rexresearch.com



Steven WARD

Magnetic Convertor








Steven Ward

Energy Ingenuity
P.O. Box 734
Shepherd
Texas 77371

http://www.energy-ingenuity.com
steve-ward@energy-ingenuity.com
936-628-6192



Steve Ward <steve-ward@energy-ingenuity.com>
27 April 2010

My Fellow American,

Everything is verifiable! Energy (torque and electricity) from Magnets!  Who else needs to see a demonstration?

These reactions cannot be caused using only what is taught to exists. I am using part of a magnetic field, which is not a pole, and manipulating it to generate torque, while current is being generated from the poles and the current is used.  I can cause these reactions with magnets only after knowing wardforce exists and can be manipulated.  As today, without this part of a magnetic field being used, torque and current is generated from different devices.  With wardforce being manipulated, usable torque and current can be generated from a single device.

I have discovered a part of the magnetic field, “Wardforce”, which is not a North or South Pole. Using magnetic fields, I am causing reactions which have been taught for over 200 years as impossible.  Some of the over 10,000 (hits 2009) people, who are from the US and other countries, have been emailing me, asking questions and I know they understand how I am manipulating wardforce. Some, from other countries, have indicated that they are teaching their children (future work force) about wardforce.  Defining wardforce, gives a better understanding of cause and effect. NOW, is the time for science communities and educational facilities, here in the USA, to be involved with developing a curriculum for our future work force...

With this method regarding US patent 7531930 being used, I can demonstrate that torque and current can be generated from magnetic fields. It is not as simple as it sounds and yes, that is right, energy from Magnets...

[ &c... ]

Steven Ward

P.S. On my blog www.energy-ingenuitycom.blogspot.com you can see the videos I have posted. In a demonstration, I show more detail, demonstrate devices which prove the existence of "wardforce" and that it can be manipulated to produce torque.  It is not as simple as it sounds, or looks.



http://www.energy-ingenuity.com/
April 27, 2010
   
Energy Producing Magnetic Converter




Backward (pull) motion is demonstrated when shaft decreases in speed.

Forward (push) motion is demonstrated when shaft increases in speed.

Definition: "Wardforce" - (Push-pull) Forward-backward motion part of a magnetic field, a force not poles.   

This method for producing usable mechanical and electrical energy uses waves generated from north and south poles, not an AC current.  Counter electro-magnetic force is the force I was taught, which resists motion when using current with present day generators.  CEMF is the same as a radio wave, only it is not "transmitted".  I am "mechanically" transmitting the wave (wardforce), which is converted into usable torque.  As more current is used, wardforce increases, producing torque from this part of the magnetic field.   This is to say, when current is used, torque will be generated from the wardforce as described in U.S. patent #7531930.  A magnet has 2 poles, wardforce, and what else which cannot be seen?  One force, is manipulated for producing current, and the other, wardforce is manipulated for producing torque.

No matter how wardforce can be manipulated, it is a part of the magnetic field!  This other part of the magnetic field is what I have been demonstrating and until now, I have not pushed the point of another part existing.  The main points at the demonstrations were, that torque and current can be generated from magnetic fields(Magnets).  Let's educate others regarding this other part of a magnetic field.  I offer physical proof of my claims. Energy from magnets (torque and electricity)!   If anyone was causing these reactions and understand how the reactions are caused, they would also claim another part of the magnetic field exists and can be manipulated.    

I cannot cause these reactions, using only what is known to exists.  Something else has to exists for these reactions to be caused or the cause of these reactions would be taught and we would not be buying fuel for producing energy.

Verifiable Information

* Demonstrated at Energy Systems Laboratory in Bryan, Texas, Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) July 17, 2009

* Demonstrations were held on 8-12-2009 various times between 5:00p- 8:00pm.  Third Annual Houston Inventors/UHSBDC Inventors Tradeshow, 6400 Bissonnet, Houston, Texas.  I demonstrated this other part of a magnetic field (I now call Wardforce) exists, and that magnetic fields can be used to produce energy (torque/mechanical and current/electrical).

* High School demonstrations include Shepherd ISD, Coldspring-Oakhurst Consolidated ISD, Onalaska ISD, New Caney ISD.

News Articles

*  Cleveland Advocate Volume 93, Number32

* "Shepherd man finds clean energy in magnets"

*  Eastex Advocate  Volume 32, Number 32

*  "Magnetic power source"

*   San Jacinto News Times Volume 137 , Number 26

* "Shepherd native produces energy from magnets"

An AC motor was modified so that the coil, with the core (lament core) was in a U-shape and with the coil of wire in the bottom of the U.  The coil will need to be mounted across from the permanent magnets.  The controller assembly is steel on the ends, allowing flux to flow through from the permanent magnets energizing the coil.  Aluminum can be used as a breaking system with magnetism.   For the sake of more proof that there is another part to the magnetic field, use Aluminum for the center part of the controller assembly.  The shaft can go between the poles, allowing the coil and the permanent magnets to be stationary.  I have one facing pole North and the other South.  Now, looking at the picture and reading this do you see how it is made?  If not send me an email or phone call.  At different speeds you will see the different reactions as shown on my video.  This will verify that wardforce is not a current or a pole, because it is backward and forward motion.       



US7531930
Energy Producing Magnetic Converter

Inventor:  WARD STEVEN W SR
EC: H02K53/00
IPC:   H02K1/22; H02K21/12; H02K47/00; (+5)
2009-05-12

Abstract -- An energy producing magnetic converter is provided that outputs both electrical and mechanical energy. The converter includes a controller assembly rotatably secured between a plurality of field coil assemblies and a plurality of magnets. During a rotation of the controller assembly between the plurality of field coil assemblies and the plurality of magnets, electric current is generated in wire coils of the field coil assemblies, and counter-magnetic fields are induced around the wire coils. A pole of each counter-magnetic field is formed on the controller assembly, and counterforce present between magnetic fields of the plurality of magnets and the counter-magnetic fields cause and maintain forward rotational motion in the energy producing magnetic converter.; Accordingly, because the forward rotational motion is maintained in the presence of sufficient counterforce, the magnetic converter outputs torque in addition to the electric current, thereby increasing an efficiency of the magnetic converter.     

Description

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

[0001] 1. Technical Field

[0002] The invention relates generally to the subject of converters and power supplies, and, in particular, to devices that generate usable electrical and/or mechanical energy through the use of magnetic fields.

[0003] 2. Background Art

[0004] Magnetic converters, or, devices that produce usable electrical and/or mechanical energy through the use of magnetic fields, or flux, are well known in the art. Some examples of magnetic converters include electric motors, electric generators, transformers, etc. A typical magnetic converter includes at least a pair of permanent magnets and a wire coil free to rotate between the magnets. The magnets are generally connected by a steel former and the wire coil is connected to lead wires using brushes. In a magnetic converter that is used to generate usable mechanical energy, the wire coil may be further connected to a drive shaft.

[0005] In a magnetic converter that is used to generate mechanical energy, e.g., an electric motor, a voltage potential is applied across the lead wires, thereby causing an electric current to flow through the coil. The flow of the electric current induces a magnetic field, or flux, around the coil. The coil's magnetic field repels and attracts the magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets, which, in turn, causes the wire coil to rotate. Accordingly, usable rotational mechanical energy, or torque, may be drawn from the drive shaft.

[0006] In a magnetic converter that is used to generate electrical energy, e.g., an electric generator, the wire coil is rotated in a magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets, thereby inducing a voltage in the wire coil. Accordingly, when the lead wires are connected to a load, e.g., a light bulb, electric current may be drawn from the coil. Consequently, once current begins to flow through the rotating wire coil, a force opposing the motion of the wire coil is also induced, thereby making the wire coil harder to turn. Thus, as is explained by the conservation of energy law, the more work that the converter does, the more work that must be put into its operation. In physical practice, the work put into the operation of the converter is produced by applying a greater mechanical driving force, or increased input torque, to the rotating wire coil.

[0007] Accordingly, it would be desirable to provide a magnetic converter for generating electrical energy in which the input torque applied to the magnetic converter need not be increased to maintain operation of the converter. Further, it would be desirable to provide a magnetic converter for generating electrical energy in which an input torque is not required to maintain operation of the converter, and, hence, usable output torque may be drawn from the converter. Advantageously, in such a scheme, the magnetic converter may be used to generate usable electrical and mechanical energy, thereby increasing an efficiency of the magnetic converter.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

[0008] According to one aspect, an energy producing magnetic converter includes a housing; a plurality of field coil assemblies disposed on a first surface of the housing; a plurality of magnets disposed on a second surface of the housing opposite of and aligned with the plurality of field coil assemblies; and a controller assembly rotatably secured to the housing and positioned between the plurality of field coil assemblies and the plurality of magnets, wherein, upon application of an electric load to the plurality of field coil assemblies, a rotation of the controller assembly relative to the plurality of field coil assemblies and the plurality of magnets induces at least one counter-magnetic field for generating an electric current.

[0009] According to another aspect, a magnetic converter system includes a plurality of field coil assemblies; a plurality of magnets, each magnet of the plurality of magnets being positioned opposite of and separated from a corresponding field coil assembly of the plurality of field coil assemblies by a spacing interval; a controller assembly having a plurality of controllers, each controller of the plurality of controllers being arranged to pass through the spacing interval between each magnet and the corresponding field coil assembly; and wherein, during a rotation of the controller assembly, a plurality of counter-magnetic fields generated substantially on the plurality of controllers as the plurality of controllers pass through the spacing interval between each magnet and the corresponding field coil assembly generates sufficient counterforce to provide and maintain forward rotational motion to the controller assembly, and wherein the maintaining of the forward rotational motion generates an output torque of the magnetic converter system.

[0010] According to another aspect, a method for generating usable electrical energy and usable mechanical energy of a magnetic converter includes rotating a plurality of controllers secured to a controller plate of the magnetic converter between a field coil assembly and an opposing magnet of the magnetic converter; utilizing a counter-magnetic field generated on each controller of the plurality of controllers to produce sufficient counterforce to maintain forward rotational motion of the controller plate and the plurality of controllers; wherein maintaining forward rotational motion of the controller plate and the plurality of controllers generates usable mechanical energy of the magnetic converter, and wherein application of an electric load to the field coil assembly generates usable electrical energy of the magnetic converter.

[0011] Other aspects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0012] FIGS. 1a and 1b show views of an energy producing magnetic converter in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.


[0013] FIGS. 2a and 2b show views of a controller assembly of an energy producing magnetic converter in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.




[0014] FIG. 3 shows a top view of a portion of an energy producing magnetic converter in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.


[0015] FIGS. 4a and 4b show views of a section of an energy producing magnetic converter in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.




DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0016] Embodiments of the present invention will now be described with reference to the above drawings. Like references are used in the figures to represent like elements.

[0017] Embodiments of the present invention relate to a method and apparatus for generating electrical and mechanical energy. Embodiments of the present invention further relate to an energy producing magnetic converter, referred to herein as a converter, that generates usable electric current and output torque. The converter is provided with a controller assembly rotatably secured between a plurality of field coil assemblies and a plurality of magnets. During a rotation of the controller assembly between the plurality of field coil assemblies and the plurality of magnets, electric current is generated in wire coils of the field coil assemblies, and counter-magnetic fields are induced around the wire coils. A pole of each counter-magnetic field is formed on the controller assembly, and counterforce present between magnetic fields of the plurality of magnets and the counter-magnetic fields cause and maintain forward rotational motion in the energy producing magnetic converter. Accordingly, because the forward rotational motion is maintained in the presence of sufficient counterforce, the magnetic converter outputs torque in addition to the electric current, thereby increasing an efficiency of the magnetic converter.

[0018] FIGS. 1a and 1b show exemplary views of an energy producing magnetic converter (100), herein referred to as converter (100). In FIG. 1a, an overview of the converter (100) is shown. In FIG. 1b, a side perspective view of the converter (100) is shown.

[0019] Referring to FIG. 1a, the converter (100) includes a housing (102) having a first plate (104), or surface, and a second plate (106), or surface. The first plate (104) and the second plate (106) are connected and supported using a plurality of housing brackets (108). Those skilled in the art will appreciate that, although the first plate (104), the second plate (106), and the plurality of housing brackets (108) are shown as separate elements, alternatively, they may be formed as a single element with at least first and second opposing surfaces.

[0020] Disposed along a lower surface of the first plate (104) are a plurality of field coil assemblies (110). Each of the plurality of field coil assemblies (110) is operatively connected to a set of lead wires (not shown) that may be connected to an electric load (not shown). Further, disposed along an upper surface of the second plate (106) are a plurality of magnets (112). As shown, each of the plurality of magnets (112) is positioned opposite of and aligned with a corresponding field coil assembly of the plurality of field coil assemblies (110). In some embodiments, each of the plurality of magnets (112) is a substantially horse-shoe shaped permanent magnet.

[0021] Positioned between the plurality of field coil assemblies (110) and the plurality of magnets (112) is a controller assembly (114). The controller assembly (114) is rotatably secured to the housing (102) using a drive shaft (116). The drive shaft (116) is positioned along centrally defined axes of the first plate (104) and the second plate (106) of the housing (102). Further, the drive shaft (116) is operatively coupled to the housing (102) in a manner that allows the drive shaft (116) to rotate without transmitting such rotation to the housing (102), the plurality of field coil assemblies (110), or the plurality of permanent magnets (112). Thus, the controller assembly (114) is free to rotate relative to the plurality of field coil assemblies (110) and the plurality of magnets (112) when the electric load is applied to the plurality of field coils (110).

[0022] In addition, secured around the drive shaft (116) and outboard of the housing is a pulley (118). In some embodiments, the pulley (118) may be connected to a torque-supplying device, e.g., a starter or a motor (not shown), in order to initiate a rotation of the drive shaft (116), and, hence, of the controller assembly (114). Note that, as will be described below with respect to the operation of the converter (100), torque need not be continually supplied to maintain operation of the converter (100).

[0023] Referring to FIG. 1b, a side perspective view of the converter (100) is shown. Note that, in this view, the plurality of housing brackets (108) are not shown in order to aid in the understanding of the invention. In particular, a cross-sectional character of the converter (100) is visible. Further, as is also more easily visible, a small separation space exists between the controller assembly (114) and each of the plurality of field coil assemblies (110), thereby ensuring that the rotation of the controller assembly (114) is not transmitted to the plurality of field coil assemblies (110). In addition, a similar separation space exists between the controller assembly (114) and each of the plurality of magnets (112) to ensure that the rotation of the controller assembly (114) is not transmitted to the plurality of magnets (112).

[0024] FIGS. 2a and 2b show exemplary views of the controller assembly (114) of the converter (100). FIG. 2a shows a top view of the controller assembly (114), and FIG. 2b shows a sectional view of the controller assembly (114).

[0025] Referring to FIG. 2a, the controller assembly (114) includes a controller plate (120) and controllers (122). The controllers (122) are arranged around a perimeter of the controller plate (122) and are positioned in substantially equally spaced intervals. In some embodiments, a set of thirteen controllers (122) is used in the controller assembly (114). Those skilled in the art, however, will appreciate that a number of controllers (122) used in the invention may be altered without departing from the scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art will also appreciate that a spacing of the controllers (122) may be altered without departing from the scope of the invention.

[0026] Referring to FIG. 2b, a sectional view of the controller assembly (114) is shown. In order to aid in the understanding of the invention, only a portion of the controller plate (120) and a single controller (122) are shown in this view. The controller (122) includes the following: first and second spacers (124,128), and first and second magnetic sections (126,130). A first surface of the first spacer (124) is secured to the controller plate (120), and a second surface of the first spacer (124) is secured to a first surface of the first magnetic section (126). A second surface of the first magnetic section (126) is secured to a first surface of the second spacer (128), and a second surface of the second spacer (128) is secured to a surface of the second magnetic section (130). In some embodiments, the first and second spacers (124, 128) are formed from a non-magnetic material such as aluminum, brass, or hard plastic. Also, in some embodiments, the first and second magnetic sections (126,130) are formed from a magnetic field transmitting material such as steel.

[0027] FIG. 3 shows a top view of a portion of the converter (100). Only the controller assembly (114), the plurality of permanent magnets (112), and the second plate (106) are shown in order to aid in the understanding of the layout of the converter (100). In particular, a layout of the plurality of magnets (112), and, hence, their corresponding plurality of field coil assemblies (110, not shown), can be determined. Further, an alignment of the controllers (122) of the controller assembly (114) with the plurality of magnets (112) is illustrated.

[0028] Referring to FIG. 3, each of the plurality of magnets (112) is disposed along the second plate (106) in substantially equally spaced intervals. In some embodiments, seven magnets are used as the plurality of magnets (112). Further, because each of the magnets (112) is disposed opposite of and aligned with a corresponding field coil assembly, an equal number of field coil assemblies (110) is utilized. Thus, in some embodiments, seven field coil assemblies are used as the plurality of field coil assemblies (110).

[0029] Further, note that each of the controllers (122) is disposed such that, during the rotation of the controller assembly (114), the first and second magnetic sections (126, 130) of at least one controller (122) passes over at least one of the plurality of magnets (112). In particular, in embodiments where the at least one of the plurality of magnets (112) is a horse-shoe shaped permanent magnet, the first magnetic section (126) will pass over a first leg of the magnet (112), and the second magnetic section (130) will pass over a second leg of the magnet. In addition, although not shown, both the first and second magnetic sections (126, 130) pass beneath the magnet's corresponding field coil assembly.

[0030] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that a number of permanent magnets, and, hence, a number of corresponding field coil assemblies used in the invention may be altered without departing from the scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art will also appreciate that a spacing of the plurality of magnets (112) and the plurality of field coil assemblies (110) may be altered without departing from the scope of the invention.

[0031] FIGS. 4a and 4b show exemplary views of a section of the converter (100). FIG. 4a shows a perspective view of said section, and FIG. 4b shows a side view of said section. Only a portion of the first and second plates (104,106), a portion of the controller assembly (114), one of the plurality of magnets (112), and a single field coil assembly (132) are shown in order to aid in the understanding of the layout of the converter (100). Referring to FIG. 4a, the controller plate (120) of the controller assembly (114) has been rotated such that one of the controllers (122) has come into alignment with one of the plurality of magnets (112) and the corresponding field coil assembly (132). As can be seen, the controller (122) passes across the magnet (112) and the field coil assembly (132) and through a spacing interval separating the magnet (112) from the field coil assembly (132).

[0032] Referring to FIG. 4b, a side view of the layout illustrated in FIG. 4a is shown. As can be seen and as is described for FIG. 1b, a separation space exists between the controller (122) and the field coil assembly (132), as well as a separation space between the controller (122) and the magnet (112). Thus, the controller (122) is able to freely rotate through the spacing interval between the field coil assembly (132) and the magnet (112) without transmitting that rotation or friction to the field coil assembly (132) and/or the magnet (112). Accordingly, the field coil assembly (132) and the magnet (112) remain stationary with respect to each other and the controller (122) during an operation of the converter (100).

[0033] Referring again to FIG. 4b, the field coil assembly includes a wire coil (134) supported and secured to the first plate (104) of the housing (102) using support brackets (136) disposed on opposing faces of the wire coil (136). Those skilled in the art will appreciate that although a pair of support brackets (136) are shown, a number and/or configuration of the support brackets may be altered without departing from the scope of the invention. Further, as described above for FIG. 1a, the wire coil (134) is connected to the set of lead wires (not shown) which, in turn, are connected to the electric load (not shown) during the operation of the converter (100)

[0034] While the controller (122) is in alignment with the field  coil assembly (132), the first and second magnetic sections (126,130) are positioned beneath the support brackets (136), and, thus, outboard a perimeter of the wire coil (134). At the same time, as mentioned above, the first and second magnetic sections (126, 130) are aligned with the first and second legs of the magnet (112). Further, the first spacer (124) is positioned outboard of field coil assembly (132) and the magnet (112), while the second spacer (128) is positioned beneath and is aligned with the wire coil (134).

Operation

[0035] An operation of the converter (100) will now be described with reference to the figures and the above description.

[0036] With reference to FIGS. 1a and 4b, upon application of the electric load (not shown) to the wire coil (134), the required input torque to the converter (100) decreases from idle. Idle on the converter (100) is defined as an amount of torque required to turn the converter (100) with no electric load applied. Accordingly, a rotation of the drive shaft (116), and, hence, the controller assembly (114) is initiated by an application of torque to the pulley (118). The torque is applied to the pulley (118) by the torque-supplying device, e.g., the starter or the motor (not shown). In some embodiments, the torque-supplying device is a manually activated starter, such as a winding shaft attached to a spring, or a combination of said starter and a motor. In alternate embodiments, the torque-supplying device is an electrically activated starter or a combination of said starter and a motor.

[0037] With reference to FIGS. 3, 4a, and 4b, as the controller assembly (114) rotates, the controllers (122) pass through the spacing intervals separating the plurality of field coils (110) and the plurality of magnets (112). During the time that each particular controller (122) passes through a particular spacing interval, a magnetic field, or flux, is generated between the field coil assembly (132), that controller (122), and the magnet (112). As the controller (122) is rotated through the spacing interval, the first and second magnetic sections (126, 130) of the controller (122) sweep past the perimeter of the wire coil (134). Accordingly, the location and intensity of the magnetic flux changes, and a voltage is induced in the wire coil (134). Further, because an electric load is applied to the wire coil (134), electric current is generated and is drawn from the wire coil (134) through the set of lead wires (not shown).

[0038] As electric current flows through the wire coil (134), a magnetic field having a first pole and a second pole is induced around the wire coil (134). The first pole is located on a side of the wire coil (134) nearest the spacing interval, and the second pole is located on a side of the wire coil substantially opposite of the first pole. Further, during the time that each particular controller passes through the spacing interval, the first pole is formed on the controller (122). Note that a direction of a polarity of the wire coil's (134) magnetic field is counter to a direction of a polarity of the magnetic field existent between the magnets (112), and, hence, the magnetic field induced around the wire coil (134) is referred to herein as a counter-magnetic field.

[0039] Attractive and repulsive forces between the poles of counter-magnetic field and poles of the magnets' (112) magnetic field causes the controller (120) to be pushed sideways away from the wire coil (134). Herein, these attractive and repulsive forces are referred to as counterforce. The counterforce causes forward rotational motion in the controller assembly (114), thereby transmitting torque to the drive shaft (116). Advantageously, an input torque required to maintain operation of the converter (100) is decreased. Further, said counter-magnetic field is absorbed by the controller (122) and transformed back into its original state.

[0040] Further, magnetic flux of the counter-magnetic field is discharged through the controller (122) as well as absorbed through the controller (122) in accordance with an amount of electric current generated, and, hence, with an amount of electric load applied to the wire coil (134). Accordingly, as the amount of electric load is increased, the forward rotational motion of the controller assembly increases, further decreasing the required input torque. Advantageously, in an embodiment where sufficient counterforce is generated and/or sufficient electric load is applied, the input torque is not required to maintain a momentum of the controller assembly (114), and output torque may be supplied from the converter (100) to a motor (not shown) operatively connected to the pulley (118). Accordingly, in said embodiment, the converter (100) outputs both electric current and torque, and, thus, provides usable electrical and mechanical energy.

[0041] Referring to FIGS. 2b and 4a, upper and lower surfaces of the first and second magnetic sections (126, 130) are formed in a substantially trapezoidal shape, with a shorter substantially parallel side of each surface facing toward the controller plate (120) and a longer substantially parallel side of the surfaces facing away from the controller plate (120). Further, upper and lower surfaces of the second magnetic section (130) are larger than upper and lower surfaces of the first magnetic section (126). Advantageously, such an arrangement ensures that as the controller (122) is rotated through a particular spacing interval, the first magnetic section (126) and the second magnetic section (130) both remain between the field coil assembly (110) and the magnet (112) for substantially equal amounts of time. Thus, the magnetic field, and, hence, the counter-magnetic field, may be generated for a long enough period of time to produce sufficient counterforce on the controller (122).

[0042] Referring to FIG. 3, note that a number of controllers (122) provided in the controller assembly (114) is greater than a number of magnets (112), and, hence, a number of field coil assemblies (132) provided in the converter (100). Accordingly, sufficient counter-magnetization is produced in the controller assembly (114) to maintain the forward rotational motion of the converter (100). Advantageously, an input torque required to maintain operation of the converter (100) is decreased.

[0043] While the invention has been described with respect to a limited number of embodiments, those skilled in the art, having benefit of this disclosure, will appreciate that other embodiments can be devised which do not depart from the scope of the invention as disclosed herein. Accordingly, the scope of the invention should be limited only by the attached claims.




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