Plastic-to-Plastic Recycling

James HOLM / Swaminathan RAMESH : Catalytic Thermal Depolymerisation ( Plastic to Diesel )
Akinori ITO : Plastic-to-Oil Conversion
David McNAMARA / CYNAR - Plastic-to-Oil
Frank PRINGLE : High-Frequency Attenuating Wave Kinetics (HAWK)
Brajendra SHARMA, et al. : Plastic to Oil
Alka ZADGAONKAR : Plastic to Oil

HOLM / RAMESH: Catalytic Thermal Depolymerisation
James HOLM / Swaminathan RAMESH
Catalytic Thermal Depolymerisation ( Plastic to Diesel )
Ridding the oceans of plastics by turning the waste into valuable fuel

...For years, Ramesh explains, pyrolysis technologies have been used to break down or depolymerize unwanted polymers, such as plastic wastes, leaving a hydrocarbon-based fuel. But the process usually calls for complex and costly refining steps to make the fuel useable.

Ramesh set out to change the game and developed a metallocene catalyst deposited on a porous support material that, coupled with a controlled pyrolysis reaction, yields diesel fuels directly without further refining. It is also cost-effective on a small scale, runs at lower temperatures and is mobile.

"The catalyst system also allows us to perform the pyrolysis as a continuous-feed process and shrink the footprint of the whole system," Ramesh says. "We can scale the capacity to handle anywhere from 200 pounds per 10-hour day to 10,000 or more pounds per 10-hour day. Because of its small size, we also can take the technological process to where the plastic wastes are." The whole system can fit in a 20-foot shipping container or on the back of a flat-bed truck, Holm says.

The next step, they say, is to show the technology works well and that it can create a useable drop-in diesel fuel. They will soon conduct a demonstration project for the government of the city of Santa Cruz, California. Officials there are interested in implementing the technology to address waste plastics that currently cannot be recycled, as well as to formulate diesel fuel the city can use for its vehicles, Holm adds.

"If we can get people around the world to pick this up and use it to shift waste plastics to fuel and make money, we are winning," Holm says. "We can even eliminate plastic waste before it gets to the oceans by creating value for it locally on a global basis."...

A catalyst for recycling a plastic chosen from polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and combinations thereof includes a porous support having an exterior surface and at least one pore therein, a depolymerization catalyst component comprising a metallocene catalyst disposed on the exterior surface of the porous support, and a reducing catalyst component disposed in the at least one pore. The exterior surface of the porous support comprises less than 10 parts by weight of the reducing catalyst component based on 100 parts by weight of the depolymerization catalyst component as determined using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, the reducing catalyst component comprises a transition metal selected from the group of iron, nickel, palladium, platinum, and combinations thereof. The at least one pore in the porous support has an average pore size of 10 Angstroms.

ITO: Plastic-to-Oil Conversion
Akinori ITO : Plastic-to-Oil Conversion
Plastic to Oil Fantastic
by Carol Smith

We are all well aware of plastic’s “rap-sheet.” It has been found guilty on many counts, including the way its production and disposal raises resource issues and lets loose extremely negative environmental impacts.

Typically made from petroleum, it is estimated that 7% of the world’s annual oil production is used to produce and manufacture plastic. That is more than the oil consumed by the entire African continent.

Plastic’s carbon footprint includes landfilling and incineration, since sadly, its recycle rate is dismally low around the globe.

Plastic trash is also polluting our oceans and washing up on beaches around the world. Tons of plastic from the US and Japan are floating in the Pacific Ocean, killing mammals and birds. Perhaps this tragedy is best captured in the TED presentation by Capt. Charles Moore of the Algalita Marine Research Foundation.

Using less, or use it better?

Thankfully, there are those who fully appreciate that plastic has a higher energy value than anything else commonly found in the waste stream. A Japanese company called Blest created a small, very safe and easy to use machine that can convert several types of plastic back into oil.
"If we burn the plastic, we generate toxins and a large amount of CO2. If we convert it into oil, we save CO2 and at the same time increase people’s awareness about the value of plastic garbage. " — Akinori Ito, CEO of Blest.

Though Japan has much improved its “effective utilization” rate over the years to 72% in 2006, that leaves 28% of plastic to be buried in landfills or burned. According to Plastic Waste Management Institute data, “effective utilization” includes not just the 20% that is actually recycled, but also 52% that is being incinerated for “energy recovery” purposes, i.e., generating heat or electric power.

“If we burn the plastic, we generate toxins and a large amount of CO2. If we convert it into oil, we save CO2 and at the same time increase people’s awareness about the value of plastic garbage,” says Akinori Ito, CEO of Blest.

Blest’s conversion technology is very safe because it uses a temperature controlling electric heater rather than flame. The machines are able to process polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene (numbers 2-4) but not PET bottles (number 1). The result is a crude gas that can fuel things like generators or stoves and, when refined, can even be pumped into a car, a boat or motorbike. One kilogram of plastic produces almost one liter of oil. To convert that amount takes about 1 kilowatt of electricity, which is approximately ¥20 or 20 cents’ worth.

The company makes the machines in various sizes and has 60 in place at farms, fisheries and small factories in Japan and several abroad.

“To make a machine that anyone can use is my dream,” Ito says. “The home is the oil field of the future.”

Perhaps that statement is not as crazy as it sounds, since the makeup of Japanese household waste has been found to contain over 30 % plastic, most of it from packaging.

Continually honing their technology, the company is now able to sell the machines for less than before, and Ito hopes to achieve a product “that any one can buy.” Currently the smallest version, shown in the videobrief, costs ¥950,000 (US $9,500).

Changing how we think

But it is the educational application of the small model of the machine that Ito is most passionate about. He’s taken it on planes on many occasions as part of a project that began some years ago in the Marshall Islands. There he worked with local government and schools to teach people about recycling culture and the value of discarded plastic, spreading the Japanese concept of mottainai, the idea that waste is sad and regrettable.

In such remote places, the machine also serves as a practical solution to the plastic problem, much of it left behind by tourists: the oil produced is used for tour buses or boats, Ito says.
Plastic’s carbon footprint includes landfilling and incineration, since sadly, its recycle rate is dismally low around the globe.

“Teaching this at schools is the most important work that I do,” Ito reflects. In Japan too, he visits schools where he shows children, teachers and parents how to convert the packaging and drinking straws leftover from lunch.

If we were to use only the world’s plastic waste rather than oil from oil fields, CO2 emissions could be slashed dramatically, he says.

“It’s a waste isn’t it?” Ito asks. “This plastic is every where in the world, and everyone throws it away.”

A mountain to climb down

The wonderful invention of plastics has spawned a huge problem that we are struggling to solve. With peak oil looming, things are set to change, but we find ourselves on top of an oil and plastic mountain, and the only way forward is down.

So while many solutions like this are not without hiccups or detractors, they are a step forward in coming to terms with our oil and plastics dependence and help raise awareness of the carbon footprint of its production and use. Somehow we all know that plastics is a habit we need to kick. But that doesn’t seem to make it any easier.

Perhaps the best thing you can do is to look more deeply into this issue. A good place to start is the 2008 Addicted to Plastic documentary from Cryptic Moth productions. You can watch the trailer online and maybe request it at your local video rental store.

According to the blurb, “the film details plastic’s path over the last 100 years and provides a wealth of expert interviews on practical and cutting edge solutions to recycling, toxicity and biodegradability.”

Next it is just a matter of taking action to break our love affair with plastic.

USP Appln  2009117015 // KR20090031685 -- LIQUEFYING APPARATUS
Abstract -- A liquefying apparatus capable of efficient disposal of plastics. There is provided a liquefying apparatus comprising melting section (1) for heating charged plastic so as to melt the same and cracking section (2) for further heating the plastic melted in the melting section (1) so as to attain gasification cracking thereof, wherein the cracking section (2) slants upward and in its interior is fitted with lead screw (LS), the upper end portion thereof equipped with upward directed catalyst tube (19) and with downward directed residue takeoff section (R), and wherein the cracking section (2) is furnished with means for preventing descending of any plastic melt gas through the residue takeoff section
Abstract -- An apparatus for efficiently converting foamed styrene resins into an oil. It can have a smaller size. Also provided is a process for producing an oil. The apparatus for conversion into oil (M1) includes a device for conversion into oil (6) which comprises a gelation unit (72) for converting foamed styrene resins into a molten gel and a decomposition part (75) for heating the molten gel to vaporize and decompose it, and which serves to pyrolyze foamed styrene resins and convert them into an oil. A volume reduction unit (1) for reducing the volume of foamed styrene resins has been united to the apparatus for conversion into oil

Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a small-sized liquefaction apparatus without requiring a special heating device for a catalyst tube and also without requiring a water-circulating device. ; SOLUTION: The operation of the small-sized liquefaction apparatus comprises putting plastics into a melting pot 2, heating/melting/vaporizing the plastic by a heater 7 wound around its surroundings, decomposing the evaporated gas by a catalyst in the catalyst tube 15 a part 15a of which is hanged in the gas-vaporizing pot, cooling the evaporated gas by a cooling device 3 having a transparent main body 20 storing cooling water 23 to float hydrocarbon oil on the cooling water and recovering the hydrocarbon oil from an oil-recovering tube 24 slightly protruding from the water surface.

Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a system achieving an efficient plastic liquefaction utilizing a solvent and to utilize spent lard being an animal fat for energy. ; SOLUTION: Plastic foams are disintegrated and dissolved in a solvent in the volume reduction vessel unit 1. The obtained gel-like mixture is collected in the vessel 13. The gel-like mixture is thinly filmed on the heated wall of the solvent separation apparatus 4 to vaporize the solvent. The vaporized solvent is cooled with a condenser 5 and recovered. The de-solvented gel-like styrene is poured through the receiving port 100 of a dissolving section 72 of a liquefaction apparatus 6, vaporized and decomposed on the slanting decomposition section 75 and liquified in the condenser 80. The liquid is collected in the generated oil tank 82. The styrene oil dissolves animal lard at ordinary temperature. The mixed oil of the lard and the styrene oil drives the generator.

Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a recycle system for plastic products, which efficiently collects useful resources and uses IC cards to effectively use the resources. ; SOLUTION: The recycle system 100 for the plastic product 6 has a shop 10 which collects the plastic product 6 that a user 2 who has the IC card 5 brings, and an oil center 30 which converts the plastic product 6 to oil, and reuses the plastic product 6 as oil. The shop 10 has a collection box 20 which collects the plastic product 6 that the user 2 throws and an IC card writer 25 which writes a point corresponding to the thrown plastic product 6 into the IC card 5 when the user throws the plastic product 6, and reads a point from the IC card 5 when the user pays for merchandise at the shop 10 to provide a plastic bag 6a to the user 2 based on the point.

Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve the treatment capacity of a plastic treatment apparatus by increasing the vaporization area of a liquified molten plastic; and to enable the treatment apparatus to be conveyed by constructing the whole of the apparatus compactly and accommodating its main part in a casing. ; SOLUTION: The apparatus has a drying section 1 having a hopper 7 and an almost horizontally arranged vaporization section 6 installed below the drying section 1. In each of the sections 1 and 6, a lead screw 11 is installed. A crushed plastic and a residue are sent under heating to the vaporization section 6 to be vaporized, and this vaporized gas is cooled to give an oil or is directly sent to a boiler or the like to be used as a fuel.

Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an oil-forming plant capable of being easily designed according to a required treating performance. ; SOLUTION: The oil-forming plant 1 has a decomposition part 3 constituted of a head unit 31, two or more repeating units 32 and a tail unit 33, and forming a decomposed gas by depolymerizing a plastic by heating, and an oil-forming part 4 for forming an oil by cooling the decomposed gas formed at the decomposition.

Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a liquefaction plant capable of heating plastics speedily, highly precisely and efficiently. ; SOLUTION: This liquefaction plant 1 is equipped with a melting zone 2 wherein plastics are heated and molten, a decomposition zone 3 wherein the plastics molten in the melting zone 2 are further heated to cause depolymerization and produce decomposition gases, and a liquefaction zone 4 wherein the decomposition gases generated in the decomposition zone 3 are cooled to produce an oil. The plant is so constructed as to employ at least an electric heater 42 as a heating means when heating the plastics in the decomposition zone.

Abstract -- PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an oil-liquefaction apparatus which efficiently and quickly can dissolve a crushed plastic, and a petroleum refining method which can effectively utilize a collected oil collected by this oil-liquefaction apparatus. ; SOLUTION: This oil-liquefaction apparatus comprises housing a previously collected oil in a dissolution tank 1; feeding the crushed plastic into this collected oil from a plastic feed device 2; conveying this mixed molten liquid diagonally upward by a feed screw 6 while heating at the vaporization temperature; cooling the vaporized gas in a condenser 12 to collect an oil; returning a part of this oil to the dissolution tank 1; and further utilizing a part of the collected oil as a hydrogen source in a petroleum refining step.

McNAMARA: Plastic-to-Oil
David McNAMARA / CYNAR - Plastic-to-Oil

The system uses liquefaction, pyrolysis and distillation of plastics. The system can handle almost all the End of Life Plastic that is currently being sent to landfills. A major advantage of the process is its high efficiency. Each plant can produce up to 19k litres of fuel from 20 tonnes of End of Life Plastic. 
Recycled Plastic Converted to Fuel

...Gizmag spoke with Cynar CEO Michael Murray via telephone, who explained that the company converts ELP typically destined for landfills into useful diesel. The conversion involves pyrolysis, which is the process of thermal degradation of a material in the absence of oxygen - so heating, but no burning, takes place.

ELP is broken down into gases by the pyrolysis process, then put through a specially-designed condenser system in order to produce a mixture equivalent to petroleum distillates. This is then further treated to produce liquid fuel, while leftover gases are diverted back into the furnaces which heat the plastics. Interestingly, the diesel produced by this method is actually claimed more efficient and lower in sulfur than generic diesel.

The only waste material left over from the ELP-to-diesel conversion process is roughly five percent char, which can also be put to use in the building industry for concrete and tile manufacturing.

Each Cynar plant can produce up to 19,000 liters (around 5,000 US gallons) of fuel from 20 tons of ELP per day. For the roughly 4,000 liters (1,000 US gallons) of fuel that Rowsell's flight will consume, approximately five tons of waste plastic will be recycled....
Pilot attempts first flight powered only by household plastic waste

A process is described for treating waste plasties material to provide at least one on-specification fuel product. Plasties material is melted (4) and then pyrolysed in an oxygen-free atmosphere to provide pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are brought into contact with plates (13) in a contactor vessel (7) so that some long chain gas components condense and return to be further pyrolysed to achieve thermal degradation. Short chain gas components exit the contactor in gaseous form; and proceed to distillation to provide one or more on-specification fuel products. There is a pipe (12) directly linking the pyrolysis chamber (6) to the contactor (7), suitable for conveying upwardly-moving pyrolysis gases and downwardly-flowing long-chain liquid for thermal degradation. There is a vacuum distillation tower (26) for further processing of liquid feeds from the first (atmospheric) distillation column (20). It has been found that having thermal degradation in the contactor and pyrolysis chamber and by having a second, vacuum, distillaton column helps to provide a particularly good quality on-specification liquid fuel.

PRINGLE: High-Frequency Attenuating Wave Kinetics
Frank PRINGLE : High-Frequency Attenuating Wave Kinetics (HAWK)
Microwave Recovery of Fossil Fuels
Phone: 856-767-5661; Fax: 856-767-5664

Featured as a 2007 Innovation of the Year ("Best of What's New") in Popular Science :

"The machine is a microwave emitter that extracts the petroleum and gas hidden inside everyday objects—or at least anything made with hydrocarbons, which, it turns out, is most of what’s around you."

Time ("Best Inventions of the year")  :,28804,1677329_1678027_1677993,00.html

Frank Pringle, CEO of Global Resource Corp., has developed an emissions-free process that uses microwaves to pull fuel out of shale rock, tires and even plastic bottles. The extraction technology might also help recover oil that is stuck in muck inside hundreds of capped wells across the country.

Converting rubber and plastic to oil and gas - Global Resource Corporation (GRC) is reducing plastics back to oil and combustible gas using 1200 different frequencies within the microwave range, which act on specific hydrocarbon materials. This video demonstrates taking 100 grams of ground up tires and turning it into oil and gas (mostly diesel range)...

"To everything there is a frequency that excites its molecules best. Just like the 2450MHz frequency magnetron in your kitchen microwave oven which is specific to water (H2O) molecules, GRC’s hydrocarbon specific frequencies are generated by much higher RF klystrons that actually crack the hydrocarbon chain into its characteristic fuels.

"By definition it is not pyrolysis because cracking the hydrocarbon chain is inherent to specific frequencies and has little to do with the amount of heat generated. The process however is done without water and performed in an oxygen starved environment. We call this technology: High-Frequency Attenuating Wave Kinetics or HAWK for short.

"There is also no CO2 or CO produced in the process because there is no oxidation other than possibly a miniscule amount that may be pre-existing in the material or minerals processed. GRC’s vacuum environment creates an accelerated pressure thereby assimilating what Mother Nature has done through countless years to make fuels.

"The two basic elements offered for all GRC’s applications are in situ and off situ. We have designed klystron machinery for gasifying hydrocarbons where they exist or in fabricated systems. In-situ meaning processed deep in the ground, rock formations or anywhere naturally occurring and off-situ meaning processed above ground that is mined or material removed from site.
The Arizona Republic
Recyclers hope to bring microwave tech to Arizona

Mr. Frank Pringle began work identifying Specific Microwave Frequencies in 1996 while working to separate ceramics from bulk glass cullet systems. Since the, and mainly over the past seven years, Mr. Pringle has identified over 1200 specific RF microwave frequencies intrinsic to hydrocarbon elements/materials.
Abstract ---  The present invention provides methods for decomposing and extracting compositions for the recovery of petroleum-based materials from composites comprising those petroleum-based materials, comprising subjecting the compositions and/or composites to microwave radiation, wherein the microwave radiation is in the range of from about 4 GHz to about 18 GHz. The present invention also provides for products produced by the methods of the present invention and for apparatuses used to perform the methods of the present invention.

RANDALL: Oil from Recycled Tires
Denis RANDALL : Oil from Recycled Tires

Tests on oil recycled from tyres finds a cleaner diesel blend
...“A recycled 10kg car tyre yields 4 litres of oil, 1.5kg of steel and 4 kg of carbon,, and a 70kg truck tyre provides 28 litres of oil, 11kg of steel and 28kg of carbon...
GDT Adison Site
Cleanly Recycled Tyres – A World Technology First

Tyre recycler determined for Longford plant to go ahead

US6863004 -- Process and system for recovering energy from carbon-containing materials
The invention provides processes and systems for generating heat from a carbon-containing material or converting a carbon-containing material to a combustible gaseous fuel, comprising (a) pyrolysing the material in a reactor to produce a carbon-enriched solid and a first gaseous product, (b) burning at least part of the first gaseous product and/or a second gaseous product obtained by reacting the carbon-enriched solid with water vapour to generate heat, and (c) returning combustion products from the burning step to the reactor and/or removing part of the first gaseous product and/or the second gaseous product as a combustible fuel.

SHARMA: Plastic-to-Oil
Brajendra SHARMA, et al. : Plastic to Oil
Plastic shopping bags make a fine diesel fuel, researchers report
Used plastic shopping bags can be converted into petroleum products that serve a multitude of purposes.
Fuel Processing Technology -- Volume 122, June 2014, Pages 79–90
Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags ?
Brajendra K. Sharma, Bryan R. Moser, Karl E. Vermillion, Kenneth M. Doll, Nandakishore Rajagopalan
Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture with average structure consisting of saturated aliphatic paraffinic hydrogens (96.8%), aliphatic olefinic hydrogens (2.6%) and aromatic hydrogens (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 190–290 °C and #2 diesel 290–340 °C). Characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon mixture was accomplished with gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, size exclusion chromatography, and simulated distillation. No oxygenated species such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ethers, ketones, or alcohols were detected. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications after addition of antioxidants with the exception of density (802 kg/m3). Notably, the derived cetane number (73.4) and lubricity (198 µm, 60 °C, ASTM D6890) represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Other fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40 °C) of 2.96 mm2/s, cloud point of 4.7 °C, flash point of 81.5 °C, and energy content of 46.16 MJ/kg. In summary, liquid hydrocarbons with appropriate boiling range produced from pyrolysis of waste plastic appear suitable as blend components for conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

ZADGOANKAR: Plastic-to-Oil
 Alka ZADGAONKAR : Plastic to Oil
A Wand that Converts Plastic Waste to Fuel

Cited documents: US6114267 // US5443716 // US5744668
Abstract --- The present invention relates to a process of preparing a catalytic cracking catalyst comprising: - mixing the following ingredients in the proportion indicated there against faujasite zeolite - 5-35 wt %; pseudoboehmite alumina - 10-40 wt %; polyammonium silicate - 1-10 wt %; kaolin clay - 15-60wt %; - milling said ingredients and making a slurry using water, - spray drying said slurry to micro-spheres, and - calcining said micro-spheres at 500°C for 1 hour to obtain the catalyst.

Cited documents: US5584969 //  XP002189916 // CN1236804
Abstract --- An improved apparatus consisting of a cylindrical rectangular a coking vessel (1) heated by electrical heating coils or any other form of energy said vessel is made from stainless steel or mild steel and surrounded by heat reflector and insulator to avoid heat loss and to achieve maximum heating inside locked at the top (2) with temperature sensor which extended upto the center of the vessel; the other end protruding outside is connected to a controlled unit by means of wiring; said lid is provided with high temperature gasket for locking by means of lock and bolt; said coking vessel is provided at its side an outlet vent to correct condensing section/condenser (10) the other end of the condenser is connected to the receiving section; said condenser is provided with outer jacket for circulating cold water or thermic fluid from the bottom (11) as and when required for the conversion of gaseous form of product into liquid state; the said condenser is connected to the receiving assembly/unit (12) by means of suitable conduit (13) in tandem with other receiving unit (14) or gasometer (15) and a outlet vent towards the gas collecting and sealing unit (16) said receiving unit is maintained at a temperature [-]40 DEG C to room temperature or higher to collect the distillate in batches or continuously.
Sunday, September 28, 2003
Converting Plastic Waste into Petrol!
Alka Zadgaonkar Wrings Plastic Waste for Profit

How to make a plastic waste to fuel  -- pyrolysis reactor
Hazel Chem

The video shows how I am improving my combustion chamber to minimize heat loss. During the video I will answer the most asked questions and give you all the information you need to build your own plastic waste to oil reactor. So lets dive straight into the fun!

To begin you need some spray glue ceramic insulating material and a respirator. As you can see the Insulation in my old chamber is quite thin which decreases the heat efficiency and increases the amount of gas I need to heat the system. Additionally, is the refractory cement coating cracked in several places and needs a work over. To build your combustion chamber in which you will heat your reaction vessel you need a shell. I used some thin steal sheet and bend it into the diameter I needed. But you can use anything if it can handle a temperature of around 100°C. An example for this would be an old metal drum or a big paint can. It all depends on the size of the system you want to build. So now you must loosely attach the insulation material to the wall of your shell I used spray glue for this because it was very easy to do. The respirator is mandatory, so you don´t breath in any glue. You can use other insulation material like stone wool or refractory. An important information is that you should use a insulation material that has a low heat capacity like stone wool or ceramic because the reaction chamber heats ups much quicker and you don´t waste to much energy on heating up your insulation material. A negative example is refractory cement it stores a lot of heat and leads to a long heat up phase and a long cool down and so wastes a lot of energy. But One thing to consider is that the refractory cement is way cheaper and if poured correctly yields a strong and resistant insulation. Insulating the chamber using ceramic fiber or stone wool is very easy. You cut the sheets you have into the right size sprays glue them together and fill up the gaps using the leftovers. For this step it is important that you cut the insulation in a way that you have very big pieces because through every gap heat will escape. To minimize this effect work with a double layer like I am. Alternate the positions where your gaps are in such a way that all gaps have the maximum distance to each over and none of them are on top of each over. This will help you keep the heat in your chamber. When working with ceramic fiber or stone wool you must wear a respirator because fine particles of these materials can lead to irritation and lung damage. Furthermore, I strongly advise you to wear long clothing because after I had finished the insulation my arms were itchy which maybe due to the ceramic fibers that came in contact with my skin.

So now that we have discussed how to build the combustion chamber lets us progress to the second step which is building the reaction chamber. The only material that works good for reaction chamber is metal that should be at least 1.5 millimeters in thickness. You need this wall thickness because the conditions you are putting the reaction chamber in require durability. At the temperature of around 400 to 600°C the reactor is operating metal is already softening and the corrosion rate is drastically increased. So to ensure the safety of the whole system do not use a chamber with less wall thickness.

I used a very large steel pipe and closed one end by welding in a metal plate. After this you need a flange that ensures your system is gastight and doesn´t let of toxic vapor. The best thing to use here is a weld neck flange that gets welded into the other side of the reaction chamber. Just buy the flange size you find fitting for your setup. It is important that you put the flange in a position where no liquid contacts because this allows you to use gas sealing rope instead of very expansive seals. I have used ISOTHERM 800 from the company Frenzelit and it worked quite well. If you want to know how to install the gas sealing watch my first video on the waste to fuel project. When the reaction chamber is  completed you need pipes and a condenser. It is very important to note that the pipe coming from the reaction chamber that leads to the condenser has a significant impact on the oil you are producing. All along the connection pipe the vapor will condensate and reflux. Reflux is the term chemist use to describe that a liquid is boiled of and then condenses and drips back into the boiling flask. In this case the boiling flask is our reaction chamber. This reflux leads to more thermal cracking which reduces the amount of liquid oil and increases the amount of gas you are producing. One thing to note is that with more reflux you get a lighter oil which means the hydrocarbon chains are shorter.To put this into simpler terms the longer your connection pipe the shorter your hydrocarbons are. To build the condenser I advise you to go with a simple Liebig type design because it is easy to build and minimizes the risk that your condenser gets blocked. Building a Liebig condenser is easy just weld a smaller pipe into a bigger one. Then connect the inner pipe to a threated pipe so you can connect the condenser to the other pipes in your setup. Drill two holes in the condenser shell and weld on two small pipes where the cooling water hose gets connected. It is hard to give an estimation on how long the condenser should be. I advise you to go with the more is better approach because if the condenser is to short you will get into trouble. So now that we have some basics about the combustion and the reaction chamber let us lock at possible improvements. For this you must prepare some refractory cement and cut fitting pieces out of refractory stone. To prepare the cement you just have to combine the refractory cement and water and mix it well. This is done until the cement has the right consistency. The refractory stone will serve as the base of the reaction chamber because the soft ceramic fiber would be compressed by the weight of the reaction chamber thus decreasing its insulation capacity. The refractory stone pieces must be soaked in water to ensure that the refractory cement hardens in the right rate. When the stones have been soaked, a generous amount of refractory cement is applied, and the pieces are pressed against the wall. This is done until all the refractory stone pieces are in their right place. The trowel is used to fill gaps and scrape of excess cement. This bottom lining with refractory stone increases the efficiency of the whole system but ads a lot of weight to it which can lead to problems in a portable version like mine. So now I want to speak about the process in general and the materials you can and can not use. The so-called pyrolysis is a process in which log chain hydrocarbons are heated in the absence of oxygen.
purification of pyrolysis oil
Plastic waste to oil/fuel improved pyrolysis reactor
Make your own free Diesel from Waste Plastic! PART 2 layout of components
Make your own free DIESEL. PART 3 the reaction vessel
Making Free Diesel from waste plastic PART 4
Making Free Diesel from waste plastic PART 5. What have I made????!!!
Wastebot Plastic to Diesel Fuel Demo @ Scottsdale Community College
Plastic to Fuel - Plastic Recycling Pyrolysis Plant by APChemi, Suhas Dixit
ReOil: Getting crude oil back out of plastic
Eco India: Could a fuel generated from plastic waste replace fossil fuels and meet energy needs?
Plastic to Fuel
Plastic Waste Becomes Fuel For Vehicles In This Simple Reactor
by Andrea D. Steffen

Walter Rosner is a metallurgist and researcher who designed and manufactured a reactor to turn plastic waste into fuel. He did this from the small missionary town Dos de Mayo in Argentina where no such machine had ever existed; therefore, he had to invent it himself. Now, he uses the oven to melt standard plastic from packaging and other sources and distills it down to diesel or gasoline for vehicles and machines.

Rosner proposed building a facility in each municipality that would collect plastic and turn it into fuel. The size of each plant should be scaled according to how much garbage the region produces.

One reactor can process 30 kilos of plastic in about 90 minutes. For every 10 kilos put in, nine liters of fuel comes out. Even agrochemical packaging such as glyphosate can be transformed into a usable product. Different plastics produce different types of fuel (naphtha, diesel, or oil), and some plastics take longer than others to convert.

Rosner’s household accumulates around 8 kilos of plastic waste weekly, which, when converted in the reactor provides 5 liters of gasoline. To put it into perspective, here in Thailand, I use a motorbike to get around. I have to fill it once a week with three liters of gasoline. The amount of plastic Rosner’s household throws away could provide me with almost double my fuel needs for the week! However, I rarely have plastic to throw away (or recycle) because my diet barely involves things packaged in single-use plastic. No soda, no junk food, almost no plastic!

Of course, I also live on a small island with lots of small local farms selling fruits in vegetables from market stalls, and many places around the world are not like this. It may not be possible for some people to avoid plastic. For this, Rosner’s reactor is terrific because it accelerates the plastic decomposition process from hundreds of years to merely three hours.

He said: In three hours, you have fuel suitable for cars, machines, generator sets, chainsaws.

Meanwhile, in Africa, there’s another man from Ghana called Francis Kantavooro, who also assembled his own reactor. It turns plastic waste into either diesel, gasoline, kerosene, or domestic gas for home use.

Kantavooro said: Ghana spends [a lot of] money on plastic waste. When I was at university as an engineer, I wanted to make a change. I started to research what the plastic waste could be used for and [how to] permanently get it out of the environmental system.

Ghana has a severe plastic pollution problem as it produces 1.7 million tons of it annually but only recycles 2%! Now, at least in his town, people collect plastic waste and bring it to the reactor site. They receive money per kilo. It takes no longer than a day for Kantavooro’s reactor to convert one ton of plastic into 800 liters of diesel. Likewise, people from the town come to him to buy fuel for their motorbikes and machines as it is cheaper than buying it from the gas station.