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Yuri PIVOVARENKO
Electrical Potential Effects on Water








http://www.wjap.org/article/200/10.11648.j.wjap.20180301.12
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=200&doi=10.11648/j.wjap.20180301.12
http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.wjap.20180301.12.pdf
World Journal of Applied Physics. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2018, pp. 13-18. March 24, 2018
doi: 10.11648/j.wjap.20180301
Water: Demonstration of Water Properties, Depending on its Electrical Potential
Yuri Pivovarenko
[ PDF ]

Research and Training Centre ‘Physical and Chemical Materials Science’ Under Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University and NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

Abstract: The aim of this work is to demonstrate that the physicochemical properties of water depend on its electric charge (potential). It is also shown that the physico-chemical properties of aqueous solutions depend very much on the electric charge (potential) of the water on which these solutions are prepared.

1. Introduction

Michaels and Hill found that the direction of reversible oxidation-reduction modifications of phenazines is determined by the electrical potential of the aqueous medium: in a medium with a positive electrical potential, the phenazines become oxidized, and in a medium with a negative electrical potential, into a reduced state [1, 2]. Consequently, when studying the interactions between phenazines and DNA, we had to use both water with different electrical potential and aqueous solutions prepared on water with different electrical potential [3]. As a result of this approach, it was found that many properties of water depend significantly on its electrical potential; It was also found that the properties of aqueous solutions depend on the electrical potential of the water used for their preparation. Here are examples of this relationship.

2. Material and Methods

First, it is necessary to define the terminology used. The term "uncharged water" is used to determine the water that was used as a control: it is assumed that the electric potential of this water is 0 mV.

Uncharged water was obtained during storage of distilled water in closed aluminum containers: It is considered that in such circumstances, the electric charges of water are concentrated on the outer surface of the container [4].
Water with a positive electrical potential was obtained in two ways:
(a) By passing through uncharged water of gaseous oxygen.
(b) By filtration of uncharged water through the silica gel.
It is known that when in contact with water, oxygen gas exhibits the properties of a sorbent of aqueous electrons, and the silica gel exhibits the properties of a sorbent of aqueous hydroxyl ions [5].

Water with a negative electric potential was also obtained in two ways:

(a) By passing through uncharged water of gaseous hydrogen.
(b) By filtration of uncharged water through the activated carbon.
It is known that when in contact with water, hydrogen gas is the electron donor, and activated carbon exhibits the properties of a sorbent of aqueous hydrogen ions [5].
Water with the required electrical potential was obtained in two ways:
(a) By varying the depth of the layer of sorbent through which filtered water is discharged.
(b) Varying the time during which the gas passed through the uncharged water.

The electric potential of the charged water was measured with respect to uncharged water, the potential of which was conditionally assumed equal to 0 mV. In fact, the electric potential of charged water was measured as the flow potential or as the filtration potential [6]...

Figure 2. Left: When water with a negative charge flows through a narrow crack, it twisted clockwise. Right: When water with a positive charge flows through a narrow crack, it twisted counterclockwise [8]

Further studies have shown that the electric potential of water can determine not only its spectral properties. Thus, it was established that the electrical potential of water flowing from a narrow gap determines the direction of its rotation: the flow of negatively charged water rotates clockwise (Figure 2, left), and the flow of positively charged water is twisted counterclockwise (Figure 2, right) [8].

It should be noted that this difference is observed in the Northern Hemisphere, where the vertical component of the geomagnetic field is directed downwards. It should be also recalled that a similar difference in the direction of rotation of charged particles moving along the magnetic field used in the mass spectrograph to determine the sign of the electric charge of the particles [4, 9].

3.4. Rotation of Aqueous Solutions Flowing Through a Narrow Gap

It should also be noted that when flowing out of a narrow gap, aqueous solutions of surface-inactive substances rotate clockwise (this is
like water with a negative potential), and aqueous solutions of surfactants rotate counter-clockwise (this is like water with a positive potential). Such a difference in the rotation of aqueous solutions can be explained by the fact that during storage, surface-inactive substances sorb negative charges... &c...

3.5. UV Absorption of DNA Solutions Prepared on Water with Different Electrical Potential

In the course of further spectral studies it was found that the UV absorption of aqueous DNA is significantly dependent on the electric charge (potential) of the water used  (Figure 3) [7].

The last result obviously allowed to assume that the electric charge (potential) of water affects not only the UV absorption of water DNA, but also its state. ..

3.6. Saline Solutions Prepared on Water with Different Electric Charge (Potential)

In a number of studies, it was found that the shape of the crystals that are formed when the salt solutions dry out is uniquely dependent on the electric charge (potential) of the water on which such solutionwere prepared.

It has been particularly found that the evaporation of solutions with positive electric potential is accompanied by the formation of cubic crystals (Figure 4, left) and the evaporation of solutions with negative electric potential is accompanied by the formation of needle-like crystals (Figure 4, right) [10, 11].

Figure 4. KH 2 PO 4 crystals. Left: the rhombic crystals formed upon drying of an aqueous solution of KH 2 PO 4 prepared on the water with positive electric potential. Right: the needle-shaped crystals formed upon drying of an aqueous solution of KH 2 PO 4 prepared on the water with negative electric potential [10, 11].

Figure 5. This is the powder of metallic copper at the boundary of aqueous solutions with positive (above) and negative (below) potentials.
It should be also noted that these dependences are observed not only for the salt crystals, but for some of the metals (Figure 5).

Based on the latest results, it can be assumed that the electric potential of water determines its internal structure, which can be manifested through the form of substances, both dissolved in water (Figure 4) and contacting it (Figure 5). It seems quite likely that different internal water structures are reflected in the type of spectra obtained, in particular – on the spectra of aqueous DNA (Figures 1, 3).

3.7. The Surface Tension of the Electrified Water

These results stimulated further studies aimed at elucidation of the properties of water and aqueous solutions, which depend on the electric potential. During these studies it was particularly found that the surface tension of the water clearly depends on its electrical potential: an increase in the positive electric potential of water is accompanied by an increase in its surface tension and increase the negative electrical potential of the water is accompanied by a decrease of its surface tension [11].

The existence of such dependencies can be demonstrated through some simple experiments. So, if to pour 5 ml of water (exactly!) with a negative potential in a standard Petri dish and mix, you can see that the water completely covers the bottom of a Petri dish (Figure 6, left). On the other hand, if to pour 5 ml of water (exactly!) with a positive potential in a standard Petri dish and mix, you can see that such water will not cover all the bottom of a Petri dish (Figure 6, right).

Such a distinction clearly demonstrates that the forces acting on the surface of the water depends on its electric potential. It can be explained by the fact that water with a positive potential has a greater surface tension than water with negative potential.


Click to enlarge
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https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Electric-Potential-of-the-Tissue-Fluids-of-as-a-Pivovarenko/556fdb69b9da20b5fccc3f61eb548f9cab8cc601

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/556f/db69b9da20b5fccc3f61eb548f9cab8cc601.pdf?_ga=2.158321977.2026099428.1535922161-1602145032.1535922161

The Electric Potential of the Tissue Fluids of Living Organisms as a Possible Epigenetic Factor
Yuri Pivovarenko
[ PDF ]

It is shown that the state and properties of aqueous DNA depend on the electric potential of the surrounding water. It is particularly shown that water with a positive potential much more actively hydrates DNA than water with negative potential. Since the electric potential of tissue fluids determines the degree of hydration of DNA, i.e. its state, it can be considered as an epigenetic factor.



http://www.lupinepublishers.com/rrhoaj/pdf/RRHOAJ.MS.ID.000108.pdf
Res & Rev Health Care Open Acc J 1(2)- 2018. RRHOAJ.MS.ID.000108.
 
The Electric Potential of the Female Body Liquids and the Effectiveness of Cloning.
Yuri Pivovarenko
[ PDF ]

Introduction
It  is  known  that  the  evaporation  of  the  female  body  liquids  is  accompanied  by  the  formation  of  crystals  of  different  shapes.  It  is  also known that the shape of these crystals depends on the stage of the  menstrual  cycle:  cubic  or  rhombic  crystals  are  formed  before and after the stage of ovulation; arbor-shape crystals are formed in the ovulation step (Figure 1) [1].

Abstract
It was previously shown that the electric potential of biological liquids of the female body correlated with the stages of the menstrual cycle: these liquids have a negative potential at the stage of ovulation, but the positive potential on the phases before and after ovulation. It was also shown that the electric potential of the water determines its surface tension, as well as its ability to hydrate the polysaccharides. On the basis of obtained results it is concluded that the electrical potential of the body liquids of women, and is the surface tension and the ability to hydrate the polysaccharides of these liquids, can be cyclically varied during the menstrual cycle. It is demonstrated that the use of these ratios allows influencing the processes of reproduction and increasing the efficiency of cloning.



http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.865.960&rep=rep1&type=pdf

UV Absorbance of Aqueous DNA
Pivovarenko Yuri Vadimovich
[ PDF ]

Abstract:
The UV absorption spectra of water with different electric charge (potential) were obtained. It was shown that UV  absorption  spectra  of  water  with  negative  electric  charge  (potential)  have  the  sharp  peaks  with  maximum  in  the  range 190  –  200  nm  and  UV  absorption  spectra  of  water  with  positive  electric  charge  (potential)  have  the  wide  peaks  with maximum  in  the  range  200  –  220  nm.  It  was  asked  to explain this  absorption.  It  was  also  established  that  UV  absorption spectra of water solutions of surface inactive substances have sharp peaks with a maximum in the range 190 – 200 nm and UV  absorption  spectra  of  solutions  of  surface  active  substances  have  the  wide  peaks  with  a  maximum  in the  range  200  – 220  nm.  The  UV  absorption  spectra  of  DNA  solutions, which  were  prepared  on  the  water  with  different  electric  charge (potential), were obtained. It was shown that these spectra are dependent on the electric charge (potential) of water used. It was proposed that UV absorption spectra of aqueous DNA reflect mostly the spectral properties of charged water or charged cuvette...



http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=382&doi=10.11648/j.fm.20170304.11
Fluid Mechanics, Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 29-32

Potential-Dependent Changes of the Surface Tension of Water
Yuri Pivovarenko

Abstract
It was shown previously that the shape of the crystals formed during the evaporation of salt solutions depends on the sign of the electric potential of such solutions. It has been particularly found that the evaporation of salt solutions with positive electric potential is accompanied by the formation of cubic crystals and the evaporation of salt solutions with negative electric potential is accompanied by the formation of needle-like crystals. The obtained results stimulated further studies of the properties of water and aqueous solutions, which depend on the electric potential. During these studies it was found that the surface tension of the water clearly depends on its electrical potential: an increase in the positive electric potential of water is accompanied by an increase in its surface tension and increase the negative electrical potential of the water is accompanied by a decrease of its surface tension. It was also discovered that the electrical potential of the water determines its ability to hydrate the polymers of biological origin. It is shown that water with a positive potential is better hydrates biological polymers than water with negative potential.



http://www.aerospacejournal.org/article/309/10.11648.j.ajae.20170406.11
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajae.20170406.11  
Published: Feb. 7, 2018
http://article.aerospacejournal.org/pdf/10.11648.j.ajae.20170406.11.pdf

The Significance of Positive Electrization on Lifting Force
Yuri Pivovarenko,
[ PDF ]

Abstract
Due to the daily rotation of the Earth the lower layers of earth's atmosphere are continuously crossed by horizontal lines of the geomagnetic field. For this reason, near the earth's surface there is an upward-directed Lorentz force. Under the action of this force the positively charged objects move upward and the negative charges down. As a result, this force can increase the lift of flying objects that have a positive charge: water vapor, birds, insects, airplanes and space rockets. In addition, the action of the upward directed Lorentz force blocks the deflection of the racket's body in the horizontal direction, that is, ensures its equilibrium.




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