rexresearch.com



Cyclogyro Aircraft








http://technology.newscientist.com/article/dn13368-flying-paddleboat-may-finally-take-off.html

Flying 'paddleboat' may finally take off
 
A cyclogyro flies using "cycloidal propellers" - several wings positioned around the edge of a rotating cylindrical framework, a bit like a paddle-wheel.

As each wing rotates, its blades move through the air generating lift and thrust. And, since each wing rotates through a full circle, altering the angle of the individual blades can pull the aircraft forwards, backwards and down as well up.

The maneuverability that cycloidal propellers could offer provides benefits over more established flying methods.

Although no cyclogyro has yet flown without being tethered, its proponents say the design could prove more efficient and maneuverable than helicopters at small scales.

A team of Singapore researchers is leading the race to construct a working cyclogyro with a prototype that hovers on the end of a line. After studying the performance of different cycloidal designs, the pair modified a toy helicopter, giving it two cycloidal propellers with three blades each, and a small tail rotor for stability.

"On the tether, the aircraft can spin, move directly up and down or fly forward and backward," says Hu. "This is perhaps the first recorded flight for a cyclogyro," he adds. "There were some people claiming successful flights, but no video or proof for that."

"Cyclogyros are more relevant now because people want to build small, agile UAVs [uncrewed aerial vehicles]," says Weihs. At such sizes they have greater advantages over helicopters, he says. The parts of a helicopter blade nearest and furthest from the hub are moving too slowly and too fast, respectively, to generate thrust. "With a cyclogyro every bit moves at the same speed, so there is no 'dead space'," says Weihs. Cyclogyros can also be more manoeuvrable, says Weihs. Helicopters must tilt to travel laterally. But cycloidal propellers can generate thrust in any direction so the craft can remain level, or adopt any other position and still fly in any direction. These advantages are greatest at small sizes. "They are probably not practical above half a metre across," says Weihs. "You won't see one carry a passenger."

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ZYRii4MjLY
Video of a prototype model flying



http://serve.me.nus.edu.sg/cyclocopter/
Feb 19, 2007
The Development of Cyclogyro

Hu Yu , Lim Kah Bin

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore

[ PDF ]





http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2006-7704
25TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES

THE INVESTIGATION OF CYCLOGYRO DESIGN AND THE PERFORMANCE

Hu Yu, Lim Kah Bin, Tay Wee Beng
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore

Abstract

The investigation over several possible cyclogyo designs was performed in the paper. The concept of cyclogyro has existed almost 100 years, but still more research are needed. The effects of taper ratio, aspect ratio and winglets are investigated in this paper. The comparison between different designs shows that the tapered blades with larger aspect ratio can improve propellers performance. A new and simple blade structure is also presented to demonstrate how to keep blades with large aspect ratio work safely with neglectable weight penalty.


   



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclogyro
Cyclogyro



The cyclogyro, or cyclocopter, is an aircraft design that uses cycloidal rotors which consist of airfoils rotating around a horizontal axis for both lift and thrust. They are capable of vertical take off and landing and hovering performance like a helicopter, without the same disadvantages.[citation needed] Although a number of cyclogyros were built in the 1930s, none were known to have successfully flown until 2011.[citation needed] The cyclogyro should not be mistaken for flettner airplanes, the unsuccessful and aerodynamically different aircraft designs using cylindrical wings which attempted to harness the Magnus effect.

Function

The cyclogyro wing resembles a paddle wheel, with airfoils replacing the paddles. The airfoils' pitch (angle of attack) is adjusted either collectively (by means of a control ring with links to all blades, which is located eccentrically and variably relative to the rotor's axis of rotation) or the blades are individually adjustable in pitch and are adjusted continually by the control system as they move around the rotor's axis. In normal forward flight the airfoils are given a slight positive pitch at the upper and forward portions of their arc, producing lift and forward thrust. They are given flat or negative pitch at the bottom, and are "flat" through the rest of the circle to produce little or no lift in other directions. The pitch can be adjusted to change the thrust profile, allowing the cyclogyro to travel in any direction.[1] Differential thrust between the two wings (one on either side of the fuselage) can be used to turn the aircraft around its vertical axis, although conventional tail surfaces are generally used as well.[2]

History


Early Designs

Jonathan Edward Caldwell appears to have been the first to patent the concept, and invent the term. He filed a patent on the concept that was granted in 1927, but immediately moved on to an ornithopter design and appears to have made no effort to build a cyclogyro of his own.[3] Several attempts to build a working cyclogyro were made by other designers. The earliest full-sized example appears to be the Schroeder S1 from 1930, which used the cyclogyro "wheels" for forward thrust only.[citation needed] Adolf Rohrbach of Germany designed a full VTOL version in 1933,[4] which was later developed in the US and featured a tall fish-like fuselage to keep the wings well clear of the ground.[5] Another early example was by Rahn Aircraft in 1935, which used two much larger chord wings instead of a multi-blade wheel driven by a 240 hp supercharged Wright Whirlwind[6] In 1935 NACA carried out a series of wind tunnel experiments on the cyclogyro concept, and found that the power required to turn the wheels was much higher than expected.[citation needed] Theoretical tools of the era simply weren't useful for prediction on the highly asymmetrical lift profiles and the greatly simplified models they used varied dramatically from real-world results.[citation needed] Early experiments then ended.

The concept has recently been applied to smaller Unmanned aerial vehicle designs, where the hovering capability would be particularly useful.[7][8][9] Several of these designs have produced flying prototype models:

In 2007 a team at the University of Singapore built a working model of cyclogyro, although it has only flown in tethered flight. Their cycloidal model was a modified helicopter, with the rotor replaced with two sideways cycloidal rotors, each with three blades sticking out of them in the perpendicular.[10]

A team at Northwestern Polytechnical University in China built a free flying Cyclogyro. This design used two cycloidal rotors for the efficient generation of lift and small and noisy conventional head and tail rotors to stabilize the craft and provide control of its horizontal position and direction of flight. Video of the team's test flights can be found here. In September 2013 another Cyclocopter model was flight tested in China

In December 2011 a team at the University of Maryland successfully built and tested a micro Cyclocopter, as seen here. Their design does not require a head rotor in addition to the usual tail rotor.[citation needed]

The Austrian company Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT) premiered a 4 rotor cyclogyro at the Paris Air Show in June 2011. IAT has christened their creation Project D-DALUS.[11] A video can be found here.

A team at the Seoul National University has built and in December 2012 successfully demonstrated a stable, mostly hovering flight of a 4 rotor Cyclocopter

The Korean team design solution provides for stable and controllable flight by having two pairs of the counter-rotating rotors which are parallel to each other and rotate at the same rpm. However this approach will not work for the higher forward speeds. Not one of the teams (mentioned above) so far has achieved the Power Loading (Lift/Power in kgf/hp) which is any better than that achieved by the helicopters. The University of Maryland team and the team in China use individual motors for each rotor for stability by varying their rpm. Using a number of individual motors makes that design heavier, more complicated and costlier. The Korean team has announced the building of a two main rotor 90 kg UAV back in 2012.

A European Seventh Framework Programme consortium, the CROP,[12] also studied cycloidal rotors with the optic of optimizing their performances. Within this project, various possible aircraft configurations were considered. One of those is the Heligyro, for which a conceptual aeroelastic study rendering is shown.

Future Developments

Future developments, such as a variable cycloidal rotor, may improve the cyclogyro design. This technology allows the blades to travel about the horizontal axis along the most aerodynamically desirable orbit as continuously determined by the control system. This orbit will generally be non-circular and elongated, with that orbit shape dynamically modified by the control system as the flight regime and conditions change to keep the relative airflow about the blades optimized. The dynamic counterbalancing of the blades radial movements is used to keep the rotor balanced. This design would also allow their operation and the blade orbit shape to be optimized not only for the highest efficiency, but alternatively also for the highest flight speed or for the highest possible lifting capability or for the most silent operation.[citation needed] In addition to the horizontally elongated blade orbits being conducive to greater stability, the ability of this technology to precisely control in real time the localization and distribution of the lift/thrust generation may also largely eliminate the stability issues[citation needed] which is the most serious problem faced by current cyclogyro designs.;[citation needed] the second biggest problem faced by the current designs, namely that of blade bending due to the centrifugal forces, can also be addressed via the trajectory shape as on flat or nearly flat portions of the trajectory the centrifugal force acting on the blades will respectively be either zero or small.



25TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES

THE INVESTIGATION OF CYCLOGYRO DESIGN AND THE PERFORMANCE

Hu Yu, Lim Kah Bin, Tay Wee Beng
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore

Abstract

The investigation over several possible coclogyo designs was performed in the paper. The concept of cyclogyro has existed almost 100 years, but still more research are needed. The effects of taper ratio, aspect ratio and winglets are investigated in this paper. The comparison between different designs shows that the tapered blades with larger aspect ratio can improve propellers performance. A new and simple blade structure is also presented to demonstrate how to keep blades with large aspect ratio work safely with neglectable weight penalty.



m.blog.daum.net
Cycloidal Propeller

(The blue vector shows the velocity of the blade leading edge and the green vector shows the velocity of the blade trailing edge)





http://discaircraft.greyfalcon.us/Rohrbach%20Cyclogyro.htm

ROHRBACH CYCLOGYRO
(1933)

by

Rob Arndt



In 1933, experiments in Germany by Adolf Rohrbach resulted in a paddle-wheel wing arrangement. Oscillating winglets went from positive to negative angles of attack during each revolution to create lift, and their eccentric mounting would, in theory, produce nearly any combination of horizontal and vertical forces.

The DVL evaluated Rohrbach’s design, but the foreign aviation journals of the time cast doubt on the soundness of the design which meant that funding for the project could not be raised, even with a latter proposal as a Luftwaffe transport aircraft.

There appears to be no evidence that this design was ever built, let alone flown.

Platt’s Cyclogyro

Note the tall thin fuselage required to lift the rotary wings clear of the ground

Based on Rohrbach’s paddle-wheel research, however, Platt in the US designed by 1933 his own independent Cyclogyro. His paddle-wheel wing arrangement was awarded a US patent (which was only one of many similar patents on file), and underwent extensive wind-tunnel testing at MIT in 1927.

Despite this, there is no evidence Platt’s aircraft was ever built.

By 1935, Platt had designed his Vertigiro helicopter having a single rotor with moveable vanes in the rotor downwash for anti-torque control. Platt’s US patent # 2,074,805 of the control system revealed a three-way drawing of a multi-seat version of the craft. Sometime thereafter, Platt and LePage worked on this design together, but never got past the model stage.



http://aerofiles.com/_pl.html

Rotorcraft based on experiments in Germany by Prof Adolf Rohrbach.

Paddle-wheel wing arrangement was awarded a US patent (which was only one of many similar patents on file), and underwent extensive wind-tunnel testing at MIT in 1927. In essence, oscillating winglets on this wheel went from positive to negative angles of attack during each revolution to create lift, and their eccentric mounting would in theory produce any combination of horizontal and vertical forces. Still, there is no record of this critter ever flying.



Vertigiro c.1935

 Design for a helicopter having a single rotor with movable vanes in the rotor downwash for anti-torque control. Interestingly, an article by W Laurence LePage in the Oct 1936 Journal of the Franklin Institute was the first summary of Rotary Wing progress. Platt's patent #2,074,805 of the control system shows a three-view drawing of a multi-seat version, and at some point there was collaboration between Platt and LePage on this design that apparently never went beyond the model stage.



Gray Goose Cyclogyro c.1937

VTOL experiment using minimum power, it was hardly more than a set of wings and a tail mounted on a motorcycle [4308] c/n 1. Originally designed in 1923, articulated slats, connected to the motorcycle, set the heavily-braced wings into a flapping frenzy, but before it got any serious ideas about flying its tail broke off.



http://rotoplan.narod.ru/history_e.htm

Strandgren's cyclogiro, 1924

In 1924 Swedish engineer Strandgren has received the patent for vertical take-off aircraft. Then he was experimenting with models in France within 9 years and in 1933 has begun construction of full-scale cyclogyro. In this drawing, surprising are disproportionately small rotors.


 
"Cyclogyro"

This aircraft was constructed in San Francisco about 1930. It was expected that paddle wheel arrangement, named "cycloidal propeller", will create both thrust and lift. The propellers of such a type, where blades are placed in a vertical plane, have appeared effective only for water environment, but hadn't got prevalence for aircrafts. Source : "Unconventional Aircraft" by Peter M. Bowers





Simplified aerodynamic analysis of the cyclogiro

John B. Wheatley,
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Washington, 1933.

A simplified aerodynamic theory of the cyclogiro was developed. In addition, examples have been calculated: cyclogiro rotor (4 blades, radius: 6 ft., span: 24 ft., chord: 0.472 ft., speed: 300 ftps) and a rotorcraft with two similar rotors (weight: 3000 lb., engine power: 300 hp). The main conclusions were:

The cyclogiro is aerodynamically sound in principle. Hovering flight, vertical ascent, and reasonable forward speed may be obtained without the excessive expenditure of power. Autorotation in a gliding descent is available.
 
  


Strandgren's cyclogiro, 1933

In 1933 Strandgren (see above) has finished a series of experiments with models and together with the company "Liore & Olivier" has begun a construction of full-scale cyclogiro. The most part of charges was paid by Societe d'Expansion Franco-Scandinave. On the nonvalidated data, in 1934 construction was completed and tests have begun.

Calculated characteristics:

Rotors: diameter — 6 m, five blades, blade length — 245 cm, chord — 40.8 cm, thickness — 3.8 cm. Blades made from duralumin, weight of each — 5 kg. Maximal rotation speed — 180 rpm.
Clerget engine, 130 hp.
Gross weight — about 600 kg.
Rotor's lift — 800 kg at 120 rpm.




Rohrbach's Cyclogyro, 1934

The project was well worked. Calculations were checked up in NACA and in DVL (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur Luftfahrt, the German Laboratory of Flight), and were recognized as reliable. In 1934 the machine was under construction.

Calculated characteristics:

Total sizes: length — 8.6 m, height — 4.3 m, span — 10 m.
Rotors: diameter — 3.6 m, three blades, blade length — 4.4 m, chord — 0.315 m, maximal rotation speed — 420 rpm.
Engine power — 240 hp, possibly from two motors.
Empty weight — 680 kg, useful load — 270 kg, gross weight — 950 kg.
Speeds: maximal — 200 km/h, travelling (at 75% RPM) — 170 km/h, minimal — 0 km/h, maximal backward — 30 km/h.
Ceiling — 4500 m in forward flight and 500 m in vertical climb. Range — 400 km with three passengers and 700 km without passengers.
With an overload of 250 kg (that is, with take-off weight 1200 kg) minimal speed — 21 km/h, maximal — 190 km/h, ceiling — 2700 m. Range — 1050 km with two passengers and 1550 km without passengers. Probably, in these cases all overload weight was supposed to be used for extra fuel.



Kirsten's Cycloplane, University of Washington, 1921, 1934, 1942.

Cycloidal propeller was patented by prof. Frederick Kurt Kirsten in the beginning of 1920th. The idea was supported by William Boeing. Have begun with a water propeller. Tests of a vessel model have passed successfully, but further business has failed, and Kirsten has sold the patents to Voith-Schneider Corp.

For studying of an air version of a propeller the wind tunnel of the sufficient size was required. Such tunnels were scarce in USA then, and Kirsten has offered the University of Washington to construct their own big (8x12 ft) wind tunnel. Twist of fate: the tunnel was constructed in 1936, but immediately began to be used so intensively that only in 1942 Kirsten could test a model of his "Cycloplane". Results appeared unfavourable.





Rahn Aircraft Corp, Brooklyn NY, 1935

One-seat rotating-wing experiment with 240hp supercharged Wright Whirlwind. Two 6' rotating wings on each side theoretically would cause the plane to rise or descend vertically, or fly laterally without a conventional propeller up to 100mph, but it is unrecorded if this 15'-long creation ever accomplished any of these feats.
  
  

 US patent 4194707
 Lift augmenting device for aircraft
Thomas H. Sharpe


Cyclogiro rotors of small radius, covered with casings, are placed in a wing and used as ordinary fans. Angles of incidence are controlled by simplified eccentric mechanism. In horizontal flight the rotors are disconnected from the engine, and horizontal thrust is created by usual variable-pitch pushing propeller. The longitudinal balancing is provided by an elevator placed in an airflow from propeller. The elevator has an additional shutter for thrust reversind.
  



Propulsive lifting rotors
French patent 76.39820
US patent 4210299
Marcel Chabonat


The project is delightful in its own way. The rotors are two-bladed. In the first version, the variation of an angle of incidence is "automatic" — the blades are freely swinging between the terminators under the action of aerodynamic and/or centrifugal forces. When moving down, the blade produces lift, when moving up — thrust. Thus, in the bottom of a cycle the angle of incidence changes abruptly, with an impact. Therefore terminators, on a plan of the inventor, should be elastic. In the second version the angle of incidence is changing "by program" with the means of profiled cams. It is supposed to have a set of cams for different modes of flight (take-off, climb, cruise flight, descent or landing). The style of this mechanics reminds the tape drive mechanism of the tape recorder of 1960's. Though the toothed belts are used instead of elastic ones. And one more detail: it is supposed to place the elevator assembly (at the presence of those) in front of fuselage, to prevent its appearance in the airflow from the rotor.




US patent 4482110
Cyclorotor composite aircraft
Arthur G. Crimmins


The main purpose of this composite aircraft is to be a flying crane. The body weight of the craft is counterbalanced by aerostatic lift of a balloon 1, and weight of a cargo — by lift of cyclogiro wings 2. The wings and thrust means are mounted on turnable pylones 3, playing also a role of the propeller blades. The device can accept a configuration of a "classical" dirigible, "classical" cyclogiro and all intermediate. Due to this there are no restrictions on a summary thrust vector orientation — that is what the flying crane needs for. The large, typical for balloons, size of this craft will allow to spin it up to significant tip speed while the moderate centrifugal stresses.




US patent 5265827
Paddle wheel rotorcraft
Heinz A. Gerhardt


Aerodynamically it's a usual cyclogiro.The longitudinal balancing is provided either by vertical propeller on a vertical stabilizer, or by second pair of cyclogiro rotors. Feature of this craft is absence of kinematic management of an angle of incidence of blades. Instead, on each blade the hydrocylinder constantly controlled by the computer on the chosen law is established.




Aircraft
US Patent 7735773
Meinhard Schwaiger


As a whole: it's a classical cyclogyro with longitudinal rotors. Design feature: cyclic control not only for attack angle, but also for blade curvature is provided. The second feature: original (and doubtful) autorotation mode was suggested.





Wind-tunnel Tests of a Cyclogiro Rotor

John B. Wheatley and Ray Windler,
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Washington, 1935.

A cyclogiro rotor (4 blades, span and diameter: 8 ft., chord: 0.312 ft.) was tested in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot wind tunnel.

The tests showed that:

The cyclogiro is capable of vertical ascent, forward flight, and gliding flight without power.
The probable performance of the cyclogiro is very poor for normal power loadings, and a maximum speed of 100 mph would be attained only with a power loading of less than 7 lb./hp.
The variations of the power required by the cyclogiro with the vertical and horizontal force coefficients is correctly predicted by mathematical analysis.
The profile-drag coefficient of the cyclogiro rotor blades increases rapidly with tip-speed ratio and is probably influenced by the blade oscillations.
Research on the oscillating airfoil is needed in order to clarify past and future rotating-wing research.



http://www.naca.larc.nasa.gov
  
NACA Technical Note No 467

[ PDF ]

NACA Technical Note No 528

[ PDF ]




http://www.douglas-self.com/




  
Developments of Seoul University
   
  

   


http://sun.library.msstate.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-08032001-111940/unrestricted/MLMThesis.pdf
   
DEVELOPMENT OF A CYCLOIDAL PROPULSION COMPUTER MODEL AND
COMPARISON WITH EXPERIMENT

By

Michael Lynn McNabb

A Thesis
Submitted to the Faculty of Mississippi State University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Engineering in the Department of Aerospace Engineering

Mississippi State, Mississippi ( December 2001 )

[ PDF ]



http://www.boschaero.com/

Developments of Bosch Aerospace






http://serve.me.nus.edu.sg/cyclocopter

Developments of Singapore University





VIDEOS
   
University of Maryland Prototypes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=sF8TV2PVWlI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=mwgzCg9suTI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=4j67-tUzJ0Y
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=E9Jmg-0NGWc



Seoul National University Prototypes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=VEP4KYqkF4k
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=gbn0Bnt3iDs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=3mT1sTNbNCc



Developments of Northwestern Polytechnical University (China)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=bPdczsY3sOQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=9ZYRii4MjLY




http://worldwide.espacenet.com/advancedSearch?locale=en_EP

PATENTS

Hybrid power airship adopting inflated wings and cycloidal propellers
CN103448908
The invention provides a hybrid power airship adopting inflated wings and cycloidal propellers. The hybrid power airship comprises an airship body, a thin film solar cell array and an oxygen-hydrogen fuel battery pack, cycloidal propeller thrusters, inflated wings, a V-shaped empennage, undercarriages, a load cabin and a control system, wherein the thin film solar cell array is covered on the upper surface of the airship body, the plurality of cycloidal propeller thrusters are symmetrically arranged at two sides of the airship body along a longitudinal symmetric surface of the airship body, a drive device of the cycloidal propeller thrusters is positioned in the airship body, the V-shaped empennage is fixed at the tail part of the airship body, the undercarriages are arranged at the bottom of the airship by adopting a front-three-point manner, the inflated wings are positioned at the left side and the right side of the airship body, and the load cabin and the oxygen-hydrogen fuel battery pack are positioned at the belly part of the airship body. According to the hybrid power airship, the cycloidal propellers, the airship and the inflated wings are combined so that helium bags with high cost do not need to be installed in the airship body, the volume of the airship is reduced, and the weight and cost are saved; by using the cycloidal propellers as propelling devices of the airship and forming a compound control system together with the V-shaped empennage, the control responding speed of the airship is increased.

PROPULSION MECHANISM WITH WINGS IN CYCLOIDAL MOTION FOR AERIAL MICRO-VEHICLES
RO128727
The invention relates to a propulsion mechanism with wings in cycloidal motion for aerial micro-vehicles, applying the functioning principle of the Schneider propeller used in the navy, for generating the lift of the mini-vehicles. According to the invention, the mechanism uses two coaxial propellers, named here rotors, in which the common shaft is horizontal when the vehicle is at rest on the ground, each rotor being provided with two, three or even four wings (), and the axes () of the wings () form with the rotors axes a flare angle Delta, which is a significant modification in relation to the marine propeller where the wing axes are parallel to the rotation axis, the mechanism for carrying out the motion of rotors is based on two original solutions, namely, the utilization of a circular cylindrical guide () for the cyclical pitch and the control by means of a gear () - rack (); system of the general pitch, the circular cylindrical guide changing the cyclic pitch angle in conformity with a law which is correct from the aerodynamic point of view, and the control transmitted by the gear () - rack () system allows the variation of the average amplitude in conformity with the above-mentioned law, also proposing a system of controls, elevator, direction, ailerons, placed in the rotor jet, which operate in any conditions, in flight at fixed point, included.

Spherical micro unmanned aerial vehicle
CN202896880
The invention relates to a propulsion mechanism with wings in cycloidal motion for aerial micro-vehicles, applying the functioning principle of the Schneider propeller used in the navy, for generating the lift of the mini-vehicles. According to the invention, the mechanism uses two coaxial propellers, named here rotors, in which the common shaft is horizontal when the vehicle is at rest on the ground, each rotor being provided with two, three or even four wings (), and the axes () of the wings () form with the rotors axes a flare angle Delta, which is a significant modification in relation to the marine propeller where the wing axes are parallel to the rotation axis, the mechanism for carrying out the motion of rotors is based on two original solutions, namely, the utilization of a circular cylindrical guide () for the cyclical pitch and the control by means of a gear () - rack (); system of the general pitch, the circular cylindrical guide changing the cyclic pitch angle in conformity with a law which is correct from the aerodynamic point of view, and the control transmitted by the gear () - rack () system allows the variation of the average amplitude in conformity with the above-mentioned law, also proposing a system of controls, elevator, direction, ailerons, placed in the rotor jet, which operate in any conditions, in flight at fixed point, included.

Cycloidal propeller aerial vehicle
CN102963526
The invention relates to an unmanned aerial vehicle, especially a cycloidal propeller aerial vehicle. The cycloidal propeller aerial vehicle includes a fuselage, a rudder system, a power plant, an energy system, and a control system. The invention is characterized in that the power plant is composed of two cycloidal propeller structures and two propeller structures, and the structures interact to make the aerial vehicle present multiple flight attitudes. The fuselage is a spherical framework, which is a combination of eight semicircular longitudinal frames and a transverse frame. An angle of 45 degrees is formed between every two longitudinal frames. The rudder system is located at the upper part inside the fuselage. The energy system is a hydrogen fuel cell and is located at the bottom inside the fuselage. The control system is composed of two sub-control systems symmetrically distributed inside the transverse frame. The novel aerial vehicle provided in the invention has the advantages of small size, low noise, high flexibility, wide living environment and the like, thus having very broad application prospects.

Unmanned aerial vehicle
CN102963525
The invention relates to a novel unmanned aerial vehicle, especially a cycloidal propeller aerial vehicle. The aerial vehicle includes a fuselage, a power unit, an energy system, a control system, and bracket systems. The aerial vehicle is mainly characterized in that: the power unit is composed of a cycloidal propeller structure and a propeller structure, and the two structures interact to generate maximum power. The fuselage consists of a large elliptical frame and a small elliptical frame. The large elliptical frame can make 360-degree free rotation around the small elliptical frame under the action of rotation shafts. The energy system is made up of hydrogen fuel cells. The bracket systems include light metal rods, bracket retraction and release devices, as well as elastic rubber balls. The elastic rubber balls play a shock attenuation role during aerial vehicle landing. After the aerial vehicle takes off, under the action of the control system, the four bracket systems are retracted into the small elliptical frame. The novel aerial vehicle provided in the invention has the advantages of small size, low noise, weak radar visible signal, and high flexibility, etc., thus having very broad application prospects.

Novel aircraft
CN102700707
The invention relates to a novel aircraft, in particular to a cycloidal propeller aircraft. The novel aircraft is mainly characterized in that higher thrust level is provided by providing power with the aid of the combination of a cycloidal propeller and a screw propeller. The aircraft comprises a machine body, a power device, an energy source system, a control system and a bracket, wherein the machine body consists of a large elliptic frame and a small elliptic frame which are vertical two each other. The power device consists of two cycloidal propeller structures and two screw propeller structures, which interact so as to reach the purpose of maximum power; the energy source system consists of hydrogen cells so that the aircraft is green and environment friendly; and the bracket consists of a light metal rod and an elastic rubber ball, so that the aircraft has certain damping function. With the adoption of the aircraft, the low-altitude flying and parking are realized so as to execute tasks of reconnaissance, monitoring, and intelligence gathering, so that the aircraft has great practical value.

Flying-wing layout aircraft provided with cycloidal propellers
CN102556335
The invention provides a flying-wing layout aircraft provided with cycloidal propellers. The flying-wing layout aircraft comprises a flying-wing layout aircraft body, a cycloidal propeller thruster and two elevons; wherein the cycloidal propeller thruster is symmetrically arranged above the flying-wing layout aircraft body along the symmetrical surfaces of the flying-wing layout aircraft body, and the paddles of the cycloidal propeller thruster are arranged on the outer side of the upper surface of the flying-wing layout aircraft body; a driving device of the cycloidal propeller thruster is located in the flying-wing layout aircraft body; the cycloidal propeller thruster comprises cycloidal propeller blades, a paddle bracket, a cycloidal propeller rotating shaft, the driving device and an eccentric circular ring locating mechanism; and the eccentric circular ring locating mechanism comprises a control pill rod, an eccentric rotary circular ring, an eccentric hollow cylinder locating platform and an auxiliary locating pull rod. In the invention, the cycloidal propeller has higher aerodynamic efficiency than that of a screw propeller so that fuels can be saved and the voyage and the load of the aircraft can be improved; two cycloidal propellers have all-around vectored thrusts and can directly control the flight direction; and air on the upper surface of the flying wing can flow faster through airflow produced by the cycloidal propellers so that the lift-to-drag ratio of the flying wing can be improved.
 
Special aircraft using a novel integrated lift, propulsion and steering system
US3938759
An aircraft having a body on which is mounted an integrated lift, propulsion and steeing system inclusive of cycloidal propellers having horizontal axes of rotation capable of developing net thrust forces at any given angle in a vertical plane. Each propeller is externally driven and is formed with a circular array of blades at the periphery of a common rim and the blades can be turned to vary the angle of thrust by operation of a common control head. 
 
VERTICAL TAKE-OFF AND LANDING AMPHIBIAN AEROPLANE
RU2125524
FIELD: aircraft manufacture; designing of new multi-functional flying vehicle. SUBSTANCE: amphibian aeroplane has fuselage with wings, propulsors with horizontal blades and engine; two streamlined keel superstructures are mounted above fuselage in nose and tail sections. Each superstructure has two built-in reduction gears of propulsors. These reduction gears have working bevel gears fitted on inner end-pieces of blade axles. Bevel gears are kinematically linked with non-revolving sun bevel gear at total ratio of 2:1 by means of two bevel gears and satellite shaft. Non-revolving bevel sun gear is fitted on axle braked by means of worm reduction gear connected with output shaft of remotely controlled reversible drive. Blades may perform cycloid trajectory of motion in air flow. Outer trunnions of blade axles of each propulsor may be fitted in bearing combined by circular streamlined cage. Aeroplane may be provided with additional engine; engines may be interconnected by means of longitudinal shaft with end couplings. EFFECT: improved operational characteristics of aeroplane.





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