-9). The process of transformation of the atomic-molecular structure is carried out as follows. From the starting material, a hot plasma stream is formed with one or more constrictions between the widened sections with a smooth transition. In the successors following the first constriction, the elements that turned out to be unstable in the first constriction are transformed. The formation of the hot plasma flow is carried out in the usual manner, i.e. The starting material is passed through a magnetic field, treated with an electric current.

The narrowing of the flow of hot plasma is achieved as follows. A magnetic field is created with a variable along the magnetic field strength. The nature of the change in the strength of the magnetic field on the fact of obtaining elements is not affected. In the zone of maximum intensity, a pulsed discharge of electric current is created, and in this zone a narrowing of the flow of hot plasma with a smooth transition from opposing extended sections is formed. Stabilize the presence, magnitude of this narrowing and the shape of the line of transition to it from the extended sections, and also prevent the reverse transformation into the starting material of unstable derived elements by the constant presence in the zone during the whole process of transformation of the atomic-molecular structure of the additional electric current. An additional electric current is directed from one extended section of the hot plasma stream to the other, i. E. along the stream of hot plasma. The electromagnetic field contributes to the additional current to perform the function of stabilizing the process.

As a result of this treatment, the simple substances that make up the initial substance are transformed into other simple substances (elements) with a different serial number of Mendeleyev's periodic system of elements. For example, after a single treatment of the initial substances with which the tests were carried out, lithium, coal, boron, silicon, chromium, magnesium, calcium, ferric, manganese, niobium, vanadium, strontium, zinc, titanium, copper, which in the starting materials was not before the treatment in this way (see Table. 4-9). The dash in the tables means that these elements were not determined (due to the test conditions). The data in the tables are given under the condition of a single treatment of the starting material in one module of the means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material. The range of values ​​of the obtained number of elements takes into account their variations due to different test conditions: the shape of the high-temperature plasma flow (in the form of a cone, hyperboloid of rotation), the distance between the electrodes, and the combination of electrode ends (flat and / or pointed).

At the same time, no harmful (dangerous) substances are formed, including chemical and radioactive substances. The high-temperature plasma obtained in this way is retained in a magnetic field, the strength of which is determined by the stabilization current. The temperature of the high-temperature plasma remains practically constant at that, and therefore the process of obtaining the elements also remains stable.
With the termination of submission to the installation of the original substance, the process of its transformation ceases.

Renewing the supply of the starting material to the installation requires a repetition of the start-up operations in the described sequence.

Particular cases of the implementation of the method.

The starting material is prepared in the form of a dispersed substance (crushed, crushed, etc.), for example, to dust, sand, water, steam or humidified gas fractions, forming a solution (homogeneous mixture) or dispersed system (heterogeneous mixture) . Water, gas and the starting material are not preheated. The mass ratio of the initial substance to water and gas in the experiments was varied: 1: 4, 1: 5, 1: 9, 1:40, respectively. It does not affect the result of obtaining elements. Water and gas in this case serve to cool the hottest part of the device in which the method is performed (create a plasma), inside it, forming a cooling film. This makes it possible not to create special cooling systems for the walls of the working cavity of the guide, electrodes and other mounting parts, sealing and other equipment of the device, since the heat released in the process is fully accumulated by the flow of water or gas in which the starting material is distributed.

The narrowing of the flow of hot plasma is created in the shape of the hyperboloid of revolution by means of the device for its implementation. At the same time, the hot plasma flow does not dissipate, maintains its shape stability, and as a result, a stable maximum number of elements is obtained from the values ​​obtained during the tests.

A specific example of an apparatus for implementing a method for producing elements.

The device for obtaining elements contains a means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material. The module of this means is a means for generating a hot plasma, which comprises a housing 1 (Figure 1), a magnet 2. Outside the ends 3 of the magnet 2 there is an element 4 of concentration of the magnetic field strength. For example, the magnet 2 is made in the form of a solenoid with a maximum concentration of turns 4 in the middle of the magnet 2, which decreases toward its opposite ends 3. The nature of the decrease in the concentration of the turns, i.e., the intensity of the magnetic current, does not affect the production of the elements. In the zone of magnet 2, there are: a) a dielectric guide 5 for the flow of hot plasma; b) the source of the pulse current 6 in the form of a pair of electrodes 7, 8 (Figures 1, 2) which are connected to the means for supplying an electric current 9, for example in the form of a well-known pulse electric generator; c) means for stabilizing the flow of hot plasma 10 in the form of a pair of electrodes 11, 12 with through holes 13, 14, which is connected to a power supply system, for example, with a common city electric network.

The dielectric guide 5 is made of a refractory material, for example made of ceramic, and has a working cavity 15 which is formed in the shape of a body of revolution with a smoothly decreasing cross-section up to a constriction 16, for example in the shape of a cone. With respect to the magnet 2, the constriction 16 is located in the region of its magnetic field concentration element 4, for example, in the plane of concentrating the coils of the solenoid. The constriction 16 can be formed in the middle portion of the working cavity of the guide 5 (as shown in FIG. 3). Then the magnet 2 is isolated from the hot plasma flow by the guide 5 itself. The constriction 16 may also be located at the end of the guide 5 (as depicted in FIG.1)

In this case, the open part of the magnet 2 is isolated from the hot plasma flow by the dielectric sleeve 17 of the refractory material. The through hole 13 of one electrode 11 is communicated with the working cavity 15 of the guide 5. The free end of this through-hole 13 is communicated with the working cavity 15. Another electrode 12 with a through hole 14 is located on the other side of the neck 16 along the working cavity of the guide such that its through-hole 14 is disposed counter-versa, for example coaxially, through-hole 13 communicating with the working cavity 15 of the guide 5. The other pair of electrodes 7, 8 is arranged to be located directly at the constriction site 16 of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5. For this purpose, through channels 18 for introducing electrodes 7, 8 directly into the working cavity in the place of constriction 16 can be made in the magnet 2 for them to approach and distance from each other. The electrodes 7, 8 of the pulsed current source can be provided with a supply and return mechanism (not shown in the drawings).

Particular cases of execution of the device with its development.

The working cavity 15 of the guide 5 is made in the form of a hyperboloid of revolution, i.e., symmetrical (Fig.3)

In this case, the working cavity 15 is communicated by its two opposite ends 19 with through holes 13, 14 of the electrodes 11, 12.

The electrodes 7, 8 of the pulse current source 6 are adapted to approach each other at the narrowing point 16 by a distance (H) of from 0.05 to 0.1 of the maximum diameter (D) of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5. For example, D = 24 mm, then H is from H = 24 · 0.05 = 1.2 mm to H = 24 · 0.1 = 2.4 mm. Specific examples of test results are given in Tables 1, 4, 5, 6. The tests were carried out at a value of the angle? a smooth descent to the ends of the electrodes 7, 8 of the source of the pulsed current 6 equal to 30 (the average recommended value) and at a distance (L) between the apertures 13, 14 of the electrodes 11, 12 from each other equal to 0.9 of the diameter (D) of the working cavity 15 of guide 5 (value less than recommended).

At least one of the electrodes 7, 8 (FIG. 2) of the source of the pulse current 6 is made with a pointed end with a smooth transition to the end 20 at an angle a of 4 to 45 °. The form of a smooth stroke is arbitrary in the form of a cone 21, a pyramid, of an irregular shape. Effectively, both electrodes 7, 8 are peaked. Specific examples of test results are given in Tables 2, 5, and 7. The tests were carried out at a value of the distance between the electrodes 7, 8 of the pulse current source 6 (H) equal to 0.04 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 (a value less than the recommended value) and at a distance between the apertures 13, 14 of the electrodes 11, 12 from each other the other (L) constituting 0.9 of the diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 (the value is less than the recommended one), i.e. the test conditions were chosen to be unfavorable.

The electrodes of the pulse current source 6 are oriented to both sides of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 against the ends 20 (Fig.2) and 20, 22 (Fig.1) to each other. This eliminates the need to install an electrically insulating spacer between the electrodes 7, 8 in the case of their parallel arrangement and concentrates the electrical discharge at the constriction 16.

The through holes 13, 14 of the electrodes 11, 12 are located at a distance (L) from each other, which is from 1 to 2 of the maximum diameter (D) of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5. For example, D = 24 mm, then L is equal to L = 24 x 1 = 24 mm to L = 24 x 2 = 48 mm. Specific examples are given in Tables 3, 5, 8, 9. The tests were carried out under the condition of a distance between the electrodes 7, 8 of the source of the pulse current 6 (H) equal to 0.04 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 (a value less than the recommended one) and at a value of the smooth exit angle to the ends of the electrodes 7, current 6, equal to 30 (the average recommended value).

Counter-ends 23, as shown in FIG. 1, 2, electrodes 11, 12 with through holes 13, 14 are made conical (symmetrical or asymmetrical) and with a mirror direction, i.e. opposite each other with smaller diameters.

The device comprises a feed system 24, a dispensing system 25 for the resulting elements, and a treatment system 26, the feedstock supply system 24 being connected to a through-hole 13 of the electrode 11 which is communicated with the working space 15 of the guide 5, and the output system 25 of the resulting elements with a through hole 14 of the other electrode 12 and through a processing system 26 with a through-hole 13 of the electrode 11 that is connected to the source supply system 24. In this case, a chain of a closed cycle is formed. The circuit of the closed cycle is provided with pumps 27 for feeding the starting material. Type of communication common pipeline, conveyor, etc. (not shown in the drawings).

The dispensing system 25 can be in the form of a well-known conveyor, pipeline, or the like. The feed system 24 of the starting material can be made from a well-known hopper, a tank, or the like. with conveyor, pipeline, etc.

The treatment system 26 comprises a classification system, for example, in density, in size in the form of well-known hydraulic classifiers, and the like (not shown in the drawings), a compacting system, for example, drying, settling, pressing, and the like. in the form of well-known drying ovens, slop tanks, presses (not shown in the drawings), a heat recovery system, for example, well-known heat exchangers (not shown in the drawings).

The device for obtaining the elements can have several modules of the means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material. Then the modules are arranged in series in a line and coaxially arranged with the working cavities 15 of the guides 5, as shown in FIG. 3, a chain of a closed cycle form through holes of the outer electrodes.

The operation of the device for obtaining elements with one module of the means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material is carried out as follows.

Fill the working cavity 15 (Figures 1, 3) with the starting substance (dry or distributed in water or in gas), not preheating it beforehand. Check the tightness of the device. The current stabilization system is turned on by applying a current to magnet 2 with a magnetic field strength element 4, for example, a solenoid. An electric current is supplied, for example, from a common city electrical network to a means for stabilizing the flow of hot plasma, i. E. to the electrodes 11, 12 with through-holes 13, 14. As a result, the constriction 16 of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 is located at the location of the maximum concentration of the magnetic field strength. The source of the pulsed current 6 is then turned on by supplying current to the electrodes 7, 8 of the pulsed current source, pulling them closer together, moving along the channels of the magnet 2 to the center of the constriction 16 in the working cavity 15 until the discharge of the electric current discharge occurs. A hot plasma flow is created with a narrowing between the extended sections (streamer). After that, the electrodes 7, 8 are removed from the working cavity 15 of the guide 5, the received streamer is preserved, and the starting substance, passing through the state of the streamer, is transformed, and other elements leave the working cavity of the guide 5 than in the starting material with another sequence number of the periodic system Mendeleyev elements (see tables 4-9).

If the source material is distributed in water or in a gas, water and gas create a cooled film on the walls of the device, protecting it from overheating and rapid failure. In the case of the distribution of the starting material in water, a known process, for example filtration, is carried out, isolating new elements from the water.

If the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 is made in the form of a hyperboloid of revolution, then the hot plasma stream is formed in the form of a hyperboloid of revolution, and its streamer is more stable for a time than in other cases, and the new elements are obtained stably in the largest possible amount, values.

If the electrodes 7, 8 of the pulsed current source 6 are adapted to approach each other at the narrowing point 16 by a distance (H) of from 0.05 to 0.1 of the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5, the stability of the size and shape of the constriction 16 flow of hot plasma. As a result, the maximum achieved number of new elements with a stably maximum number of them is obtained (see tables 1, 4). As can be seen from Tables 4, 5, when the distance (H) between the electrodes of the pulse current source, which is less than (0.04) from the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, is less than the 0.05 proposed, for example, lithium Li) is obtained: from the coal of Chelyabinsk 0.1% of the total amount of the starting substance, instead of 0.16-0.18%, as in the proposed interval, from the slag of the open-hearth furnace, the blast furnace slag, the Kachkanarskaya ore, the blast furnace and open-hearth furnace sludge, sinks of a calibration plant, art. Cove urban 0% instead of the number of elements obtained as in the proposed value; Boron (B) is obtained from Coal of Chelyabinsk 0.1% instead of 2.4-2.8%, as with the proposed value, 0% of boron is obtained from the remaining species in the table of original substances instead of 1 3.4% obtained at the proposed value.

As can be seen from Tables 4 and 6, when the distance between the electrodes of the source of the pulse current, which is greater than (0.2) from the maximum diameter of the working cavity of the guide, is less than the proposed 0.1, a number of elements are obtained in smaller amounts, for example carbon (C) : 25-27% instead of 29.8-30.1% of the slug of blast furnace and open hearth furnaces instead of 29.8-30.1% as for the proposed value, boron (B): from Chelyabinsk coal 1.8-2.4% instead of 2.4-2.8% as with the proposed value, from refractory dust 0.3% instead of 1-1.3% as with the proposed value, etc.

If the electrode 7 of the pulse current source 6 is made with a pointed end with a smooth transition to the end 20 at an angle α of 4 to 45 °, it is less destroyed (the resistance is increased by 2-3 times), in comparison with the electrode with a flat end or pointed at a different angle see tables 2, 5, 7). At a value of the angle a, less than 4o, the electrodes are destroyed more violently, their resistance is reduced by 2-3 times. If the value of the angle a is greater than 45 °, some elements, for example, lithium (Li), boron (B), vanadium (V) are not obtained, while at the proposed value in a certain amount they are obtained (see Tables 2, 7) .

If the electrodes 7, 8 of the source of the pulsed current 6 are oriented to each other on both sides of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 opposite to the ends 20 (Fig.3) and 20, 22 (Fig.1), then the discharge strength is maximum, the electrodes 7, 8 are not affect each other and do not require an electrically insulating gasket between them.

The arrangement of the electrodes 11, 12 with through holes at a distance (L) from each other, which is 1 to 2 times the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5, helps stabilize the streamer of the hot plasma flow, reduces the probability of its dispersion. As a result, a sufficiently large number of new elements is obtained in the maximum achieved volume (see tables 3, 8, 5, 9). As can be seen from Tables 3, 8, 5, when electrodes 11, 12 are positioned with through holes at a distance (L) from each other, which is less than the proposed one, i. 0.9 instead of 1 from the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5, some elements are obtained in smaller amounts, for example, zinc (Zn) from Chelyabinsk coal 1-2% instead of 4.3-4.4% as at the proposed value, from the effluents of cement plant 0% instead of 0.1% as for the proposed value, etc. As can be seen from Tables 3, 8, 9, when electrodes 11, 12 are placed with through holes at a distance (L) from each other, which is more than the proposed one, i. 2.1 instead of 2 from the maximum diameter of the working cavity 15 of the guide 5, some elements are produced in smaller amounts, for example lithium (Li) from the coal of Chelyabinsk 0,1% instead of 0,3% as at the proposed value, from the effluents of the cement plant 0% instead of 0.1% as for the proposed value, etc.

If the ends of the electrodes 11, 12 with through holes 13, 14 are tapered with a mirror direction, the electric current is concentrated, its effect is enhanced.

With several modules of the means for converting the atomic-molecular structure of the starting material, a similar process occurs in all modules. If unstable atoms of new elements are formed in the first module, they are not allocated as new elements, but in subsequent modules complete their transformation completely. The number of received elements is insignificant, but increases.

If the device is provided with dispensing systems 25 of the elements to be obtained, treatments 26 and feedstock feeds 24 forming a chain of closed cycle, the processed raw material leaves the working cavity 15 of the guide 5 and enters the dispensing system, for example a conveyor, which feeds them to the processing system . In the treatment system 26, filtration is carried out by sedimentation of the obtained elements, if necessary classified, for example, by size, compacted, etc. The heat released is utilized by any of the known methods (taken off by a well-known system of heat exchangers, etc.). Unreacted feedstock residues are fed (with or without pump 27) to the feedstock feed system 26 and then to the through-hole 13 of the rework electrode 11. The residues of the unreacted starting material can be mixed with a fresh portion of the starting material.
During the tests, the chemical composition of water and gas was determined in the case of feeding a dispersed starting material distributed in water or in a gas. The water after treatment in all experiments in terms of its chemical composition basically corresponds to the requirements of the maximum permissible concentration for industrial water (for a single treatment) and fire-drinking (after repeated treatment). The main difference from the latter is the stable content of heavy water in the amount of 0.17-0.20% which is harmless. The gases released at the output of the electromagnetic converter depend on the chemical composition of the components of the additives to the water. For example, in the processing of hydrocarbon components (coal, phenol, benzene), as well as effluents and sludges, water vapor (up to 40%), hydrogen (up to 30%) and C1-C8 gas hydrate with the presence of helium He (up to 4%) in the absence or low content of nitrogen and oxygen. When treating a dispersed starting material distributed in water or in a gas, the content of water vapor increases, there are no hydrocarbon gas hydrates and accordingly the content of the remaining components decreases.



http://gizadeathstar.com/2015/01/cold-fusion-alchemy-lenr-reactor-produces-gold-platinum-product/comment-page-1/#comment-49970
January 29, 2015

[ Excerpt ]

SilverSurfer says:    

This is the article from the Russian source where ( among other things) discussed an plasma unit that was developed in the 90s.

http://proatom.ru/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=4921

In particular (Google translate, edited by me) it says:

“No less interesting story happened with Anatoly Vachaev. Experimenter from God, he conducted research plasma steam and accidentally got a big powder output, which included elements that almost the entire periodic table. After six years of research it became possible to create the plasma unit, which gave a stable plasma torch – plasmoid by passing distilled water through which a solution or a slurry large amounts of metal powders.”

1997, Magnitogorsk, a follower of Vachaev, Galina Pavlova defended her thesis on “Development of the foundations of technology of metals from the plasma state water-mineral systems.”

At first, the examination commission rejected the idea as soon as they heard that metals can be produced from distilled water, but Pavlova demonstrated a working unit that turned turned water to metal powder; she was awarded a doctorate.

So, it is possible, and was done. Another question is: How much metal ( in our case gold) can be produced and how much energy it will require?



http://www.q-mag.org/short-abstracts-of-17th-conference-on-cold-nuclear-transmutation-of-chemical-elements-and-ball-lightning-in-sochi-russia-sept-26.html
Short Abstracts of 17th Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation of Chemical Elements and Ball Lightning in Sochi, Russia, Sept. 26 to October 3rd, 2010

NEW ATOMIC (NOT NUCLEAR AND NOT CHEMICAL) MECHANISM OF THE SMALL ENERGETICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF ATOMS

A.I. Laptukhov
Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation
(IZMIRAN), laptukhov@izmiran.ru

Within the framework of electrodynamics and dynamics of not point particles, constructed only on the basis of the fundamental laws of conservation, is shown, that observable in A.V. Vachaev's experiments intensive so call small energetical the transformation of chemical elements is atomic (but not nuclear and not chemical) process with characteristic size of received energy ~30 eV on atom (instead of ~10 MeV as in nuclear reactions). In this process are formed "eltons", that is the clods of superdense quantum plasma consisting of an electronic cloud with a charge -Ze and several or many usual atomic nucleuses with a total charge Ze (or ~Ze). Density of an electrical charge in elton (as against usual atom) is negative in its central part and is positive on periphery. Eltons are stable or (more probable) long exist system with unusual properties. It's minimal size about atom, and maximal down to macroscopic. The eltons can be formed in the electrical discharge of water or any usual atoms and molecules. Traces with surprising properties, observable in different experiences, "strange" radiation, small aperture, created by a fireball at its passage in glass and metal plates, - all this, apparently, traces of eltons.




RU94025449
RU2077951
METHOD OF WASTE GASSES UTILIZATION
    
Inventor: VACHAEV ANATOLIJ // IVANOV NIKOLAJ I

FIELD: cleaning of effluent gases of industrial furnaces, mainly, in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of gases with electric current of two kinds in the presence of magnetic field. One kind of current has density of 20 to 100 A/sq.mm. The other kind of current is supplied by pulses with density from 40 to 1000 kA/sq.mm in place of magnetic field intensity from 40 to 300 Wb. To provide for the method continuity, prior to treatment, effluent gases are branched into several flows to which wet steam is introduced. Treatment is carried out in circumference manner. Useful elements are also recovered from steam.
EFFECT: provision of recovery from effluent gases of useful elements such as copper, aluminium and others, and cleaning efficiency of above 99 %.






DESCRIPTION

[0001] The invention relates to ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and can be used for the purification of exhaust gases of industrial furnaces mainly ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, ie electric steel furnaces, converters, t. e. as well as systems of elimination by incineration of toxic, explosive or other materials.

[0002] There are many ways to clean (disposal) of waste gases. For example, the process gas outlet of the converter on o.d. USSR N 631538; IPC C 21 C 5/38 to avoid contact with the carbon monoxide into the atmosphere, ie, for gas purification from carbon monoxide "gas sucked through the bed of iron ore batch heated to 400 1100oC, converter gas is passed, comprising 1-20% carbon monoxide, are used as raw materials containing hematite 182-428 kg / t steel in the partial afterburning of the gases discharged 17.1 and 7.3 kg / t of steel with flue gas discharge without afterburning. "

[0003] A disadvantage of this method is that only excludes the carbon monoxide emissions, emissions problem exception of iron oxides and other harmful contaminants not assigned. In this way influences of melting technology, that limits its possible and introduces industrial disadvantages.

[0004] Known method of removal of the converter gas AS USSR N 1242527; IPC C 21 C 5/38, in which the flue gases is collected and afterburning in flue disposing of carbon monoxide is cooled and purified combustion gases, and to increase the degree of utilization of the energy converter gas "afterburning converter produce heated gas, compressed air in the continuous feed zone ionizing burning pulverized additive and subsequent exposure to an electromagnetic field ionized stream of combustion products to generate electric current, which is extracted from the combustion product stream of ionized by means of a closed electric circuit to the load and is used for the process.

"This method solves the problem of increasing the degree of side effects, but not the task of cleaning gas from the other impurities except carbon oxides, and increasing the degree of purification.

[0005] For the prototype, the method for recycling (cleaning) flue gas using electrostatic precipitators, which is as follows.
Flue gases are passed through a system consisting of earthed collecting electrodes, a current density of 0.001 A / mm2, and placed at some distance (interelectrode gap) of discharge electrodes to which an electric current is supplied rectified high voltage with a negative sign.

At sufficiently high voltage applied to the interelectrode gap, the surface of the discharge electrode is intense impact ionization of gases, accompanied by the appearance of the corona discharge.

Gas ions of different polarity by the action of the electric field strength to move heteronymic electrodes, whereby the electrode gap in an electric current.
Ash particles, located in the flue gases due to their adsorption on surface become electrically charged ions under the influence of the electric field strength to move the electrodes are deposited mainly on the collecting electrodes, in a smaller amount at the corona electrode.

The electrodes are periodically cleaned.

The method is carried out at a certain electric field intensity, called critical, which, for example, air at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 20oC is about 0.15 kV / cm (Szabo VV Oran environmental TPP and NPP: Proc. For technical . Energoatomizdat M., 1992, 240 pp., Ill. p.52. ) The disadvantage of this method is that the exhaust gases are purified mainly from the solids (dust), but not present in them from harmful gases, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide purification does not occur, and that the degree of purification is not more than 92 99 %, which does not exclude the ingress of harmful impurities in the atmosphere.

In this case, the useful side effect does not arise.

[0006] Thus, a huge pot of inventions does not contain a method for its implementation, which would allow to clean the exhaust gases of furnaces, converters, etc. units from any species of impurities to such an extent to completely eliminate them from entering the atmosphere.

This applies in particular to sets of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy mainly to the converter, which in spite of the more than 150-year period of their use is still
not working and created quite a reliable method for purifying exhaust gases.

High dust converter gases, especially periodicity (cyclical) release them during the production process, the volatility of the chemical sostava- all combine to complicate the task of recycling converter gases.

[0007] Furthermore, great difficulties for the operation of existing devices and creating breaks the periodicity of receipt of exhaust gases caused by or process, such as the manufacture of the converter, and organizational factors.

Naturally, in the absence of exhaust gases or reduction of harmful components to the limit of allowable concentration of any device utilization, especially heat power shifts from the normal state to the stop mode, which creates tension in the structural elements, often in excess of the permissible.

[0008] The present invention solves the problem of flue gas cleaning ovens of all kinds of impurities with a purity of over 99%, ie with virtually no contact with the exhaust gases into the atmosphere.

A side effect is the formation of new elements, such as lithium, beryllium, boron, etc. useful for the national economy, and the ability to work non-stop recycling process at the time when the input waste gases.

[0009] The problem is solved by a method for recycling treatment of waste gas according to the invention an electric current density of the latter is fed from 20 to 100 A / mm2 in the presence of the magnetic field pulses and a density of from 40 to 1000 kA / mm2 at the place of the magnetic field intensity of 40 to 300 wb . The magnetic field strength elsewhere electric current is not essential.

[0010] Cleaning effect of all kinds of impurities and with purity greater than 99% is achieved due to the combination modes of the magnetic field and electric current generating the thermodynamic conditions under which the gas molecules and the solids (metal oxides et al.), And constituent atoms of the fragments to fall atoms that interact with each other and with the shards of metal atoms to form stable under these conditions, the new structures of useful elements (metals).

[0011] As a special case of execution before the treatment of exhaust gases form a portion of the flow, branching into several streams, where the wet steam is introduced.

This allows for the temporary cessation of receipt of the waste gases continue the process of recycling round the branches of the stream. When the exhaust gases completely disappear, will be processed by steam.

Thus, it is kept constant electric and thermal conditions than excluded destroying equipment heat power fluctuations. The proposed operation conditions determined empirically in the laboratory and tested in industrial conditions on the converters.

[0012] When the electric current density of less than 20 kA / mm2 purification rate drops sharply to 60% When the electric current density of more than 100 kA / mm2 stops the growth of the degree of purification, energy costs are not equivalent results.

[0013] When the magnetic field strength less than 40 Wb purification rate drops sharply to 50% at the magnetic field strength of more than 300 Wb stops the growth of the degree of purification, energy costs are not equivalent results.

[0014] When the density of the electric current supplied to pulses less than 40 kA / mm2 purification rate drops sharply to 65% When the density of the electric current supplied pulses 1000 kA / mm2, growth stops purity, i.e. Energy costs not equivalent results.

[0015] On the grounds that the proposed method due to an unknown combination of features provides recycling waste gas purification from all impurities with a degree above 99% which is not reached in the technique effect and side effect separation of useful chemical elements must conclude that the proposed method with the patentability " inventive step ".

[0016] The proposed method corresponds to the condition of patentability of "industrial applicability", as evidenced by the following example of a specific use way of recycling the waste gases of the converter.

[0017] The figure shows a section of the exhaust gas branch stream.

[0018] The exhaust gases from the working space of the converter is fed by a normal line of electrically processing chamber exhaust gases.

In the chamber the exhaust gases in the presence of the magnetic field electric current is treated.

Electric current is supplied to two types: using one pair of electrodes from the density 20 to 100 A / mm2, which is maintained constant during the entire recycling process and using another pair of electrodes pulses density of 40 to 1000 kA / mm2, and in place of the magnetic field from 40 to 300 Wb. Elsewhere electric current magnetic field can be arbitrary, for example, to reduce energy consumption 20, 30 Wb. The magnetic field source may advantageously be in the form of an electromagnet (to ensure a sufficiently high strength) with variable or constant magnetic field, such as a solenoid with a known constant or variable number of turns.

Electric current may be constant or variable.

When a pulse of electrical current arcing occurs, which is maintained supply another pulse of electric current, as necessary, i.e. while reducing its intensity combustion as determined in the usual manner, for example by reducing the conductivity of the processed gas.

During arc created thermodynamic conditions in which there is the following phenomenon.

Molecules and atoms of gases and solids, which are made up of exhaust gases (oxides of metals and others.), Proved to be unstable under these conditions shall be distributed to the fragments of atoms that interact with each other (non-metallic fragments of atoms with non-metals and metals with metals and non-metals in peremezhku metals) forming the most stable in the thermodynamic conditions of the structure elements that were metals and nonmetals such as silicon (Si), carbon (C), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), etc.
Thus, the components of the exhaust gases, both harmful and harmless disappear and converted into useful elements such as silicon (Si), carbon (C), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), etc. which have the form of a powdered solid.

The degree of utilization (purifying) exhaust gas is judged to reduce the volume of waste gases and increase the volume of the powdered solid.

The degree of utilization, as shown by the test is 100% i.e. 99.5 You can completely eliminate the waste gases and obtain from them useful metals.

If the utilization rate is below 100% is possible, without changing the mode parameters, process exhaust gases several times (2 3), which in the industry is advantageously carried out in the chambers sequentially set at an arbitrary distance in a continuous stream.

[0019] Example circuit formation of new substances, etc.

[0020] The resulting solid powder poured into bunkers and fed to further processing: sorting, drying, compaction in bars, etc.

[0021] As a special case of the method of disposal of land to form 1-branched flue gas stream into multiple streams that carry conventional techniques, ie, via pipework.

In branching flow of exhaust gases fed wet steam in an arbitrary amount.

At intervals of receipt of exhaust gases, which is particularly characteristic of converter units, together with the exhaust gas is processed wet steam circulating round at the branching portion, whereby the recycling process continues and remains constant heat power mode, which eliminates the cyclical stress on the equipment (on the pipeline, electrodes, magnet chamber wall 2, in which the electrodes and the magnet are installed, and the like) and hence eliminates damage caused by them.
To increase the pressure of exhaust gases at the site of branching, in the event of termination of their arrival, the source of income, such as pipeline posts workspace converter, cover the locking element 3, for example bolt.

Water vapor can be fed continuously or immediately upon termination of receipt of exhaust gases to their next earnings.

Water vapor as well as from flue gases produced are useful as new elements.

[0022] The exhaust gases before they are processed can be cooled by mixing it with water and gas at an arbitrary concentration (for cooling the walls of the pipe and t. N.).

In this case, the solid elements is obtained as a slurry of water or gas, which is washed off by gravity, entering the hopper.

Drying the slurry in a conventional manner, for example by precipitation in a vacuum filter.

[0023] Examples of specific numerical values ??to the modes of their rationales are given in the table.

[0024] As can be seen from the table, under the recommended way to modes of electric current and magnetic field the degree of purification of exhaust gases as high as possible: 99.5 to 100% at this new and useful metals are obtained (see. Runs 1 12).

When the electric current density of 19 kA and 39 / mm2, i.e. and less than the recommended 20 to 40 kA / mm2, and magnetic field intensity 39 Wb, i.e. less than the recommended 40 Wb, the degree of purification is sharply reduced to 50 - 65% also decreases the quantity of the useful metals (see. Bonus 13 - 15).

When the electric current density of 101 and 1001 kA / mm2, i.e. more than recommended, and the magnetic field 301 Wb, ie more recommended, stops the growth of the degree of purification, energy costs are unnecessary and are not equivalent results (see. 16 18 experiments).

The growth of the number of received useful elements stops.




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