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Giuliana NORETTA, et al.

Peach vs Cancer









https://news.wsu.edu/2014/03/26/research-peach-extract-slows-breast-cancer-growth-spread/
March 26, 2014

Research: Peach extract slows breast cancer growth, spread

by

Eric Sorensen
WSU science writer


A Washington State University food scientist and colleagues at Texas A&M have found that compounds in peaches can inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and their ability to spread.

Writing in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, the researchers say the compounds could be a novel addition to therapies that reduce the risk of metastasis, the primary killer in breast and many other cancers. The compounds could be given as an extract or, judging from the doses given mice in the study, two to three peaches a day.

“I would do three peaches a day,” said Giuliana Noratto, WSU assistant professor of food science.

Study expands to other foods

The study also underscores the value of good nutrition in preventing cancer, she said.

“Having enough fruits and vegetables that can provide these compounds in our diet, we might have a similar preventive effect,” said Noratto. She is now looking at compounds in wheat, barley, quinoa, apples and dairy products that could have a role in preventing obesity-related diseases.

The research was part of her doctoral work at Texas A&M with plant breeder David Byrne, food scientist Luis Cisneros-Zevallos and toxicologist Weston Porter.

Medicinal plant tradition

She was drawn to the research after doing work on the antioxidant activity of root plants in her native Peru.

“We have a huge tradition of medicinal plants,” she said. “We are great believers that you can cure yourself by having a good diet and a good supply of medicinal plants.”

In 2009, Noratto and her colleagues at Texas A&M published a study showing that peach and plum extracts suppressed breast cancer cells cultured in petri dishes. For the new study, the researchers implanted breast cancers cells beneath the skin of mice. The technique, called a xenograft, is often used to look at the growth of breast cancer cells in a living animal, mimicking the interactions by which tumors form and progress.

Metastasis inhibited too

After giving the cells a week to establish, the researchers fed the mice varying doses of peach polyphenols, compounds that help plants ward off the damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

“There are several studies showing that these compounds act as antioxidants and can therefore protect DNA against damage that can produce cancer,” said Noratto, the first author of both studies. Other researchers have seen that phenomenon, Noratto said, but she and her colleagues wanted to know if the compounds might start a cascade of signals that could induce the cancer cells to commit suicide.

“We didn’t even think about metastasis at that time,” she said. “The surprise was we analyzed lungs and beside the fact that the peach compounds inhibited the growth of the tumor, they also inhibited the metastasis levels on the lungs.”

Moreover, after 12 days the researchers saw that mice fed with high levels of polyphenols had tumors that grew less and without much of the blood vessel formation that can help cancer cells spread to other parts of the body. The tumors in those mice also had less evidence of enzymes involved in the spread and invasion of cancer.

The doses given the mice, if scaled up to a 132-pound person, could be supplied by two to three peaches a day or a dietary supplement of peach polyphenol extract powder.

Contact:

Giuliana Noratto, WSU assistant professor of food science, 509-335-0382, giuliana.noratto@wsu.edu



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745759
J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Jul;25(7):796-800.
doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.03.001. Epub 2014 Mar 19.


Polyphenolics from peach (Prunus persica var. Rich Lady) inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in vivo.

Noratto G, Porter W, Byrne D, Cisneros-Zevallos L

Abstract

The tumor growth inhibition and anti-metastatic effects of peach polyphenolics were investigated in vivo using a xenograft model and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Results showed that tumor growth and lung metastasis were inhibited in vivo by peach polyphenolics in a dose range of 0.8-1.6 mg/day, and these effects were mediated by inhibition of metalloproteinases gene expression. Modulation of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-13 gene expression may be some of the molecular targets for anti-metastatic activity of peach polyphenolics. Therefore, these compounds may constitute a novel chemopreventive tool to reduce the risk of metastasis in the combination therapy when primary cancer is diagnosed. Conversion to equivalent human intake for future clinical studies using the body surface area normalization method gave a dose of ~370.6 mg/day for a human adult of 60 kg, which can be supplied by consuming two to three peach fruit per day or alternatively using a dietary supplement peach polyphenol extract powder.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19530711
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 24;57(12):5219-26.
doi: 10.1021/jf900259m.


Identifying peach and plum polyphenols with chemopreventive potential against estrogen-independent breast cancer cells.

Noratto G, Porter W, Byrne D, Cisneros-Zevallos L.

Abstract

Our objective was to evaluate the cancer suppression activity of extracts from a commercial variety of yellow-fleshed peach 'Rich Lady' (RL) and a red-fleshed plum 'Black Splendor' (BS) and identify the phenolic fractions that may possess potential as chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic natural compounds. The peach RL extract effectively inhibited the proliferation of the estrogen-independent MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line. The concentration to inhibit 50% of cell proliferation (IC(50)) was approximately 42 mg/L for this cell line compared to an IC(50) of approximately 130 and approximately 515 mg/L for the noncancerous breast cell line MCF-10A and the estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line MCF-7, respectively. Similarly, BS extracts showed greater effects on MDA-MB-435 cells as compared to the other breast cancer or the normal breast cell lines. In general, BS extracts were less effective than RL extracts. Within all RL and BS fractions, fraction 3 (F3, flavonoids) and fraction 4 (F4, procyanidins) were more potent than fraction 1 (F1, phenolic acids) and fraction 2 (F2, anthocyanins) against the three cell lines. The order of potency of RL fractions against MDA-MB-435 was F(3) approximately F(4) > F(1) > F(2). The antiproliferative activity of pure compounds identified in F(3) and F(1) confirmed that quercetin 3beta-glucoside is the bioactive compound in F(3), with the same level of toxicity on the estrogen-independent MDA-MB-435 breast cancer and breast epithelial MCF-10A cells (IC(50) = 1.9 +/- 0.2 and 1.8 +/- 0.3, respectively). However, we confirmed that phenolic acids present in F(1): chlorogenic and neo-chlorogenic acids have potential as chemopreventive dietary compounds because of the relatively high growth inhibition exerted on the estrogen-independent MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line and low toxicity exerted in the normal MCF-10A cells.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24996346
Food Chem. 2014 Dec 1;164:363-70.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.060. Epub 2014 May 20.


Polyphenols of selected peach and plum genotypes reduce cell viability and inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells while not affecting normal cells.

Vizzotto M, Porter W, Byrne D, Cisneros-Zevallos L.

Abstract

Polyphenolic extracts and fractions of selected peach and plum genotypes were evaluated for cell viability and antiproliferation activity in vitro against an estrogen independent MDA-MB-435 and estrogen dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and one non-cancerous breast line MCF-10A. All extracts showed a phenolic dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-435, weak activity against MCF-7 and small or no activity against MCF-10A. Genotype phenolic profiles showed varying degrees of polyphenolic mixtures. Fractionation of peach BY00P6653 extracts gave 4 fractions, with fraction F-I (caffeic acid derivatives) showing a strong activity against MDA-MB-435 followed by fraction F-II (anthocyanins). Induced-apoptosis by F-I on MDA-MB-435 was confirmed by Tunnel nuclear staining of cells with apoptotic DNA fragmentation (0-100 μg/mL) with no effects in normal cells (0-200 μg/mL). Selected stone fruit genotypes can be added to the list of fruits with cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells while not affecting normal cells.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18751377
Anticancer Res. 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4B):2067-76.

Inhibition of growth and induction of differentiation of colon cancer cells by peach and plum phenolic compounds.

Lea MA, Ibeh C, desBordes C, Vizzotto M, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Byrne DH, Okie WR, Moyer MP.

Abstract

The action of extracts from anthocyanin-enriched plums and peaches on growth and differentiation was studied with human colon cancer cells. Growth inhibitory effects were observed in Caco-2, SW1116, HT29 and NCM460 cells. In Caco-2 cells but not in the other cells studied there was evidence for increased differentiation as judged by increased activity of alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl peptidase. A differentiating effect on Caco-2 cells was not seen with cyanidin or cyanidin-3-glucoside but the action of the fruit extracts was additive with the action of butyrate and with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Fractionation using C18 indicated activity resided within a fraction containing anthocyanins but further fractionation using LH-20 suggested that most of the activity was in a fraction containing polyphenols other than anthocyanins. It was concluded that several peach and plum phenolic molecules can influence growth and differentiation in human colon cancer cells.



KR20070110689
PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION COMPRISING AN EXTRACT OF PRUNUS PERSICA L PREVENTING FROM HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY ANTICANCER AGENT

Inventor(s):     CHUNG WON YOON, et al.

A pharmaceutical composition comprising the extract of Prunus persica L.(peach) for inhibiting hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by an anticancer agent is provided to inhibit growth of cancer cells and increase anticancer effects with reducing side effects of cisplatin such as toxicity when the composition and cisplatin is simultaneously administered. A pharmaceutical composition for inhibiting hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by an anticancer agent comprises 0.01-99 wt.%, preferably 0.02-50 wt.% of the extract of Prunus persica L. which is prepared by extracting Prunus persica L. with a solvent selected from water, C1-C4 lower alcohol or a mixed solvent thereof, wherein the Prunus persica L. is white peach or yellow peach; the daily dosage of Prunus persica L. extract is 0.0001-100 mg/kg, preferably 0.001-10 mg/kg; and the composition is formulated as tablet, pill, powder, granule, capsule, suspension, solution, emulsion or syrup.



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