Pavel N. YABLOTCHKOV [ Paul JABLOCHKOFF ]
New Energy Technology, Vol. 1, p. 68
Power Output can be More than Power Input
by Alexander V. Frolov
Pavel N. Yablotchkov was born in 1847 near Saratov, Russia. He graduated as a Military Engineer in 1866 and spent several years in the Russian Army. In 1872 he came to Moscow and started his activities in the electrotechnical field. From 1875 he worked in Paris with well-known Louis Breget and his first patent in France # 110479 (29 November 1875) was about an electromagnetic transformer. Then he patented and developed a lighting system (the famous Yablotchkov’s electrical candle). In 1887 he patented a new electromagnetic transformer for industrial applications, France # 115793 (30 November 1876).
The most interesting patent claim for over-unity by Pavel Yablotchkov is known as France patent # 120684 (11 October 1877), The System of Distribution and Amplification of Electrical Currents by Means of Atmospheric Electricity. The patent describes special capacitors connected in series with the load, to increase output current by means of ionization. Experiments were produced together with well-known physicists (such as Dr Maskar, Dr Varren-Delaru and others) and they confirmed 200% efficiency of the circuit. Let’s try to explain the method. Figure 1 is a schematic drawing from Yablotchkov’s patent. The Leyden jar is not a symmetrical capacitor, i.e., it is different in principle from a two-plate flat capacitor. The inner electrode of the jar should be connected to a high voltage source and in this case the changes of [ … missing text in original… ].
In the opposite case it does not work and if you connect a high voltage source to the external cathode no potential changes will be detected on the inner electrode. Connection to ground or to a special plate (that is covered by many needles to increase air ionization) is necessary to collect the maximum electrons on the plate surface or to return the maximum electrons from the plate surface when changes of potential in the external electrode are produced by means of electrical induction in the Leyden jar.
As a conclusion I should note that one more supposition about the secrets of the well-known Swiss M-L converter (Methernitha). The main elements of the design are Leyden jar capacitors, which have the external surface made of perforated metal.
The other known fact is that great ionization of air is observed when the converter is in operation. So, the electrostatics machine can produce pulses of very high voltage (potential difference) but it can’t be used as a source of powerful current. We should use some method to increase the current in the circuit and Yablotchkov’s technology is quite a good idea for this. A large surface of external electrode of the Leyden jar can solve the problem. Maximum strong ionization allows us to get output current several times stronger than the weak current from the electrostatic machine.
"M. Jablotchoff has proposed to use for the divisibility of light sources, the AC of the magneto-electric machine of the more intercalated light sources not directly between the poles, but by the capacitors or Leyden jars.
"In Figure 36-1 we see the assumption of interspersed light sources through the earth and in Figure 2 is taken as pole weary land and sources of light are intercalated between the outer frame of the Layden jarsand earth, or between the branch of the armatures of the bottle (Figure 3).
"In the latter two cases M. Jabochkoff intended to use atmospheric electricity to increase the action of the machine."
A New System of Distributing and Increasing with Atmospheric Electricity Currents proceeding from a Single Source of Electricity for the purpose of Supplying several Lighting Centres
My Invention has for its object the distribution of electric currents proceeding from a single source of electricity for the purpose of supplying at the same time a number of illuminating apparatus, and at the same time to strengthen such currents by means of atmospheric electricity.
In order to obtain useful results from a current proceeding from a source of dynamic electricity instead of operating directly with the said currents as heretofore, I, according to my present Invention, cause the same to undergo a double transformation by firstly converting the dynamic electricity into statical electricity, and then reconverting this into dynamic electricity, and it is by means of the latter current that I obtain useful results. For the above purpose, instead of closing the circuit of a source of electricity by means of a continuous conductor as heretofore, I unite the conductor coming from one of the poles of the electrical source with one of the armatures of a condenser, composed of one or more Leyden jars of large surface, or constructed as will be presently described.
The other conductor is connected in various ways, of which the principal ones are shown in the accompanying Drawings.
At Figure 1, the one conductor a, proceeding from a magneto-electric machine A ( giving alternating currents ) is connected with the interior surfaces of several Leyden jars B, B, or of the condenser C, which is of a particular construction. The outer armatures of these condensers are connected to one of the charcoal points D of my electric candle, or with one of the ends of the slab of kaolin E ( operating as described in the Specification of my former Patent, No. 1996 of 1877 ). The other charcoal point, or the other end of the kaolin slab is connected to the second conductor a1 of the electric machine.
At Figure 2, the two conductors, a, a1, proceeding from a magneto-electric machine, with alternating currents, are connected to the inner surfaces of the condensers B,B,C,C. The outer armatures of these conductors are connected with the apparatus for producing light, of which the second charcoal point D. or the other end of the kaolin slab E, is connected with earth.
At Figure 3 the two conductors proceeding from the said machine are connected with the interior armatures of the condensers. The outer armatures at the left hand of the machine A are connected with earth, while at the right hand they are connected to pointed prongs p, p, which allow more readily the escape of the electricity into the air. In this case the illuminating apparatus is placed between the inner and outer armatures.
The interposition of the condensers not only allows the current to be distributed in several directions as I have described it, it also has the object of developing atmospheric electricity and of accumulating it in the condensers from which it is directed in the form of currents to the illuminating apparatus. The total quantity of electricity supplied to the apparatus is therefore greater than that supplied by the primitive current, and subsequently produces a stronger light that that which the latter would give if led directly to the illuminating apparatus.
It will be evident that this electricity can, according as may be required, be supplied either in quantity or in tension.
Instead of Leyden jars it is more convenient to use as condensers those of the construction shown at Figures 4 and 5. That shown at Figure 4 consists of plates or layers of metal f, f, separated by insulating slabs l,l, the metal plates, Nos. 1, 3, 5, &c., and Nos. 2, 4, 6, &c., being respectively connected with each other. Each set of plates acts as one of the armatures of the Leyden jars.
For obtaining greater tension the insulating layers are constructed of a number of alternate insulating and conducting leaves or plates which are not in contact with one another, as shown at Figure 5.
The form of the condensers may be varied, and several may be connected in quantity or in tension...
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