Pavel N. YABLOTCHKOV
Over-Unity Electrostatic Amplifier
New Energy Technology, Vol. 1, p. 68
Power Output can be More than Power Input
Alexander V. Frolov
Pavel N. Yablotchkov was born in 1847 near Saratov, Russia. He graduated as a Military Engineer in 1866 and spent several years in the Russian Army. In 1872 he came to Moscow and started his activities in the electrotechnical field. From 1875 he worked in Paris with well-known Louis Breget and his first patent in France # 110479 (29 November 1875) was about an electromagnetic transformer. Then he patented and developed a lighting system (the famous Yablotchkov’s electrical candle). In 1887 he patented a new electromagnetic transformer for industrial applications, France # 115793 (30 November 1876).
The most interesting patent claim for over-unity by Pavel Yablotchkov is known as France patent # 120684 (11 October 1877), The System of Distribution and Amplification of Electrical Currents by Means of Atmospheric Electricity. The patent describes special capacitors connected in series with the load, to increase output current by means of ionization. Experiments were produced together with well-known physicists (such as Dr Maskar, Dr Varren-Delaru and others) and they confirmed 200% efficiency of the circuit. Let’s try to explain the method. Figure 1 is a schematic drawing from Yablotchkov’s patent. The Leyden jar is not a symmetrical capacitor, i.e., it is different in principle from a two-plate flat capacitor. The inner electrode of the jar should be connected to a high voltage source and in this case the changes of [ … missing text in original… ].
In the opposite case it does not work and if you connect a high voltage source to the external cathode no potential changes will be detected on the inner electrode. Connection to ground or to a special plate (that is covered by many needles to increase air ionization) is necessary to collect the maximum electrons on the plate surface or to return the maximum electrons from the plate surface when changes of potential in the external electrode are produced by means of electrical induction in the Leyden jar.
As a conclusion I should note that one more supposition about the secrets of the well-known Swiss M-L converter (Methernitha). The main elements of the design are Leyden jar capacitors, which have the external surface made of perforated metal.
The other known fact is that great ionization of air is observed when the converter is in operation. So, the electrostatics machine can produce pulses of very high voltage (potential difference) but it can’t be used as a source of powerful current. We should use some method to increase the current in the circuit and Yablotchkov’s technology is quite a good idea for this. A large surface of external electrode of the Leyden jar can solve the problem. Maximum strong ionization allows us to get output current several times stronger than the weak current from the electrostatic machine.
"M. Jablotchoff has proposed to use for the divisibility of light sources, the AC of the magneto-electric machine of the more intercalated light sources not directly between the poles, but by the capacitors or Leyden jars.
"In Figure 36-1 we see the assumption of interspersed light sources through the earth and in Figure 2 is taken as pole weary land and sources of light are intercalated between the outer frame of the Layden jarsand earth, or between the branch of the armatures of the bottle (Figure 3).
"In the latter two cases M. Jabochkoff intended to use atmospheric electricity to increase the action of the machine."
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