rexresearch.com



David YURTH

Corona Discharge Gas Plasma Disassociation System









http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/breakthrough-co2-technology-eliminates-vehicle-exhaust-fumes-at-the-source-300149468.html
https://research.tdwaterhouse.ca/research/public/Markets/NewsArticle/100-268p8829-1

Breakthrough CO2 Technology Eliminates Vehicle Exhaust Fumes at the Source

Nova Institute of Technology introduces a breakthrough technology for removing all vehicle exhaust fumes before they leave the tailpipe. The Corona Discharge Gas Plasma Disassociation System™ (CO2 device) can also be adapted to gas vents used in refineries, exhaust stacks for incinerators, and implemented in more than 100 other common uses.

SALT LAKE CITY, Sept. 25, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- David G. Yurth, principal inventor and co-founder of Nova Institute of Technology, a privately-owned research and development group located in Salt Lake City, Utah, announced today the successful testing of The Corona Discharge Gas Plasma Disassociation System™ (CDGPDS™), a compact, lightweight, low-cost energy efficient device that eradicates all exhaust fumes produced by internal combustion engines before they leave the tailpipe.

States Yurth: "The CO2 device can be retrofitted to every internal combustion engine on the planet. The device can also be adapted for use in gas vents used in refineries, exhaust stacks for incinerators, and more than 100 other common uses."

CDGPDS™ incorporates proprietary plasma generating devices with high speed switching circuits to create what is known as a fracturing field inside a pulsating plasma chamber located within the exhaust system. The fracturing field breaks down or "dissociates" carbon dioxide and other pollutants within the device itself, thus eliminating the problem before it manifests.

"The challenge with dissociating carbon dioxide is that unlike most other three-atom gas molecules, CO2 is a very stable gas," says Yurth. "We have succeeded in demonstrating virtually 100% efficiency in the dissociation process because we have been able to propagate what is known as non-linear dissonance in the plasma chamber."

States Dr. Michael Kralik, Senior Physicist and Chief Science Officer for Nova: "Carbon dioxide molecules behave according to a well-known set of harmonic resonances which generate the fields that attract and bind the oxygen atoms to the central carbon atom. By subjecting the gas to intensely dissonant field effects, we are able to disrupt the spin polarity and oscillation frequencies that bind the atoms together."

According to Yurth and Kralik, the search for a solution to the production and release of carbon dioxide and other potent greenhouse gases has been the target of intensive research for more than 40 years.

"The stability of the CO2 molecule has resisted other attempts to break it down using a long list of excitation technologies, including microwaves, radio frequency pulses, lasers, electromagnetic fields, and various plasma field effects," says Yurth. "Thus far, the scientific literature has reported only nominal success using these methods under carefully controlled laboratory conditions."

The CO2 device is the result of Nova's joint technology development arrangement with Collier Group, LLC and SaviCorp, a publicly traded supplier of the DynoValve® family of automotive products since 2004.

States Kevin Collier, CEO of Collier Group: "The system developed by Nova's design engineers can be retrofitted to the tailpipe of the exhaust system and powered by less than 20 amps of current. When we manufacture and distribute these units for mass consumption in the automotive after-market installation and retail outlets, no modifications to the vehicle's electrical system will be required. The Nova system will be compact, lightweight, low cost, and very energy efficient."

Nova Institute of Technology LLC is a privately-owned Research and Development group specializing in system integration, prototype testing, and leading edge technology development for itself and selected strategic partners. Nova has designed, developed, fabricated, tested and evaluated more than 300 technologies during the past 12 years. Nova's inventory of proprietary patent-protected technologies includes: Electronically Shaded Glass®, Plasma Field Propagation Devices, Zűt! Fair Trade Publishing System™, DynoPlug® Spark Plug System, HDCC System for remediating nuclear fuel waste, Corona Discharge CO2 Gas Plasma Dissociation System®, Remaindered Solvent System for Extracting Refinable Bitumen from Tar Sands, Oil Shale, and Frack Sands©, and Vacuum Drying System© for Organic and Inorganic Materials, in addition to 40 other proprietary technologies, devices and systems.

Collier Group, LLC is a locally-owned engineering services company that designs, manufactures and tests systems for water purification, desalination, contamination removal and industrial waste water treatment. Founded in 2002, Collier Group and its principals have been awarded 22 patents by the USPTO. The company specializes in remediation of waste water produced by fracking, reduction of mineralized water to produce pharmaceutical grade saline solutions for medical use, and installation of salt-gradient ponds for storing brine and producing electrical power.

SaviCorp® is an innovative automotive technology company that licenses, manufactures, distributes and services an array of patented technologies and products that reduce harmful emissions and improve fuel efficiency. The company, an evolution of more than twenty years of automotive engine emissions testing, materials research and development, was formed to create, support and license its patented supplementary vehicle Emissions Reduction Technologies (ERT). Using proprietary methods and processes, the company's flagship DynoValve® system protects the environment, reduces an engine's carbon footprint, increases gas mileage and improves engine performance, resulting in dramatic savings in both fuel and oil.





Apparently this has been adapted to dissociate CO2 :

WO2015057915
PLASMA IGNITION PLUG FOR AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE


A plasma ignition plug for an internal combustion engine has a thorium alloyed tungsten anode separated from a vanadium- or beryllium-alloyed copper cathode by a boron nitride ceramic powder insulator. A generally semi-spherical titanium emitter is electrically coupled to the anode and disposed within an end of the insulator so as to form an annular gap with a torus on the end of the cathode. The surface of the emitter protrudes slightly beyond the rim of the torus on the cathode. High amplitude pulses driven into the anode arc across the annular gap to the cathode at more than twenty-four spots simultaneously, generating a plasma ignition front.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[Para 2] This invention is directed to an ignition source for use with internal combustion engines. More particularly, the invention is directed to a plasma ignition plug designed to replace a spark plug. The plasma generated by the inventive ignition plug increases molecular dissociation of the fuel such that virtually 1 00% combustion is achieved, with a decrease in heat generation, an increase in horsepower, and near complete remediation of the exhaust profile.

[Para 3] The purpose of this invention is to create a device for use in internal combustion engines that induces combustion of petroleum-based fuels by plasma propagation. Plasma ignition properties are not currently provided by conventional spark ignition devices such as spark plugs. The field of spark-type devices is densely populated by more than 1 ,000 patented spark emitter and plasma propagation devices. The field of plasma-arc igniter systems is also densely populated but largely relegated to uses not affiliated with internal combustion engines. All such devices are typically comprised of (a) an anode bar which is inserted longitudinally through the center of (b) an insulating porcelain material comprised of a vitreous or glassine ceramic of various types, (c) a fitted metallic cathode material comprised of various materials, which is affixed to the ceramic insulating material using various strategies and techniques, (d) all of which incorporate a wide variety of spark-gap geometries ranging from a simple spark bar separated from the tip of the anode bar to various types of cages, plates, layered materials, and other strategies intended to amplify or enhance the effectiveness of the spark emitted into the cylinder of the engine during ignition cycles.

[Para 4] The current invention is distinguished from all prior art devices of the same class by (a) the materials incorporated into its design, (b) the geometry of its ignition tip, and (c) its electronic and electrical properties. A singular and common short-coming of spark plugs in general is that the metallic elements incorporated into their manufacture are incapable of emitting a spark across the ignition gap that efficiently ignites, beyond a finite limit, the air and fuel droplets compressed in the cylinder during the detonation phase. The limitations of current 'spark emitter' devices are the product of (a) marginal conductivity of the metallic elements, (b) electrical persistence demonstrated by the metallic elements, and (c) a finite limit to electrical saturation provided by the porcelain ceramic insulating materials.

[Para 5] The normal air-to-fuel ratio supported by conventional devices is generally recognized as 1 4.7: 1 . Newer engines have recently been manufactured which operate at an elevated ratio of 22: 1 . This elevated level of air-to-fuel mixtu res represents the upper limit of operability in conventional internal combustion engine devices because the amou nt of electrical current (including a number of variable input properties) that can be tolerated by conventional spark plugs cannot exceed this level of performance. In order to efficiently detonate a fuel-air mixture at a higher ratio the ignition source must be designed to tolerate much higher current levels, faster switching times, and higher peak amplitudes than can be supported by any currently available devices.

[Para 6] The present invention fulfills these needs and provides other related advantages.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[Para 7] The inventive plasma ignition plug incorporates the following elements into its design:

[Para 8] Electrical Saturation: The conventional porcelain glassine ceramic insulation material used in spark plugs of current manufacture is replaced by a vitreous machinable ceramic, such as boron-nitride. Vitreous machinable ceramics such as boron-nitride are available in various formulations and generally reduce to a glassine ceramic crystalline insulator when exposed to appropriately applied temperatures and pressures. Other examples include RESCOR™ alumina and alumina silicate machinable ceramics provided by Catronics Corp. Such machinable ceramic insulator materials provide elevated electrical saturation limits which are shown by manufacturer's specifications to exceed conventional porcelain spark plug insulation materials by as much as 1 800 times. The use of such materials renders the current invention capable of supporting input levels of current in the range of 75 ,000 volts DC at up to 7.5 amperes. Tests demonstrate that electrical current applied at this level breaches the tolerances of the most advanced conventional devices resulting in catastrophic failure in identical test protocols within less than 1 5 seconds. The test results for the current invention demonstrate its ability to accommodate switched and sustained inputs at this level for indefinite periods without damage or deterioration.

[Para 9] Switching Times: The nature of spark-type ignition devices of current manufacture induces residual persistence of each electrical impulse as it is delivered by the ignition coil and distributor apparatus. Beyond a certain switching threshold, shown by manufacturers of the best commercially available racing-type spark plugs to be less than 5 milliseconds, the spark arc passing from the anode to the cathode at each ignition event becomes a continuous arcing sequence. The result of this material-based limitation is that a significant amount of the induced spark impulse is retained by the metallic materials of the spark plug and not delivered to the gases in the cylinder. It has been repeatedly shown that the efficiency of combustion in an ignition system is a function of numerous combined variables, including (a) switching times, (b) amplitude peaks, (c) pulse duration, (d) pulse discriminator curve slopes, (e) resonance, capacitance and impedance in the arc emitter, and (f) insulation efficiencies. The current invention resolves the issues which limit the performance of conventional spark-emitter devices by including in its manufacture (a) thorium-alloyed tungsten as the anode material, (b) titanium as the plasma emitter tip, (c) vitreous machinable ceramics as the ceramic insulation material, and (d) beryllium-alloyed copper as the cathode housing. These materials demonstrate electrical discharge persistence at less than 2.1 x 1 0<"6>watts per pulse at 75 ,000 volts @ 6.5 amps when switched at intervals of 5 x 1 O<-7>seconds with 5 x 1 0<-8>discriminator durations. This performance level is fully 1 000 times better than any conventionally manufactured spark emitter yet manufactured.

[Para 1 0] Combustion Efficiency: The nature of the ignition cycle in internal combustion engines relies on (a) the ratio and efficiency with which air is mixed with finely atomized fuel vapor inside the cylinder, (b) the amount of heat and pressure applied to the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder prior to ignition, (c) the properties of the ignition source, and (d) the geometry of the physical apparatus in which the fuel is combusted. The current invention increases combustion efficiency by enabling the combustion of air-to-fuel mixtures in the range of 30: 1 - 40: 1 , with a resulting increase in actual output in the form of usable horsepower, a concomitant reduction in fuel consumption per unit of output, a decrease in the operating temperature of the engine, and substantial remediation of the exhaust constituents, to as little as 1 .0 parts-per-million to 2.5 parts-per-billion. The current invention accomplishes this by (a) delivering an ignition source that is at least 1 000 times greater in amplitude than a conventional spark plug, and (b) introducing a dissociating plasma field prior to the ignition event which serves to fully dissociate the long-chain hydrocarbon molecules characterizing petroleum-based fuels. By exposing virtually all carbon ions held in the molecular chain to free oxygen molecules carried by the air component of the fuel-air mixture, the percentage of carbon ions which are effectively oxidized results in a substantial increase in ignition pressure output and virtual elimination of un-ignited carbon particulates in the exhaust profile.

[Para 11] Plasma-Induced Ignition: Plasma-induced ignition of compressed mixtures of petroleum-based fuels and air has been shown to (a) increase combustion efficiency, (b) increase combustion effectiveness, (c) increase work- function output, (d) reduce operating temperatures, and (e) remediate exhaust emission profiles. To date it has not been possible to introduce an effective plasma-based ignition component to conventional internal combustion engines because the materials used to manufacture conventional spark plugs are incapable of accommodating the electrical and signal input levels required to create plasma fields which can be sufficiently dense, adequately amplified, and effectively switched in extended operation.

[Para 12] In one particular embodiment, a plasma ignition plug according to the present invention includes a generally cylindrical insulating body having a proximal end and a distal end. A central anode is coaxially disposed within the insulating body and generally coextensive therewith. A generally semi- spherical or hemispherical emitter is disposed in the distal end of the insulating body and electrically connected to the central anode. A terminal is disposed in the proximal end of the insulating body and electrically connected to the central anode. A generally toroidal cathode sleeve is coaxially disposed around the distal end of the insulating body and forms an annular gap between the cathode sleeve and the emitter.

[Para 1 3] The equatorial diameter of the emitter is approximately equal to the inner diameter of the hollow insulating body. The cathode sleeve is preferably threaded and configured to be compatible with a threaded port on an internal combustion engine. The insulating body is preferably made from a vitreous, machinable ceramic. A preferred example of such a material is boron nitride ceramic powder compressed with a machinable composition, which is subsequently heated and compressed to a glassine crystalline structure.

[Para 1 4] The central anode is preferably made from a thorium-alloyed tu ngsten. The emitter is preferably made from titanium and press-fitted onto the central anode. The cathode sleeve is preferably made from beryllium- alloyed copper or vanadium-alloyed copper.

[Para 1 5] The emitter preferably extends beyond the distal end of the cathode sleeve. The insulating body electrically insulates the central anode from the cathode sleeve along its length. The annular gap formed between the emitter and the torus on the distal end of the cathode sleeve is not interrupted by the insulating body.

[Para 1 6] The plasma ignition plug may be constructed using the general shapes and configurations described above, the materials described above, or a combination of both. [Para 1 7] Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following more detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[Para 1 8] The accompanying drawings illustrate the invention. In such drawings:

[Para 1 9] FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of the plasma ignition plug of the present invention.

[Para 20] FIGURE 2 is a front view of the plasma ignition plug of the present invention.

[Para 21 ] FIGURE 3 is an exploded view of the plasma ignition plug of the present invention.

[Para 22] FIGURE 4 is a close-up view of the annular gap of the plasma ignition plug of the present invention.

[Para 23] FIGURE 5 is a schematic illustration of an OEM system including the inventive plasma ignition plug.

[Para 24] FIGURE 6 is a schematic illustration of an integrated plug and wire retrofit used with the inventive plasma ignition plug.

[Para 25] FIGURE 7 is a schematic illustration of a retrofit system for use with the inventive plasma ignition plug.

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS


[Para 26] The inventive plasma ignition plug 1 0 is designed to accommodate a specially designed plasma emitter shown in separate tests to emit a highly energized arc-driven plasma field when subjected to a properly designed power supply and switching system. The device as shown in FIGS 1 -4 is constructed of (a) an anode 1 2 made from thorium-alloyed tungsten rod stock, (b) an insulator 1 4 made from a vitreous machinable ceramic material such as boron-nitride, (c) a hemispherical field emitter 1 6 made from titanium, and (d) a cathode sleeve 1 8 made from either beryllium-alloyed copper or vanadium-alloyed copper. The cathode 1 8 has a torus-shaped ring 20 near the emitter 1 6. The body of the cathode 1 8 is preferably tooled and threaded 22 to fit into an engine port configured to receive a spark plug in a typical internal combustion engine. A terminal or ignition input cap 24 is press-fitted on the end of the anode 1 2 opposite the cathode 1 8.

[Para 27] The inventive plasma ignition plug delivers much higher current to the ignition cycle in nanosecond bursts. Instead of simply producing an ignition arc, the inventive plasma plug produces a plasma so powerful that it disassociates water molecules in open air and burns them with a brilliant arc. When exposed to the plasma field of the inventive plasma ignition plug, gasoline molecules are broken into single ionic radicals which are then ignited by an equally powerful arc. The result is that fuel molecules are completely burned with hydrocarbon particulates being virtually eliminated in amounts less than 2.5 parts per billion. In addition, carbon monoxide is completely eliminated and the entire exhaust profile is remediated. When used in two- stroke oil additive vehicles, the six carcinogenic exhaust contaminants typically produced by such engines are completely eliminated. Vehicles tested with plasma ignition plugs according to the present invention demonstrate significant increases in horsepower output and gas mileage. Emission tests performed on such vehicles demonstrates a significant reduction or total elimination of the most dangerous exhaust contaminants. Additional components can be used with the inventive plasma ignition plugs to increase electrical discharge levels, control switching rates, recalibrate ignition timing, and recalibrate fuel-air ratios.

[Para 28] The current invention resolves the underlying issues of prior art spark plugs by adopting the following design distinctions:

[Para 29] Thorium-alloyed Tungsten Anode: Thorium-232 is useful as an alloy in devices that propagate finely controlled electronic systems because the 232 isotope of Thorium continuously emits free electrons (6.02 x 1 0<1 7>per square cm /sec) without also exhibiting the release of any of the other emission products associated with nuclear decay. In the inventive plasma ignition plug 1 0, the free electrons supplied by the Thorium-232 increase the amount of actual electron output by the emitter by 73.91 %. This amplifying feature renders the current invention functionally superior to any known devices of similar construction or application. The anode 1 2 is preferably made from thorium-alloyed tungsten (3%). The thorium-alloyed Tungsten anode rod allows for super fast switching with exceptionally low resistance. The material allows for free electron field saturation with virtually zero residual charge persistence.

[Para 30] Beryllium-alloyed Copper Cathode: Conventional iron-based metals have been used in spark plug cathode systems for more than 1 30 years. This convention has been adopted because steel cathodes are strong, relatively inexpensive, and ubiquitously available. The short-comings of ferrous materials in spark-plug applications only become important when desired input values breach the tolerance thresholds that can be tolerated by this kind of material. The present invention resolves this problem by substituting beryllium-alloyed copper for conventional ferrous cathode materials. The alloy of copper with beryllium has the effect of (a) increasing the tensile strength of copper, (b) increasing the softening point of copper, and (c) amplifying the conductivity of copper in environments of elevated temperatures. The cathode 1 8 is preferably made from beryllium-alloyed copper or vanadium-alloyed copper. The beryllium-alloyed copper cathode provides extremely high conductance with amplified dielectric potential and superior tensile strength compared to copper.

[Para 31 ] Titanium Plasma Emitter: The point of greatest exposure to deterioration in every spark-emitter type device is the tip of the spark-emitting anode. Recent advancements in materials technologies have produced anode tips that are thinly coated with materials such as platinum and iridium. When the test data of such coating materials is reviewed, it is clear that the actual output of work-function in the form of usable energy is not improved by the addition of these coating materials. Additionally, while the life-expectancy of anode tips exposed to conventional input discharge impulses may have been extended by this modification, conventional anode tips coated with platinum or iridium catastrophically fail within 1 5 seconds or less when exposed to the input levels required to create and propagate a continuous series of plasma bursts.

[Para 32] The present invention solves this problem by substituting a spherical propagation element or emitter 1 6 comprised of high purity titanium. The emitter 1 6 is preferably on the order of 1⁄4 inch in diameter - presented as either a sphere or a hemisphere. The thorium-alloyed tungsten anode rod 1 2 is press-fitted to the titanium emitter 1 6 to constitute a strong, highly conductive component that is fundamentally resistive to deterioration under continuous operation at the levels contemplated for plasma generation. When assembled with the cathode 1 8, the arc of the emitter 1 6 - whether a sphere or a hemisphere - protrudes beyond an end of the torus 20. The fact that titaniu m exhibits extremely low electrical capacitance in the form of residual charge persistence renders it ideal for this specific application. Titanium is also fundamentally resistant to deterioration when employed as a high voltage anode. The titanium plasma emitter provides extremely high resistance to high voltage/high amperage degradation with very low residual charge persistence, very low resistance, high surface area geometries, and extremely high temperature/pressure tolerance.

[Para 33] Field Propagation Mapping: The sufficiency of an electrical arc as an ignition source in internal combustion engine-type devices is a function of (a) source charge amplitude, (b) source charge duration, (c) geometry at the tip of the emitter, and (d) surface area operating between the anode and cathode elements. In conventional spark plug devices, a single bar of approximately 0.1 25" diameter is separated from a cathode element by a gap which is typically in the range of 0.030" + /-. The highest efficiency devices (e.g., as approved by NASCAR and Formula 1 racing organizations) consist of a single platinum- coated spark bar tip surrounded by three or more cathode tips. This configuration has been adopted because it effectively increases the surface area upon which the spark arc can operate.

[Para 34] The current invention optimizes the relationship between both the geometric and surface area components by using a spherical anode emitter 1 6 which is separated from a torus 20 of the beryllium-alloyed copper or vanadium-alloyed copper cathode 1 8 by a gap of approximately 0.030 inches. The tip of the emitter hemisphere protrudes beyond the end of the torus 20 by approximately 0.020 inches. The vitreous machinable ceramic insulator 1 4 is situated within 0.030 inches of the exposed surface of the cathode torus 20. This combination of materials, along with curved geometric sections and a closely-fixed insulator floor provides a conductive surface area which is at least twenty-five times greater than the high performance NASCAR racing-type spark plugs. In addition, the configuration of the plasma ignition plug 1 0 forces the plasma field away from the tip of the propagation device towards the head of the piston. The combination of increased surface area has been shown to improve combustion effectiveness and efficiency by more than 68% when compared to NASCAR-type spark plugs in identical test applications under typical 4-cycle gasoline burning internal combustion engine systems.

[Para 35] When high amplitude pulses are driven into the anode 1 2, the arc that results reaches across the annular gap 26 at more than twenty-four spots simultaneously. Under conventional input from a standard alternator and ignition system (2500 rpm at 1 3.5 volts DC and 30 amps, converted to 50,000 volts DC and 0.0036 amps), the inventive plasma ignition plug 1 0 produces twenty-five times more ignition flame front than a conventional spark plug. When the ignition level is increased 1 ,800 times (75,000 volts DC and 6.5 amps), the spark front is replaced by a plasma. No conventional spark plug can tolerate current input levels such as this. At these conditions, the inventive plasma ignition plug 1 0 increases molecular dissociation to near 1 00% combustion with a decrease in heat, an increase in horsepower, and near complete remediation of the exhaust profile.

[Para 36] Combustion Efficiency: A gasoline-based fuel-air mixture creates an exhaust profile that is fundamentally different when ignited in the presence of a conventional spark plug as compared to a plasma field. The increased effect exerted by plasma fields on combustion dynamics results primarily from the molecular dissociation that is induced on the long-chain hydrocarbon molecules comprising the fuel by the plasma. Conventional combustion relies on the combination of (a) heat, (b) pressure, (c) effective homogeneous mixing of fuel and air molecules, and (d) an ignition source to oxidize hydrocarbon molecules by combustion. The burning of petroleum-based fuels in a pressurized environment typically creates cylinder-head pressures in the range of 450-550 psi during conventional internal combustion engine operation. In contrast, plasma-induced fuel combustion has been shown by the Russian Academy of Science to create cylinder-head pressures in the range of 1 1 20 psi under identical conditions.

[Para 37] The advantage of the use of a plasma-induced combustion cycle is that half the fuel mass normally combusted in a typical internal combustion engine-system can be oxidized to create the same work-fu nction output values, all other variables remaining unchanged.

[Para 38] The inventive plasma ignition plug may also include mono atomic gold super conductors or orbitally reordered monotonic elements (ORME) within the emitter. Such ORME may comprise mono atomic transitional group eleven metallic powders, i.e., copper, silver, and gold. These powders exhibit type two super conductivity in the presence of high voltage in EM fields and induce type one super conductivity in contiguous copper and copper alloys.

[Para 39] The control of switching rates relies on maximu m switching speeds of up to one hundred thousand cycles per minute at six hundred nanoseconds per pulse. Preferably, achievable switching rates include fifty nanosecond rise time plasma field propagation, two hundred nanosecond plasma field persistence, fifty nanosecond shutoff discriminator, fifty nanosecond rise time combustion arc, two hundred nanosecond combustion arc duration at one hundred times surface area, and fifty nanosecond shutoff discriminator. The increased electrical discharge levels preferably have an operating range of 1 3.5 volts DC at one hundred amps up to seventy-five thousand volts DC at 7.5 amps. The plasma field is preferably less than or equal to 1 3.5 volts DC at forty-one thousand, six hundred sixty amps pulsed at two hundred nanoseconds. The combustion arc is preferably less than or equal to seventy five thousand volts DC at 7.5 amps pulsed at two hundred nanoseconds. The airfuel ratio is preferably adjusted from 1 4: 7- 1 up to 1 4:40- 1 . The ignition timing adjustment is preferably digitally controlled to forty degrees before top dead center.

[Para 40] In conjunction with the inventive plasma ignition plug, the electrical discharge cycle is also improved by advances in the ignition switching, the transformer coil, and the spark plug wiring harness. The transformer coil includes a novel electromagnetic core made from a nano-crystalline electromagnetic core material. Such nano-crystalline material exhibits zero percent hysteresis under load regardless of current levels. Vitroperm™ manufactured by Vacuum Schmelze GmbH & Co. of Hanau , Germany is a preferred example of the nano-crystalline material used.

[Para 41 ] In combination with the nano-crystalline electromagnetic core material, the system designed for the electrical discharge cycle in combination with the inventive plasma ignition plug uses a special type of cable or wire designed to carry both alternating and direct currents. The wire is constructed so as to reduce "skin effect" or "proximity effect" losses in conductors used at frequencies up to about one megahertz. Such dual current wires consist of many thin wire strands individually insulated and twisted or woven together in one of several specifically prescribed patterns often involving several layers or levels. The several levels or layers of wire strands refers to groups of twisted wires that are themselves twisted together. Such a specialized winding pattern equalizes the proportion of the overall length over which each strand is laid across the outside surface of the conductor. While such dual current wires are not superconductive, they operate with extremely low resistance to rapid pulses of VDC current in the ranges discussed herein. When used as the primary winding material for transformer coils, this dual current wire almost completely eliminates resistance losses, back eddy currents, and other losses related to transforming VDC circuits. Such dual current wire is often referred to as litz wire and is primarily used in electronics to carry alternating current.

[Para 42] Another novel material used in the inventive system that impacts the electrical discharge cycle is a dense core wire that incorporates intercalated tellurium 1 28 with highly pure copper windings - an alloyed solid core Tellurium-Copper wire. A particular version of this product goes by the brand name Tellurium-Q<®>manufactured by Tellurium-Q Ltd. out of England. This dense core wire was originally developed for use in high performance audio file systems to eliminate phase distortion between the amplifier and speaker components. When used as a replacement for spark plug wires such dense core wire provides current delivery from the transformer and switching system to the inventive plasma ignition plugs with virtually zero resistance and virtually complete absence of phase distortion. This means that the signal produced at the source can be delivered without degradation to the plasma ignition plug on a continuous basis.

[Para 43] When a nano-crystalline electromagnetic core material such as Vitroperm™ and litz wire are combined to transform the current delivered by the alternator, they make it possible to create an integrated wire harness designed to incorporate the ignition transformer coil directly into each wire. Each wire has a separate ignition coil and switching module attached directly to its end just before it is connected to each plasma ignition plug. These integrated wire harness components are only possible because the heat losses due to resistance and hysteresis effects are virtually eliminated by the components themselves. Previous attempts to do something similar, i.e., drag racers and high performance engines used in Formula 1<®>, sometimes connect each spark plug wire to a separate ignition coil using digital output controllers to ensure that the output parameters do not overload the spark plugs. They also include feedback circuits and sensors tied to wireless monitoring systems. In the inventive system, each plasma ignition plug is tied to its own transformer and switching modu le built right into the wire itself.

[Para 44] In addition, a novel wire harness sheathing is utilized in the inventive system to cover the wire harness, in-line transformers, and in-line switching systems. Fibers extruded from molten lava (basalt) in 0.5 micron diameter cross-sections are collected on spools, woven together, and used for various high-tech applications. The advantage of basalt fiber materials is that they have a softening temperature of twelve hundred degrees centigrade, which is the melting point of lava rock. Such materials are three times stronger than boron-doped graphite fibers of the same diameter and can be bonded together to create insulating materials that are flexible, exhibit extremely high resistance to electrical saturation, and cannot be degraded by heat. Such material is also absolutely non-conductive and exhibits zero static electricity when exposed to magnetic fields. Such basalt fiber encasement makes the wire harness components, including the dense core wire, in-line transformers, and digital switching modules virtually indestructible and extremely durable in persistent use.

[Para 45] FIGURE 5 schematically illustrates a system on an original equipment manufacture (OEM) engine using the inventive plasma ignition plug 1 0. The OEM system 30 includes the vehicle battery 32 electrically connected to a fuse 34 which is in turn electrically connected to the ignition switch 36. The ignition switch 36 is connected to the alternator 38 which supplies power to the distributor module 40. Up to this point, the OEM system 30 very closely resembles prior art designs. An output from the distributor module 40 connects to a spark controller 42 which in turn connects to a timing controller 44 that routes through a plug wire 46 to the plasma ignition plug 1 0. The spark controller 42, timing controller 44, and plug wire 46 are as described herein. All components of this OEM system 30 have appropriate grounding connections 48 as shown.

[Para 46] FIGURE 6 schematically illustrates an integrated plug and wire retrofit system 50 for use with the inventive plasma ignition plug 1 0. In this retrofit system 50, a plug wire 46 extends from the distributor module 40.

Integral with the plug wire 46 is an integrated circuit board (ICB) switching element 52 and a transformer 54. The ICB switching element 52 is a high speed digitally controlled switch that is connected to the transformer 54. The transformer 54 consists of a nano-crystalline material EM torus 56 and primary and secondary windings 58 of dual current wires, i.e., litz wire. The switching element 52 and transformer 54 combine to output a pulse that is initially high amperage and then switched to high voltage. The output from the transformer 54 connects to a plug cap 60 configured to connect directly to the plasma ignition plug 1 0. Again each of the components has an appropriate grounding connection 48 as shown. Preferably, the ICB switching element 52 is controllable by a programmable microprocessor. The programmable microprocessor may be integrated with the ICB switching element 52 or a separate component that is connected to the ICB switching element 52 and capable of controlling the same.

[Para 47] Typically, the pulse switching discussed above will convert the output from the distributor module 40 first into a high amperage pulse, i.e., 1 3.5 volts DC at 30 amps, and then into a high voltage pulse, i.e., 50,000- 75,000 volts DC at 0.0036 amps, with a total pulse duration of 200 n-sec. The purpose of the switched pulse is to take full advantage of the plasma ignition plug 1 0. When the plasma ignition plug 1 0 is pulsed with a very fast (50 n-sec) high-rise burst of high amperage (square wave at 200 n-sec duration), the air fuel mixture is molecularly dissociated into individual radicals and ions in a plasma field. The plasma field is persistent even when the source of charge has been terminated. The rate at which the source charge is fully terminated is critical to the effectiveness of the dissociation function, so the switch must convert the plasma field into an ignition field very quickly (50- 1 00 n-sec).

While the constituent radicals and individual ions are still in a dissociated plasma state, the introduction of the high voltage ignition source serves to excite the oxidation reaction with extremely high efficiency. This operates without a flame front because the entire field now operates as a single ignition point in a plasma.

[Para 48] That all constituents are temporarily suspended in a plasma field creates a unique circumstance. Instead of just mixing finely divided fuel droplets with intact air molecules which are by definition separated by distances in the double-digit micron range during compression, the constituent ions and radicals are held in atomic proximity. This brings then into a spatial relationship that is between 5 and 6 orders of magnitude closer than prior art fuel/air mixtures, while at the same time increasing surface area contact by a similarly exponential increase. This is one factor contributing to the conditions for complete combustion, i.e., all the ions and radicals of all the constituents. Such results in all of these constituents reacting instantaneously upon the introduction of high voltage while the plasma field continues to persist. When the constituents interact to oxidize the fuel, the amount of energy released is higher than with a prior art spark plug and ignition system because the ignition conditions have been fundamentally altered. These improvements have experimentally demonstrated a reduction in the amount of fuel to drive a load by 68%-73%, a reduction in engine operating temperatu re by as much as 80° F, fundamental alteration of exhaust profile, and high durability of plasma ignition plug 1 0.

[Para 49] An alternate retrofit system 62 is shown in FIG. 7. This alternate retrofit system 62 has a similar construction to that shown in the earlier systems including the battery 32, fuse 34, ignition switch 36, alternator 38 and distributor module 40. This system also includes an ignition module 64 electrically connected to the alternator 38. The ignition module 64 acts as a power transistor. In the alternate retrofit system 62 the plug wire 46 extends directly from the distributor module 40 and includes an inline spark transformer 66 and an inline digital switch 68 connected to the inventive plasma ignition plug 1 0. Again appropriate components have grou nding connections 48 as shown. The retrofit replaces the original spark plug wires with the new plug wire 46 including the inline transformer 66 and digital switch 68, along with the plasma ignition plug 1 0.

[Para 50] In a particularly preferred embodiment, the inventive plasma ignition plug used in a four-cycle engine provides the following dynamics. The fuel is atomized to 0.4 micrometer diameter droplets mixed with air in a fuel injector/carburetor jet diameter of 0.056 centimeters. The air and fuel is injected into the cylinder and a ratio of 1 4: 7- 1 mixture. Plasma propagation occurs at an ignition point of twenty-two degrees before top dead center with the plasma field propagated at fifty nanosecond rise time, two hundred nanosecond duration, and fifty nanosecond shutoff duration at 1 3.5 volts DC at forty-one thousand, six hundred sixty amps. At these values, the plasma field disassociates long chain hydrocarbon molecules to individual ions, evenly distributed at atomic scale proximity under pressure. The following ignition arc occurs fifty nanoseconds after the collapse of the plasma field with an injection ignition impulse at seventy-five thousand volts DC at 7.5 amps for two hundred nanoseconds followed by a fifty nanosecond shutoff duration. The power stroke is driven by recombination and oxidation of the carbon fuel and oxygen ions up to sixty percent higher than conventional combustion. The exhaust stroke emissions exhibit up to forty-two percent lower carbon (2.5 PPMs), regularized N02, regularized S02, and virtual elimination of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. This plasma ignition plug produces more complete combustion with nanosecond timing intervals to reduce cylinder head temperatures by about eighty to one hundred twenty degrees Fahrenheit and exhaust temperatures by about sixty to eighty degrees Fahrenheit. When the ignition timing is adjusted to between thirty-five degrees and thirty-eight degrees before top dead center, horsepower increases by about fifteen to twenty-two percent depending upon the engine type and the fuel blend. When the air to fuel ratio is adjusted to 40: 1 , the break horsepower output increases with a reduction in fuel consumption by up to 62.1 percent overall.

[Para 51 ] The inventive plasma ignition plug produces similar benefits in a two-stroke engine. Two stroke exhaust emissions typically include benzene, 1 ,3-butadiene, benzo (a) pyrene, formaldehyde, acrolein, and other aldehydes. Carcinogenic agents exacerbate the irritation and health risks associated with such emissions. Two-stroke engines do not have a dedicated lubrication system such that the lubricant is mixed with the fuel resulting in a shorter duty cycle and life expectancy. Using the inventive plasma ignition plug, a two- stroke engine experiences ignition amplification where the normal magneto output (fifteen thousand volts DC at ten amps) is amplified about four times to sixty thousand volts at fourteen amps by virtue of the thorium-alloyed Tungsten anode. The spark discharge surface area is increased from a single spark bar (0.01 81 square inches) to the halo emitter (0.0745 square inches) - an increase of 4.1 69 times. The total spark discharge density increase is 23.251 times. The exhaust emissions profile in a two-stroke engine shows a decrease in hydrocarbon particulates by about eighty-seven percent, elimination of carbon monoxide, conversion of NOX to NO2 , conversion of SOX to SO2, elimination of benzene, reduction of 1 ,3 butadiene by eighty-four percent, elimination of formalins, and elimination of aldehydes. The horsepower is increased by 1 2.4 percent and the engine temperature is decreased from two hundred sixty degrees Fahrenheit to about one hundred eighty-seven degrees Fahrenheit at six thousand RPM.

[Para 52] A test series of the inventive plasma ignition plug was designed to (a) create a controlled vacuum with deliberately induced attributes, (b) visually observe and empirically measure the results of the tests, (c) conduct a series of tests based on incrementally controlled amounts of vaporized water, and (d) digitally record the test results at each segment. A testing rig consistent with the design of the plasma ignition plug 1 0 was constructed. In a test of a prototype plasma ignition plug, a fly-back transformer producing 75,000 volts AC at 3.0 amps created a clearly visible plasma field. Cold ionized water vapor generated by a conventional nebulizer was vented into the plasma field in open air. The water vapor was dissociated, ionized, and detonated in open air.



http://davidgyurth.com/

Nova institute of Technology LLC, Collier Engineering Group and SaviCorp have joined forces to create the world’s first integrated system to completely dissociate CO2 and all other exhaust gases produced by internal combustion engines before they exit the tailpipe. This technology is currently being tested in prototype form. For additional information please contact us at this web site.



The technology may well work -- but hang on to your wallet :

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/FE-OU-FraudVictims/conversations/topics/173

[Fwd: Re: David Yurth indicted in Utah for defrauding investors?]]
erickrieg@verizon.net
Jun 6, 2004

People say this David Yurth guy has been scamming people on false exotic technology claims:

From: "Alexander Konkretny" <professor@...>
Date: 2004/06/06 Sun PM 07:00:28 EDT
To: erickrieg@...
Subject: Re: [Fwd: Re: David Yurth indicted in Utah for defrauding investors?]
 
Eric,
 
Jack says he does not want to waste time on the idiot David Yurth; neither do I. That David Yurth is a liar, a fraud, and a pseudoscientist, for me is quite obvious. I expressed my opinion re Yurth on my webpage:

http://torsionfraud.narod.ru/akimov_shipov_torsion_field/Torsion_Fields_David_Yurth.htm

After receiving two private emails from him, I had  no doubt whatsoever that he was lying, because what he had written was an obvious disinformation. After that, I found the official info about a David Yurth's having been indicted for defrauding investors in Utah. Both Jack and I then asked Yurth (several times) whether or not it was him who had been indicted in Utah. Yurth, without answering the question, replied with yet another portion of bullshit; which led me (and I think Jack Sarfatti) to believe that the David Yurth indicted in 2000 and the David Yurth we were talking to were one and the same person. Ask Yurth; see what he replies.

Alex, could you write me up your experience or understanding about Yurth cheating people?   I provide web pages warning people about con men.

Eric Krieg
From: Jack Sarfatti <sarfatti@...>
Subject: Re: David Yurth indicted in Utah for defrauding investors? Get in touch with Alex Konkretny. I have no more time to waste on that idiot.

Also you should really do something about that slanderous phony piece by Larry Crowell on me. Crowell works with Tom Bearden and Myron Evans using phony Alpha Foundation in Budapest as a front.

On Jun 6, 2004, at 10:33 AM, eric wrote:
If you could get me a single cohesive write up on this Yurth, I'd like to post a web page.  I'd like to be a little more sure the material is right. I have tried to expose free energy investment scams.

On Sun, 6 Jun 2004 09:48:22 -0700, Jack Sarfatti <sarfatti@... wrote :

Victor, do your homework before promoting Yurth's psycho-babble pseudo-science as bad as David Hudson's. Are there TWO David Yurth's in Utah?

On May 26, 2004, at 1:58 PM, Alexander Konkretny in Moscow wrote:

I am going to inform the FBI about false claims made by David Yurth. He claims to be working with many scientists on torsion fields, claims to be conducting successful experiments in his laboratory. These claims cannot be true. Yurth is definitely attempting to defraud someone....

I don't know, maybe we should inform the FBI about Yurth's attempts to defraud someone?
Obviously that is why Yurth has been backing up and defending the Russian torsion field fraud. Because Yurth is a fraud himself.

Yurth has done time for defrauding investors and now he again is attempting to swindle someone. That is why he has been lying  about his "contacts with Russian torsion experts" and his "experiments with torsion fields" and his "numerous papers on torsion". Yurth is swindling someone. Possibly he is helping the Russian frauds, Akimov et al, to swindle American investors.
 
NB: on his webpage, David Yurth writes that he lives in Utah. And the fraud David Yurth, who was sentenced to jail, was sentenced in Utah:
http://attorneygeneral.utah.gov/LU/2002%2004%20April%20Briefing.pdf
 
Reading David Yurth's autobiography on his website I noticed that Yurth claims to have invented a lot of things.

http://www.wellnessgoods.com/dyurthbio.asp
 
And then I found this site:

http://attorneygeneral.utah.gov/LU/2002%2004%20April%20Briefing.pdf
 
"Inventor Imposter Jailed
 
A man who claimed to have invented a Dick Tracy wrist watch communicator was sentenced to jail for defrauding investors. The judge ordered David Yurth to serve a year behind bars unless he could come up with a plan to pay victims more than $150,000."
   


http://torsionfraud.narod.ru/akimov_shipov_torsion_field/Torsion_Fields_David_Yurth.htm




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